Dr Sam McCrabb

Research Assistant

School of Medicine and Public Health

Career Summary

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Newcastle
  • Bachelor of Psychology, University of Newcastle
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (13 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2019 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Skelton E, Twyman L, Palazzi K, et al., 'Internet-Based Programs Incorporating Behavior Change Techniques Are Associated With Increased Smoking Cessation in the General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis', Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 53 180-195 (2019)

Background and aims: This study aims to (i) examine the effectiveness of internet-based smoking cessation programs; (ii) describe the number and type of behavior change techniques... [more]

Background and aims: This study aims to (i) examine the effectiveness of internet-based smoking cessation programs; (ii) describe the number and type of behavior change techniques (BCTs) employed; and (iii) explore whether BCTs included in internet-based smoking cessation programs are related to program effectiveness. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials were included if they described the study of a smoking cessation program delivered via the internet; included current adult tobacco smokers from the general population; and were written in English. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to examine program effectiveness (pooled odds ratios, by outcome measure, i.e., 7 day point prevalence abstinence [PPA], 30 day PPA, other abstinence measure) in short- and long-term outcomes, and examine the associations between BCT number and type (individual BCTs and BCT domain) and program effectiveness. Results: Results from 45 studies were included (n = 65,736). Intervention effectiveness was found in the short term for all outcome measures (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.12, 1.50, p = .001), for "prolonged abstinence" (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.87, p = .009), and "30 day PPA" (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.13, 2.72, p = .013). Internet-based programs were effective in the long term for all outcome measures (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.35, p = .004) and for "prolonged abstinence" (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.19, 1.63, p < .001). On average, interventions used more BCTs than comparison groups (6.6 vs. 3.1, p = .0002). The impact of specific individual BCTs and BCT domains on effectiveness was examined and is reported. Conclusions: Internet-based smoking cessation interventions increased the odds of cessation by 29 per cent in the short term and by 19 per cent in the long term. Internet-based smoking cessation intervention development should incorporate BCTs to increase effectiveness. Registration: CRD42015014676.

DOI 10.1093/abm/kay026
Co-authors John Attia, Billie Bonevski, Eliza Skelton, Kristen Mccarter, Amanda Baker
2019 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, Palazzi K, et al., 'Comorbid tobacco and other substance use and symptoms of anxiety and depression among hospitalised orthopaedic trauma patients 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1103 Clinical Sciences 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences 1701 Psychology', BMC Psychiatry, 19 (2019)

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: No study has examined the prevalence of tobacco, other substance use, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and rates of comorbidities among t... [more]

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: No study has examined the prevalence of tobacco, other substance use, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and rates of comorbidities among the orthopaedic trauma population, despite the impact they have on recovery from surgery. This study aims to 1) describe the rates of symptoms and substance use; 2) compare rates of symptoms and substance use among smokers versus non-smokers; and 3) examine the relationship between symptoms and substance use with smoking status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of orthopaedic trauma patients was conducted in two Australian public hospitals. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, recent cannabis use, and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were examined. Differences between current and non-smokers were compared using Pearson Chi 2 tests. Multivariate logistic regression explored variables related to tobacco smoking. Results: Eight hundred nineteen patients participated. Over one-fifth (21.8%) identified as a current smoker, half (51.8%) reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels in the last 12 months, and about 10% stated that they had used cannabis in the last 30 days (9.7%), or experienced symptoms of either anxiety (12.4%), or depression (12.9%) in the last two weeks. Over one-fifth of current tobacco smokers (21.8%) reported drinking heavily in the last 12 months and using cannabis recently. Males, with a lower educational attainment, who were unmarried, had used cannabis recently, and report drinking heavily were more likely to be current smokers. Conclusions: Health behaviour interventions addressing comorbidities are warranted among the orthopaedic trauma population given the high rate of comorbidity and impact these may have on recovery.

DOI 10.1186/s12888-019-2021-y
Co-authors John Attia, Amanda Baker, Eliza Skelton, Luke Wolfenden, Billie Bonevski, Zsolt Balogh
2018 Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, McCrabb S, Bonevski B, 'Integrating smoking cessation care in alcohol and other drug treatment settings using an organizational change intervention: a systematic review', Addiction, 113 2158-2172 (2018) [C1]

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Background and Aims: Organizational change interventions involve systems and cultural change within health-care services to make smoking ... [more]

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Background and Aims: Organizational change interventions involve systems and cultural change within health-care services to make smoking cessation care delivery part of usual treatment. Six strategies for organizational change have been proposed. This study examined the evidence for organizational change interventions in the alcohol and other drug (AOD) setting on: (a) smoking cessation care; and (b) smoking cessation and cessation-related outcomes. Methods: A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and Scopus were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from database inception to 1 June 2018. Interventions were assessed against the six organizational change strategies. Results: Of the 5155 papers identified, 14 publications from seven unique studies were included. Most studies employed four or fewer organizational change strategies. The majority (n¿=¿11) were rated weak to moderate in methodological quality. Nine published papers, four unique studies, examined staff reported provision of smoking cessation care; eight reported an increase, one found no change. Three papers, two unique studies, examined client receipt of care; all found significant increases. Three papers, two unique studies, assessed staff smoking prevalence from pre- to post-intervention. Only one study reported a significant reduction in staff smoking prevalence (35.2 versus 21.8%, P¿=¿0.005). Nine papers, six unique studies, assessed client smoking cessation and smoking-related outcomes. Seven papers reported on client smoking prevalence; two found a significant decrease and five found no change to smoking. Four papers reported on number of cigarettes per day, three found a significant decrease and one found no change. Two papers reported on smoking cessation finding a 10% and a 25% seven-day point prevalence abstinence post-discharge from the AOD service. Conclusions: Organizational change interventions within health-care services to make smoking cessation care delivery part of usual treatment offer promise for increasing smoking cessation care and reducing smoking prevalence.

DOI 10.1111/add.14369
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Billie Bonevski, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Flora Tzelepis, Eliza Skelton
2018 Wynne O, Guillaumier A, Twyman L, McCrabb S, Denham AMJ, Paul C, et al., 'Signs, fines and compliance officers: A systematic review of strategies for enforcing smoke-free policy', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.3390/ijerph15071386
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Chris Paul, Amanda Baker, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Olivia Wynne, Billie Bonevski
2018 Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Wood W, Jauncey M, et al., 'Integrating smoking cessation care into routine service delivery in a medically supervised injecting facility: An acceptability study', Addictive Behaviors, 84 193-200 (2018) [C1]

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Background: Among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) the prevalence of tobacco smoking exceeds 80%; making smoking cessation intervention a priority for this popu... [more]

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Background: Among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) the prevalence of tobacco smoking exceeds 80%; making smoking cessation intervention a priority for this population. This study aims to examine staff and client perspectives from a supervised injecting facility regarding: i) whether an organizational change intervention increased rates of smoking cessation care delivery (pre- to post-intervention); and ii) acceptability of the intervention. Methods: A pre-and-post intervention pilot study in a supervised injecting facility was conducted in Sydney, Australia between July 2014¿December 2015. The intervention employed an organizational change approach and included six components. Cross-sectional samples of staff (pre n = 27, post n = 22) and clients (pre n = 202, post n = 202) completed online surveys pre and post intervention. Results: From pre to post-intervention staff reported smoking cessation practices significantly increased for the provision of verbal advice (30% to 82%; p < 0.001), offer of free or subsidized nicotine replacement therapy (30% to 91%; p < 0.001), referral to a general practitioner (19% to 64%; p = 0.001), and follow-up to check on quit smoking progress (18.5% to 64%; p = 0.001). Significantly more clients reported receiving all smoking cessation strategies post-intervention. Over 85% of staff agreed that it was acceptable to address client smoking as part of usual care and 95% of clients agreed that it was acceptable to be asked by staff about their tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Increasing the provision of smoking cessation care using an organizational change approach is both feasible for staff and acceptable to staff and clients of supervised injecting facilities.

DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.04.001
Co-authors Flora Tzelepis, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Eliza Skelton, Billie Bonevski
2017 Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Dunlop A, McCrabb S, et al., 'Smoking cessation care provision in Australian alcohol and other drug treatment services: A cross-sectional survey of staff self-reported practices', Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 77 101-106 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Introduction Clinical practice guidelines recommend alcohol and other drug (AOD) services assess client&apos;s smoking status and offer smoking cessation care (SCC) to all ... [more]

© 2017 Introduction Clinical practice guidelines recommend alcohol and other drug (AOD) services assess client's smoking status and offer smoking cessation care (SCC) to all smokers. The aim of this study was to examine Australian AOD program staff report of recommended SCC practices: assessment and recording of smoking status; and the provision of 9 types of SCC. The study also assessed how the decision to provide SCC is made and the AOD program service and AOD staff characteristics associated with the provision of SCC. Methods Between July¿October 2014, treatment staff from 31 Australian AOD services participated in an online cross-sectional survey. In addition, a site contact at each service was interviewed to gather service related data. Results Overall, 362 AOD program staff participated (response rate¿=¿57%) and 62% estimated that client smoking status was recorded for the ¿majority or all¿ of their clients. About a third (33%) reported that they ¿always¿ provide verbal advice to their clients to quit smoking, 18% ¿always¿ offered free or subsidized NRT and 16% ¿always¿ followed-up to check on client quit progress. Thirty percent reported that the decision to provide SCC was made on a client by client basis and 26% offered SCC only when the client requested assistance. Government-managed services, age and gender of AOD program staff were significantly associated with the provision of SCC. Conclusion Most AOD program staff report that smoking status is recorded for the majority of their clients however, the frequency with which SCC practices are delivered is low and the decision to provide care is arbitrary.

DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.003
Co-authors Flora Tzelepis, Eliza Skelton, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Billie Bonevski, A Dunlop
2017 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, Naylor J, et al., 'Smoke-free recovery from trauma surgery: A pilot trial of an online smoking cessation program for orthopaedic trauma patients', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 1-12 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.3390/ijerph14080847
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors John Attia, Luke Wolfenden, Eliza Skelton, Amanda Baker, Zsolt Balogh, Billie Bonevski
2017 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, Palazzi K, et al., 'Who is More Likely to Use the Internet for Health Behavior Change? A Cross-Sectional Survey of Internet Use Among Smokers and Nonsmokers Who Are Orthopedic Trauma Patients.', JMIR Ment Health, 4 e18 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.2196/mental.7435
Co-authors Amanda Baker, Zsolt Balogh, Luke Wolfenden, John Attia, Eliza Skelton, Billie Bonevski
2017 McCrabb S, Balogh Z, Baker AL, Harris IA, Attia J, Lott N, et al., 'Development of an online smoking cessation program for use in hospital and following discharge: Smoke-free recovery', BMJ Innovations, 3 115-122 (2017) [C1]

© 2017, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Background Tobacco smoking can have negative health outcomes on recovery from surgery. Although it is recommended best practice ... [more]

© 2017, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Background Tobacco smoking can have negative health outcomes on recovery from surgery. Although it is recommended best practice to provide patients with advice to quit and follow-up support, provision of postdischarge support is rare. Developing an online smoking cessation program may help address this gap. Objectives This paper describes the development and pretesting of an online smoking cessation program (smoke-free recovery, SFR) tailored to the orthopaedic trauma population for use while in hospital and post-discharge. Methods Drawing on the DoTTI framework for developing an online program, the following steps were followed for program development: (1) design and development; (2) testing early iteration; (3) testing for effectiveness and (4) integration and implementation. This article describes the first two stages of SFR program development. Results SFR is a 10-module online smoking cessation program tailored for patients with orthopaedic trauma. Of the participants who completed testing early iterations, none reported any difficulties orientating themselves to the program or understanding program content. The main themes were that it was ¿helpful¿, provision of ¿help to quit¿ was low and SFR increased thoughts of ¿staying quit post discharge¿. Conclusions This study found that a theory and evidence-based approach as the basis for an online smoking cessation program for patients with orthopaedic trauma was acceptable to users. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to examine whether the online smoking cessation program is effective in increasing smoking cessation and how it can be integrated and implemented into hospital practice (stages three and four of the DoTTI framework).

DOI 10.1136/bmjinnov-2016-000126
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Eliza Skelton, Mark Wallis, Zsolt Balogh, Amanda Baker, Luke Wolfenden, Billie Bonevski, Frans Henskens, John Attia
2017 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, Palazzi K, et al., 'Smoking, Quitting, and the Provision of Smoking Cessation Support: A Survey of Orthopaedic Trauma Patients', Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 31 e255-e262 (2017) [C1]

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: This study investigates orthopaedic trauma patients smoking cessation history, intentions to quit, rec... [more]

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: This study investigates orthopaedic trauma patients smoking cessation history, intentions to quit, receipt of smoking cessation care during hospital admission, and patient-related factors associated with receipt of smoking cessation care. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of orthopaedic trauma patients was conducted in 2 public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Prevalence of smoking and associated variables were described. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of smoking cessation care. Results: Eight hundred nineteen patients (response rate 73%) participated. More than 1 in 5 patients (21.8%) were current smokers (n = 175). Of the current smokers, more than half (55.3%) indicated making a quit attempt in the last 12 months and the majority (77.6%) were interested in quitting. More than a third of smokers (37.4%) were not advised to quit; 44.3% did not receive any form of nicotine replacement therapy; and 24.1% reported that they did not receive any of these 3 forms of smoking cessation care during their admission. Provision of care was not related to patient characteristics. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the sample was high. Respondents were interested in quitting; however, the provision of care during admission was low. Smoking cessation interventions need to be developed to increase the provision of care and to promote quit attempts in this Australian population.

DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000872
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Zsolt Balogh, Billie Bonevski, Luke Wolfenden, John Attia, Amanda Baker, Eliza Skelton
2017 Skelton E, Bonevski B, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Dunlop A, et al., 'Tobacco smoking policies in Australian alcohol and other drug treatment services, agreement between staff awareness and the written policy document', BMC Public Health, 17 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Comprehensive smoke-free policy in the alcohol and other drug (AOD) setting provides an opportunity to reduce tobacco related harms among clients... [more]

© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Comprehensive smoke-free policy in the alcohol and other drug (AOD) setting provides an opportunity to reduce tobacco related harms among clients and staff. This study aimed to examine within AOD services: staff awareness of their service's smoking policy compared to the written policy document and staff and service factors associated with accurate awareness of a total ban and perceived enforcement of a total ban. Methods: An audit of written tobacco smoking policy documents and an online cross-sectional survey of staff from 31 Australian AOD services. In addition, a contact at each service was interviewed to gather service-related data. Results: Overall, 506 staff participated in the survey (response rate: 57%). Nearly half (46%) perceived their service had a total ban with 54% indicating that this policy was always enforced. Over one-third (37%) reported a partial ban with 48% indicating that this policy was always enforced. The audit of written policies revealed that 19 (61%) services had total bans, 11 (36%) had partial bans and 1 (3%) did not have a written smoking policy. Agreement between staff policy awareness and their service's written policy was moderate (Kappa 0.48) for a total ban and fair (Kappa 0.38) for a partial ban. Age (1 year increase) of staff was associated with higher odds of correctly identifying a total ban at their service. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking within Australian AOD services is mostly regulated by a written policy document. Staff policy awareness was modest and perceived policy enforcement was poor.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3968-y
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Billie Bonevski, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Flora Tzelepis, Eliza Skelton, A Dunlop
2017 McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, Palazzi K, et al., 'Hospital smoke-free policy: Compliance, enforcement, and practices. A staff survey in two large public hospitals in Australia', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.3390/ijerph14111358
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Zsolt Balogh, Billie Bonevski, Luke Wolfenden, John Attia, Eliza Skelton, Amanda Baker
2017 Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Dunlop A, McCrabb S, et al., 'Addressing tobacco in Australian alcohol and other drug treatment settings: a cross-sectional survey of staff attitudes and perceived barriers', SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PREVENTION AND POLICY, 12 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s13011-017-0106-5
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Eliza Skelton, Flora Tzelepis, Billie Bonevski, A Dunlop, Ashleigh Guillaumier
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Conference (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 McCrabb S, Twyman L, Palazzi K, Guillaumier A, Paul C, Bonevski B, 'Internet use in low SES populations and the potential for an e-health intervention', Newcastle, Australia (2018)
Co-authors Billie Bonevski, Chris Paul, Ashleigh Guillaumier
2018 McCrabb S, Baker A, Attia J, Balogh Z, Lott N, Palazzi K, et al., 'Smoke-free policy enforcement, compliance and the provision of smoking cessation care in hospitals', Baltimore, Maryland (2018)
Co-authors John Attia, Billie Bonevski, Luke Wolfenden, Amanda Baker
2017 McCrabb S, Attia J, Balogh Z, Naylor J, Harris IA, Doran CM, et al., 'Smoke-Free Recovery from Trauma surgery: A pilot of an online smoking cessation program for orthopaedic trauma patients', Melbourne, Australia (2017)
Co-authors Billie Bonevski, John Attia, Luke Wolfenden
2017 Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Wood W, Jauncey M, et al., 'Integrating tobacco dependence treatment into routine service delivery in a medically supervised injecting facility', Melbourne, Vic, Australia (2017)
DOI 10.1111/dar.12613
Co-authors Eliza Skelton, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Flora Tzelepis, Billie Bonevski
2017 Bonevski B, Skelton E, Tzelepis F, Shakeshaft A, Guillaumier A, Wood W, et al., 'Barriers and facilitators to integrating smoking cessation care in a medically supervised injecting facility', Melbourne, Vic, Australia (2017)
DOI 10.1111/dar.12613
Co-authors Flora Tzelepis, Billie Bonevski, Eliza Skelton, Ashleigh Guillaumier
2015 McCrabb S, Bonevski B, Baker A, Attia J, Harris IA, Doran CM, et al., 'Smoke-free recovery: A tailored online smoking cessation intervention for orthopaedic trauma patients', Dockside Sydney (2015)
Co-authors Luke Wolfenden, Billie Bonevski, Amanda Baker, John Attia
2015 McCrabb S, Bonevski B, Baker AL, Attia J, 'Active ingredients in tailored online smoking cessation interventions: A systematic review', Dockside Sydney (2015)
Co-authors Amanda Baker, Billie Bonevski, John Attia
Show 4 more conferences
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
Australia 14
United Kingdom 3
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Dr Sam McCrabb

Position

Research Assistant
School of Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Email sam.mccrabb@newcastle.edu.au
Phone 4924 6152
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