Vancouver

Vancouver referencing style s a numbered style. This means it uses citation numbers in-text, which refer to numbered entries in a reference list at the end of the work. It is commonly used in medical sciences.

This guide has been designed to demonstrate how to reference the types of resources commonly used for your assignments, in correct Vancouver referencing style. Examples using many other resource types can also be found in our full Vancouver Guide.

Choose a resource type from the options below.

Vancouver uses citation numbers within the text which refer to the corresponding numbered entries in the reference list. The number may appear within round brackets, or in superscript. When a source is cited more than once, the same number should be used.

For example:

  • regarding current research into gastroenterology, 23 and funding mandates24 ensure optimum …
  • Many thought the support that was offered was done so reluctantly. (25)

Quotes

When directly quoting an source, page numbers must also be included in the in-text citation, after the note’s number. The abbreviation “p.” is included before ethe page number.

For example:

  • “They only had themselves to blame”. 2(p130)

For more detailed advice and examples, visit our Vancouver Guide’s In-text Citations page.

Author Variations

In Vancouver referencing style, the same rules are used to format author names in a reference list, for all different types of resources.

Author details

Format

Example

1-6 authors

First Surname Initials, Second Surname Initials, etc.

Jones ML, Smith KR, Harris PL, Montgomery FS, Walberg LA, Norton SM.

7+ authors

First Surname Initials, Second Surname Initials, Third Surname Initials, Fourth Surname Initials, Fifth Surname Initials, Sixth Surname Initials, et al.

Jones ML, Smith KR, Harris PL, Montgomery FS, Walberg LA, Norton SM, et al.

Corporate authors

Corporate Author.

NOTE: Corporate authors are groups, societies or organisations including universities, museums, government departments, associations, etc. Include the corporate authors capitalised as shown on the referenced document.

NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Corporate authors with acronyms

Corporate Author.

NOTE: If you choose to refer to the corporate author by its acronym in your In-Text citations, ensure that the first citation introduces it appropriately (Eg. Corporate Author [ACRONYM]) and then all subsequent citations may use only the acronym. The reference list should reflect the full Corporate Author name.

Australian Library and Information Association.

Double Barrelled Surnames

Double Surname Initial.

NOTE: Surnames with non-capitalised components are still treated as double barrelled surnames.

Van der Beek I.

Multiple initials

Surname Initial. Initial.

NOTE: Include as many initials as are listed on the referenced work.

Williams BKH.

No author

Citation No.  Title…

NOTE: When a work is published without an author's name, do not list the author as " Anonymous." Instead, skip the author element and begin the entry with the work's title

1. The Second Shepherd’s Play…

Journal

Format
Online Journal articles

Citation No. Author's Last Name Initials. Article title: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;volume(issue):page range. doi:10.xxxxxxxx.

Print journal article

Citation No. Author's Last Name, Initials. Article title: subtitle. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;volume(issue):page range.

Examples
  1. Bennett DS. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane and umbilical cord particulate for managing pain caused by facet joint syndrome: a case series. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(10):e14745. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000014745.
  2. Akahane M, Maeyashiki A, Tanaka Y, Imamura T. The impact of musculoskeletal diseases on the presence of locomotive syndrome. Mod Rheumatol. 2019;29(1):151-6. doi:10.1080/14397595.2018.1452173.
  3. Zadro JR, Shirley D, Ferreira M, Carvalho Silva AP, Lamb SE, Cooper C, et al. Is vitamin d supplementation effective for low back pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain Physician. 2018;21(2):121-45.

Newspaper Articles

Format
Newspaper article

Citation No. Author's Last Name, Initials. Article title: subtitle. Newspaper Title. Year Month Day;Section:Location(Column No).

Electronic Newspaper article

Citation No. Author's Last Name, Initials. Article title. Newspaper Title (Edition.) [Internet]. Date of publication Year Month Day [cited Year Month Day];Section:[length of article.]. Available from: URL

Examples
  1. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect A:2(col 4).
  2. Powell S. Most general practitioners back medical cannabis. The Australian [Internet]. 2018 Jul 4 [cited 2019 Sep 18];Health science:[about 2 p.]. Available from: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/health-science/most-general-practitioners-back-medical-cannabis/news-story/05336373a7e5e7c93975c0dc3701ef6a

Book

Format
Book

Citation No. 1-6 Author’s Last Name Initials. Book title: subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

eBook

Citation No. Author’s Last Name Initials. Book title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year [cited Year Month Day]. DOI.

Book chapter

Citation No. Author’s Last Name Initials. Chapter title: subtitle. In: Editor’s Last Name Initials, editors. Book title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year [cited year Month Day]. p. Page range. DOI.

Edited book

Citation No. Editor’s Last Name Initials, editor/s. Book title: subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year.

Examples
  1. Stein LNM, Hollen CJ. Concept-based clinical nursing skills: fundamental to advanced. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2021.
  2. Solymar, L. Getting the message: a history of communications [Internet]. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online; 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 27]. doi: 10.1093/oso/9780198863007.001.0001.
  3. Blaser B, Bennett, C, Ladner RE, Burgstahler SE, Mankoff J. Perspectives of women with disabilities in computing. In: Frieze C, Quesenberry JL, editors. Cracking the digital ceiling: women in computing around the world [Internet]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2019 [cited 2022 Jan 27]. p. 159-82. doi: 10.1017/9781108609081
  4. Allender T, Clark A, Parkes R, editors. Historical thinking for history teachers: a new approach to engaging students and developing historical consciousness. Crows Nest, AU: Allen & Unwin; 2019.

Theses

Format
PHD thesis

Citation No. Author. Title: subtitle [dissertation on the internet]. Campus Location: University; Year of publication [cited date]. Total page no. URL.

Master's thesis

Citation No. Author. Title: subtitle [master's thesis on the internet]. Campus Location: University; Year of publication [cited date]. Total page no. URL.

Examples
  1. Brown HM. Evaluation of education strategies to optimise nutrition and dietary knowledge in pregnant women [dissertation on the internet]. Callaghan, AU: University of Newcastle; 2019 [cited 2022 Jan 27]. 358 p. https://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/uon:35614.
  2. Geraghty K. Colors of the Western mining frontier: painted finishes in Virginia City, Montana [master’s thesis on the Internet]. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon; 2017 [cited 2022 Jan 27]. 222 p.https://www.proquest.com/docview/1947499896?pq-origsite=summon.

Webpage

Format
Website

Citation No. Author/s of website. Title of website: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]. Available from: URL

Webpage

Citation No. Author/s of website. Title of website: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date]. Title of webpage; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]; [length of webpage]. Available from: URL

Document from a website

Citation No. Author/s of document. Document title: subtitle [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [updated date; cited date]. Pagination of document. Available from: URL

Examples

  1. University of Newcastle, Australia [Internet]. Callaghan (NSW): The University; 2020 [cited 2020 Mar 24]. Available from: https://www.newcastle.edu.au
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) [Internet]. Canberra: AIHW; 2020, Sep 23. International collaboration; 2020, Feb 21 [cited 2020 Sep 30]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/our-services/international-collaboration
  3. Lab Tests Online® [Internet]. Washington: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2021. Stroke; [reviewed 2020 Nov 27; modified 2020 Dec 7; cited 2021 May 4]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/stroke
  4. Australian Medical Council [Internet]. Kingston ACT: AMC; 2016. Assessing primary medical education; 2016 [cited 2016 Jul 17]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.amc.org.au/accreditation/primary-medical-education
  5. Moore B. The vocabulary of Australian English [Internet]. Canberra: Australian National University, Australian National Dictionary Centre; [cited 2019 Jul 23]. Available from: http://www.slll.cass.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/andc/vocab_aussie_eng.pdf
  6. Influenza vaccine: who should get it, and who should not [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018 Oct 16 [cited 2019 Jul 23]. 2p. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/updated/who-should-vaccinate-update.pdf

Blog Post

Format
Blog

Citation No. Blog Author. Blog title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication [cited date]. Available from: URL

Blog post

Citation No. Blog Author. Blog title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication. Post title; Date of post [cited date]; [screen no]. Available from: URL

Examples

  1. Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul - [cited 2020 Jan 6]. Available from: https://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com
  2. Doctor CBB. CodeBlueBlog [Internet]. [Florida]: [Thomas Boyle]. [2004 May]. i-Mammo part II: breasts, lies and videotapes; 2005 Apr 15 [cited 2007 May 23]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://codeblueblog.blogs.com/codeblueblog/2005/04/part_ii_and_the.html

Social Media Platforms

Use this format for all social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and TikTok. Include the authors real name and/or profile name if available.

Format
Twitter/Instagram/Facebook

Citation No. Author. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Post title; Date of post [cited date]; [screen no]. Available from: URL

Example
  1. JAMA. JAMA Oncology Twitter page [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2014 Sep. Patient information: jaundice in cancer; 2016 Jul 17 [cited 2016 Jul 20]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: https://twitter.com/JAMAOnc/status/754752541582356480

Videos, Film & TV

Format
Online Streaming Videos

Citation No. Author. Video title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [cited date]. Video: time length. Available from: URL

Films & Documentaries

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [type of medium]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Television Programs

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [television broadcast]. Title of TV program. Location: Broadcaster; Date of broadcast.

Examples
  1. APTA. Physical therapist careers video from APTA [Internet]. Alexandria (VA): American Physical Therapy Association; 2010 Sep 10 [cited 2016 Jul 13]. Video: 10 min. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Z2Ib4Meul4
  2. Garner S. Integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Perspectives in Schools [DVD]. Leunig S, director. Stavridis K, producer. Bendigo, Vic; 2011.
  3. Willis O, reporter. Caesarean twin deliveries increase three-fold in Victoria, despite no evidence of benefit [television broadcast]. News. Sydney: ABC; 2019 Dec 2.

Podcasts & Audio

Format
Podcasts

Citation No. Author. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [cited date]. Podcast: time length. Available from: URL

Songs & Audio Tracks

Citation No. Author/s. Title: subtitle [type of medium]. Title of album. Location: Publisher; Date of publication.

Examples
  1. Van Nuys D. Growing your resilience with Rick Hanson PhD [Internet]. [place unknown]: Shrink Rap Radio; 2018 Apr 5 [cited 2020 Jan 7]. Podcast: 1:10:51. Available from: https://shrinkrapradio.com/592-growing-your-resilience-with-rick-hanson-phd
  2. Simon P. 50 ways to leave your lover [CD]. Still crazy after all these years: the greatest hits of Paul Simon. San Francisco: CBS Digital; 2010.

Maps

Format
Online Map

Citation No. Cartographer. Title: subtitle [map on the Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of Publication [cited date]. Page. URL

Print Map

Citation No. Cartographer. Title: subtitle [map]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication, Physical Description.

Examples
  1. Buchholz D, cartographer. Street map, San Diego, southern area [map]. Oceanside (CA): Global Graphics; 2000, 1 sheet: 1:45,000; 89 x 68.5 cm; color.
  2. Satellite view of Newcastle NSW Australia [map on the Internet]. Mountain View (CA): Google Earth; c2020 [cited 2020 Jan 8]. Available from: https://www.google.com/maps/@-32.9546526,151.6396797,48499m/data=!3m1!1e3

Reports, Government Documents and Conferences

Format

Government documents

Citation No. Name of Government Agency. Document title: subtitle. Document No [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Page No. DOI or URL

Reports

Citation No. Author. Report title: subtitle [Internet]. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Report no. URL

Conferences

Citation No. Author of paper. Title of paper. In: Editor of proceedings, editors. Title of proceedings covering Conference Name; Date; Location. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Page range of paper.

Examples
  1. Active Healthy Kids Australia. Physical literacy: do our kids have all the tools? 2016 report card on physical activity for children and young people [Internet]. Adelaide: Active Healthy Kids Australia; 2019. 72 p. doi:10.4226/78/57AAD6BD49165.
  2. United Nations. The sustainable development goals report 2021. [Internet]. New York: United Nations; 2021. Available from: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2021/The-Sustainable-Development-Goals -Report-2021.pdf
  3. Oo S. Fast food and takeaway food services in Australia. IBISWorld; 2021. Report No.: AU Industry (ANZSIC) Report H4512.
  4. National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Universities Australia. National statement on ethical conduct in human research 2007 (Updated May 2018) [Internet]. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2018 [cited 2022 Jan 11]. 110 p. Available from: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines-publications/e72
  5. Goughari MS. A multifaceted literature review of WhatsApp: opportunities and challenges in mobile-assisted language learning. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Education [Internet]; 2021 March 11-14; Oxford, United Kingdom. Diamond Scientific Publishing. p. 40-52. Available from: https://www.doi.org/10.33422/3rd.educationconf.2021.03.206.

Lecture and Course Material Online

If course materials are only available in Canvas, and not publicly accessible online, reference as a personal communication.

Format

Lecture and Course Material Online

Citation No. Author. Title: subtitle [Internet]. Campus Location: University; Year of publication [cited date]. Page no. URL

Examples
  1. Hayes M. ORHL1004 communicating oral health messages: course handbook [Internet]. Callaghan (NSW): University of Newcastle, School of Health Sciences; 2016 Mar 2 [cited 2016 Jul 14]. 60 p. Available from: https://uonline.newcastle.edu.au

Personal Communication

Personal communications are usually run into the text only, not as formal end references. Include the nature and source of the cited information, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Place the source information in parentheses.

In-text examples

… and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 email from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") while the few that …

About Vancouver

  • The Vancouver style of referencing is the style most commonly used in the medical sciences.
  • The Vancouver style consists of the following elements:
    1. Citations in the body of the text (“in-text citations”), using consecutive numbers in brackets. Note that some journals use superscripted numbers rather than numbers in parentheses.
    2. A numbered reference list at the end of the text which includes the details for each source referred to within text.

For more information on Vancouver referencing, see libguides.newcastle.edu.au/vancouver

Reference list

  • The reference list appears at the end of the document, and includes only the sources cited in-text.
  • Reference list entries appear in the same order as cited in-text, arranged numerically by citation number.
  • All lines of reference list entries should be indented.

For more information on the Vancouver reference list.

Vancouver reference guide

Learn more

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