|2015||Muenchhoff J, Poljak A, Song F, Raftery M, Brodaty H, Duncan M, et al., 'Plasma Protein Profiling of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Across Two Independent Cohorts', JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE, 43 1355-1373 (2015)|
|2015||Davies G, Armstrong N, Bis JC, Bressler J, Chouraki V, Giddaluru S, et al., 'Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).', Mol Psychiatry, 20 183-192 (2015)|
|2015||Gardner A, Iverson GL, Levi CR, Schofield PW, Kay-Lambkin F, Kohler RMN, Stanwell P, 'A systematic review of concussion in rugby league', British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 495-498 (2015)|
Objectives: Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. Review method: The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Data sources: Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. Results: 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. Conclusions: In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions.
|2015||Gelder BM, Loughland CM, Carr VJ, Schofield PW, 'Application of the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen and its relation to functioning in schizophrenia', Acta Neuropsychiatrica, (2015)|
Objective: This study investigated the ability of the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS) to detect cognitive deficit in individuals with schizophrenia, relative to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and explored the associations between the ARCS and functional outcomes. We hypothesised that the ARCS would be able to better discriminate between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls than the MMSE, and that ARCS performance would be correlated with measures of social and vocational functioning. Methods: The participants were 19 community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 19 healthy controls recruited from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). Participants completed the ARCS, MMSE, and self-report measures of social and vocational functioning. Clinical and diagnostic data stored by the ASRB were also utilised. Results: The schizophrenia group performed worse than the control group on the ARCS, with memory, t(36)=2.49, p=0.02, 95% CI [-1.84, -18.79] and fluency, t(36)=2.40, p=0.02, 95% CI [-1.87, -22.24] domains being the main discriminating measures. The RBANS also discriminated between the two groups, and ARCS and RBANS total scores were moderately to strongly correlated. There was no difference between the two groups on the MMSE after controlling for demographic variables. ARCS performance was associated with employment status [Â¿2(1)=7.16, p=0.007]. Conclusion: The ARCS may be sensitive to the cognitive deficits in outpatients with schizophrenia and an indicator of functional outcomes in this population.
|2015||Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Bressler J, Debette S, Schuur M, Smith AV, Bis JC, et al., 'GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene.', Mol Psychiatry, (2015)|
|2014||Zahodne LB, Schofield PW, Farrell MT, Stern Y, Manly JJ, 'Bilingualism Does Not Alter Cognitive Decline or Dementia Risk Among Spanish-Speaking Immigrants', NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 28 238-246 (2014) [C1]|
|2014||Oldmeadow C, Holliday EG, McEvoy M, Scott R, Kwok JBJ, Mather K, et al., 'Concordance between direct and imputed APOE genotypes using 1000 genomes data', Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 42 391-393 (2014) [C1]|
There are a growing number of large cohorts of older persons with genome-wide genotyping data available, but APOE is not included in any of the common microarray platforms. We compared directly measured APOE genotypes with those imputed using microarray data and the '1000 Genomes' dataset in a sample of 320 Caucasians. We find 90% agreement for e2/e3/e4 genotypes and 93% agreement for predicting e4 status, yielding kappa values of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. More stringent thresholds around allele number estimates can increase this agreement to 90-97% and kappas of 0.90-0.93.
|2014||Schofield PW, Finnie S, Yong YM, 'The Role of Olfactory Challenge Tests in Incipient Dementia and Clinical Trial Design', Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 14 (2014) [C1]|
The brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop slowly over many years before the onset of dementia. Biomarkers for AD that allow its detection during this clinically silent phase will be hugely important when disease-modifying treatments that halt or slow its progression become available. Early detection, leading to early treatment, may in some cases avert dementia. Biomarkers aid our understanding of the presymptomatic stages of the disease and enable the identification of individuals with early disease who, by participating in clinical trials of investigational treatments with disease-modifying potential, contribute unique and vital information necessary to evaluate novel therapies. Most currently available AD biomarkers are expensive and not widely available and there are major efforts underway to find cheaper, simpler options. The olfactory system is affected by AD and the results from simple and inexpensive tests of the sense of smell, especially when paired with other information, can help identify individuals early in the disease. We review recent literature relevant to the use of simple olfactory tests, including some novel approaches, as aids to the early detection of AD. We consider their possible role in the design and conduct of clinical trials and suggest how in the future, when more effective treatments become available, they might be integrated into screening programs for early AD detection. Â© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
|2014||McEvoy M, Schofield P, Smith W, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Memory Impairment is Associated with Serum Methylarginines in Older Adults', CURRENT ALZHEIMER RESEARCH, 11 97-106 (2014) [C1]|
|2014||Gardner A, Iverson GL, Levi CR, Schofield PW, Kay-Lambkin F, Kohler RMN, Stanwell P, 'A systematic review of concussion in rugby league', British Journal of Sports Medicine, (2014)|
Objectives Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. Review method The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Data sources Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. Results 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. Conclusions In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Â© 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine.
|2014||Napthali K, Boyle M, Tran H, Schofield PW, Peel R, McEvoy M, et al., 'Thyroid antibodies, autoimmunity and cognitive decline: is there a population-based link?', Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra, 4 140-146 (2014) [C1]|
|2014||Schofield PW, Moore TM, Gardner A, 'Traumatic brain injury and olfaction: A systematic review', Frontiers in Neurology, 5 JAN (2014) [C1]|
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition that is often complicated by neuropsychiatric sequelae that can have major impacts on function and quality of life. An alteration in the sense of smell is recognized as a relatively common complication of TBI; however in clinical practice, this complication may not be sought or adequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of studies concerned with olfactory functioning following TBI. Our predetermined criteria led to the identification of 25 studies published in English, which we examined in detail. We have tabulated the data from these studies in eight separate tables, beginning with Table 1, which highlights each study's key findings, and we provide a summary/synthesis of the findings in the accompanying results and discussion sections. Despite widely differing methodologies, the studies attest to a high frequency of post-TBI olfactory dysfunction and indicate that its presence can serve as a potential marker of additional structural or functional morbidities. Â© 2014 Schofield, Moore and Gardner.
|2013||Gunathilake R, Oldmeadow C, McEvoy M, Kelly B, Inder K, Schofield P, Attia J, 'Mild Hyponatremia Is Associated With Impaired Cognition And Falls In Community-Dwelling Older Persons', Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61 1838-1839 (2013) [C1]|
|2013||Debette S, Ibrahim Verbaas CA, Bressler J, Schuur M, Smith A, Bis JC, et al., 'Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium', Biological Psychiatry, (2013)|
Background: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia- and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged =45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 Ã 10-6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. Results: rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 Ã 10-10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 Ã 10-8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 Ã 10-8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 Ã 10-8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. Conclusions: This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways.
|2013||McEvoy MA, Schofield P, Smith W, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Serum methylarginines and incident depression in a cohort of older adults', Journal of Affective Disorders, 151 493-499 (2013) [C1]|
|2013||McEvoy MA, Schofield PW, Smith WT, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults', PLOS ONE, 8 (2013) [C1]|
|2012||Reid MG, Parkinson L, Gibson RE, Schofield PW, D'Este CA, Attia JR, et al., 'Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool: Validation against psychometric tests and affective measures', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 65 199-205 (2012) [C1]|
|2012||Gardner AJ, Kay-Lambkin FJ, Stanwell PT, Donnelly J, Williams WH, Hiles A, et al., 'A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging findings in sports-related concussion', Journal of Neurotrauma, 29 2521-2538 (2012) [C1]|
|2012||Schofield PW, Ebrahimi H, Jones AL, Bateman GA, Murray SR, 'An olfactory 'stress test' may detect preclinical Alzheimer's disease', BMC Neurology, 12 1-8 (2012) [C1]|
|2012||Huang L, Chardon JW, Carter MT, Friend KL, Dudding TE, Schwartzentruber J, et al., 'Missense mutations in ITPR1 cause autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia', Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 7 67 (2012) [C1]|
|2011||Schofield PW, Butler T, Hollis S, D'Este CA, 'Are prisoners reliable survey respondents? A validation of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) against hospital medical records', Brain Injury, 25 74-82 (2011) [C1]|
|2011||Perkes IE, Schofield PW, Butler T, Hollis SJ, 'Traumatic brain injury rates and sequelae: A comparison of prisoners with a matched community sample in Australia', Brain Injury, 25 131-141 (2011) [C1]|
|2010||Butler T, Schofield PW, Greenberg D, Allnutt SH, Indig D, Carr V, et al., 'Reducing impulsivity in repeat violent offenders: An open label trial of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44 1137-1143 (2010) [C1]|| |
|2010||Schofield PW, Lee SJ, Lewin TJ, Lyall G, Moyle J, Attia JR, McEvoy MA, 'The Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS): A flexible hybrid cognitive test instrument', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 81 602-607 (2010) [C1]|| |
|2010||McEvoy MA, Smith WT, D'Este CA, Duke JM, Peel R, Schofield PW, et al., 'Cohort Profile: The Hunter Community Study', International Journal of Epidemiology, 39 1452-1463 (2010) [C1]|| |
|2010||Loughland CM, Allen J, Gianacas L, Schofield PW, Lewin TJ, Hunter M, Carr VJ, 'Brief neuropsychological profiles in psychosis: A pilot study using the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS)', Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 22 243-252 (2010) [C1]|| |
|2010||Lechner-Scott J, Kerr T, Spencer B, Agland S, Lydon A, Schofield PW, 'The audio recorded cognitive screen (ARCS) in patients with multiple sclerosis: A practical tool for multiple sclerosis clinics', Multiple Sclerosis, 16 1126-1133 (2010) [C1]|| |
|2008||Bateman GA, Levi CR, Schofield PW, Wang Y, Lovett EC, 'The venous manifestations of pulse wave encephalopathy: Windkessel dysfunction in normal aging and senile dementia', Neuroradiology, 50 491-497 (2008) [C1]|| |
|2006||Schofield PW, Gibson RE, Tavener MA, Attia JR, D'Este CA, Guest M, et al., 'Neuropsychological health in F-111 aircraft maintenance workers', NeuroToxicology, 27 852-860 (2006) [C1]|| |
|2006||Schofield PW, Butler TG, Hollis SJ, Smith NE, Lee SJ, Kelso WM, 'Traumatic brain injury among Australian prisoners: Rates, recurrence and sequelae', Brain Injury, 20 499-506 (2006) [C1]|
|2006||Schofield PW, Butler TG, Hollis SJ, Smith NE, Stephen L, Wendy K, 'Neuropsychiatric correlates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among Australian prison entrants', Brain Injury, 20 1409-1418 (2006) [C1]|
|2006||Bateman GA, Levi CR, Schofield PW, Wang Y, Lovett EC, 'Quantitative measurement of cerebral haemodynamics in early vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 13 563-568 (2006) [C1]|
|2006||Attia JR, D'Este CA, Schofield PW, Brown AM, Gibson RE, Tavener MA, et al., 'Mental health in F-111 maintenance workers: the study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel (SHOAMP) general health and medical study', Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48 682-691 (2006) [C1]|| |
|2005||Attia J, Schofield P, 'What now for Alzheimer's disease? An epidemiological evaluation of the AD2000 trial', Australian Prescriber, 28 134-135 (2005)|
|2005||Attia JR, Schofield PW, 'What now for Alzheimer's disease? An epidemiological evaluation of the AD2000 trial', Australian Prescriber, 28 2-3 (2005) [C3]|
|2005||Schofield PW, James K, Lee S, Kelso W, Lowe J, Poole L, et al., 'Homocysteine and Cognition in People with Type 2 Diabetes', Journal of Neurological Sciences, 238 1662 (2005) [C3]|
|2005||Bateman GA, Levi CR, Schofield PW, Wang Y, Lovett EC, 'The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus:can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded', Neuroradiology, 47 741-748 (2005) [C1]|
|2005||Schofield PW, 'Dementia associated with toxic causes and autoimmune disease', International Psychogeriatrics, 17 S129-S147 (2005) [C1]|
|2004||Dudding TE, Friend K, Schofield PW, Lee SJ, Wilkinson IA, Richards R, 'Autosomal dominant congenital non-progressive ataxia overlaps with the SCA15 locus', Neurology, 63 2288-2292 (2004) [C1]|
|2004||Schofield PW, Lee S, 'Home based testing of cognition with the tape administered cognitive screen', Neurobiology of Aging, 25 S122 (2004) [C3]|
|2003||Schofield PW, Lee S, Davies G, 'Cognitive screening using a tape recorder: a pilot study', Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51 415-418 (2003) [C1]|
|2003||Stanford P, Shepherd C, Halliday G, Brooks W, Schofield PW, Brodaty H, et al., 'Mutations in the tau gene that cause an increase in three repeat tau and frontotemporal dementia', Brain, 126 814-826 (2003) [C1]|
|2000||Byles JE, Higginbotham HN, Goodger BG, Tavener MA, Conrad A, Schofield P, Anthony DM, 'Development of a depression scale for veterans and war widows', International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7 256-270 (2000) [C1]|
|1999||Schofield P, 'Alzheimer's disease and brain reserve', AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL ON AGEING, 18 10-14 (1999)|
|1999||Devi G, Marder K, Schofield P, Tang M, Stern Y, Mayeux R, 'Validity of family history diagnosis for dementia - Reply', GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, 17 152-154 (1999)|
|1999||Schofield PW, 'Alzheimer's disease and brain reserve', Australasian journal of ageing, 18 10-14 (1999) [C3]|
|1998||Jacobs DM, Tang MX, Stern Y, Sano M, Marder K, Bell KL, et al., 'Cognitive function in nondemented older women who took estrogen after menopause', NEUROLOGY, 50 368-373 (1998)|
|1998||Devi G, Marder K, Schofield PW, Tang MX, Stern Y, Mayeux R, 'Validity of family history for the diagnosis of dementia among siblings of patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease', GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, 15 215-223 (1998)|
|1998||Stern Y, Tang MX, Jacobs DM, Marder K, Bell K, Dooneief G, et al., 'Prospective comparative study of the evolution of probable Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia', JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 4 279-284 (1998)|