Mrs Kristy Fakes
School of Medicine and Public Health
- Phone:(02) 4042 0306
Kristy is a Research Associate with the Health Behaviour Research Collaborative, Priority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, University of Newcastle. Kristy's PhD examines patients’ perceptions of their preparation for medical imaging procedures and radiotherapy. The studies included in her thesis aim to:
1. Examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels prior to undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and the sociodemographic, health and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels
2. Critically examine the characteristics and psychometric properties of published instruments that specifically assess patients’ self-reported preparation for medical interventions.
3. Explore patients’ experiences and perceptions of preparation for radiotherapy, and identify factors that are perceived to assist with preparation.
4. Develop a psychometrically rigorous instrument to measure the adequacy of patients’ preparation for medical interventions and use it to examine the quality of preparation.
Kristy has six years of prior experience as Research Assistant with the Health Behaviour Research Collaborative. Prior to this, she spent seven years working as Scientific Officer in both public and private hospital pathology laboratories.
- Master of Public Health, University of Newcastle
- Bachelor of Medical Science (Pathology), Charles Sturt University
- Chronic disease
- Evidence-based practice
- Health services
- Patient preparation
- Quality of care
- English (Mother)
Fields of Research
|111799||Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified||100|
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (15 outputs)
Sanson-Fisher R, Fakes K, Waller A, Mackenzie L, Bryant J, Herrmann A, 'Assessing patients¿ experiences of cancer care across the treatment pathway: a mapping review of recent psychosocial cancer care publications', Supportive Care in Cancer, (2019)
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Purpose: Patients are a critical source of information about the quality of the components of cancer care that contr... [more]
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Purpose: Patients are a critical source of information about the quality of the components of cancer care that contributes to optimal psychosocial outcomes. Recently published research was examined to determine the: (1) proportion of studies that examined at least one of 14 components of cancer care, (2) the proportion of studies that included multiple components of care, and (3) the phase of the cancer care pathway in which data collection occurred (i.e. pre-, during and post-treatment). Methods: MEDLINE was searched to retrieve all data-based publications indexed for two international psychosocial cancer care journals (Supportive Care in Cancer and Psycho-Oncology) over a 2-year period. A total of 333 publications yielded 214 eligible publications that were assessed against the 14 components of care for which measurement by healthcare providers at multiple phases during cancer care is recommended. Publications were coded based on the: (1) specific component/s of care focused upon in the research, (2) number of components examined and (3) timing of data collection. Results: The most frequently assessed component of care was physical and psychosocial screening (n¿= 198, 93%). Most studies (n¿= 187, 87%) examined a single component of care. No studies assessed all 14 components. Only seven studies (2.1%) examined components of care across multiple phases of the care pathway. Conclusions: Recently published studies have examined limited segments of patients¿ experiences of cancer care. To improve psychosocial outcomes among people living with and beyond cancer, there should be a greater focus on patients¿ experiences across multiple components and the whole care pathway.
Bryant J, Hobden B, Forshaw K, Oldmeadow C, Walsh J, Sanson-Fisher R, 'How accurately do general practitioners detect concurrent tobacco use and risky alcohol consumption? A cross-sectional study in Australian general practice', Australian Journal of Primary Health, 24 378-384 (2018) [C1]
© 2018 La Trobe University. The negative health consequences of tobacco and risky alcohol consumption are compounded when used concurrently. Australian preventative health guideli... [more]
© 2018 La Trobe University. The negative health consequences of tobacco and risky alcohol consumption are compounded when used concurrently. Australian preventative health guidelines recommend that general practitioners (GPs) assess and provide evidence-based intervention. No studies, however, have examined the accuracy of GP detection of concurrent tobacco use and risky alcohol consumption or the factors associated with accurate detection. This study aimed to examine the: (i) accuracy of GP detection of concurrent tobacco and risky alcohol use compared to patient self-report and (ii) GP and patient characteristics associated with accurate detection following a single clinical encounter. Patients attending 12 Australian general practices completed a survey assessing smoking and alcohol consumption. For each participating patient, GPs completed a checklist to indicate the presence of these risk factors. GP judgements were compared to patient self-report. Fifty-one GPs completed a health risk checklist for 1332 patients. Only 23% of patients who self-reported concurrent tobacco and risky alcohol use identified by their GP. Patients who visited their GP four to six times in the last year were most likely to have concurrent tobacco and risky alcohol use were identified. It is imperative to establish systems to increase detection of preventative health risks in general practice to enable the provision of evidence-based treatments.
Carey M, Herrmann A, Hall A, Mansfield E, Fakes K, 'Exploring health literacy and preferences for risk communication among medical oncology patients', PLoS ONE, 13 (2018) [C1]
Hobden B, Bryant J, Forshaw K, Oldmeadow C, Evans TJ, Sanson-Fisher R, 'Prevalence and characteristics associated with concurrent smoking and alcohol misuse within Australian general practice patients', Australian Health Review, (2018)
© 2018 AHHA. Objectives: This study sought to determine, among a large sample of Australian general practice patients: (1) the prevalence of smoking among different levels of alco... [more]
© 2018 AHHA. Objectives: This study sought to determine, among a large sample of Australian general practice patients: (1) the prevalence of smoking among different levels of alcohol misuse; and (2) whether the associations between demographic characteristics and alcohol use differ according to smoking status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered from 2010 to 2011 to 3559 patients from 12 Australian urban general practices. Patients reported their demographic details, smoking status and their alcohol intake. Results: The overall prevalence of reported concurrent smoking and alcohol misuse was 7.8%. Smokers were 3.81-fold more likely to have a higher level of alcohol consumption than non-smokers (95% confidence interval 3.13-4.63; P < 0.0001). There was evidence that smoking was an effect modifier of the relationship between alcohol misuse and chronic illness. Conclusions: There was an increasing prevalence of smoking with increasing level of alcohol consumption. In addition, those with chronic conditions who smoked had greater odds of higher levels of alcohol consumption. Preventative interventions for these substances are needed to reduce the burden associated with concurrent smoking and alcohol misuse. What is known about the topic?: Tobacco and alcohol are the most commonly used substances and contribute to over 10 million deaths annually. The risk of disease is high when using either of these substances, however, concurrent use is associated with a greatly compounded risk. Australian data is limited regarding the prevalence of concurrent tobacco and alcohol misuse, however, international studies suggest variation in prevalence rates between different clinical settings. What does this paper add?: This study examined the prevalence of concurrent smoking and alcohol misuse among different levels of alcohol misuse severity within an Australian general practice setting. Additionally it explored whether the associations between demographic characteristics and alcohol use differ according to smoking status. What are the implications for practitioners?: This study has important implications for disease prevention and the delivery of preventive health services by general practitioners. Considering one in 100 clinical treatments provided in general practice relate to preventative smoking or alcohol counselling, it is critical that efforts are made to ascertain risk factors such as smoking and alcohol misuse to increase treatment rates. General practitioners should consider screening for smoking and alcohol misuse opportunistically during routine clinical encounters, as well as screening for smoking or alcohol misuse if one or the other is present.
Forshaw KL, Boyes AW, Carey ML, Hall AE, Symonds M, Brown S, Sanson-Fisher RW, 'Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates', Journal of the American College of Radiology, 15 630-638 (2018) [C1]
© 2018 American College of Radiology Purpose: To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attributi... [more]
© 2018 American College of Radiology Purpose: To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score = 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Conclusion: Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups.
Paul CL, Piterman L, Shaw JE, Kirby C, Forshaw KL, Robinson J, et al., 'Poor uptake of an online intervention in a cluster randomised controlled trial of online diabetes education for rural general practitioners', Trials, 18 (2017) [C1]
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: In Australia, rural and remote communities have high rates of diabetes-related death and hospitalisation. General practitioners (GPs) play a majo... [more]
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: In Australia, rural and remote communities have high rates of diabetes-related death and hospitalisation. General practitioners (GPs) play a major role in diabetes detection and management. Education of GPs could optimise diabetes management and improve patient outcomes at a population level. The study aimed to describe the uptake of a continuing medical education intervention for rural GPs and its impact on the viability of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effects of continuing medical education on whole-town diabetes monitoring and control. Method: Trial design: the cluster randomised controlled trial involved towns as the unit of allocation and analysis with outcomes assessed by de-identified pathology data (not reported here). The intervention programme consisted of an online active learning module, direct electronic access to specialist advice and performance feedback. Multiple rounds of invitation were used to engage GPs with the online intervention content. Evidence-based strategies (e.g. pre-notification, rewards, incentives) were incorporated into the invitations to enrol in the programme. Recruitment to the programme was electronically monitored through the hosting software package during the study intervention period. Results: Eleven matched pairs of towns were included in the study. There were 146 GPs in the 11 intervention towns, of whom 34 (23.3%) enrolled in the programme, and 8 (5.5%) completed the online learning module. No town had more than 10% of the resident GPs complete the learning module. There were no contacts made by GPs regarding requests for specialist advice. Consequently, the trial was discontinued. Conclusion: There is an ongoing need to engage primary care physicians in improving diabetes monitoring and management in rural areas. Online training options, while notionally attractive and accessible, are not likely to have high levels of uptake, even when evidence-based recruitment strategies are implemented. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, identifier: ACTRN12611000553976. Retrospectively registered on 31 May 2011.
Paul CL, Ishiguchi P, D¿Este CA, Shaw JE, Sanson-Fisher RW, Forshaw K, et al., 'Testing for type 2 diabetes in indigenous Australians: Guideline recommendations and current practice', Medical Journal of Australia, 207 206-210 (2017) [C1]
© 2017 AMPCo Pty Ltd. Produced with Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Objectives: To determine the proportion of Aboriginal Controlled Community Health Service (ACCHS) patients t... [more]
© 2017 AMPCo Pty Ltd. Produced with Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Objectives: To determine the proportion of Aboriginal Controlled Community Health Service (ACCHS) patients tested according to three national diabetes testing guidelines; to investigate whether specific patient characteristics were associated with being tested. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional study of 20 978 adult Indigenous Australians not diagnosed with diabetes attending 18 ACCHSs across Australia. De-identified electronic whole service data for July 2010 e June 2013 were analysed. Main outcomes measures: Proportions of patients appropriately screened for diabetes according to three national guidelines for Indigenous Australians: National Health and Medical Research Council (at least once every 3 years for those aged 35 years or more); Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and Diabetes Australia (at least once every 3 years for those aged 18 years or more); National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (annual testing of those aged 18 years or more at high risk of diabetes). Results: 74% (95% CI, 74¿75%) of Indigenous adults and 77% (95% CI, 76¿78%) of 10 760 patients aged 35 or more had been tested for diabetes at least once in the past 3 years. The proportions of patients tested varied between services (range: all adults, 16¿90%; people aged 35 years or more, 23¿92%). 18% (95% CI, 18¿19%) of patients aged 18 or more were tested for diabetes annually (range, 0.1¿43%). Patients were less likely to be tested if they were under 50 years of age, were transient rather than current patients of the ACCHS, or attended the service less frequently. Conclusions: Some services achieved high rates of 3-yearly testing of Indigenous Australians for diabetes, but recommended rates of annual testing were rarely attained. ACCHSs may need assistance to achieve desirable levels of testing.
Regan T, Paul C, Ishiguchi P, D Este C, Koller C, Forshaw K, et al., 'Comparison of two sources of clinical audit data to assess the delivery of diabetes care in aboriginal communities', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 (2017) [C1]
Forshaw K, Hall AE, Boyes AW, Carey ML, Martin J, 'Patients' experiences of preparation for radiation therapy: A qualitative study', Oncology Nursing Forum, 44 E1-E9 (2017) [C1]
Copyright 2016 by the Oncology Nursing Society. Purpose/Objectives: To explore patients' experiences of and preferences for preparation for radiation therapy. Research Approa... [more]
Copyright 2016 by the Oncology Nursing Society. Purpose/Objectives: To explore patients' experiences of and preferences for preparation for radiation therapy. Research Approach: Qualitative study. Participants: 26 individuals who recently received radiation therapy for cancer. Setting: One Australian radiation oncology clinic located within a tertiary referral hospital in New South Wales. Methodologic Approach: Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed based on a qualitative descriptive approach and content analysis of the transcribed interviews. Findings: Four main themes related to preparation techniques were identified: (a) psychological preparation (frame of mind, downward comparison, coping mechanisms, and reassurance); (b) information preparation (format, content, and knowledge from patients' own or others' experiences); (c) quality of health care; and (d) social support. Two themes related to outcomes of preparation were identified: feeling psychologically prepared and knowing what to expect. Overall, participants' accounts of preparation for radiation therapy revealed that provision of information was satisfactory. Some participants would have liked more information and support primarily in relation to side effects and the practicalities of what would happen during treatment. Conclusions: The information gained in this study indicates what strategies may best prepare patients for radiation therapy. Interpretation: Providing patients with information that creates a realistic expectation of what radiation therapy involves both before and after treatment seems particularly important in helping them feel prepared.
Paul CL, Piterman L, Shaw JE, Kirby C, Barker D, Robinson J, et al., 'Patterns of type 2 diabetes monitoring in rural towns: How does frequency of HbA1c and lipid testing compare with existing guidelines?', Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24 371-377 (2016) [C1]
© 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc. Objective: To indicate levels of monitoring of type 2 diabetes in rural and regional Australia by examining patterns of glycated haemogl... [more]
© 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc. Objective: To indicate levels of monitoring of type 2 diabetes in rural and regional Australia by examining patterns of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood lipid testing. Design and Setting: Retrospective analysis of pathology services data from twenty regional and rural towns in eastern Australia over 24 months. Participants: Of 13 105 individuals who had either a single HbA1c result =7.0% (53 mmol mol-1); or two or more HbA1c tests within the study period. Main outcome measures: Frequency of testing of HbA1c and blood lipids (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides) were compared with guideline recommendations. Results: About 58.3% of patients did not have the recommended 6-monthly HbA1c tests and 30.6% did not have annual lipid testing. For those who did not receive tests at the recommended interval, the mean between-test interval was 10.5 months (95% CI = 7.5¿13.5) rather than 6 months for HbA1c testing; and 15.7 (95% CI = 13.3¿18.1) months rather than annually for blood lipids. For those with at least one out-of-range test result, 77% of patients failed to receive a follow-up HbA1c test and 86.5% failed to receive a follow-up blood lipid test within the recommended 3 months. Patients less than 50 years of age, living in a more remote area and with poor diabetes control were less likely to have testing at the recommended intervals (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although poor diabetes testing is not limited to rural areas, more intensive diabetes monitoring is likely to be needed for patients living in non-metropolitan areas, particularly for some subgroups.
Forshaw KL, Carey ML, Hall AE, Boyes AW, Sanson-Fisher R, 'Preparing patients for medical interventions: A systematic review of the psychometric qualities of published instruments', Patient Education and Counseling, 99 960-973 (2016) [C1]
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: Preparing patients for medical interventions improves patient outcomes and is an ethical and legal imperative. This review examines the cha... [more]
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: Preparing patients for medical interventions improves patient outcomes and is an ethical and legal imperative. This review examines the characteristics and psychometric properties of published instruments which assess patients' preparation for medical interventions. Methods: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched from the date of their inception to November 2015. Data-based publications describing the development or validation of a self-report instrument designed to assess the quality of adult patients' perceived preparation for a medical intervention were included. Results: Nine publications described the development or validation of seven instruments which met inclusion criteria. The psychometric qualities of the instruments varied. None met all of the accepted criteria for psychometric rigour. Although the Satisfaction with Cancer Information Profile met the highest number (n = 5) of the defined psychometric properties, the study sample size was less than 100. Overall, content validity of the included instruments was the most frequently assessed criteria. Conclusion: Few instruments have been specifically developed to assess patients' self-reported preparation for medical interventions. Of the available instruments, none demonstrated adequate rigour across essential psychometric properties. Practice Implications: The need to develop instruments examining patient preparation for medical interventions is apparent given the limitations of the instruments reviewed.
Waller A, Forshaw K, Bryant J, Carey M, Boyes A, Sanson-Fisher R, 'Preparatory education for cancer patients undergoing surgery: A systematic review of volume and quality of research output over time', Patient Education and Counseling, 98 1540-1549 (2015) [C1]
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: To determine the volume and scope of research output examining preparation of patients for people undergoing cancer-related surgical treatm... [more]
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objective: To determine the volume and scope of research output examining preparation of patients for people undergoing cancer-related surgical treatment, and the impact of pre-operative education on patient outcomes and health care utilisation. Methods: Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO databases were systematically searched. Eligible papers were coded as data-based or non-data-based. Data-based papers were further classified as descriptive, measurement or intervention studies. Methodological quality and effectiveness of intervention studies were assessed using Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria. Results: We identified 121 eligible papers. The number of publications significantly increased over time. Most were data-based (n = 99) and descriptive (n = 83). Fourteen intervention studies met EPOC design criteria. Face-to-face interventions reported benefits for anxiety (5/7), satisfaction (1/1), knowledge (3/3) and health care costs (1/1). Audio-visual and multi-media interventions improved satisfaction (1/1) and knowledge (2/3), but not anxiety (0/3). Written interventions were mixed. Conclusion: Descriptive studies dominate the literature examining preoperative education in oncology populations, with few rigorous intervention studies. Pre-operative education can improve satisfaction, knowledge and reduce anxiety. Practice implications: Further work should be directed at multi-modal interventions, and those that include the caregiver, given their role in assisting patients to prepare and recover from surgery.
Waller A, Forshaw K, Carey M, Robinson S, Kerridge R, Proietto A, Sanson-Fisher R, 'Optimizing Patient Preparation and Surgical Experience Using eHealth Technology.', JMIR medical informatics, 3 e29 (2015) [C1]
Waller A, Forshaw K, Bryant J, Mair S, 'Interventions for preparing patients for chemotherapy and radiotherapy: a systematic review', Supportive Care in Cancer, (2014) [C1]
Purpose Undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be physically and psychologically stressful for people with cancer. Providing preparatory information to cancer patients as th... [more]
Purpose Undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be physically and psychologically stressful for people with cancer. Providing preparatory information to cancer patients as they face treatment and its aftermath has the potential to improve patient outcomes. This study assessed the methodological quality and effectiveness of interventions providing preparatory information about chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to cancer patients in improving patient outcomes and health care use. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched from January 1995 until October 2012. Inclusion criteria: (1) met Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria for study design; (2) included adults with a current cancer diagnosis; (3) delivered preparatory information via a health care provider or was self-directed; (4) examined psychological well-being, quality of life, physical symptoms, satisfaction, knowledge, or health service utilisation. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the EPOC criteria. Results Eighteen studies involving 3,443 cancer patients met inclusion criteria. Interventions included written information, audiotapes, videotapes, and computer programs. Interventions improved patient satisfaction (6/7 studies), information needs and patient knowledge (5/6 studies), physical symptoms (3/4 studies) and cost (1/1 study). More than half of the interventions improved psychological outcomes and quality of life (10/17 studies). Conclusion Providing preparatory information can improve patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially with respect to satisfaction and knowledge. Some, but not all, studies improved psychological outcomes and physical symptoms. There is a need for methodologically rigorous research to determine the most effective timing and method of delivery of preparatory information to improve patient outcomes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
|Show 12 more journal articles|
Conference (1 outputs)
Forshaw K, Carey M, Hall A, Boyes A, Proietto A, Sanson-Fisher R, 'Preparation for Radiotherapy: A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Patients' Perceptions of the Quality of Procedural Preparation', ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY (2017)
Number of supervisions
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2015||PhD||Assessing the utility of eHealth to address patient information needs prior to potentially threatening medical procedures||PhD (Behavioural Science), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|