Inherent Requirements for Bachelor of Pharmacy

1. Ethical Behaviour

Introduction

Pharmacy is a profession governed by competency standards, codes of ethics, professional conduct and professional guidelines and policies, where pharmacists are both accountable and responsible for ensuring professional behaviour in all contexts.

Description

Student demonstrates knowledge of, and engages in ethical behaviour in practice and related settings.

Justification

Compliance with the standards, codes, guidelines and policies facilitates safe, competent interactions and relationships for students and/or the people with whom they engage. This supports the physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual wellbeing of all.

Adjustments

Must ensure the standards, codes, guidelines and policies are not compromised or result in unethical behaviour.

Exemplars

Demonstrating appropriate behaviour with confidential information in classroom and clinical settings.

Demonstrating ability to reflect on ethical dilemmas and issues and take responsibility for ensuring awareness of ethical behaviour.

Work with others effectively, co-operatively, and in a professional manner in diverse and changing academic and practice settings (workplace, classrooms, laboratories)

Complying with UON Policies including the Student Conduct Rule.

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2. Behavioural Stability

Introduction

Behavioural stability is required to function and adapt effectively and sensitively in this role.

Description

Students demonstrates behavioural stability to work constructively in a diverse and changing academic and clinical environment.

Justification

Behavioural stability is required to work individually and in teams in changing and unpredictable environments. Pharmacy students will be exposed to stressful situations and unpredictable environments and will be required to have behavioural stability and demonstrate appropriate interpersonal and social interactions to manage these events.

Adjustments

Must support stable, effective and professional behaviour in both academic and professional settings.

Exemplars

Being receptive and responding appropriately to constructive feedback.

Coping with own emotions and behaviour effectively when dealing with individuals in the clinical setting.

Managing multiple tasks and complex demands with focus and composure.

Effectively prioritise competing demands to manage workload.

Accept and fulfil responsibility for patient care.

Be receptive and respond appropriately to constructive feedback.

Be able to work effectively in the face of uncertainty and adapt to challenging environments.

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3. Legal

Introduction

Pharmacy practice is mandated by legislation and regulatory requirements to enable the safe delivery of care in clinical and practice settings.

Description

Student demonstrates knowledge and compliance with Australian Law, regulations and professional practice.

Justification

Knowledge, understanding, and compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements are necessary pre-requisites to clinical placements in order to reduce the risk of harm to self and others.

Compliance with professional regulations and laws ensures that students are both responsible and accountable for their practice.

Adjustments

Must be consistent with legal and regulatory requirements.

Exemplars

Complying with legal requirements, both federal and state, regarding all aspects of professional practice.

Meeting the requirement for student registration with AHPRA.

Complying with relevant child protection, anti-discrimination, and work health and safety legislation.

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4a. Communication (verbal)

Introduction

Effective and efficient verbal communication, in English, is an essential requirement to enable safe and effective practice.

Description

Student demonstrates:

  • Sensitivity to individual and/or cultural differences by building conversational rapport to encourage trust and cooperation in a healthcare consultation.
  • The ability to understand and respond to verbal communication accurately, appropriately and in a timely manner.
  • The ability to provide clear and audible instructions in the context of the situation.
  • Timely and clear feedback and reporting.

Justification

Communicating in a way that displays respect and empathy to others and develops trusting relationships is essential for the safe delivery of care.

Communication may be restricted to verbal because of physical limitations of the individual (e.g. injury, disease or congenital conditions).

Speed and interactivity of communication may be critical for individual safety or treatment.

Timely, accurate and effective delivery of instructions is critical to individual safety, treatment and management.

Adjustments

For impaired verbal communication must address effectiveness, timeliness, clarity and accuracy issues to ensure safe and appropriate care.

Exemplars

Participating in tutorial, simulation and applied clinical discussions.

Responding appropriately to a care request in the clinical environment.

Effectively communicating and confirming information in a noisy environment.

Communicating and presentation of information to other health professionals.

Questioning and confirming directions or decisions that are unclear.

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4b. Communication (non-verbal)

Introduction

Effective non-verbal communication is an essential requirement for pharmacy practice. Communication must be respectful, clear, empathetic, honest and non-judgmental.

Description

Student demonstrates:

  • The capacity to recognise, interpret and respond appropriately to behavioural cues.
  • Consistent and appropriate awareness of own behaviours.
  • Respect and sensitivity to individual and cultural differences.

Justification

The ability to observe and understand non-verbal cues assists with building a rapport with people and gaining their trust and respect in academic and professional relationships.

Displaying consistent and appropriate facial expressions, appropriate eye contact, being mindful of space, time boundaries and body movements and gestures promotes trust in academic and professional relationships.

Being sensitive to individual and/or cultural differences displays respect and empathy to others and develops trusting relationships.

The ability to observe and understand non-verbal cues is essential for the safe and effective observation of patient symptoms and reactions to facilitate the assessment and treatment of patients.

Adjustments

Must enable the recognition, initiation of or appropriate response to effective non-verbal communication in a timely and appropriate manner.

Exemplars

Recognising and responding appropriately to non-verbal cues in the clinical environment.

Recognising and responding appropriately to non–verbal cues in classroom situations.

Ability to recognise and communicate effectively with people in distress.

Communicate respectfully with people of different gender, sexuality, age, and from diverse cultural, religious and socio-economic backgrounds.

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4c. Communication (Written)

Introduction

Effective written communication, in English, is a fundamental responsibility with professional and legal ramifications.

Description

Student demonstrates capacity to construct coherent written communication appropriate to the circumstances.

Justification

Construction of written text-based assessment tasks to reflect the required academic standards are necessary to convey knowledge and understanding of relevant subject matter for professional practice.

Accurate written communication, including record-keeping,  patient notes and instructions, is vital to provide consistent and safe practice and patient care.

Adjustments

Must meet the necessary standards of clarity, accuracy and accessibility to ensure effective recording and transmission of information in both academic and clinical settings.

Exemplars

Summarising, referencing and constructing a range of literature in academic assignments and information requests.

Constructing a report in a timely manner using grammatically correct and meaningful prose that meets professional standards.

Produce accurate, clear and concise patient notes or information/ directions in both hand-written and electronic formats.

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5a.  Knowledge and cognitive skills

Introduction

Consistent knowledge and effective cognitive skills must be demonstrated to provide safe and competent practice.

Description

Student demonstrates:

  • The capacity to locate appropriate and relevant information.
  • The ability to recall and process information relevant to practice.
  • The ability to integrate and implement knowledge in practice.

Justification

Safe and effective delivery of professional practice skills is based on comprehensive knowledge that must be sourced, understood and applied appropriately.

Adjustments

Must ensure that a clear demonstration of knowledge and cognitive skills is not compromised or impeded.

Exemplars

Gather, comprehend and integrate information into a patient-focused medication plan.

Make safe and appropriate patient-care decisions from retained knowledge and sourced credible evidence.

Identify and respond to critical changes in instructions or reported information to ensure safe and effective care.

Engage in scientific, ethical and clinical reasoning.

Competently use information and communication technology, including software and professional practice systems.

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5b. Literacy (language)

Introduction

Competent literacy skills are essential for safe and effective practice.

Description

Student demonstrates:

  • The ability to acquire information and accurately convey appropriate, effective messages.
  • The ability to read and comprehend a range of literature and information.
  • The capacity to understand and implement academic conventions to construct written text in a scholarly manner.

Justification

The ability to acquire information and to accurately convey messages is fundamental to ensure safe and effective assessment, treatment and delivery of care.

The ability to read, decode, interpret and comprehend multiple sources of information is fundamental for safe and effective practice.

Adjustments

Must demonstrate a capacity to effectively acquire, comprehend, apply and communicate accurate information.

Exemplars

Ability to listen to information.

Ability to read handwritten, online and printed information.

Ability to convey a spoken message accurately.

Ability to paraphrase, summarise and reference in accordance with appropriate academic conventions.

Ability to draft accurate, concise and clear documentation.

Understand hazards signs and warnings.

Comprehend technical documents including risk assessments, standard operating procedures and material safety data sheets.

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5c. Numeracy

Introduction

Competent and accurate numeracy skills are essential for safe and effective practice.

Description

Student demonstrates the ability to interpret, process and correctly apply data, measurements and numerical criteria.

Justification

Competent application of numeracy skills is essential to facilitate the safe and effective delivery of pharmaceutical care.

Adjustments

Must demonstrate a capacity to perform mathematical processes, interpret and apply concepts appropriately in a timely, accurate and effective manner.

Exemplars

Performing accurate calculations in a range of pharmaceutical applications including stability, dosing and disposition of medicines.

Accurately and efficiently perform calculations for the preparation of pharmaceutical products.

Correctly apply data, measurements and numerical criteria.

Recognise inaccurate or inappropriate doses, strengths and quantities of pharmaceuticals.

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6a. Sensory ability (visual)

Introduction

Adequate visual acuity is required for safe and effective practice.

Description

Student demonstrates sufficient visual acuity to perform the required range of skills.

Justification

Sufficient visual acuity is necessary to demonstrate the required range of skills, tasks and assessments to maintain consistent, accurate and safe care of self and others.

Adjustments

Must address the need to perform the full range of tasks involved in clinical practice. Any strategies to address the effects of a vision impairment must be effective, consistent and not compromise treatment or safety.

Exemplars

Observe and detect subtle changes and differences in clarity or colour of chemical or pharmaceutical preparations, or in diagnostic/monitoring devices.

Independently set up and use laboratory and practical equipment that requires safe operation (eg sharps, hot plates, glassware).

Make observations and accurately take measurements using instruments such as balances, point of care devices, blood pressure monitors.

Read the small font on medicine packaging eg ampoules, blister packaging.

Read and process visual information on medicines, labels and containers eg identification markings of medications, dispensing labels.

Observe and assess physical symptoms in patients eg rashes, colour changes, swelling; and appearance including behaviour, posture, movements.

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6b. Sensory ability (auditory)

Introduction

Auditory ability is required for safe and effective practice.

Description

Student demonstrates sufficient aural function to undertake the required range of skills.

Justification

Sufficient auditory ability is necessary to monitor, assess and manage an individual's health needs consistently and accurately.

Auditory assessments and observations are fundamental to safe and effective practice.

Adjustments

Must address the need to perform the full range of tasks involved in clinical practice. Any strategies to address the effects of the hearing loss must be effective, consistent and not compromise treatment or safety.

Exemplars

Accurately record and interact with spoken information and instructions. Follow and participate in discussions with other health care professionals regarding patients.

Listen for diagnostics cues in patient presentations eg wheezing, coughing.

Observe auditory alarms, warning s and directions in the workplace and university environments.

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6c. Sensory ability (tactile)

Introduction

Sufficient tactile ability is required for competent and safe practice.

Description

Student demonstrates adequate tactile function sufficient to undertake the required range of skills and assessments.

Justification

Functional touch sensation, ability to apply pressure, and appropriate use of touch are required to manage in the university and workplace environments.

Adjustments

Must have the capacity to make effective assessments of physical characteristics and abnormalities within safe time frames.

Exemplars

Apply appropriate pressure when mixing and preparing pharmaceuticals.

Detect grittiness of powders when preparing pharmaceuticals.

Apply compression with appropriate pressure when applying first aid in a practice setting.

Comfortable to touch people of any age or gender regardless of sexual, cultural, religious, socio-economic background in a professionally appropriate manner eg deliver immunisation, assessing symptoms, taking body measurements, measuring blood pressure, point of care testing, providing first aid.

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7a. Strength and mobility (gross motor skills)

Introduction

Pharmacy practice involves physical demands and requires gross motor function.

Description

Student demonstrates the ability to perform gross motor skills required  in practice.

Justification

Sufficient gross motor skills are necessary to perform, coordinate and prioritise care. Tasks that involve gross motor skills include lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, standing, twisting and bending. Students must be able to demonstrate sufficient strength, coordination, range of movement and independent mobility to perform these tasks consistently and safely to meet safe and effective practice needs in a time-constrained environment.Adjustments

Should facilitate functional effectiveness, safety of self and others and a capacity to provide appropriate care.

Exemplars

Sit, stand and walk for periods of 2-4 hours at a time.

Maintaining an upright posture and using both upper limbs to perform a task.

Maintaining balance while safely mobilising and transferring resources.

Able to mobilise in confined spaces safely to retrieve and utilise stock and equipment.

Independently carry and manipulate equipment and materials on varying surfaces, to complete tasks within constrained timeframes.

Have the physical capacity to provide emergency first aid and CPR.

Travel to and participate in pharmacy placements and other forled work, and meet the physical demands of those sites and workplaces.

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7b. Strength and mobility (fine motor skills)

Introduction

Pharmacy is a profession that requires manual dexterity and fine motor skills.

Description

Student demonstrates the ability to use fine motor skills for safe and effective practice.

Justification

Sufficient fine motor skills are necessary to perform, coordinate and prioritise care. Tasks that involve fine motor skills include being able to grasp, press, push, turn, squeeze and manipulate various objects. Students must be able to demonstrate and perform these tasks consistently and safely to meet safe and effective practice needs in a time-constrained environment.

Adjustments

Should facilitate functional effectiveness, safety of self and others and a capacity to provide appropriate care.

Exemplars

Remove/replace lids and open/close containers and pharmaceutical packaging.

Measure/weigh small amounts of liquids and solids using micro-pipettes, and use spatulas.

Use computer hardware/systems eg mouse, touchscreen, keyboard, pointer.

Safely use and handle syringes and needles.

Demonstrate use of medication devices without shaking eg eyedrops.

Appropriately apply wound dressings.

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8. Sustainable performance

Introduction

Pharmacy practice requires physical, cognitive and psychosocial  performance at a consistent and sustained level.

Description

Student demonstrates:

  • Consistent and sustained level of  energy to complete a specific task safely in a timely manner and over time.
  • The ability to perform repetitive activities with a level of concentration that ensures a capacity to focus on the activity until it is completed appropriately in a time-constrained environment.
  • The capacity to maintain consistency and quality of performance throughout the designated period of time.

Justification

Sufficient physical and mental endurance is an essential requirement needed to perform multiple tasks in an assigned period to provide safe and effective care.

Adjustments

Must ensure that performance is consistent and sustained over a given period.

Exemplars

Sustain concentration to focus on study practices (participating in tutorials, lectures, practicals), and in workplace performance.

Participating in full-time clinical placements to ensure effective learning and application of learning.

Provide consistent, competent practice and care over a negotiated time frame.

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The University of Newcastle acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands within our footprint areas: Awabakal, Darkinjung, Biripai, Worimi, Wonnarua, and Eora Nations. We also pay respect to the wisdom of our Elders past and present.