Associate Professor Matthew Hayward

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward

Associate Professor

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

Career Summary

Biography

I conducted a PhD on the conservation ecology of the vulnerable quokka – a small wallaby that the introduced red fox loves to kill – in the Western Australian jarrah forest. I then conducted two post docs in South Africa; the first on bushmeat hunting in the coastal forests of the Transkei with the Walter Sisulu University, and the second at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University to study the reintroduction of lions, spotted hyaenas and a leopard to Addo Elephant National Park.  After this I undertook a Marie Curie Post-Doctoral Fellowship at the Polish Academy of Science’s Mammal Research Institute in Białowieża Primeval Forest.  I then moved back to Australia to work as the Australian Wildlife Conservancy’s regional ecologist for six reserves in south-eastern Australia covering over 700,000ha and ranging from the deserts of Lake Eyre through the mallee to Sydney’s North Head where reintroduction, ecosystem services, feral eradication/control and fire management were key research issues. Most recently, I've been lecturing at Bangor University in beautiful North Wales where my research teams were working on reintroducing red squirrels; ascertaining the impact of pine marten on squirrels; the context dependence of humans on wolf ecology; spatial ecology of peccaries and elephants; invasive snakes; and the impact of neonicotinoids on fossorial mammals.

My research interests include the conservation ecology of threatened species, the factors that threaten them and the methods we can use to effectively conserve them. I have researched these conservation issues in Australia, South Africa and Poland on marsupials, rodents, reptiles, invertebrates, ungulates and large predators.  I have published on predator-prey interactions, reintroduction biology, population dynamics, spatial ecology, intra-guild competition, diet, ecosystem services, conservation effectiveness and status assessments.  I also have experience in conservation management (reintroduction, pest animal control, conservation fencing, fire management) and have sat on several Australian threatened species recovery teams.


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of New South Wales

Keywords

  • mammal
  • introduced species
  • threatening processes
  • marsupial
  • predation
  • threatened species
  • conservation biology
  • reintroduction biology
  • predator-prey interactions
  • ecology

Languages

  • English (Mother)

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
050202 Conservation and Biodiversity 50
060208 Terrestrial Ecology 50

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Associate Professor University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/08/2014 - 9/11/2017 Senior Lecturer in Conservation Bangor University
Schools of Biological Sciences; and Environment, Natural Resources and Geography
United Kingdom
21/04/2013 - 30/07/2014 Lecturer in Conservation

I began my career as an academic at Bangor University in beautiful North Wales where I ran the 3rd year Wildlife Ecology and Conservation module and the 2nd year Field Course to Kruger National Park in South Africa.

Bangor University
Schools of Biological Sciences; and Environment, Natural Resources and Geography
United Kingdom
7/03/2006 - 30/10/2007 EU Marie Curie Post-doctoral Fellow

I was selected as the first European Union Marie Curie Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Polish Academy of Science’s Mammal Research Institute (an EU Centre of Excellence) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest to work with Bogumiła Jedrżejewska and Włodek Jedrżejewski on top-down (wolf/lynx predation) versus bottom-up (rainfall/snow) population limitation of red deer, roe deer and wild boar.  I assisted with field work, gave seminars to the research staff and students of the Institute, and supervised students.  I also participated in the BIOTER conferences and collaborated on reviews of the ecology of Holarctic species. 

Polish Academy of Sciences
Mammal Research Institute
Poland
5/01/2003 - 1/11/2003 Post-doctoral fellow

I was a post-doctoral research scientist studying the ecology of the blue duiker (Philantomba monticola) at two reserves in the former Republic of Transkei in South Africa with Dr Rehema White.  The project was advertised internationally and was funded by the South African National Research Foundation and involved determining the causes of differences in abundance of the vulnerable blue duiker at the two reserves. 

Walter Sisulu University
Zoology Department
South Africa

Professional appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
3/11/2008 - 29/03/2013 Regional Ecologist (South-eastern Australia)

Regional ecologist for six conservation reserves owned and managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy in south-eastern Australia (Scotia, Kalamurina, Buckaringa, Yookamurra, Dakalanta and North Head Sanctuaries; see figure below).  These sanctuaries cover over 755,000 ha. 

I was in charge of all research and monitoring undertaken in these sanctuaries. I identified new research projects that were done in-house or collaboratively with academics from the universities of NSW, Sydney, La Trobe, Wollongong, Melbourne and Flinders. I had a staff of 3 PhD wildlife ecologists, 3 field ecologists with honours degrees and 3 field ecologists to assist in achieving this.  I was in charge of the annual science budget for the south-east of over $725,000 and a management budget of a further half million dollars. Conservation foci in each site were:    

  •    Scotia (64,653 ha): included the largest fenced, feral-free area on the Australian mainland (8000 ha) and is set within one million hectares of conservation land.  At Scotia, AWC has reintroduced 7 critically endangered, locally extinct species (numbats, woylies, boodies, bridled nailtail wallabies, bilbies, greater stick-nest rats, mala and black-eared miner).  Quarterly monitoring using trapping (mark-recapture) and distance sampling was undertaken to estimate population sizes. Annual pitfall surveys were also undertaken.  Telemetry was conducted on numbats, bridled nailtail wallabies, mala, cats and foxes.  Collaborative research was conducted with David Eldridge (UNSW) on ecosystem engineering benefits of the reintroduced fauna; Heloise Gibb (La Trobe) on the impact of reintroductions on the invertebrate community; and Chris Dickman (USyd) on the population ecology of reintroduced fauna.
  • Kalamurina (654,600 ha): links the Simpson Desert Regional Reserve with the Lake Eyre National Park to create a conservation area larger than Tasmania.We conducted annual vertebrate trapping to monitor faunal response to management activities; bird surveys; mulgara population monitoring and pest animal surveys.
  •   Yookamurra (4000 ha): in the Murraylands of South Australia, this sanctuary has 1103 ha fenced and feral-free and has had woylies, boodies, bilbies and numbats reintroduced.Monitoring of these species occurred annually.
  •   Buckaringa (2000 ha): in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia, this sanctuary supports a critical linkage population of vulnerable yellow-footed rock-wallabies.Annual monitoring of this species occurs through total counts and telemetry, while the vertebrate response of management actions occurred through pitfall/Elliot/cage trapping, vegetation monitoring and bird surveys.
  •       North Head (87 ha): located on the former School of Artillery site on Sydney’s North Head, is surrounded by the Sydney Harbour National Park and supports an endangered long-nosed bandicoot population.Working alongside staff from the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, this population was monitored, radio tracked and its food resources are assessed.The impact of black rats on regeneration of the endangered Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub was also studied, and native bush rats were reintroduced as part of the Return of the Natives ARC Linkage Grant.
  •   Dakalanta (14,000 ha): is a critical component of the Wild Eyre conservation project and revegetation is the key activity undertaken on the site to date, alongside fauna monitoring, particularly of the southern hairy-nosed wombats.

AWC’s focus was on active management by removing conservation threats and returning ecosystems to a pre-European benchmark wherever possible.  AWC is Australia’s largest private land owner and conserves more species than any other conservation organisation in Australia. 

This role also saw me participate in several national endangered species recovery teams.  I also participated in the WWF-Australia Macropod Action Plan Survey to identify conservation strategies for threatened macropods and the Habitat 141 initiative to link the coast along the Victorian-South Australian border to the arid inland along the 141 line of longitude. 
 

Australian Wildlife Conservancy
Australia

Invitations

Participant

Year Title / Rationale
2017 Predicting the impact of reinvading apex predators on European wildlife management
Public and private landowners in Austria earn their operating income
not only from forestry and agricultural activities but also from the
hunting branch of their business, as hunting rights being bound to
landownership in Austria. The current management of wildlife
populations also assigned to the landowners, consists of a welldirected
spatio-temporally and demographic influence and control of
populations of ungulates. Thus economic revenues from hunting are
achieved and impact to forestry (caused by game) is managed
respectively.
In this context, feeding of game during the winter and the use of
fenced winter preserves for Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) are common,
thus prohibiting natural migration of these ungulates or use of open
landscape while on the other hand enabling locally high densities of
stocks. If large carnivores appear in the territory massive
disturbances of the regular management processes are often feared.

Thesis Examinations

Year Level Discipline Thesis
2018 PHD Natural Sciences Camera Traps as Sensor Networks for Space-Time Monitoring of Terrestrial Mammal Communities
2017 PHD Natural Sciences Behavioural decisions of ungulates under varying predator regimes
2016 PHD Natural Sciences An evaluation of large carnivore translocations into free-ranging environments in Namibia
2016 PHD Natural Sciences Interactions between Tasmanian devils and spotted-tailed quolls in north-eastern Tasmania
2016 PHD Natural Sciences Digital 3D modelling of lion (Panthera leo) tracks as a tool to monitor populations
2016 PHD Natural Sciences Conservation ecology of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) on Rottnest Island, Western Australia
2015 PHD Natural Sciences The ecology of Hispaniolan solenodon and Hispaniolan hutia in agricultural and native forest systems in the Dominican Republic
2015 PHD Natural Sciences The ecology and management of Kalahari lions in a zone of conflict in central Botswana
2015 PHD Natural Sciences Conservation ecology of the quokka in Western Australia’s southern forests.
2013 PHD Natural Sciences Habitat quality effects on the ecology of leopard on a small enclosed reserve
2013 PHD Natural Sciences Conservation of quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) in the northern jarrah forest: is habitat degradation by feral pigs a greater threat than the presence of red foxes?
2012 PHD Natural Sciences Viability of leopards (Panthera pardus) in South Africa
2012 PHD Natural Sciences Predator ecology at Shamwari Private Game Reserve, South Africa
2011 PHD Natural Sciences The Ecology of Dingoes in Mining Areas of Arid Australia
2007 PHD Science The Conservation Ecology of the Spotted-tailed Quoll

Teaching

Code Course Role Duration
ENVS3003 Conservation Biology
Faculty of Science | University of Newcastle | Australia
Lecturer 12/02/2018 - 2/03/2018
ENVS2006 Evolution and management of Australian Fauna
Faculty of Science | University of Newcastle | Australia
Course coordinator 5/03/2018 - 22/06/2018
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (2 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2012 Somers MJ, Hayward MW, Fencing for conservation: Restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes? (2012)

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. The conflict between increasing human population and biodiversity conservation is one of the IUCN¿s key threateni... [more]

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. The conflict between increasing human population and biodiversity conservation is one of the IUCN¿s key threatening processes. Conservation planning has received a great deal of coverage and research as a way of conserving biodiversity yet, while theoretically successful, it has never been tested. Simple lines on maps to illustrate conservation areas are unlikely to be successful in the light of human encroachment. It may be that some form of overt display is necessary to ensure the protection of reserves. This may be signage, presence of guards/rangers or physical fencing structures. The need for some form of barrier goes beyond restricting human access. The megafauna of Africa pose a genuine threat to human survival. In southern Africa, fences keep animals in and protect the abutting human population. Elsewhere, fencing is not considered important or viable. Where poverty is rife, it won¿t take much to tip the balance from beneficial conservation areas to troublesome repositories of crop-raiders, diseases and killers. Conversely, in New Zealand fences are used to keep animals out. Introduced species have decimated New Zealand¿s endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates, and several sites have been entirely encapsulated in mouse-proof fencing to ensure their protection. Australia faces the same problems as New Zealand, however surrounds its national parks with cattle fences. Foxes and cats are free to enter and leave at will, resulting in rapid recolonisation following poisoning campaigns. How long will these poison campaigns work before tolerance, aversion or resistance evolves in the introduced predator populations?

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0902-1
Citations Scopus - 24
2009 Hayward MW, Somers MJ, Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators (2009)

Large predators are among the most threatened species on the planet and ways of conserving them in the face of increasing human populations and associated resource requirements ar... [more]

Large predators are among the most threatened species on the planet and ways of conserving them in the face of increasing human populations and associated resource requirements are becoming critical. This book draws upon the experiences of some of the world's foremost large carnivore specialists to discuss the numerous issues associated reintroducing large predators back into their natural habitats. Reviews of internationally renowned reintroduction programs for wolves, European lynx and African wild dog reveal the successes and failures of these actions. Experts on tigers, snow leopards and jaguars contend that there are other conservation options of higher priority that will ensure their security in the long-term. Other experts discuss more theoretical aspects such as whether we know enough about these species to be able to predict their behavioural or ecological response to the reintroduction process. Social, economic, political and genetic considerations are also addressed. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/9781444312034
Citations Scopus - 67

Chapter (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 Marker L, Rabeil T, Comizzoli P, Nghikembua M, Hayley C, Hayward MW, Tambling C, 'The status of key prey species and the consequences of prey loss for cheetah conservation in north and west Africa', Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation, Academic Press, New York 151-161 (2018)
2017 Somers MJ, Becker PA, Druce DJ, Graf JA, Gunther MS, Marneweck DG, et al., 'Reassembly of the large predator guild into Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park', Conserving Africa's Mega-Diversity in the Anthropocene: The Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park Story 286-310 (2017)
DOI 10.1017/9781139382793.017
Citations Scopus - 2
2012 Hayward MW, 'Perspectives on fencing for conservation based on four case studies: Marsupial conservation in Australian forests; bushmeat hunting in South Africa; large predator reintroduction in South Africa; and large mammal conservation in Poland', Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential Or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? 7-20 (2012)

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. The value of fencing for conservation is dependent on the benefits of separating biodiversity from threatening pr... [more]

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. The value of fencing for conservation is dependent on the benefits of separating biodiversity from threatening processes outweighing the ecological, financial and social costs of having a fence. Using several case studies from sites around the world, I illustrate some of the various costs and benefits associated with fencing for conservation. The conservation strategy of the quokka Setonix brachyurus is hinged on creating metaphorical barriers of poison around extant populations; however, this cannot work forever, if quokkas do not evolve effective anti-predator strategies as foxes Vulpes vulpes will ultimately evolve tolerance to the poisons. The fences around South Africa¿s Dwesa and Cwebe Nature Reserves have been partly dismantled and the anti-poaching activities appear ineffective as the fauna of the reserves exhibit habitat use that indicate they are facing substantial pressures from poaching, limiting the value of the reserves for conservation. Conversely, the fences around several other conservation areas in South Africa¿s Eastern Cape Province have ensured the success of large predator reintroduction programmes; however, the effectiveness of these fences instigates problems of population isolation that will require ongoing management. Finally, one of the last remnants of Europe¿s deciduous forests (Poland¿s Bialowieza Primeval Forest) is isolated by a physical fence to the east and habitat alteration to the north, south and west which exacerbates natural selection of fauna that remain in forests and isolates these critical populations. The value of fencing for conservation should ultimately be determined by the ecological, social and financial costs being outweighed by the likelihood of conserving the biodiversity threatened by factors that fencing can exclude.

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0902-1_2
Citations Scopus - 2
2012 Hayward MW, Somers MJ, 'An introduction to fencing for conservation', Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential Or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? 1-6 (2012)

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. Conservation managers are tasked with the difficult job of conserving biodiversity, often with limited informatio... [more]

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved. Conservation managers are tasked with the difficult job of conserving biodiversity, often with limited information and poorly defined goals (Hayward 2009). There are numerous techniques available to achieve this objective; however, the critical element is the separation of biodiversity from the processes threatening it.

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0902-1_1
Citations Scopus - 6
2009 Hayward MW, 'Moving beyond the Descriptive: Predicting the Responses of Top-Order Predators to Reintroduction', Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators 345-370 (2009)

The reintroduction of large carnivores to South Africa has yielded important information on methods to successfully reintroduce top-order predators. These programmes also identifi... [more]

The reintroduction of large carnivores to South Africa has yielded important information on methods to successfully reintroduce top-order predators. These programmes also identifi ed major information defi ciencies that have limited the ability of conservation managers to make successful and satisfactory management decisions. The fi rst question involved identifi cation of the species-and their numbers-that reintroduced predators would prey upon and the predators' potential impact on prey populations. To solve this, literature reviews were conducted to ascertain the preferred prey of Africa's largepredator guild using Jacobs' electivity index. These analyses were then used to predict the diets of lions, Panthera leo, at novel sites, and these predictions were tested using independent data from four sites over several years throughout southern Africa. Three of these test sites involved recently reintroduced lion populations. Lion diet was accurately predicted in nine of 13 tests and explained 62% of the variation in the data. In each case, the rank of prey taken was accurate. The second problem identifi ed by conservation managers of South Africa's Eastern Cape was an inadequate knowledge of the number of predators that their area could sustain (i.e. a reserve's carrying capacity). The known relationships between predator density and that of their prey were refi ned to create new equations using the biomass of signifi cantly preferred prey or of prey in the preferred prey-weight range of each of Africa's large-predator guild. Predictions made from these new equations were successfully tested on sites where conservation managers or scientists had evidence that predators had exceeded carrying capacity. These methods can be used on all adequately studied predators. The ability to predict the diet and carrying capacity of predators at reintroduction sites will substantially improve success rates by ensuring that an adequate prey base is present to support the reintroduced stock and by highlighting to conservation managers when management actions should be considered to avoid overpopulation. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/9781444312034.ch16
Citations Scopus - 9
2009 Marnewick K, Hayward MW, Cilliers D, Somers MJ, 'Survival of Cheetahs Relocated from Ranchland to Fenced Protected Areas in South Africa', Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators 282-306 (2009)

In South Africa, wildlife can be privately owned and utilized for economic gain, with the consequent formation of thousands of wildlife ranches that are stocked with wildlife for ... [more]

In South Africa, wildlife can be privately owned and utilized for economic gain, with the consequent formation of thousands of wildlife ranches that are stocked with wildlife for the main purpose of hunting and live sale. When predators prey on antelope, the economic value attached to wildlife results in confl ict. The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is protected by legislation in South Africa, and cheetahs have consequently been illegally shot and trapped in an attempt to reduce losses. A compensation-relocation programme for "problem" cheetahs was therefore initiated in South Africa by landowners, conservation offi cials and biologists; this programme allowed landowners to legally capture "damage-causing" cheetahs on their property for relocation into fenced protected areas. Trapped cheetahs were temporarily placed in a specially designed holding facility to habituate them to humans to facilitate monitoring and future viewing for ecotourism. Cheetahs were released into approved reserves using a soft-release method and were subsequently monitored. A total of 29 reserves and 189 cheetahs (92 adults: 59 males and 33 females, plus 94 cubs born on the reserves) were included in the survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier (product limit) estimator with staggered entry. The mean annual survivorship for all cheetahs, including cubs born in this study, was 82.8%. The fi nal survivorship value for all adult cheetahs was 0.23 and for cubs was 0.04. Cubs had signifi cantly higher survival on reserves where other competing predators were absent. The median survival time was 38 months for adult males and more than 53 months for adult females, which is higher than the corresponding 17 months for adult males and 8 months for adult females on Namibian ranchland. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/9781444312034.ch13
Citations Scopus - 15
2009 Hayward MW, Somers MJ, 'Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators: Using Science to Restore One of the Drivers of Biodiversity', Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators 1-9 (2009)
DOI 10.1002/9781444312034.ch1
Citations Scopus - 9
Show 4 more chapters

Journal article (108 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 Osipova L, Okello MM, Njumbi SJ, Ngene S, Western D, Hayward MW, Balkenhol N, 'Using step-selection functions to model landscape connectivity for African elephants: Accounting for variability across individuals and seasons', Animal Conservation, (2018)

© 2018 The Zoological Society of London. Landscape connectivity is an important component of systematic conservation planning. Step-selection functions (SSFs) is a highly promisin... [more]

© 2018 The Zoological Society of London. Landscape connectivity is an important component of systematic conservation planning. Step-selection functions (SSFs) is a highly promising method for connectivity modeling. However, differences in movement behavior across individuals and seasons are usually not considered in current SSF-based analyses, potentially leading to imprecise connectivity models. Here, our objective was to use SSFs to build functional connectivity models for African elephants Loxodonta africana in a seasonal environment to illustrate the temporal variability of functional landscape connectivity. We provide a methodological framework for integrating detected inter-individual variability into resistance surface modeling, for assessing how landscape connectivity changes across seasons, and for evaluating how seasonal connectivity differences affect predictions of movement corridors. Using radio-tracking data from elephants in the Borderland area between Kenya and Tanzania, we applied SSFs to create seasonal landscape resistance surfaces. Based on seasonal models, we predicted movement corridors connecting major protected areas (PAs) using circuit theory and least-cost path analysis. Our findings demonstrate that individual variability and seasonality lead to substantial changes in landscape connectivity and predicted movement corridors. Specifically, we show that the models disregarding seasonal resource fluctuations underestimate connectivity for the wet and transitional seasons, and overestimate connectivity for the dry season. Based on our seasonal models, we predicted a connectivity network between large PAs and highlight seasonal and consistent patterns that are most important for effective management planning. Our findings reveal that elephant movements in the borderland between Kenya and Tanzania are essential for maintaining connectivity in the dry season, and that existing corridors do not protect these movements in full extent.

DOI 10.1111/acv.12432
Citations Scopus - 1
2018 Broekhuis F, Thuo D, Hayward MW, 'Feeding ecology of cheetahs in the Maasai Mara, Kenya and the potential for intra- and interspecific competition', JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 304 65-72 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/jzo.12499
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2018 Weise FJ, Hayward MW, Casillas Aguirre R, Tomeletso M, Gadimang P, Somers MJ, Stein AB, 'Size, shape and maintenance matter: A critical appraisal of a global carnivore conflict mitigation strategy ¿ Livestock protection kraals in northern Botswana', Biological Conservation, 225 88-97 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.06.023
2018 Gibb H, Verdon SJ, Weir T, Johansson T, L'Hotellier F, Hayward MW, 'Testing top-down and bottom-up effects on arid zone beetle assemblages following mammal reintroduction', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, 43 288-300 (2018)
DOI 10.1111/aec.12564
2018 Edwards S, Cooper S, Uiseb K, Hayward M, Wachter B, Melzheimer J, 'Making the most of by-catch data: Assessing the feasibility of utilising non-target camera trap data for occupancy modelling of a large felid', African Journal of Ecology, (2018)

Camera traps are an increasingly used tool in ecology, having the ability to capture large numbers of photographic records in short survey periods. For many surveys, the number of... [more]

Camera traps are an increasingly used tool in ecology, having the ability to capture large numbers of photographic records in short survey periods. For many surveys, the number of non-target records outweighs those of focal species, making them a potentially rich and often under-utilised data source. Occupancy analysis of non-target data represents a potential way to optimise survey output, whilst increasing "return on investment." This study assessed the feasibility of using non-target data from a Hartmann's mountain zebra Equus zebra hartmannae survey in Gondwana Canyon Park, southern Namibia, for occupancy analysis on leopard Panthera pardus. Using a survey design with 15 camera traps at water sources, 26 leopard events were detected over 72 days. Model fit was adequate and produced a model-averaged occupancy of 0.64 (SE 0.36) and a detection probability of 0.24 (SE 0.07). Whilst there was a lack of precision in the final occupancy estimate, the study provided valuable pilot data for future surveys. The results highlight the ability of camera traps to obtain information-rich datasets, which, when properly archived, can be used for providing information on a number of ecological topics, ranging far beyond that which the traps were originally deployed for. 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

DOI 10.1111/aje.12511
2018 Haswell PM, Jones KA, Kusak J, Hayward MW, 'Fear, foraging and olfaction: how mesopredators avoid costly interactions with apex predators.', Oecologia, 187 573-583 (2018)
DOI 10.1007/s00442-018-4133-3
2018 Hayward MW, Ripple WJ, Kerley GIH, Landman M, Plotz RD, Garnett ST, 'Neocolonial Conservation: Is Moving Rhinos to Australia Conservation or Intellectual Property Loss', Conservation Letters, 11 (2018)

Copyright and Photocopying: © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The Australian Rhino Project (http://www.theaustralianrhinoproject.org) p... [more]

Copyright and Photocopying: © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The Australian Rhino Project (http://www.theaustralianrhinoproject.org) proposes importing 80 rhinos from South Africa to Australia by 2019 at a cost of over $US4 million, with the first six due to have been moved in 2016. This project has high-profile supporters in the private sector, zoos, and both governments, and is gaining major publicity through association with sporting teams and TedEx talks (http://www.theaustralianrhinoproject.org/index.php/news/blogs/11-news-and-blogs/242-ray-tedx). However, establishing extralimital populations of African rhinos is a very low-priority conservation action, particularly given over 800 are already in captivity, and we argue this project diverts funds and expertise away from more important conservation activities; the proposed captive conditions will lead to selection for domestic traits; the most likely species involved is the white rhino, which is the lowest priority rhino species for conservation; it removes a driver of in situ conservation; it does not focus on the critically endangered Asian rhino species; and it extends the historical exploitation of Africa's resources by colonial powers. There are also insufficient details in the public domain about the project for objective decision-making. We believe this is misdirected neocolonial conservation and the policy support from both governments for this project should be reconsidered.

DOI 10.1111/conl.12354
Citations Scopus - 2
2018 Osipova L, Okello MM, Njumbi SJ, Ngene S, Western D, Hayward MW, Balkenhol N, 'Fencing solves human-wildlife conflict locally but shifts problems elsewhere: A case study using functional connectivity modelling of the African elephant', Journal of Applied Ecology, (2018)

© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society Fencing is one of the most common methods of mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. At the same time... [more]

© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society Fencing is one of the most common methods of mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. At the same time, fencing is considered one of the most pressing threats emerging in conservation globally. Although fences act as barriers and can cause population isolation and fragmentation over time, it is difficult to quantitatively predict the consequences fences have for wildlife. Here, we model how fencing designed to mitigate human-elephant conflict (HEC) on the Borderlands between Kenya and Tanzania will affect functional connectivity and movement corridors for African elephants. Specifically, we (a) model functional landscape connectivity integrating natural and anthropogenic factors; (b) predict seasonal movement corridors used by elephants in non-protected areas; and (c) evaluate whether fencing in one area can potentially intensify human-wildlife conflicts elsewhere. We used GPS movement and remote sensing data to develop monthly step-selection functions to model functional connectivity. For future scenarios, we used an ongoing fencing project designed for HEC mitigation within the study area. We modelled movement corridors using least-cost path and circuit theory methods, evaluated their predictive power and quantified connectivity changes resulting from the planned fencing. Our results suggest that fencing will not cause landscape fragmentation and will not change functional landscape connectivity dramatically. However, fencing will lead to a loss of connectivity locally and will increase the potential for HEC in new areas. We estimate that wetlands, important for movement corridors, will be more intensively used by the elephants, which may also cause problems of overgrazing. Seasonal analysis highlights an increasing usage of non-protected lands in the dry season and equal importance of the pinch point wetlands for preserving overall function connectivity. Synthesis and applications. Fencing is a solution to small-scale human-elephant conflict problems but will not solve the issue at a broader scale. Moreover, our results highlight that it may intensify the conflicts and overuse of habitat patches in other areas, thereby negating conservation benefits. If fencing is employed on a broader scale, then it is imperative that corridors are integrated within protected area networks to ensure local connectivity of affected species.

DOI 10.1111/1365-2664.13246
2018 Coggan NV, Hayward MW, Gibb H, 'A global database and "state of the field" review of research into ecosystem engineering by land animals', JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, 87 974-994 (2018)
DOI 10.1111/1365-2656.12819
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2018 Montgomery RA, Elliott KC, Hayward MW, Gray SM, Millspaugh JJ, Riley SJ, et al., 'Examining evident interdisciplinarity among prides of lion researchers', Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6 1-13 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.3389/fevo.2018.00049
Citations Scopus - 1
2018 Hayward MW, Castley JG, 'Editorial: Triage in conservation', Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 5 (2018)
DOI 10.3389/fevo.2017.00168
2018 Hofman MPG, Hayward MW, Kelly MJ, Balkenhol N, 'Enhancing conservation network design with graph-theory and a measure of protected area effectiveness: Refining wildlife corridors in Belize, Central America', Landscape and Urban Planning, 178 51-59 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.05.013
2017 Mann SA, Van Valkenburgh B, Hayward MW, 'Tooth fracture within the African carnivore guild: the influence of intraguild competition and resource availability', JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 303 261-269 (2017)
DOI 10.1111/jzo.12488
2017 Ripple WJ, Chapron G, López-Bao JV, Durant SM, MacDonald DW, Lindsey PA, et al., 'Conserving the world's megafauna and biodiversity: The fierce urgency of now', BioScience, 67 197-200 (2017)
DOI 10.1093/biosci/biw168
Citations Scopus - 13
2017 Moll RJ, Redilla KM, Mudumba T, Muneza AB, Gray SM, Abade L, et al., 'The many faces of fear: a synthesis of the methodological variation in characterizing predation risk', Journal of Animal Ecology, 86 749-765 (2017)

© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society Predators affect prey by killing them directly (lethal effects) and by inducing costly antipredator... [more]

© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society Predators affect prey by killing them directly (lethal effects) and by inducing costly antipredator behaviours in living prey (risk effects). Risk effects can strongly influence prey populations and cascade through trophic systems. A prerequisite for assessing risk effects is characterizing the spatiotemporal variation in predation risk. Risk effects research has experienced rapid growth in the last several decades. However, preliminary assessments of the resultant literature suggest that researchers characterize predation risk using a variety of techniques. The implications of this methodological variation for inference and comparability among studies have not been well recognized or formally synthesized. We couple a literature survey with a hierarchical framework, developed from established theory, to quantify the methodological variation in characterizing risk using carnivore¿ungulate systems as a case study. Via this process, we documented 244 metrics of risk from 141 studies falling into at least 13 distinct subcategories within three broader categories. Both empirical and theoretical work suggest risk and its effects on prey constitute a complex, multi-dimensional process with expressions varying by spatiotemporal scale. Our survey suggests this multi-scale complexity is reflected in the literature as a whole but often underappreciated in any given study, which complicates comparability among studies and leads to an overemphasis on documenting the presence of risk effects rather than their mechanisms or scale of influence. We suggest risk metrics be placed in a more concrete conceptual framework to clarify inference surrounding risk effects and their cascading effects throughout ecosystems. We recommend studies (i) take a multi-scale approach to characterizing risk; (ii) explicitly consider ¿true¿ predation risk (probability of predation per unit time); and (iii) use risk metrics that facilitate comparison among studies and the evaluation of multiple competing hypotheses. Addressing the pressing questions in risk effects research, including how, to what extent and on what scale they occur, requires leveraging the advantages of the many methods available to characterize risk while minimizing the confusion caused by variability in their application.

DOI 10.1111/1365-2656.12680
Citations Scopus - 8
2017 Sales LP, Ribeiro BR, Hayward MW, Paglia A, Passamani M, Loyola R, 'Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar', Journal of Animal Ecology, 86 1214-1223 (2017)

© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species¿ fundamental niche through evolutionary time, i... [more]

© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species¿ fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and morphological characteristics of this species, coupled with behavioural thermoregulation.

DOI 10.1111/1365-2656.12721
Citations Scopus - 1
2017 Hayward MW, Porter L, Lanszki J, Kamler JF, Beck JM, Kerley GIH, et al., 'Factors affecting the prey preferences of jackals (Canidae)', Mammalian Biology, 85 70-82 (2017)

© 2017 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde Prey selection by carnivores can be affected by top-down and bottom-up factors. For example, large carnivores may facilitate food r... [more]

© 2017 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde Prey selection by carnivores can be affected by top-down and bottom-up factors. For example, large carnivores may facilitate food resources for mesocarnivores by providing carcasses to scavenge, however mesocarnivores may hunt large prey themselves, and their diets might be affected by prey size and behaviour. We reviewed jackal diet studies and determined how the presence of large carnivores and various bottom-up factors affected jackal prey selection. We found 20 studies of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) from 43 different times or places, and 13 studies of Eurasian golden jackals (Canis aureus) from 23 different times or places reporting on 3900 and 2440 dietary records (i.e. scats or stomach contents), respectively. Black-backed jackals significantly preferred small (<30¿kg) ungulate species that hide their young (duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus and springbok Antidorcas marsupialis), and avoided large (>120¿kg) hider species and follower species of any body size. They had a preferred and accessible prey weight range of 14¿26¿kg, and a predator to ideal prey mass ratio of 1:3.1. Eurasian golden jackal significantly prefer to prey on brown hare (Lepus europaeus; 4¿kg), yielding a predator to preferred prey mass ratio of 1:0.6, and a preferred and accessible prey weight range of 0¿4¿kg and 0¿15¿kg, respectively. Prey preferences of jackals differed significantly in the presence of apex predators, but it was not entirely due to carrion availability of larger prey species. Our results show that jackal diets are affected by both top-down and bottom-up factors, because apex predators as well as prey size and birthing behaviour affected prey preferences of jackals. A better understanding of the factors affecting jackal prey preferences, as presented here, could lead to greater acceptance of mesocarnivores and reduced human-wildlife conflict.

DOI 10.1016/j.mambio.2017.02.005
Citations Scopus - 2
2017 Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, et al., 'The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project', ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 7 145-188 (2017)
DOI 10.1002/ece3.2579
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 14
2017 Wilson GR, Hayward MW, Wilson C, 'Market-Based Incentives and Private Ownership of Wildlife to Remedy Shortfalls in Government Funding for Conservation', Conservation Letters, 10 484-491 (2017)

© 2016 The Authors. Conservation Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In some parts of the world, proprietorship, price incentives, and devolved responsibility for managem... [more]

© 2016 The Authors. Conservation Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In some parts of the world, proprietorship, price incentives, and devolved responsibility for management, accompanied by effective regulation, have increased wildlife and protected habitats, particularly for iconic and valuable species. Elsewhere, market incentives are constrained by policies and laws, and in some places virtually prohibited. In Australia and New Zealand, micro economic reform has enhanced innovation and improved outcomes in many areas of the economy, but economic liberalism and competition are rarely applied to the management of wildlife. This policy perspective examines if commercial value and markets could attract private sector investment to compensate for Government underspend on biodiversity conservation. It proposes trials in which landholders, community groups, and investors would have a form of wildlife ownership by leasing animals on land outside protected areas. They would be able to acquire threatened species from locally overabundant populations, breed them, innovate, and assist further colonization/range expansion while making a profit from the increase. The role of government would be to regulate, as is appropriate in a mixed economy, rather than be the (sole) owner and manager of wildlife. Wide application of the trials would not answer all biodiversity-loss problems, but it could assist in the restoration of degraded habitat and connectivity.

DOI 10.1111/conl.12313
Citations Scopus - 1
2017 Haswell PM, Kusak J, Hayward MW, 'Large carnivore impacts are context-dependent', Food Webs, 12 3-13 (2017)

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Interactions between large carnivores and other species may be responsible for impacts that are disproportionately large relative to their density. Context-de... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Interactions between large carnivores and other species may be responsible for impacts that are disproportionately large relative to their density. Context-dependent interactions between species are common but often poorly described. Caution must be expressed in seeing apex predators as ecological saviours because ecosystem services may not universally apply, particularly if inhibited by anthropogenic activity. This review examines how the impacts of large carnivores are affected by four major contexts (species assemblage, environmental productivity, landscape, predation risk) and the potential for human interference to affect these contexts. Humans are the most dominant landscape and resource user on the planet and our management intervention affects species composition, resource availability, demography, behaviour and interspecific trophic dynamics. Humans can impact large carnivores in much the same way these apex predators impact mesopredators and prey species ¿ through density-mediated (consumptive) and trait/behaviourally-mediated (non-consumptive) pathways. Mesopredator and large herbivore suppression or release, intraguild competition and predation pressure may all be affected by human context. The aim of restoring ¿natural¿ systems is somewhat problematic and not always pragmatic. Interspecific interactions are influenced by context, and humans are often the dominant driver in forming context. If management and conservation goals are to be achieved then it is pivotal to understand how humans influence trophic interactions and how trophic interactions are affected by context. Trade-offs and management interventions can only be implemented successfully if the intricacies of food webs are properly understood.

DOI 10.1016/j.fooweb.2016.02.005
Citations Scopus - 11
2017 Lindsey PA, Chapron G, Petracca LS, Burnham D, Hayward MW, Henschel P, et al., 'Relative efforts of countries to conserve world's megafauna', Global Ecology and Conservation, 10 243-252 (2017)

© 2017 The Authors Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservatio... [more]

© 2017 The Authors Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI) that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world's terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are particularly valuable in economic, ecological and societal terms, and are challenging and expensive to conserve. We categorised these 152 countries as being above- or below-average performers based on whether their contribution to megafauna conservation was higher or lower than the global mean; ¿major¿ performers or underperformers were those whose contribution exceeded 1 SD over or under the mean, respectively. Ninety percent of countries in North/Central America and 70% of countries in Africa were classified as major or above-average performers, while approximately one-quarter of countries in Asia (25%) and Europe (21%) were identified as major underperformers. We present our index to emphasise the need for measuring conservation performance, to help nations identify how best they could improve their efforts, and to present a starting point for the development of more robust and inclusive measures (noting how the IUCN Red List evolved over time). Our analysis points to three approaches that countries could adopt to improve their contribution to global megafauna conservation, depending on their circumstances: (1) upgrading or expanding their domestic protected area networks, with a particular emphasis on conserving large carnivore and herbivore habitat, (2) increase funding for conservation at home or abroad, or (3) ¿rewilding¿ their landscapes. Once revised and perfected, we recommend publishing regular conservation rankings in the popular media to recognise major-performers, foster healthy pride and competition among nations, and identify ways for governments to improve their performance.

DOI 10.1016/j.gecco.2017.03.003
Citations Scopus - 8
2017 Caravaggi A, Banks PB, Burton AC, Finlay CMV, Haswell PM, Hayward MW, et al., 'A review of camera trapping for conservation behaviour research', Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, 3 109-122 (2017)

© 2017 The Authors. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation published by John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd on behalf of Zoological Society of London. An understanding of animal behav... [more]

© 2017 The Authors. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Zoological Society of London. An understanding of animal behaviour is important if conservation initiatives are to be effective. However, quantifying the behaviour of wild animals presents significant challenges. Remote-sensing camera traps are becoming increasingly popular survey instruments that have been used to non-invasively study a variety of animal behaviours, yielding key insights into behavioural repertoires. They are well suited to ethological studies and provide considerable opportunities for generating conservation-relevant behavioural data if novel and robust methodological and analytical solutions can be developed. This paper reviews the current state of camera-trap-based ethological studies, describes new and emerging directions in camera-based conservation behaviour, and highlights a number of limitations and considerations of particular relevance for camera-based studies. Three promising areas of study are discussed: (1) documenting anthropogenic impacts on behaviour; (2) incorporating behavioural responses into management planning and (3) using behavioural indicators such as giving up densities and daily activity patterns. We emphasize the importance of reporting methodological details, utilizing emerging camera trap metadata standards and central data repositories for facilitating reproducibility, comparison and synthesis across studies. Behavioural studies using camera traps are in their infancy; the full potential of the technology is as yet unrealized. Researchers are encouraged to embrace conservation-driven hypotheses in order to meet future challenges and improve the efficacy of conservation and management processes.

DOI 10.1002/rse2.48
Citations Scopus - 8
2017 Apollonio M, Belkin VV, Borkowski J, Borodin OI, Borowik T, Cagnacci F, et al., 'Challenges and science-based implications for modern management and conservation of European ungulate populations', Mammal Research, 62 209-217 (2017)

© 2017, The Author(s). Wildlife management systems face growing challenges to cope with increasingly complex interactions between wildlife populations, the environment and human a... [more]

© 2017, The Author(s). Wildlife management systems face growing challenges to cope with increasingly complex interactions between wildlife populations, the environment and human activities. In this position statement, we address the most important issues characterising current ungulate conservation and management in Europe. We present some key points arising from ecological research that may be critical for a reassessment of ungulate management in the future.

DOI 10.1007/s13364-017-0321-5
Citations Scopus - 3
2016 Ripple WJ, Chapron G, López-Bao JV, Durant SM, Macdonald DW, Lindsey PA, et al., 'Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna', BioScience, 66 807-812 (2016)
DOI 10.1093/biosci/biw092
Citations Scopus - 39
2016 Moll RJ, Killion AK, Montgomery RA, Tambling CJ, Hayward MW, 'Spatial patterns of African ungulate aggregation reveal complex but limited risk effects from reintroduced carnivores', Ecology, 97 1123-1134 (2016)

© 2016 by the Ecological Society of America. The landscape of fear model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey wi... [more]

© 2016 by the Ecological Society of America. The landscape of fear model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey will exhibit detectable antipredator behavior not only during risky times (i.e., predators in close proximity) but also in risky places (i.e., habitat where predators kill prey or tend to occur). Aggregation is an important antipredator response in numerous ungulate species, making it a useful metric to evaluate the strength and scope of the landscape of fear in a multi-carnivore, multi-ungulate system. We conducted ungulate surveys over a 2-year period in South Africa to test the influence of three broadscale sources of variation in the landscape on spatial patterns in aggregation: (1) habitat structure, (2) where carnivores tended to occur (i.e., population-level utilization distributions), and (3) where carnivores tended to kill ungulate prey (i.e., probabilistic kill site maps). We analyzed spatial variation in aggregation for six ungulate species exposed to predation from recently reintroduced lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Although we did detect larger aggregations of ungulates in risky places, these effects existed primarily for smaller-bodied (<150 kg) ungulates and were relatively moderate (change of =4 individuals across all habitats). In comparison, ungulate aggregations tended to increase at a slightly lower rate in habitat that was more open. The lion, an ambush (stalking) carnivore, had stronger influence on ungulate aggregation than the hyena, an active (coursing) carnivore. In addition, places where lions tended to kill prey had a greater effect on ungulate aggregation than places where lions tended to occur, but an opposing pattern existed for hyena. Our study reveals heterogeneity in the landscape of fear and suggests broad-scale risk effects following carnivore reintroduction only moderately influence ungulate aggregation size and vary considerably by predator hunting mode, type of predation risk, and prey species.

DOI 10.1890/15-0707.1/suppinfo
Citations Scopus - 8
2016 Van Valkenburgh B, Hayward MW, Ripple WJ, Meloro C, Roth VL, 'The impact of large terrestrial carnivores on Pleistocene ecosystems', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 862-867 (2016)

Large mammalian terrestrial herbivores, such as elephants, have dramatic effects on the ecosystems they inhabit and at high population densities their environmental impacts can be... [more]

Large mammalian terrestrial herbivores, such as elephants, have dramatic effects on the ecosystems they inhabit and at high population densities their environmental impacts can be devastating. Pleistocene terrestrial ecosystems included a much greater diversity of megaherbivores (e.g., mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths) and thus a greater potential for widespread habitat degradation if population sizes were not limited. Nevertheless, based on modern observations, it is generally believed that populations of megaherbivores (>800 kg) are largely immune to the effects of predation and this perception has been extended into the Pleistocene. However, as shown here, the species richness of big carnivores was greater in the Pleistocene and many of them were significantly larger than their modern counterparts. Fossil evidence suggests that interspecific competition among carnivores was relatively intense and reveals that some individuals specialized in consuming megaherbivores. To estimate the potential impact of Pleistocene large carnivores, we use both historic and modern data on predator-prey body mass relationships to predict size ranges of their typical and maximum prey when hunting as individuals and in groups. These prey size ranges are then compared with estimates of juvenile and subadult proboscidean body sizes derived from extant elephant growth data. Young proboscideans at their most vulnerable age fall within the predicted prey size ranges of many of the Pleistocene carnivores. Predation on juveniles can have a greater impact on megaherbivores because of their long interbirth intervals, and consequently, we argue that Pleistocene carnivores had the capacity to, and likely did, limit megaherbivore population sizes.

DOI 10.1073/pnas.1502554112
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 23
2016 Hayward MW, 'Conservation: Don't bank African rhinos in Australia', Nature, 534 475 (2016)
DOI 10.1038/534475b
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Coggan NV, Hayward MW, Gibb H, 'Termite activity and decomposition are influenced by digging mammal reintroductions along an aridity gradient', Journal of Arid Environments, 133 85-93 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Species declines can have broader impacts on ecosystems, particularly when those species act as ecosystem engineers. Ecosystem engineers modify habitats, indi... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Species declines can have broader impacts on ecosystems, particularly when those species act as ecosystem engineers. Ecosystem engineers modify habitats, indirectly shaping biotic communities. Environmental attributes may limit the direct influence of engineers on habitat properties, indirectly affecting other species and ecological functioning. We used three sites differing in abiotic properties, where endangered digging mammals had been reintroduced, and hypothesised that: Reintroduced mammals affect resource consumption and abandonment by termites, and local factors influence termite interactions with reintroduced mammals. We therefore performed two manipulative experiments: first testing the effects of depth on termite consumption of resources, second, testing resource abandonment by termites following simulated disturbances by determining the proportion of termites remaining at disturbed resources relative to undisturbed controls. Experiments were conducted inside reintroduction enclosures and compared against controls. Resource consumption was ~25% lower, and resource abandonment ~50% higher where digging mammals were reintroduced and termite responses were consistent with decreasing aridity. The near-extinction of native digging mammals from much of Australia is likely to have significantly altered termite activity and decomposition, but impacts may be context-dependent, with aridity potentially playing a key role. Our work suggests, counterintuitively, that ecosystem impacts of reintroductions may be lower in resource-poor sites.

DOI 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2016.06.005
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2016 Luther DA, Brooks TM, Butchart SHM, Hayward MW, Kester ME, Lamoreux J, Upgren A, 'Determinants of bird conservation-action implementation and associated population trends of threatened species', Conservation Biology, 30 1338-1346 (2016)

© 2016 Society for Conservation Biology Conservation actions, such as habitat protection, attempt to halt the loss of threatened species and help their populations recover. The ef... [more]

© 2016 Society for Conservation Biology Conservation actions, such as habitat protection, attempt to halt the loss of threatened species and help their populations recover. The efficiency and the effectiveness of actions have been examined individually. However, conservation actions generally occur simultaneously, so the full suite of implemented conservation actions should be assessed. We used the conservation actions underway for all threatened and near-threatened birds of the world (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species) to assess which biological (related to taxonomy and ecology) and anthropogenic (related to geoeconomics) factors were associated with the implementation of different classes of conservation actions. We also assessed which conservation actions were associated with population increases in the species targeted. Extinction-risk category was the strongest single predictor of the type of conservation actions implemented, followed by landmass type (continent, oceanic island, etc.) and generation length. Species targeted by invasive nonnative species control or eradication programs, ex situ conservation, international legislation, reintroduction, or education, and awareness-raising activities were more likely to have increasing populations. These results illustrate the importance of developing a predictive science of conservation actions and the relative benefits of each class of implemented conservation action for threatened and near-threatened birds worldwide.

DOI 10.1111/cobi.12757
Citations Scopus - 2
2016 Hayward MW, Ward-Fear G, L'Hotellier F, Herman K, Kabat AP, Gibbons JP, 'Could biodiversity loss have increased Australia's bushfire threat?', Animal Conservation, 19 490-497 (2016)

© 2016 The Zoological Society of London Ecosystem engineers directly or indirectly affect the availability of resources through changing the physical state of biotic and/or abioti... [more]

© 2016 The Zoological Society of London Ecosystem engineers directly or indirectly affect the availability of resources through changing the physical state of biotic and/or abiotic materials. Fossorial ecosystem engineers have been hypothesized as affecting fire behaviour through altering litter accumulation and breakdown, however, little evidence of this has been shown to date. Fire is one of the major ecological processes affecting biodiversity globally. Australia has seen the extinction of 29 of 315 terrestrial mammal species in the last 200¿years and several of these species were ecosystem engineers whose fossorial actions may increase the rate of leaf litter breakdown. Thus, their extinction may have altered the rate of litter accumulation and therefore fire ignition potential and rate of spread. We tested whether a reduction in leaf litter was associated with sites where mammalian ecosystem engineers had been reintroduced using a pair-wise, cross-fence comparison at sites spanning the Australian continent. At Scotia (New South Wales), Karakamia (Western Australia) and Yookamurra (South Australia) sanctuaries, leaf litter mass (-24%) and percentage cover of leaf litter (-3%) were significantly lower where reintroduced ecosystem engineers occurred compared to where they were absent, and fire behaviour modelling illustrated this has substantial impacts on flame height and rate of spread. This result has major implications for fire behaviour and management globally wherever ecosystem engineers are now absent as the reduced leaf litter volumes where they occur will lead to decreased flame height and rate of fire spread. This illustrates the need to restore the full suite of biodiversity globally.

DOI 10.1111/acv.12269
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 15
2016 Ward-Fear G, Hayward MW, L'Hotellier F, Herman K, Kabat AP, Gibbons JP, 'The implications of biodiversity loss for the dynamics of wildlife in Australia', Animal Conservation, 19 504-505 (2016)
DOI 10.1111/acv.12326
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 2
2016 Eldred T, Meloro C, Scholtz C, Murphy D, Fincken K, Hayward M, 'Does size matter for horny beetles? A geometric morphometric analysis of interspecific and intersexual size and shape variation in Colophon haughtoni Barnard, 1929, and C. kawaii Mizukami, 1997 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)', Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 16 821-833 (2016)

© 2016, The Author(s). Colophon is an understudied, rare and endangered stag beetle genus with all species endemic to isolated mountain peaks in South Africa¿s Western Cape. Geome... [more]

© 2016, The Author(s). Colophon is an understudied, rare and endangered stag beetle genus with all species endemic to isolated mountain peaks in South Africa¿s Western Cape. Geometric morphometrics was used to analyse intersexual and interspecific variation of size and shape in the mandibles, heads, pronota and elytra of two sympatric species: Colophon haughtoni and Colophon kawaii. All measured structures showed significant sexual dimorphism, which may result from male-male competition for females. Female mandibles were too small and featureless for analysis, but male Colophon beetles possess large, ornate mandibles for fighting. Males had significantly larger heads and pronota that demonstrated shape changes which may relate to resource diversion to the mandibles and their supporting structures. Females are indistinguishable across species, but males were accurately identified using mandibles, heads and pronota. Male C. kawaii were significantly larger than C. haughtoni for all structures. These results support the species status of C. kawaii, which is currently in doubt due to its hybridisation with C. haughtoni. We also demonstrate the value of geometric morphometrics as a tool which may aid Colophon conservation by providing biological and phylogenetic insights and enabling species identification.

DOI 10.1007/s13127-016-0289-z
Citations Scopus - 2
2016 Linnell JDC, Trouwborst A, Boitani L, Kaczensky P, Huber D, Reljic S, et al., 'Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?', PLoS Biology, 14 (2016)

© 2016 Linnell et al. The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows ... [more]

© 2016 Linnell et al. The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483
Citations Scopus - 17
2016 Sales LP, Hayward MW, Passamani M, 'Local vs landscape drivers of primate occupancy in a Brazilian fragmented region', Mammal Research, 61 73-82 (2016)

© 2015, Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza, Poland. Understanding the drivers of species distributions in human-dominated landscapes is crucial for ... [more]

© 2015, Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza, Poland. Understanding the drivers of species distributions in human-dominated landscapes is crucial for proposing sound conservation strategies. Primates are the most studied terrestrial vertebrate taxa, yet still, their response to forest loss and fragmentation widely varies among species. In this paper, we assessed the relative influence of local vs landscape features on occupancy of two primate species¿the black-fronted titi monkey and the black-pencilled marmoset, in a Brazilian fragmented region. We created detection histories by performing repeated auditory surveys on 25 native vegetation patches. Then, we fitted occupancy models using habitat and GIS-based data as site covariates and weather conditions as detection covariates. We found that forest-like canopy elements are important for the titi monkey, a canopy-dependent species. Occupancy of marmoset, an opportunistic species, was also related to local elements, but in a lesser extent. In addition, we found that ignoring detectability in playback call surveys created a 20 % difference in occupancy estimates for the marmoset. We conclude that drivers of primate occupancy at the studied landscape rely mainly on local key habitat elements, so that on-ground conservation actions should not focus on habitat amount alone. Furthermore, we reiterate that primate researchers should explicitly account for imperfect detection to avoid substantial detectability bias.

DOI 10.1007/s13364-015-0252-y
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Hofman MPG, Signer J, Hayward MW, Balkenhol N, 'Spatial ecology of a herd of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in Belize using GPS telemetry: Challenges and preliminary results', Therya, 7 21-38 (2016)

© 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología. The Maya Mountains are a heavily forested mountain range in Belize and Guatemala supporting high levels of biodiversity. Due to enviro... [more]

© 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología. The Maya Mountains are a heavily forested mountain range in Belize and Guatemala supporting high levels of biodiversity. Due to environmental degradation around the range, it is in danger of becoming isolated from the largest contiguous forest in Central America. Forest connectivity in the area is vital for white-lipped peccaries. These social ungulates roam in herds of up to 300 individuals and need large forested areas to sustain populations. The species has not previously been studied in Belize and its distribution, population size, herd dynamics and movement patterns are unknown for the country. We aimed to estimate home range size and investigate movement patterns of the species in southern Belize. We present a preliminary 4-month data set from a herd of ca. 60 animals tracked by an individual fitted with a GPS satellite collar. We evaluated collar performance, habitat preference and movement characteristics, and estimated home range size using a semi-variogram approach, suited for sparse and irregular data. Collar performance was poor, with 38 % of the data not reaching the satellite, and a GPS fix success rate of 11.6 % for the data that did reach the satellite. The semi-variogram home range size was 55.2 km2. We observed a maximum daily movement distance of 3.8 km, and a preferential use of forest habitat over shrubland, savannah and cropland. We calculated a density of 1.09 ind/km2and make an informed guess of close to 100 herds in the broad-leaf forests of the Maya Mountains. Our study highlights some of the challenges faced when collaring white-lipped peccaries, as well as the performance of GPS-collars in tropical forests. It also provides a first glimpse of the home range and movement behaviour of white-lipped peccaries in Belize.

DOI 10.12933/therya-16-335
Citations Scopus - 1
2015 Eldridge DJ, Woodhouse JN, Curlevski NJA, Hayward M, Brown MV, Neilan BA, 'Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland', ISME Journal, 9 2671-2681 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology. Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and pro... [more]

© 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology. Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance.

DOI 10.1038/ismej.2015.70
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 19
Co-authors Brett Neilan
2015 Hayward MW, Poh ASL, Cathcart J, Churcher C, Bentley J, Herman K, et al., 'Numbat nirvana: Conservation ecology of the endangered numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus) (Marsupialia:Myrmecobiidae) reintroduced to Scotia and Yookamurra Sanctuaries, Australia', Australian Journal of Zoology, 63 258-269 (2015)

© 2015 CSIRO. Despite a vigorous reintroduction program between 1985 and 2010, numbat populations in Western Australia are either static or declining. This study aimed to document... [more]

© 2015 CSIRO. Despite a vigorous reintroduction program between 1985 and 2010, numbat populations in Western Australia are either static or declining. This study aimed to document the population ecology of numbats at two sites that are going against this trend: Scotia Sanctuary in far western New South Wales and Yookamurra Sanctuary in the riverland of South Australia. Scotia (64659ha) and Yookamurra (5026ha) are conservation reserves owned and managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy and where numbats were reintroduced in 1999 and 1993 respectively. Both sites have large conservation-fence-protected introduced-species-free areas where there are no cats (Felis catus) or red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Numbats were sourced from both wild and captive populations. From small founder populations, the Scotia numbats are now estimated to number 169 (113-225) with 44 at Yookamurra. Radio-collared individuals at Scotia were active between 13 and 31°C. Females had home ranges of 28.3±6.8ha and males 96.6±18.2ha, which leads to an estimated sustainable population or carrying capacity of 413-502 at Scotia. Captive-bred animals from Perth Zoo had a high mortality rate upon reintroduction at Scotia due to predation by raptors and starvation. The habitat preferences for mallee with a shrub understorey appear to be driven by availability of termites, and other reintroduced ecosystem engineers appear to have been facilitators by creating new refuge burrows for numbats. This study shows that numbats can be successfully reintroduced into areas of their former range if protected from introduced predators, and illustrates the difficulties in monitoring such cryptic species.

DOI 10.1071/ZO15028
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 5
2015 Hayward MW, Boitani L, Burrows ND, Funston PJ, Karanth KU, Mackenzie DI, et al., 'Ecologists need robust survey designs, sampling and analytical methods', Journal of Applied Ecology, 52 286-290 (2015)

© 2015 The Authors. Research that yields conflicting results rightly causes controversy. Where methodological weaknesses are apparent, there is ready opportunity for discord withi... [more]

© 2015 The Authors. Research that yields conflicting results rightly causes controversy. Where methodological weaknesses are apparent, there is ready opportunity for discord within the scientific community, which may undermine the entire study. We use the debate about the role of dingoes Canis dingo in conservation in Australia as a case study for a phenomenon that is relevant to all applied ecologists, where conflicting results have been published in high-quality journals and yet the problems with the methods used in these studies have led to significant controversy. To alleviate such controversies, scientists need to use robust methods to ensure that their results are repeatable and defendable. To date, this has not occurred in Australia's dingo debate due to the use of unvalidated indices that rely on unsupported assumptions. We highlight the problems that poor methods have caused in this debate. We also reiterate our recommendations for practitioners, statisticians and researchers to work together to develop long-term, multi-site experimental research programmes using robust methods to understand the impacts of dingoes on mesopredators. Synthesis and applications. Incorporating robust methods and appropriate experimental designs is needed to ensure that conservation actions are appropriately focused and are supported with robust results. Such actions will go a long way towards resolving the debate about the role of dingoes in conservation in Australia, and other, ecological debates.

DOI 10.1111/1365-2664.12408
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 29
2015 Moore EPB, Hayward M, Robert KA, 'High density, maternal condition, and stress are associated with male-biased sex allocation in a marsupial', Journal of Mammalogy, 96 1203-1213 (2015)

© 2015 American Society of Mammalogists. Many mammals have been reported to significantly bias their offspring sex ratios, but these deviations from equality have been difficult t... [more]

© 2015 American Society of Mammalogists. Many mammals have been reported to significantly bias their offspring sex ratios, but these deviations from equality have been difficult to understand and are often inconsistent even within the same species. Evolutionary theory predicts a number of scenarios where females should bias their investment to one sex over the other; when fitness returns are sex specific, selection favors the facultative adjustment of offspring sex ratios to the sex with the highest inclusive fitness return. Interpreting sex allocation in mammals within the framework of classic sex allocation theory is challenging given the complex life histories and social interactions of species, hence it is likely that there are multiple mechanisms and selective forces dependent upon maternal and environmental drivers. Here, we show the previously demonstrated condition-dependent sex allocation in bridled nailtail wallabies (Onychogalea fraenata), where females in better condition were more likely to have sons, was reversed under high population densities and elevated maternal stress. In this solitary species, an elevated glucocorticoid stress response under unnaturally high densities likely influences adaptive sex allocation to the dispersive sex, consistent with the local resource competition theory. Managing factors such as population density, maternal stress, and food resources may be used to adjust offspring sex ratios in this endangered species.

DOI 10.1093/jmammal/gyv129
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 5
2015 Silvey CJ, Hayward MW, Gibb H, 'Effects of reconstruction of a pre-European vertebrate assemblage on ground-dwelling arachnids in arid Australia', Oecologia, 178 497-509 (2015)

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate ass... [more]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate assemblages changed significantly following European colonisation, which resulted in the establishment of invasive vertebrates and the loss of native marsupials, many of which consume invertebrates. Conservation focusses on the removal of invasive carnivores and the reintroduction of regionally extinct species to fenced sites, resulting in what could be considered a reconstruction of pre-European vertebrate assemblages. In semi-arid Australian spinifex mallee ecosystems, we asked: (1) what is the effect of reconstructed pre-European vertebrate assemblages on native arachnid assemblages? and (2) what direct or indirect mechanisms (predation, disturbance and/or competition) could plausibly be responsible for these effects? We compared sites with reconstructed vertebrate assemblages with paired control sites. Arachnids were sampled using pitfall trapping and direct searching. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms were tested using scat analysis (predation) and by comparing burrow depth (disturbance) and scorpion mass (competition) between control and reconstructed sites. The dominant dune scorpion, Urodacus yaschenkoi, was less abundant and a wolf spider (Lycosa gibsoni species group) more abundant in reconstructed sites. Differences in spider assemblage composition were marginally non-significant. Scat analysis confirmed native vertebrate predation on scorpions and we found no evidence that competition or disturbance affected scorpions. We, thus, suggest that changes in spider assemblages may have resulted from ecological cascades via decreases in dune scorpions. The loss of omnivorous mammals and other changes associated with the invasion of carnivores may, therefore, have had broad-reaching consequences for native arachnid assemblages in Australian ecosystems.

DOI 10.1007/s00442-014-3189-y
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2015 Creel S, Becker M, Christianson D, Dröge E, Hammerschlag N, Hayward MW, et al., 'Questionable policy for large carnivore hunting : U.S. Wolf-hunting policies do not align with ecological theory or data', Science, 350 1473-1475 (2015)
DOI 10.1126/science.aac4768
Citations Scopus - 16
2015 Hayward MW, Ortmann S, Kowalczyk R, 'Risk perception by endangered European bison Bison bonasus is context (condition) dependent', Landscape Ecology, 30 2079-2093 (2015)

© 2015, The Author(s). Context: Patch use can illustrate the contributions that forage quality and foraging risk make in shaping foraging decisions made under the risk of being ki... [more]

© 2015, The Author(s). Context: Patch use can illustrate the contributions that forage quality and foraging risk make in shaping foraging decisions made under the risk of being killed. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether forage selection by European bison Bison bonasus was state-dependent in being shaped by risk (wolf predation or human poaching/culling avoidance) or nutrient quality at two time periods¿early winter (when resources are abundant) and at the end of winter (when resources are scarce)¿in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland). Methods: We used a giving-up density framework using the proportional consumption of hay provided by humans to measure the perceptions of risk in European bison. Results: European bison resource selection was primarily driven by minimising the distance they travel over open ground in early winter (i.e. avoiding humans), however by the end of winter, when resources are scarce, bison selected haystacks for their nutrient quality (low fibre, high Mg and energy). Conclusions: This study illustrates how resource selection varies according to the condition of animals (i.e. state-dependency affects the marginal value theorem). It also indicates conservation managers using hay quality may actively manage human¿bison conflicts in trouble spots and that bison are currently free from top-down limitation in Bialowieza as they do not perceive wolves as threatening enough to alter their foraging behaviour.

DOI 10.1007/s10980-015-0232-2
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
2015 Sales LP, Hayward MW, Zambaldi L, Passamani M, de Melo FR, Loyola R, 'Time-lags in primate occupancy: A study case using dynamic models', Natureza e Conservacao, 13 139-144 (2015)

© 2015 Associação Brasileira de Ciência Ecológica e Conservação. Species response to land-use changes are usually assessed by investigating factors affecting distribution, with a ... [more]

© 2015 Associação Brasileira de Ciência Ecológica e Conservação. Species response to land-use changes are usually assessed by investigating factors affecting distribution, with a single snapshot in time. However, several processes can lead to a same pattern. Focusing on observed, short-term patterns limits our ability to make inferences about ecological processes and responses to environmental change over time. In this study, we assessed changes in occupancy of two primate species in southeastern Brazil, following a major habitat loss due to implementation of a hydroelectric dam. Occupancy was assessed before dam construction and 11 years after, while explicitly accounting for imperfect detection. We assessed the effect of forest patch size and isolation on occupancy and rates of extinction and colonization, driven by landscape modification. Then we calculated occupancy under metapopulation equilibrium and expected time-lags resulting from non-equilibrium. We compared two primate species inhabiting forest patches, the black penciled marmoset Callithrix penicilatta and the black-fronted titi monkey Callicebus nigrifrons, with markedly different ecological characteristics. Those differences may explain why occupancy dynamics were driven by distinct elements. A fast response to habitat changes was observed only for marmoset, an opportunistic species. However, non-equilibrium states and the possibility of time-lag effects were observed for titi monkey, a species dependent on forest habitat. Our analyses support the need to establish long term monitoring and assess system vital rates over time. A single snapshot in time may lead to erroneous interpretations of a species response to habitat alteration.

DOI 10.1016/j.ncon.2015.10.003
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2015 Ripple WJ, Newsome TM, Wolf C, Dirzo R, Everatt KT, Galetti M, et al., 'Collapse of the world's largest herbivores.', Sci Adv, 1 e1400103 (2015)
DOI 10.1126/sciadv.1400103
Citations Scopus - 166
2014 Hayward MW, Marlow N, 'Will dingoes really conserve wildlife and can our methods tell?', Journal of Applied Ecology, 51 835-838 (2014)
DOI 10.1111/1365-2664.12250
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 29
2014 Hayward MW, Lyngdoh S, Habib B, 'Diet and prey preferences of dholes (Cuon alpinus): Dietary competition within Asia's apex predator guild', Journal of Zoology, 294 255-266 (2014)

© 2014 The Zoological Society of London. Group-hunting predators theoretically benefit from hunting together through increased prey returns; however, studies on lions suggest food... [more]

© 2014 The Zoological Society of London. Group-hunting predators theoretically benefit from hunting together through increased prey returns; however, studies on lions suggest food is not enough. The dhole is one such group hunter; however, its predatory role within Asia's large predator guild is less well known than other members. We tested whether dholes exhibit preferential predation, and determined the drivers of prey choice and whether pack size affected diet to ascertain the fundamental resources required for the species' conservation, given lack of a prey base is the primary threat to this species. We reviewed the literature and found 24 studies from 16 sites from throughout the species extant range that reported on 8816 records (scat+kills) of 19 species. Jacobs' index revealed that sambar Rusa unicolor, chital Axis axis and wild boar Sus scrofa contribute almost two-thirds of the food biomass of the dhole, with sambar being significantly preferred. Sambar are at the upper end of the accessible prey spectrum (30-235kg), and are marginally above the preferred weight range of 130-190kg. The accessible prey spectrum extensively overlaps with leopards and tigers in Asia and reflects the extensive dietary competition within Asia's large predator guild, as tigers also preferentially prey on sambar and leopards completely overlap in the accessible prey with dholes. Although prey preferences are not affected by pack size, larger packs ultimately take larger prey. This study documents for the first time the critical prey resources necessary for the conservation of dholes in Asia, and highlights the degree of competition potentially occurring across dhole distribution range.

DOI 10.1111/jzo.12171
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2014 Lyngdoh S, Shrotriya S, Goyal SP, Clements H, Hayward MW, Habib B, 'Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation', PLoS ONE, 9 (2014)

Abstract The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in som... [more]

Abstract The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep ( Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr ( Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation. © 2014 Lyngdoh et al.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0088349
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 27
2014 Lyngdoh S, Shrotriya S, Goyal SP, Clements H, Hayward MW, 'Correction: Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation (PLoS ONE (2014) 9, 2 (e88349) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088349)', PLoS ONE, 9 (2014)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0100071
Citations Scopus - 2
2014 Clements HS, Tambling CJ, Hayward MW, Kerley GIH, 'An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores', PLoS ONE, 9 (2014)

Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a sub... [more]

Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species. © 2014 Clements et al.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0101054
Citations Scopus - 26Web of Science - 28
2014 Durant S, Pettorelli N, Blackburn T, Baillie J, Boxshall G, Brooks S, et al., 'UK bill could prompt biodiversity loss', NATURE, 512 253-253 (2014)
DOI 10.1038/512253a
Citations Web of Science - 2
2013 Lunt ID, Byrne M, Hellmann JJ, Mitchell NJ, Garnett ST, Hayward MW, et al., 'Using assisted colonisation to conserve biodiversity and restore ecosystem function under climate change', Biological Conservation, 157 172-177 (2013)

Assisted colonisation has received considerable attention recently, and the risks and benefits of introducing taxa to sites beyond their historical range have been vigorously deba... [more]

Assisted colonisation has received considerable attention recently, and the risks and benefits of introducing taxa to sites beyond their historical range have been vigorously debated. The debate has primarily focused on using assisted colonization to enhance the persistence of taxa that would otherwise be stranded in unsuitable habitat as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change and habitat fragmentation. However, a complementary motivation for assisted colonisation could be to relocate taxa to restore declining ecosystem processes that support biodiversity in recipient sites. We compare the benefits and risks of species introductions motivated by either goal, which we respectively term 'push' versus 'pull' strategies for introductions to preserve single species or for restoration of ecological processes. We highlight that, by focusing on push and neglecting pull options, ecologists have greatly under-estimated potential benefits and risks that may result from assisted colonisation. Assisted colonisation may receive higher priority in climate change adaptation strategies if relocated taxa perform valuable ecological functions (pull) rather than have little collateral benefit (push). Potential roles include enhancing resistance to invasion by undesired species, supporting co-dependent species, performing keystone functions, providing temporally critical resources, replacing taxa of low ecological redundancy, and avoiding time lags in the provisioning of desired functions. © 2012.

DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.034
Citations Scopus - 58Web of Science - 58
2013 Winterbach HEK, Winterbach CW, Somers MJ, Hayward MW, 'Key factors and related principles in the conservation of large African carnivores', Mammal Review, 43 89-110 (2013)

Large carnivores are a critical component of Africa&apos;s biodiversity, and their conservation requires a clear understanding of interactions between large carnivores and people.... [more]

Large carnivores are a critical component of Africa's biodiversity, and their conservation requires a clear understanding of interactions between large carnivores and people. By reviewing existing literature, we identify 14 key factors that influence large African carnivore conservation, including ecological (biodiversity conservation, interspecific competition, ranging behaviour, ecological resilience, prey availability, livestock predation, disease and population viability), socio-economic (people's attitudes and behaviours and human costs and benefits of coexistence with large carnivores) and political (conservation policy development and implementation, conservation strategies and land use zoning) factors. We present these key factors in a model illustrating the levels of impact on large African carnivore conservation. We identify the key principle that underpins each factor and its implications for both large carnivore conservation and human-carnivore conflict. We provide a synthesis of the key factors and related principles in large African carnivore conservation and highlight the importance of the site-specific and species-specific context in conservation policy and implementation, formulated through an interdisciplinary and adaptive approach. © 2013 Mammal Society/Blackwell Publishing.

DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00209.x
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 20
2013 Harris S, Arnall S, Byrne M, Coates D, Hayward M, Martin T, et al., 'Whose backyard? Some precautions in choosing recipient sites for assisted colonisation of Australian plants and animals', Ecological Management and Restoration, 14 106-111 (2013)

In cases where assisted colonisation is the appropriate conservation tool, the selection of recipient sites is a major challenge. Here, we propose a framework for site selection t... [more]

In cases where assisted colonisation is the appropriate conservation tool, the selection of recipient sites is a major challenge. Here, we propose a framework for site selection that can be applied to the Australian biota, where planning for assisted colonisation is in its infancy. Characteristics that will be important drivers in the decision-making process include the size of a recipient site, the potential to augment corridors and respond to niche gaps, the maximisation of climatic buffering, bioregional similarity, tenure security, and the minimisation of opportunities for hybridisation and invasiveness. Sites we suggest be precluded from assisted colonisation include sites of high species endemism, IUCN category 1 reference reserves and fully-functioning threatened ecological communities. © 2013 Ecological Society of Australia.

DOI 10.1111/emr.12041
Citations Scopus - 5
2013 Jooste E, Hayward MW, Pitman RT, Swanepoel LH, 'Effect of prey mass and selection on predator carrying capacity estimates', European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59 487-494 (2013)

The ability to determine the prey-specific biomass intake of large predators is fundamental to their conservation. In the absence of actual prey data, researchers generally use a ... [more]

The ability to determine the prey-specific biomass intake of large predators is fundamental to their conservation. In the absence of actual prey data, researchers generally use a "unit mass" method (estimated as 3/4 adult female mass) to calculate the biomass intake of predators. However, differences in prey preference and range across geographic regions are likely to have an influence on biomass calculations. Here we investigate the influence of estimated prey mass on leopard biomass calculations, and subsequent carrying capacity estimates, in an understudied mountain population. Potential leopard feeding sites were identified using global positioning system (GPS) location clusters obtained from GPS collars. We investigated 200 potential leopard feeding sites, of which 96 were actual feeding sites. Jaw bones, horns, hooves, and other indicative bones were used to determine gender and age of prey items, which were subsequently used to calculate mass of each prey item based on previously published values. There were significant differences in the biomass values calculated using the traditional unit mass method and the calculated prey masses obtained from leopard feeding sites. However, there were no considerable differences in the carrying capacity estimates using the preferred prey species model and leopard density estimates calculated using a non-biased spatial approach, which suggests that estimating carnivore carrying capacity based on 3/4 adult female masses is a reliable method also for the mountain population in this study. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s10344-013-0696-9
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
2012 Tambling CJ, Druce DJ, Hayward MW, Castley JG, Adendorff J, Kerley GIH, 'Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo', Ecology, 93 1297-1304 (2012)

The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintr... [more]

The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America.

DOI 10.1890/11-1770.1
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
2012 J¿drzejewski W, Niedzialkowska M, Hayward MW, Goszczynski J, J¿drzejewska B, Borowik T, et al., 'Prey choice and diet of wolves related to ungulate communities and wolf subpopulations in Poland', Journal of Mammalogy, 93 1480-1492 (2012)

Wolves (Canis lupus) belong to 3 genetically distinct subpopulations despite the absence of topographic barriers limiting dispersal. Based on data on wolf diets from 13 localities... [more]

Wolves (Canis lupus) belong to 3 genetically distinct subpopulations despite the absence of topographic barriers limiting dispersal. Based on data on wolf diets from 13 localities and wolf kill remains from a national-scale census, we investigated regional variation in wolf diet in relation to species structure of ungulate communities and spatial genetic differentiation of wolf populations. We also tested if various sources of data on wolf prey (scats and kills) and availability of ungulates (game inventory and harvest) yielded comparable results on prey selection. The main prey of wolves was red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The proportion of main prey in wolf diets increased with prey availability in the community, yet wolves selected red deer, preyed on roe deer proportionally to their relative abundance, and avoided wild boar. Large prey was recorded among kills more often than small prey. Despite similar species structure of ungulate communities throughout Poland, there were significant regional differences in wolf diet, which corresponded to the genetic structure of populations. In northeastern Poland, wolves frequently hunted red deer, roe deer, wild boar, beavers (Castor fiber), and moose (Alces alces). In eastern Poland, roe deer dominated kills. In southeastern Poland, wolves were strongly specialized on red deer. We propose that prey and habitat specialization of wolves, rather than geographic distance or topographic barriers to dispersal, are responsible for the observed ecological divergence of wolf populations, as reflected in their diet composition. © 2012 American Society of Mammalogists.

DOI 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-132.1
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 23
2012 Hayward MW, Hayward MD, 'Waterhole use by African fauna', African Journal of Wildlife Research, 42 117-127 (2012)

Water is one of the fundamental requirements of life but there has been little study on the use of water by free-ranging wildlifecommunities.We investigated the timing of waterhol... [more]

Water is one of the fundamental requirements of life but there has been little study on the use of water by free-ranging wildlifecommunities.We investigated the timing of waterhole use by African fauna using webcams to determine whether this mode of data collection was viable, to determine whether animals drank randomly throughout the day, whether there were differences between guilds in waterhole use and finallywe created a relative rank of water dependency by comparing waterhole use with the relative abundance of species at Kruger and Pilanesberg National Parks.We used webcams sited at waterholes in South Africa's Kruger and Pilanesberg, Madikwe Game Reserve and Tembe Elephant Park, and Botswana's Mashatu Game Reserve to remotely monitor waterhole use at random times throughout the day. Over the 16-month study period, 1546 observations were made of 30 species at waterholes, with elephants (Loxodonta africana) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) being the most frequently observed species. There was a high degree of diurnal overlap in waterhole use amongst the herbivores, but they partitioned the time of peak waterhole use. Large predators were largely nocturnal while their prey was invariably diurnal. The index of relative water use showed that hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) were highly water-dependent, whereas lion (Panthera leo), spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) appear relatively water independent. African fauna may partition waterhole use to avoid competition and predation. The use of webcams is a novel technique to allow remote monitoring of aspects of the ecology of African wildlife at minimal cost.

DOI 10.3957/056.042.0209
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 15
2012 Hayward MW, Somers MJ, Kerley GIH, Perrin MR, Bester MN, Dalerum F, et al., 'Animal ethics and ecotourism', African Journal of Wildlife Research, 42 (2012)
DOI 10.3957/056.042.0207
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2012 Hayward MW, Jedrzejewski W, Jedrzewska B, 'Prey preferences of the tiger P anthera tigris', Journal of Zoology, 286 221-231 (2012)

Tigers Panthera tigris continue to decline despite the best efforts of the worldwide scientific and conservation communities. Prey depletion has been linked to this decline, but a... [more]

Tigers Panthera tigris continue to decline despite the best efforts of the worldwide scientific and conservation communities. Prey depletion has been linked to this decline, but a clear definition of what constitutes preferred prey and preferred prey weight range does not exist. This is critical information if we are to assess tiger reintroduction potential, monitor unforeseen poaching of predators and prey, and successfully conserve the species. Here we reviewed the available literature on tiger diet and prey availability and calculated Jacobs's electivity index scores from 3187 kills or scats of 32 prey species. We found that wild boar and sambar deer are significantly preferred by tigers, with red deer and barasingha likely to be significantly preferred also with a larger sample size. Prey body mass was the only variable that related to tiger prey preference with species weighing between 60 and 250kg preferred by tigers yielding a ratio of predator to preferred prey of 1:1, which is similar to other solitary felids. This information can be used to predict tiger diet, carrying capacity and movement patterns, as it has been for Africa's large predator guild, and has important implications for tiger conservation throughout its distribution. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Zoology © 2012 The Zoological Society of London.

DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00871.x
Citations Scopus - 50Web of Science - 44
2012 Hayward MW, 'Time to agree on a conservation benchmark for Australia', Pacific Conservation Biology, 18 69-76 (2012)

WELL defined goals are critical to successfully achieve outcomes and monitor the success of achieving them, yet conservation agencies rarely explicitly state the goals of their ma... [more]

WELL defined goals are critical to successfully achieve outcomes and monitor the success of achieving them, yet conservation agencies rarely explicitly state the goals of their management activities with appropriate metrics. Here I use case studies on the conflicting conservation management focus of the Sydney Harbour National Park at North Head, the legislative impediments of bridled nailtail wallaby conservation management, the planning for broadscale habitat connectivity programmes such as Habitat 141, fire management for the conservation of the quokka and the broader Kimberley landscape, and mesopredator suppression using dingoes to highlight the problems with inappropriate conservation benchmarks. I compare these issues with activities from South Africa, India, New Zealand and Poland to illustrate the benchmarks other nations have. I conclude that Australia urgently needs an explicit conservation benchmark upon which to aim our conservation efforts and excuses of inadequate knowledge can no longer be accepted for maintaining the status quo.

DOI 10.1071/PC120069
Citations Scopus - 5
2012 Martin TG, Nally S, Burbidge AA, Arnall S, Garnett ST, Hayward MW, et al., 'Acting fast helps avoid extinction', Conservation Letters, 5 274-280 (2012)

Failure to act quickly on evidence of rapid population decline has led to the first mammal extinction in Australia in the last 50 years, the Christmas Island Pipistrelle (Pipistre... [more]

Failure to act quickly on evidence of rapid population decline has led to the first mammal extinction in Australia in the last 50 years, the Christmas Island Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi). The fate of another iconic species, the migratory Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster), monitored intensively for over 20 years, hangs in the balance. To inform future conservation management and decision making, we investigate the decision process that has led to the plight of both species. Our analysis suggests three globally relevant recommendations for minimizing species extinction worldwide: (1) informed, empowered, and responsive governance and leadership is essential; (2) processes that ensure institutional accountability must be in place, and; (3) decisions must be made whilst there is an opportunity to act. The bottom line is that, unless responsive and accountable institutional processes are in place, decisions will be delayed and extinction will occur. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00239.x
Citations Scopus - 116Web of Science - 115
2012 Hayward MW, Keith DA, 'The Scotia Science Symposium 2011', PROCEEDINGS OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 134 A3-A4 (2012)
2012 Eldridge DJ, Huang N, Bentley J, Hayward MW, 'Soil Disturbance by Invertebrates in a Semi-arid Eucalypt Woodland: Effects of Grazing Exclusion, Faunal Reintroductions, Landscape and Patch Characteristics', PROCEEDINGS OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 134 A11-A18 (2012)
Citations Web of Science - 3
2012 Hayward MW, L'Hotellier F, O'Connor T, Ward-Fear G, Cathcart J, Cathcart T, et al., 'Reintroduction of Bridled Nailtail Wallabies Beyond Fences at Scotia Sanctuary - Phase 1', PROCEEDINGS OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 134 A27-A37 (2012)
Citations Web of Science - 5
2012 Hodges LA, Connolly SM, Winter J, Schmidt T, Stevens HNE, Hayward M, Wilson CG, 'Modulation of gastric pH by a buffered soluble effervescent formulation: A possible means of improving gastric tolerability of alendronate', International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 432 57-62 (2012)

Gastrointestinal side-effects of alendronate (ALN) are believed to be associated with oesophageal lodging of tablets and perhaps reflux of gastric contents with alendronate under ... [more]

Gastrointestinal side-effects of alendronate (ALN) are believed to be associated with oesophageal lodging of tablets and perhaps reflux of gastric contents with alendronate under strongly acidic pH conditions. This leads to unfavourable posture restrictions when dosing. This clinical study evaluated gastric emptying and gastric pH after administration of Fosamax® tablets and a novel effervescent ALN formulation with a high buffering capacity. This novel formulation, EX101, was developed to potentially improve gastric tolerance. Gastric pH was monitored by nasogastric probes. Gastric emptying was determined simultaneously by scintigraphic imaging of99mTc-DTPA labelled formulations. Both formulations tested rapidly cleared the oesophagus and there were no statistically significant or physiologically relevant differences in gastric emptying times. Mean pH at time to 50% gastric emptying of the radiolabel was significantly higher in EX101-treated subjects compared to those treated with Fosamax®. At time to 90% gastric emptying of the radiolabel, mean pH values were comparable. Mucosal exposure to ALN at pH less than 3 is irritating to gastro-oesophageal tissue. Ingestion of Fosamax® resulted in ALN being present in the stomach at a pH below 3 within minutes. EX101 minimised the possibility of exposing the oesophagus (in case of reflux) to acidified ALN. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.04.073
Citations Scopus - 6
2011 Hayward MW, Bellchambers K, Herman K, Bentley J, Legge S, 'Spatial behaviour of yellow-footed rock-wallabies, Petrogale xanthopus, changes in response to active conservation management', Australian Journal of Zoology, 59 1-8 (2011)

Competition for food is predicted to influence faunal movement patterns as animals have to range further to satisfy their nutrient requirements. Research between 1979 and 1984 fou... [more]

Competition for food is predicted to influence faunal movement patterns as animals have to range further to satisfy their nutrient requirements. Research between 1979 and 1984 found that yellow-footed rock-wallabies, Petrogale xanthopus, in Middle Gorge, Buckaringa Sanctuary, had home ranges (134169ha in winter) that were much larger than predicted, which was attributed to competing livestock and cropping. We studied the ranging behaviour of this population using GPS telemetry after the cessation of farming and following several years of fox, Vulpes vulpes, and goat, Capra hircus, control to determine whether the reduction in competition and predation pressure has affected movement patterns of this endangered species. Mean winter range size of the four GPS-collared rock-wallabies was 4.3ha (kernel or 5.5-ha MCP), which is a much smaller area than the rock-wallabies used before farming ceased and fox and goat control was implemented. The rock-wallabies primarily used the mid-to lower slopes of the gorge country and preferred redgum creeks and gorge habitats. The rock-wallabies exhibited a crepuscular activity pattern. We hypothesise that the difference in movements has arisen because the rock-wallabies are no longer competing for resources with introduced herbivores, and are able to meet their forage requirements from a smaller area. © 2011 CSIRO.

DOI 10.1071/ZO11007
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2011 Lindsey P, Tambling CJ, Brummer R, Davies-Mostert H, Hayward M, Marnewick K, Parker D, 'Minimum prey and area requirements of the vulnerable cheetah acinonyx jubatus: Implications for reintroduction and management of the species in South Africa', ORYX, 45 587-599 (2011)

In South Africa there are efforts to manage reintroduced subpopulations of the Vulnerable cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in small reserves (10-1,000 km 2) as a managed metapopulation. W... [more]

In South Africa there are efforts to manage reintroduced subpopulations of the Vulnerable cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in small reserves (10-1,000 km 2) as a managed metapopulation. We estimated areas required to support cheetahs given varying prey densities, prey profiles and presence/absence of competing predators. A recent population and habitat viability assessment indicated that 20 subpopulations of 10 cheetahs or 10 subpopulations of 15 cheetahs are required to retain 90% of the heterozygosity of free-ranging cheetahs and to overcome stochastic events in the absence or presence of lions Panthera leo, respectively. We estimate that 203 ± SE 42 km2 (range 48-466 km2) is required to support 10 cheetahs in the absence of lions, whereas 703 ± SE 311 km2 (166-2,806 km2) is required to support 15 cheetahs given equal numbers of lions, and 2,424 ± SE 890 km2 (727-3,739 km 2) given equal numbers of leopards Panthera pardus, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, wild dogs Lycaon pictus and lions. Existing subpopulations of cheetahs generally occur at densities higher than our mean predicted densities but usually within the range of predicted densities. The large area requirements of cheetahs have implications for the development of the managed metapopulation. Sourcing reintroduction sites of the sizes required to support recommended subpopulation sizes will be difficult. Consequently, innovative measures to increase the carrying capacity of reserves for cheetahs and/or to enlarge reserves will be required. Managers may be forced to stock cheetahs close to or beyond the carrying capacity of their reserves. Consequently, careful management of reintroduced subpopulations will be required to prevent declines in prey populations. © 2011 Fauna & Flora International.

DOI 10.1017/S003060531000150X
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 21
2011 Hayward MW, 'Using the IUCN Red List to determine effective conservation strategies', Biodiversity and Conservation, 20 2563-2573 (2011)

Threatened species lists continue to grow while the world&apos;s governments fail to meet biodiversity conservation goals. Clearly, we are failing in our attempts to conserve biod... [more]

Threatened species lists continue to grow while the world's governments fail to meet biodiversity conservation goals. Clearly, we are failing in our attempts to conserve biodiversity. Yet 37 mammal species genuinely improved in status in the 2009 IUCN Red List, suggesting there are ways to successfully conserve biodiversity. Here, I compare the threats and conservation actions (proposed and implemented) by the expert assessors of the Red List of improving species to a further 144 declining mammal species to determine whether specific threats were more easily remedied, and whether certain conservation actions were more successful than others. Declining species were faced with different threatening processes to mammals improving in status suggesting some threats were easier to treat (e. g. hunting) than others (climate change, invasive species). Declining species had different proposed and implemented conservation actions than improving species suggesting some actions are more successful than others. Threatened species were invariably found in conservation areas, suggesting protected area creation alone is not an overly successful strategy for species at risk of extinction. Conservation actions were more frequently implemented for improving than declining species suggesting active conservation is effective in improving the status of biodiversity. There were significant differences between proposed and implemented conservation actions suggesting some actions are easier to implement than others. Reintroduction, captive breeding and hunting restriction were more effective in conserving mammals than site creation and invasive species control. These findings highlight effective conservation actions for mammals worldwide and allow the rationalisation of threat mitigation measures to ensure economically justifiable biodiversity conservation strategies. © 2011 The Author(s).

DOI 10.1007/s10531-011-0091-3
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 27
2011 Burbidge AA, Byrne M, Coates D, Garnett ST, Harris S, Hayward MW, et al., 'Is Australia ready for Assisted Colonization? Policy changes required to facilitate translocations under climate change', Pacific Conservation Biology, 17 259-269 (2011)

Assisted Colonization (AC) has been proposed as one method of aiding species to adapt to the impacts of climate change. AC is a form of translocation and translocation protocols f... [more]

Assisted Colonization (AC) has been proposed as one method of aiding species to adapt to the impacts of climate change. AC is a form of translocation and translocation protocols for threatened species, mostly for reintroduction, are well established in Australia. We evaluate the information available from implementation of translocations to understand how existing policies and guidelines should be varied to plan, review and regulate AC. While the risks associated with AC are potentially greater than those of reintroductions, AC is likely to be the only available method, other than germplasm storage and establishment of captive populations, of conserving many taxa under future climate change. AC may also be necessary to maintain ecosystem services, particularly where keystone species are affected. Current policies and procedures for the preparation of Translocation Proposals will require modification and expansion to deal with Assisted Colonization, particularly in relation to risk management, genetic management, success criteria, moving associated species and community consultation. Further development of risk assessment processes, particularly for invasiveness, and guidelines for genetic management to maintain evolutionary potential are particularly important in the context of changing climate. Success criteria will need to respond to population establishment in the context of new and evolving ecosystems, and to reflect requirements for any co-establishment of interdependent species. Translocation Proposals should always be subjected to independent peer review before being considered by regulators. We conclude that consistent approaches by regulators and multilateral agreements between jurisdictions are required to minimize duplication, to ensure the risk of AC is adequately assessed and to ensure the potential benefits of AC are realized.

DOI 10.1071/PC110259
Citations Scopus - 25
2011 Hayward MW, 'Scarcity in the prey community yields anti-predator benefits', Acta Oecologica, 37 314-320 (2011)

The majority of individuals in a community belong to a small number of abundant species. Understanding why some species are rare and others are common has been a long-held goal fo... [more]

The majority of individuals in a community belong to a small number of abundant species. Understanding why some species are rare and others are common has been a long-held goal for ecologists. Africa's large carnivore guild preferentially preys on a small number of species within a limited weight range. Within this weight range however, some species that are expected to be significantly preferred as prey are not. I tested whether these species avoid preferential predation through their low densities. Records of over 40,000 kills from up to 48 different communities were used to test if non-preferred species within the expected prey weight ranges of each large predator avoid preferential predation and why. Species expected to be prey of Africa's large predators based on their body mass, that are preferred are preyed upon significantly more frequently at low densities than non-preferred prey. This results in a negative relationship between relative abundance and preference for preferred prey, but a positive relationship for non-preferred prey. The non-preferred prey species that are within the expected prey weight ranges of Africa's large predators are significantly less abundant within the prey community than significantly preferred prey. Rarity in African ungulates may convey an anti-predator benefit in that it was suboptimal for predators to evolve morphological or behavioral strategies to optimally forage on them or in that prey species can avoid predators by existing in habitats with low carrying capacity. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

DOI 10.1016/j.actao.2011.03.003
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2011 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, Tambling CJ, Kerley GIH, 'Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?', PLoS ONE, 6 (2011)

Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decis... [more]

Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success. © 2011 Hayward et al.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0023607
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
2010 Hayward MW, Zawadzka B, 'Increasing elephantLoxodonta africana density is a more important driver of change in vegetation condition than rainfall', Acta Theriologica, 55 289-298 (2010)
DOI 10.1007/BF03193233
2010 Hayward MW, Zawadzka B, 'Increasing elephant Loxodonta africana density is a more important driver of change in vegetation condition than rainfall', Acta Theriologica, 55 289-299 (2010)

The impact of African elephants Loxodonta africana Blumenbuch, 1797 on biodiversity is hotly debated in wildlife management circles with scientists polarised in their views. This ... [more]

The impact of African elephants Loxodonta africana Blumenbuch, 1797 on biodiversity is hotly debated in wildlife management circles with scientists polarised in their views. This polarisation is largely due to the individual experiences of researchers. We aimed to determine whether elephants or rainfall patterns drove changes in vegetation condition (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) by avoiding a site-specific approach and looking at the issue at a broader scale. We used published estimates of elephant population density from 30 sites and recorded the change in density from 1995-1999, from 1999-2002 and from 2002-2006. We also recorded the deviation of annual rainfall from the long-term mean for those periods. We modelled these variables against the change in NDVI between periods using mixed effects models. We found that elephants were more influential in driving change in vegetation condition than rainfall, and this also occurred at one of our individual test sites where long-term data were available (Kruger). Elephants and rainfall combined to drive change in vegetation condition at our other long-term test site (Amboseli). Management activities (fencing, water provision) may cause the differences between the two long-term study sites. Change in productivity driven by rainfall has ramifications for biodiversity, suggesting that elephant derived changes in vegetation productivity (NDVI) also impacts on biodiversity. Thus, this study supports previous findings from individual sites that elephants impact vegetation, however there is also a suggestion that these impacts may vary according to management actions.

DOI 10.4098/j.at.0001-7051.076.2009
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
2010 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, 'Potential amplification of territorial advertisement markings by black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)', Behaviour, 147 979-992 (2010)

Optimality theory suggests that territorial scent marks are under selective pressure through the information they provide about competitive quality/reproductive status and so shou... [more]

Optimality theory suggests that territorial scent marks are under selective pressure through the information they provide about competitive quality/reproductive status and so should be situated to maximize their detection to alert conspecifics that they are intruding upon the territory of a resident. Factors that increase mark detectability are consequently beneficial to both resident and intruder by allowing tactical withdrawal by intruders and, thus, reducing the costs of conflict. We tested whether black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) preferentially deposited territory marks on substrates (rocks or faeces) in two separate sites in South Africa's Addo Elephant National Park. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) dung piles were preferentially defecated upon by jackals in both sites. Where black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was present at relatively high density, rhino middens were also preferentially marked by jackals; however, jackals resorted to defecating on elevated surfaces, such as rocks, where rhinos were scarce. We hypothesize that the odour of elephant and rhino dung may increase the detectability of jackal markings while providing an additional olfactory signal component, while rocks and elephant dung provide visual amplification. Manipulative experimentation will be necessary to confirm our multimodal amplification hypothesis. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

DOI 10.1163/000579510X499434
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 11
2010 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, Kerley GIH, 'The impact of upgrading roads on the conservation of the threatened flightless dung beetle, Circellum bacchus (F.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)', Coleopterists Bulletin, 64 75-80 (2010)

The flightless dung beetle Circellum bacchus (Fabricius, 1781) is a unique, ectothermic dung beetle that is of conservation concern due to a massive decline in its distribution. V... [more]

The flightless dung beetle Circellum bacchus (Fabricius, 1781) is a unique, ectothermic dung beetle that is of conservation concern due to a massive decline in its distribution. Very little is known about its conservation ecology and the upgrade of roads in one of its last strongholds, South Africa's Addo Elephant National Park, led to concerns that road kill was threatening the population because drivers could not see the beetles due to their similar colour as the upgraded roads. We tested whether the upgraded, black, tar roads led to more road kills than the original sandy-red, gravel roads using counts of live and dead beetles along transects through similar habitats of the park. There was no significant difference between the number of live and dead dung beetles on the tar or gravel roads illustrating that the infrastructure improvements themselves are not threatening the persistence of the species. The high levels of vehicle-derived mortality along roads, however, suggest that road kills may be a threatening process with potentially 100,000 C. bacchus killed on roads annually (although 45,000 is a more conservative estimate). Further research is needed to ascertain whether this off-take is sustainable and to formulate mitigation measures.

DOI 10.1649/0010-065X-64.1.75
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2010 Bach LA, Pedersen RBF, Hayward M, Stagegaard J, Loeschcke V, Pertoldi C, 'Assessing re-introductions of the African Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Limpopo Valley Conservancy, South Africa, using the stochastic simulation program VORTEX', Journal for Nature Conservation, 18 237-246 (2010)

The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is one of Africa&apos;s most endangered species and therefore classified as endangered by IUCN. Earlier distributions included most of Africa ... [more]

The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is one of Africa's most endangered species and therefore classified as endangered by IUCN. Earlier distributions included most of Africa but currently the African wild dog only has populations larger than 300 individuals in three countries (Botswana, Tanzania and South Africa). In 1998, a plan was launched in South Africa to manage sub-populations of the African wild dog in several small, geographically isolated, conservation areas. This management program involved the reintroduction of wild dogs into suitable conservation areas and periodic translocations among them. We used the stochastic population simulation model VORTEX to evaluate the Limpopo Valley Conservancy in the north of South Africa, as a possible reintroduction site for African wild dogs. The simulations showed that the size of the initial population released only had a small effect on the population dynamics. However, when individuals were supplemented and harvested over a longer period the probability of persistence increased. Number of females breeding, male mortality, and carrying capacity were key factors in the population dynamics, but according to VORTEX the severity of natural catastrophes had the greatest influence on the extinction risk and inbreeding. We suggest that the reintroduction program may be successful, if areas are properly secured, the dogs are held in a boma before release, wild animals or at least a mix of wild and captive animals are used for the release and the animals are vaccinated against rabies. It is, however, essential to continue monitoring followed by modelling efforts to re-evaluate the success of the reintroduction program. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

DOI 10.1016/j.jnc.2009.09.001
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 13
2009 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, 'The impact of tourists on lion Panthera leo behaviour, stress and energetics', Acta Theriologica, 54 219-224 (2009)

African conservation areas are internationally sought out as destinations to observe charismatic megafauna. Recently, research has identified that wildlife can become stressed at ... [more]

African conservation areas are internationally sought out as destinations to observe charismatic megafauna. Recently, research has identified that wildlife can become stressed at the presence of human observers and tourists. We investigated the impact of tourist presence and absence on the reintroduced lion Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758 population in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, by measuring the frequency of disturbance-indicating (yawning, sitting, standing, moving away) and relaxation-indicating (rolling, grooming) behaviours when tourists were present and absent. Lions were significantly more likely to exhibit disturbance behaviours when tourists were present, and significantly more likely to perform relaxation behaviours when tourists were absent. We also measured the number of breaths per minute, as an indicator of stress, and found that this also increased in the presence of tourists. Lions incur stress and an energetic cost (albeit minor) from being observed by tourists. Some lion populations may face this chronically, which may increase their susceptibility to disease by reducing their immunity. Enforcing rules banning off-road driving in pursuit of wildlife and ensuring adequate refuge away from tourist infrastructure are important methods to minimise the stressful impacts of tourists on wildlife.

DOI 10.4098/j.at.0001-7051.074.2008
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 10
2009 Hayward MW, Kerley GIH, 'Fencing for conservation: Restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes?', Biological Conservation, 142 1-13 (2009)

Fencing for conservation is an acknowledgement that we are failing to successfully coexist with and, ultimately, conserve biodiversity. Fences arose during the Neolithic revolutio... [more]

Fencing for conservation is an acknowledgement that we are failing to successfully coexist with and, ultimately, conserve biodiversity. Fences arose during the Neolithic revolution to demarcate resource-rich areas (food sources) and exclude threats (intruders). Fencing for conservation can be viewed as fulfilling a similar function. The aims of this paper were to identify when fencing can and is used to conserve biodiversity; highlight the costs and benefits of fencing for conservation; and make recommendations to ensure appropriate use of fencing for conservation in the future. The IUCN identifies ten major threatening processes and the impacts of eight of these can be mitigated via the use of fencing, however avoiding human-animal conflict and reducing the impact of introduced predators are the two most common uses. Fences implemented to achieve a conservation benefit are not necessarily physical barriers, but can also include 'metaphorical' fences of sound, smoke and smell, or even actual islands. Fences provide defined units for managers and separate biodiversity from threatening processes including human persecution, invasive species and disease. Conversely, they are costly to build and maintain; they have ecological costs through blocking migration routes, restriction of biodiversity range use which may result in overabundance, inbreeding and isolation; restriction of evolutionary potential; management; amenity and ethical costs. Despite these problems, fencing for conservation is likely to become increasingly utilized as biodiversity becomes increasingly threatened and methods of ameliorating threats lag behind. In the long-term, fences may ultimately prove to be as much a threat to biodiversity as the threats they are meant to exclude, and a new research agenda should arise to ensure that conservation fences do not remain a permanent part of the landscape. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.022
Citations Scopus - 130Web of Science - 119
2009 Hayward MW, 'Bushmeat hunting in dwesa and cwebe nature reserves, eastern cape, South Africa', African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39 70-84 (2009)

Reports of bushmeat hunting as a threatening process are almost entirely restricted to tropical biomes and developing countries. Mammalian fauna within South Africa&apos;s fenced ... [more]

Reports of bushmeat hunting as a threatening process are almost entirely restricted to tropical biomes and developing countries. Mammalian fauna within South Africa's fenced reserves could be considered immune to such threats; however, there has been no study testing this. Transects were conducted throughout the fenced, temperate coastal indigenous forested reserves of Dwesa and Cwebe to detect sign (observations, footprints, faeces) of medium and large mammals, and evidence of poaching (snares, human footprints, bullet cartridges). I used generalized linear models of relative abundance data to identify the most likely causes of population decline and presence/absence data to identify the most likely causes of local extinction. Two of the largest mammals (white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum and eland, Tragelaphus oryx, were the only species that had distance to the reserve boundary (and hunting humans) as the most important factors affecting their distribution; however, three other ungulates avoided humans (avoided reserve boundary or roads). Highly unusual habitat use (forest restriction) was observed for several normally grassland inhabitants, illustrating the perceived risks associated with open habitats. This study illustrates that bushmeat hunting is not a threat restricted to the Third World tropics and that conservation areas require monitoring, as well as fencing, to ensure poaching does not threaten wildlife.

DOI 10.3957/056.039.0108
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 17
2009 Hayward MW, Slotow R, 'Temporal partitioning of activity in large african carnivores: Tests of multiple hypotheses', African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39 109-125 (2009)

Africa&apos;s large predator guild (lion, Panthera leo; leopard, Panthera pardus; spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and African wild dog, Lycaon pictus) ... [more]

Africa's large predator guild (lion, Panthera leo; leopard, Panthera pardus; spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and African wild dog, Lycaon pictus) occurs sympatrically with high dietary overlap. Temporal partitioning could facilitate coexistence, but there has been no study testing this or the factors that may Influence the evolution of predator activity patterns. The activity patterns of Africa's large predators were reviewed, using published sources, and the degree of activity overlap was assessed. Six hypotheses were made based on three hypotheses of factors driving the evolution of predator activity patterns: Increased foraging success, and scramble and Interference competition. All predators exhibited a degree of crepuscular behaviour, supporting hypotheses relating to increased hunting success. Nocturnal predators exhibit decreased activity at the darkest times of night due to visual limitations. There was no support for the hypothesis that predators would be active at the same time as their main prey species. Although all members of the guild suffer intraguild predation, only subordinate members exhibited scramble competition avoidance by minimizing activity at the same times as their intraguild predators. Subordinate predators (wild dogs and cheetahs), frequently reported as suffering from kleptoparasitism, minimize simultaneous activity with major kleptoparasites (lions and spotted hyaenas). These latter top predators have high dietary overlap; however, they do not avoid Interference competition by minimizing activity overlap. Thus, optimal activity patterns evolved to satisfy a diverse range of factors that differ amongst species. Competition avoidance is the primary cause of the temporal partitioning in activity between subordinate and top predators. Africa's carnivores have also evolved morphological adaptations to their activity patterns reflecting the length of time they have occurred in sympatry.

DOI 10.3957/056.039.0207
Citations Scopus - 94Web of Science - 88
2009 Hayward MW, 'The need to rationalize and prioritize threatening processes used to determine threat status in the IUCN red list', Conservation Biology, 23 1568-1576 (2009)

Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodivers... [more]

Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodiversity. Although the system used to determine risk of extinction is rigorously and objectively applied, the list of threatening processes affecting a species is far more subjectively determined and has not had adequate review. I reviewed the threats listed in the IUCN Red List for randomly selected groups within the three most threatened orders of mammals: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates. These groups are taxonomically related and often ecologically similar, so I expected they would suffer relatively similar threats. Hominoid primates and all other terrestrial fauna faced similar threats, except for bovine artiodactyls and large, predatory carnivores, which faced significantly different threats. Although the status of bovines and hominoids and the number of threats affecting them were correlated, this was not the case for large carnivores. Most notable, however, was the great variation in the threats affecting individual members of each group. For example, the endangered European bison (Bison bonasus) has no threatening processes listed for it, and the lion (Panthera leo) is the only large predator listed as threatened with extinction by civil war. Some threatening processes appear spurious for the conservation of the species, whereas other seemingly important factors are not recorded as threats. The subjective nature of listing threatening processes, via expert opinion, results in substantial biases that may be allayed by independent peer review, use of technical manuals, consensus among multiple assessors, incorporation of probability modeling via decision-tree analysis, and adequate coordination among evaluators. The primary focus should be on species-level threats rather than population-level threats because the IUCN Red List is a global assessment and smaller-scale threats are more appropriate for national status assessments. Until conservationists agree on the threats affecting species and their relative importance, conservation action and success will be hampered by scattering scarce resources too widely and often by implementing conflicting strategies. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

DOI 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01260.x
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 25
2009 Hayward MW, 'Conservation management for the past, present and future', Biodiversity and Conservation, 18 765-775 (2009)

Conservation managers are in the unenviable position of trying to conserve and restore biodiversity, without having a definitive timeframe to restore it to. Currently, managers ar... [more]

Conservation managers are in the unenviable position of trying to conserve and restore biodiversity, without having a definitive timeframe to restore it to. Currently, managers around the world focus on various timeframes from recent to historical, but without a definitive target, countless conservation problems arise. Managers need to determine what constitutes a native species, which species to reintroduce, whether selective breeding should be implemented to resurrect supposedly extinct organisms, targets on population levels, whether assisted migration should be employed when climate change alters the environmental envelope of a species surrounded by human-altered landscapes, and how to manage for stochasticity and evolutionary processes. Without having definitive goals to target, these issues are difficult/impossible to address. It is only by discussing these important issues that some consensus will be attained that allow us to stop responding to crises and start predicting the future of biodiversity and plan and respond accordingly. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

DOI 10.1007/s10531-008-9436-y
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 22
2009 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, Druce DJ, Kerley GIH, 'Do fences constrain predator movements on an evolutionary scale? Home range, food intake and movement patterns of large predators reintroduced to Addo elephant national park, South Africa', Biodiversity and Conservation, 18 887-904 (2009)

Fencing conservation areas is ubiquitous in South Africa, however, the impact of these on predator ecology has not been tested. We used relationships between prey abundance and pr... [more]

Fencing conservation areas is ubiquitous in South Africa, however, the impact of these on predator ecology has not been tested. We used relationships between prey abundance and predator space use to create equations to predict the home range size of lions Panthera leo and leopards Panthera pardus. We then successfully tested these predictions using published data (Phinda, Makalali) and home range estimates from radio collared individuals reintroduced to Addo Elephant National Park. Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta ranges also seem food dependent. Lion home ranges in Addo (114 ± 5 km2) required 180 fixes to be accurately estimated, spotted hyaena ranges (91 ± 10 km2) required 200 fixes, and the solitary leopard had 295 fixes for a range of 38 km2. There were no sexual differences in home range sizes of lions or hyaenas. The daily food intake rate of lions, measured during continuous follows, was 9.8 kg per female equivalent unit. Dominant male lions (14.3 km for 8.3 kg) traveled furthest but obtained the least amount of food per day compared to subordinate males (8.9 km for 16.0 kg) and females (5.8 km for 17.9 kg). Subordinate males traveled the fastest and during the day, to avoid competition and harassment from the dominant males. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the use of fences for conservation has not affected the natural behaviour of the predators as they still conform to predictions derived from unfenced reserves; that is, prey abundance is the key factor in determining space use of large predators. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

DOI 10.1007/s10531-008-9452-y
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 47
2008 Hayward MW, Munn AJ, 'Lions, leopards and muskoxen: A (very) light-hearted look at the ups, downs, ins and outs of a postdoctoral career through the eyes of two zoologists', Australian Zoologist, 34 531-537 (2008)

This paper arose out of a seminar series for the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales&apos; 2006 student forum and workshop, &quot;From the Horse&apos;s Mouth: Career Insig... [more]

This paper arose out of a seminar series for the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales' 2006 student forum and workshop, "From the Horse's Mouth: Career Insights from Working Zoologists".The paper is aimed mainly at horiours and postgraduate zoologists, and describes our experiences as postdoctoral researchers, including what postdoctoral research is, how we got to be there (a PhD is essential), whether it was what we hoped it would be (a resounding yes), a brief summary of some postdoctoral highlights (MWH researched lions in Africa and AM muskoxen in Alaska), and of course some lowlights (low income, short-term positions and a lack of employment security). We follow up with a few recommendations on how to attain the lofty heights of a postdoctoral research scientist.

2008 Hayward MW, Kerley GIH, 'Prey preferences and dietary overlap amongst Africa's large predators', African Journal of Wildlife Research, 38 93-108 (2008)

Africa supports Earth&apos;s richest assemblage of large predators, which coexist despite a high degree of dietary overlap. This study used reviews of the prey preferences of Afri... [more]

Africa supports Earth's richest assemblage of large predators, which coexist despite a high degree of dietary overlap. This study used reviews of the prey preferences of African wild dog Lycaon pictus, cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, leopard Panthera pardus, lion P. leo, and spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta to investigate the degree of dietary overlap and dietary niche breadth amongst the guild. Wild dogs and cheetahs exhibited the greatest dietary overlap and smallest dietary niche breadth, while lions exhibited the least dietary overlap and, with leopards, had the broadest dietary niche breadth. Increased extinction risk within the guild was related to lower dietary niche breadth. The behavioural and morphological specializations of the two most threatened predators (wild dogs and cheetahs) limit the prey available to them, and increases the potential for dietary competition. Conversely, the large body mass and group hunting strategy of lions and the predatory flexibility of leopards and spotted hyaenas minimizes the effects of dietary overlap, assuring a more secure status. This study Intimates reasons why cheetahs and African wild dogs are naturally less common than lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in unmodified landscapes. The methods used can be applied to all adequately studied faunal guilds and could highlight previously undetected competitors.

DOI 10.3957/0379-4369-38.2.93
Citations Scopus - 92Web of Science - 88
2008 Hayward MW, 'Home range overlap of the quokka Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) suggets a polygynous mating system', Conservation Science Western Australia, 7 57-64 (2008)

The home range overlap of the quokka was investigated with the aim of elucidating the mating system of the species on mainland Australia. Fifty adult quokkas from five sites were ... [more]

The home range overlap of the quokka was investigated with the aim of elucidating the mating system of the species on mainland Australia. Fifty adult quokkas from five sites were radio collared for long enough to obtain stable home range estimates and the percentage that individual home ranges overlapped those of other conspecifics was calculated. Two sites were found to be anomalous due to a low population density and the threat of introduced predators, and were excluded from several comparisons and consequently there were no significant differences between sites. There was no significant difference in the degree of overlap of overall ranges, although male home ranges overlapped other males less than they overlapped females and less than females overlapped either sex. Female core home ranges overlapped other females significantly more than males. Because of the lack of significant results conclusions are tentative, however the fact that female home ranges overlap other ranges more than males do, combined with the male, weight-based dominance hierarchy, suggests the quokka operates a polygynous mating system, however variation in mating strategies may occur due to variations in prey density. Genetic analysis is recommended to confirm this hypothesis. The clumping behaviour of quokkas at the excluded Victor Road site is probably a predator-avoidance strategy.

Citations Scopus - 2
2008 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Fox BJ, 'Post-fire vegetation succession in Taxandria linearifolia swamps in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia', Conservation Science Western Australia, 7 35-42 (2008)

The structural and floristic changes occurring with time since fire in Taxandria linearifolia swamps were investigated using chronosequence analysis. Sixty-six swamps in the north... [more]

The structural and floristic changes occurring with time since fire in Taxandria linearifolia swamps were investigated using chronosequence analysis. Sixty-six swamps in the northern jarrah forest of south-western Australia were investigated and the effect of fire on them was quantified. Habitat units were mapped from aerial photographs that were imported into a geographic information system. Field surveys were then conducted at each site to groundtruth mapped habitat units. Habitat units were differentiated using factor analysis. The vegetation within the swamps remained relatively open for the first five years following a fire while being largely dominated by three or four species. Thereafter, vegetation density increased to a peak between 20 and 24 years (>90%) and species richness from 10 to 14 (mean = 5.7 ± 0.4). Long unburnt Taxandria swamp shrubland habitat returned to intermediate vegetation density levels, although becoming increasingly woody, as relatively few species dominated. Such a response to fire probably reflects adaptations to the frequent, low intensity fire regimes utilised by Aborigines prior to European colonisation.

Citations Scopus - 2
2007 Hayward MW, O'Brien J, Kerley GIH, 'Carrying capacity of large African predators: Predictions and tests', Biological Conservation, 139 219-229 (2007)

Successful conservation initiatives often lead to rapid increases in large carnivore densities to the extent that overpopulation occurs. Yet conservation managers have no way of k... [more]

Successful conservation initiatives often lead to rapid increases in large carnivore densities to the extent that overpopulation occurs. Yet conservation managers have no way of knowing the carrying capacity of their reserves. Here we derived relationships between the preferred prey (species and weight range) of Africa's large predator guild and their population densities to predict their carrying capacity in ten South African conservation areas. Conservation managers intervened at several of these sites because of evidence of predator overpopulation and these provided independent tests of our predictions. Highly significant linear relationships were found between the biomass of the preferred prey species of lion, leopard, spotted hyaena and African wild dog, and the biomass of prey in the preferred weight range of cheetah. These relationships are more robust than previous work for lion, cheetah and leopard, and novel for spotted hyaena and African wild dog. These relationships predicted that several predators exceeded carrying capacity at four sites, two where managers expressed concerns about overpopulation due to a decline in wildlife abundance and two where carnivores were actively removed. The ability to predict the carrying capacity of large predators is fundamental to their conservation, particularly in small enclosed reserves. Every predator that preys on large, readily surveyed wildlife can have its carrying capacity predicted in this manner based on the abundance of its preferred prey. This will be beneficial for reintroduction attempts, threatened species management, overpopulation estimation, detecting poaching and in investigating intra-guild competition. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.018
Citations Scopus - 142Web of Science - 128
2007 Hayward MW, O'Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Kerley GIH, 'Testing predictions of the prey of lion derived from modeled prey preferences', Journal of Wildlife Management, 71 1567-1575 (2007)

Apex predators are often threatened with extinction, and reintroduction is one method conservation managers are using to secure their persistence. Yet the ability to predict what ... [more]

Apex predators are often threatened with extinction, and reintroduction is one method conservation managers are using to secure their persistence. Yet the ability to predict what these predators will eat upon reintroduction is lacking. Here we test predictions of the diet of the lion (Panthera leo), derived from dietary electivity index and optimality theory, using independent data collected from reintroduced and resident populations. We solved the Jacobs' index preference equation for each prey species of the lion using values calculated by Hayward and Kerley (2005) and prey abundance data from 4 reintroduction sites and one resident lion population over several years. We then compared these estimates with actual kill data gathered from each site and time period, using the log-likelihood ratio and linear regression. The model precisely predicted the observed number of kills in 9 of the 13 tests. There was a highly significant linear relationship between the number of lion kills predicted to occur at a site and the number observed for all but one site (x¯ r2= 0.612; ß = 1.03). Predicting predator diet will allow conservation managers to stop responding and start planning in advance for reintroductions and environmental variation. Furthermore, ensuring that sufficient food resources are available is likely to increase the success of reintroduction projects. In addition, managers responsible for threatened prey species will be able to predict the vulnerability of these species to predation in the event of predator reintroductions or changes in abundance. These methods are applicable to virtually all large predators that have been sufficiently studied.

DOI 10.2193/2006-264
Citations Scopus - 45Web of Science - 41
2007 Hayward MW, Adendorff J, O'Brien J, Sholto-Douglas A, Bissett C, Moolman LC, et al., 'The reintroduction of large carnivores to the Eastern Cape, South Africa: An assessment', ORYX, 41 205-214 (2007)

Recently, conservation estate in South Africa&apos;s Eastern Cape Province has increased 10-fold resulting in large predators being increasingly reintroduced to restore ecological... [more]

Recently, conservation estate in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province has increased 10-fold resulting in large predators being increasingly reintroduced to restore ecological integrity and maximize tourism. We describe the reintroductions of large carnivores (>10 kg) that have occurred in the Eastern Cape and use various criteria to assess their success. Lion Panthera leo reintroduction has been highly successful with a population of 56 currently extant in the region and problems of overpopulation arising. The African wild dog Lycaon pictus population has increased to 24 from a founder population of 11. Preliminary results for spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta also indicate success. Wild populations of leopards Panthera pardus exist on several reserves and have been supplemented by translocated individuals, although deaths of known individuals have occurred and no estimate of reproduction is available. Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus reintroduction has also been less successful with 36 individuals reintroduced and 23 cubs being born but only 41 individuals surviving in 2005. Criteria for assessing the success of reintroductions of species that naturally occur in low densities, such as top predators, generally have limited value. Carrying capacity for large predators is unknown and continued monitoring and intensive management will be necessary in enclosed, and possibly all, conservation areas in the Eastern Cape to ensure conservation success. © 2007 FFI.

DOI 10.1017/S0030605307001767
Citations Scopus - 105Web of Science - 89
2007 Hayward MW, Adendorff J, O'Brien J, Sholto-Douglas A, Bissett C, Moolman LC, et al., 'Erratum: The reintroduction of large carnivores to the Eastern Cape, South Africa: An assessment (ORYX 41:2 (205-214))', ORYX, 41 413 (2007)
DOI 10.1017/S0030605307001962
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2007 Hayward MW, Adendorff J, Moolman L, Hayward GJ, Kerley GIH, 'The successful reintroduction of leopard Panthera pardus to the Addo Elephant National Park', African Journal of Ecology, 45 103-104 (2007)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00673.x
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 27
2007 Hayward MW, Hayward GJ, 'Activity patterns of reintroduced lion Panthera leo and spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta in the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa', African Journal of Ecology, 45 135-141 (2007)

Africa&apos;s large predator guild competes for a limited food resource base. To minimize the degree of competition, we hypothesized that the two largest members of this guild and... [more]

Africa's large predator guild competes for a limited food resource base. To minimize the degree of competition, we hypothesized that the two largest members of this guild and its fiercest competitors, the lion and the spotted hyaena, would partition their activity patterns to avoid interacting. We used 96-h continuous follows of focal animal(s) to determine when the six radio-collared lions and eight radio-collared spotted hyaenas, reintroduced into Addo Elephant National Park in 2003/2004, were active using a binomial measure of activity which was defined as movements >100 m during each hourly period. Contrary to our predictions, lions and hyaenas did not partition their activity times, probably because of their current low population densities. Both species exhibited a crepuscular activity pattern although hyaenas were far less active during daylight. A sub-adult lioness minimized competitive interactions by becoming diurnal. This is likely to be a common strategy for lions that have been expelled from their natal pride to become nomadic, as it allows them to minimize kleptoparasitic and agonistic interactions from competitively dominant conspecifics and competitors. The increase in testosterone that occurs in males upon reaching sexual maturity, darkens their pelage and causes them to be more directly impacted by the heat, and thereby affords females an opportunity to escape from males during hot temperatures. Similarly, the longer pelage of young hyaenas restricts their activity to the cooler night-time. © 2007 The Authors.

DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00686.x
Citations Scopus - 41Web of Science - 37
2007 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Dillon MJ, Banks PB, 'Predicting the occurrence of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae:Marsupialia), in Western Australia's northern jarrah forest', Wildlife Research, 34 194-199 (2007)

The quokka, Setonix brachyurus, is a medium-sized, macropodid marsupial that is endemic to south-western Australia. It has declined markedly in its distribution and abundance sinc... [more]

The quokka, Setonix brachyurus, is a medium-sized, macropodid marsupial that is endemic to south-western Australia. It has declined markedly in its distribution and abundance since the early 1930s and is listed as vulnerable under IUCN criteria. The presence or absence of quokka populations at 66 sites in the northern jarrah forest of Australia was investigated using generalised linear models (GLM). We hypothesised that fox control and the presence of a mosaic of post-fire seral stages within Agonis linearifolia swamp vegetation were important in predicting the presence of quokkas. The number of poison meat baits delivered per hectare, the average number of years since the swamps burnt and the number of post-fire age classes within the swamps (mosaic value) were used as explanatory variables. Two models had substantial support (¿AICc< 2), with the best approximating model including the variables 'baiting' and 'swamp age', and the second-best model including the additional variable 'swamp mosaic value'. The two best models had Akaike weights (weight of evidence as being the best model of the data) of 0.465 and 0.308 respectively. We used an information-theoretic approach and multimodel inference to determine the best approximating model of baiting, swamp age and swamp mosaic, and Akaike weights to assess model fit and to rank variable importance. Baiting had a model average parameter estimate of 98, swamp age 79 and a mosaic of swamp age classes 42, implying that baiting was more than twice as important as the number of swamp ages classes at a site in predicting the occurrence of quokkas. Evidence from our analysis therefore supports previous studies that concluded that continued fox control and the maintenance of a mosaic of early seral stage (<10 years since fire) and long unburnt habitat (>19 years since fire) are essential for its conservation. © CSIRO 2007.

DOI 10.1071/WR06161
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 16
2007 De Tores PJ, Hayward MW, Dillon MJ, Brazell RI, 'Review of the distribution, causes for the decline and recommendations for management of the quokka, setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae: Marsupialia), an endemic macropolid marsupial from South-West Western Australia', Conservation Science Western Australia, 6 13-73 (2007)

The former and current distribution of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, was mapped from published and all available unpublished records. At the time of European settlement the quok... [more]

The former and current distribution of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, was mapped from published and all available unpublished records. At the time of European settlement the quokka was widespread and abundant and its distribution encompassed an area of approximately 41 200 km2of south-west Western Australia inclusive of two offshore islands, Bald Island and Rottnest Island. Historical reports indicated an extensive population decline occurred in the 1930s. The decline continued, with a previously undocumented decline apparent in the period from 1980 to 1992. However, this decline may be an artefact of the time scales used for mapping and may well equate with a previously reported decline for a suite of south-west mammals in the 1970s. By 1992 the quokka's distribution had been reduced to an area of approximately 17 800 km2. An increased awareness of the presence of the quokka on the mainland has resulted in numerous rcportings of quokka presence since 1992, has confirmed the existence of several populations at the northern extent of the quokka's known geographic range and indicated the current, 2005, distribution to be similar to that in 1992. However, survey and population estimates at six of these mainland locations from the northern jarrah forest indicated low abundance. There have been no population estimates elsewhere on the mainland. Two populations have been reported from the Swan Coastal Plain, but neither has been confirmed extant. Predation by the introduced fox, Vulpes vulpes, is implicated as a major cause of the quokka's initial decline, while ongoing predation, habitat destruction and modification through altered fire regimes have contributed to the continued decline. Specific conservation management actions are recommended, namely: (i) Implementing an active adaptive management program in the northern jarrah forest to determine quokka population response to habitat manipulation through the use of fire, fox baiting and pig control; (ii) Surveying the Stirling Range and Green Range populations with emphasis placed on determining population size and population genetic structure; (iii) Surveying the reported occurrences from the Swan Coastal Plain, with emphasis on unambiguously determining presence. If confirmed, priority should be directed to assessing population size and determining the management requirements to ensure persistence of the population; (iv) Surveying southern forest and south coast populations to assess quokka population size, the extent of movement between subpopulations and assessment of the range of habitat types used by quokkas. The latter should be combined with spatial analyses of known extant populations and suitable and potentially suitable habitat; (v) Determining the role of fire in establishing and maintaining preferred habitat of southern forest and south coast populations; and (vi) Establishing a program to assess the potential effects from management operations.

Citations Scopus - 13
2006 Hayward MW, O'Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Kerley GIH, 'Prey preferences of the African wild dog Lycaon pictus (Canidae: Carnivora): Ecological requirements for conservation', Journal of Mammalogy, 87 1122-1131 (2006)

Valuable conservation research on the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has identified that its current endangerment is primarily due to human persecution, although habitat alterat... [more]

Valuable conservation research on the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has identified that its current endangerment is primarily due to human persecution, although habitat alteration, interference competition with other large predators, and disease also are factors. Numerous studies have thus determined what should be avoided to sustain an African wild dog population, yet in this study we identify what is needed to conserve a wild dog population by using Jacobs' index to determine its preferred prey species. Twenty-four assessments of wild dog prey preference were calculated from 18 studies involving 4,874 kills of 45 species from throughout its distributional range. Wild dogs prefer prey within a bimodal body mass range of 16-32 kg and 120-140 kg, which is abundant and less likely to cause injury when hunted. This bimodal range follows that of optimal wild dog pack sizes based on energetic costs and benefits. Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii) are killed by wild dogs wherever they coexist and are significantly preferred. Impala (Aepyceros melampus) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) also are significantly preferred. Our results allow wildlife managers to more accurately assess the survival chances of reintroduced or small wild dog populations by determining if sufficient preferred prey are available. These techniques are applicable to all adequately studied large predators. © 2006 American Society of Mammalogists.

DOI 10.1644/05-MAMM-A-304R2.1
Citations Scopus - 74Web of Science - 71
2006 Hayward MW, Henschel P, O'Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Balme G, Kerley GIH, 'Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus)', Journal of Zoology, 270 298-313 (2006)

Leopards Panthera pardus have a catholic diet and are generally thought to prey on medium-sized ungulates; however, knowledge on which species are actually preferred and avoided i... [more]

Leopards Panthera pardus have a catholic diet and are generally thought to prey on medium-sized ungulates; however, knowledge on which species are actually preferred and avoided is lacking, along with an understanding of why such preferences arise. Twenty-nine published and four unpublished studies of leopard diet that had relative prey abundance estimates associated with them were analysed from 13 countries in 41 different spatial locations or temporal periods throughout the distribution of the leopard. A Jacobs' index value was calculated for each prey species in each study and the mean of these was then tested against a mean of 0 using t or sign tests for preference or avoidance. Leopards preferentially prey upon species within a weight range of 10-40 kg. Regression plots suggest that the most preferred mass of leopard prey is 25 kg, whereas the mean body mass of significantly preferred prey is 23 kg. Leopards prefer prey within this body mass range, which occur in small herds, in dense habitat and afford the hunter minimal risk of injury during capture. Consequently, impala, bushbuck and common duiker are significantly preferred, with chital likely to also be preferred with a larger sample size from Asian sites. Species outside the preferred weight range are generally avoided, as are species that are restricted to open vegetation or that have sufficient anti-predator strategies. The ratio of mean leopard body mass with that of their preferred prey is less than 1 and may be a reflection of their solitary hunting strategy. This model will allow us to predict the diet of leopards in areas where dietary information is lacking, also providing information to assist wildlife managers and conservation bodies on predator carrying capacity and predator-prey interactions. © 2006 The Authors.

DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00139.x
Citations Scopus - 244Web of Science - 227
2006 Hayward MW, Hofmeyr M, O'Brien J, Kerley GIH, 'Prey preferences of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (Felidae: Carnivora): morphological limitations or the need to capture rapidly consumable prey before kleptoparasites arrive?', Journal of Zoology, 270 615-627 (2006)

As a charismatic carnivore that is vulnerable to extinction, many studies have been conducted on predation by the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. Cheetah are generally considered to cap... [more]

As a charismatic carnivore that is vulnerable to extinction, many studies have been conducted on predation by the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. Cheetah are generally considered to capture medium-sized prey; however, which species are actually preferred and why has yet to be addressed. We used data from 21 published and two unpublished studies from six countries throughout the distribution of the cheetah to determine which prey species were preferred and which were avoided using Jacobs' index. The mean Jacobs' index value for each prey species was used as the dependent variable in multiple regression, with prey abundance and prey body mass as predictive variables. Cheetah prefer to kill and actually kill the most available prey present at a site within a body mass range of 23-56 kg with a peak (mode) at 36 kg. Blesbok, impala, Thomson's and Grant's gazelles, and springbok are significantly preferred, whereas prey outside this range are generally avoided. The morphological adaptations of the cheetah appear to have evolved to capture medium-sized prey that can be subdued with minimal risk of injury. Coincidentally, these species can be consumed rapidly before kleptoparasites arrive. These results are discussed through the premise of optimality theory whereby decisions made by the predator maximize the net energetic benefits of foraging. Information is also presented that allows conservation managers to determine which prey species should be in adequate numbers at cheetah reintroduction sites to support a cheetah population. Conversely, these results will illustrate which potential prey species of local conservation concern should be monitored for impact from cheetahs as several species are likely to be preyed upon more frequently than others. © 2006 The Zoological Society of London.

DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00184.x
Citations Scopus - 104Web of Science - 94
2006 Hayward MW, 'Prey preferences of the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) and degree of dietary overlap with the lion (Panthera leo)', Journal of Zoology, 270 606-614 (2006)

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta were once considered mere scavengers; however, detailed research revealed that they are very efficient predators. Information on what spotted hyaen... [more]

Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta were once considered mere scavengers; however, detailed research revealed that they are very efficient predators. Information on what spotted hyaenas actually prefer to prey on and what they avoid is lacking, as well as the factors that influence prey selection. Data from 14 published and one unpublished study from six countries throughout the distribution of the spotted hyaena were used to determine which prey species were preferred and which were avoided using Jacobs' index. The mean of these values for each species was used as the dependent variable in multiple regression, with prey abundance and prey body mass as predictive variables. In stark contrast to the rest of Africa's large predator guild, spotted hyaenas do not preferentially prey on any species. Also surprisingly, only buffalo, giraffe and plains zebra are significantly avoided. Spotted hyaena most prefer prey within a body mass range of 56-182 kg, with a mode of 102 kg. The dietary niche breadth of the spotted hyaena is similar to that of the lion Panthera leo, and the two species have a 58.6% actual prey species overlap and a 68.8% preferred prey species overlap. These results highlight the flexible and unselective nature of spotted hyaena predation and are probably a reason for the species' success throughout its range, despite a large degree of dietary overlap with lions. © 2006 The Zoological Society of London.

DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00183.x
Citations Scopus - 118Web of Science - 112
2005 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Banks PB, 'Habitat use of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae: Marsupialia), in the northern jarrah forest of Australia', Journal of Mammalogy, 86 683-688 (2005)

Habitat use of quokka (Setonix brachyurus) in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia was determined by monitoring movements of 58 quokkas over 2 years in 5 local populati... [more]

Habitat use of quokka (Setonix brachyurus) in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia was determined by monitoring movements of 58 quokkas over 2 years in 5 local populations. Quokkas were largely restricted to Agonis swamps that occur patchily throughout the jarrah forest. Within swamps, they are habitat specialists, preferring early seral stages that have been burned within the previous 10 years. This preference derives from a combination of dietary requirements and refuge from predation. As swamps mature they become suboptimal, forcing quokkas to colonize new patches. Since the collapse of the metapopulation following the introduction of the European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the 1930s, quokkas have been forced to remain at a site because predation inhibits dispersal. © 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

DOI 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)086[0683:HUOTQS]2.0.CO;2
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 21
2005 Hayward MW, White RM, Mabandla KM, Bukeye P, 'Mammalian fauna of indigenous forest in the Transkei region of South Africa: an overdue survey', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE RESEARCH, 35 117-124 (2005)
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 7
2005 Hayward MW, Kerley GIH, 'Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)', Journal of Zoology, 267 309-322 (2005)

Lions Panthera leo are generally thought to prey on medium to large ungulates. Knowledge of which species are actually preferred and which are avoided is lacking, however, as is a... [more]

Lions Panthera leo are generally thought to prey on medium to large ungulates. Knowledge of which species are actually preferred and which are avoided is lacking, however, as is an understanding of why such preference or avoidance may arise. An analysis of 32 studies over 48 different spatial locations or temporal periods throughout the distribution of the lion shows that it preferentially preys upon species within a weight range of 190-550 kg. The most preferred weight of lion prey is 350 kg. The mean mass of significantly preferred prey species is 290 kg and of all preferred species is 201 kg. Gemsbok, buffalo, wildebeest, giraffe and zebra are significantly preferred. Species outside the preferred weight range are generally avoided. Species within the preferred weight range that are not significantly preferred (such as roan, sable and eland) generally have features that reduce predation either morphologically (e.g. sable horns), ecologically (e.g. roan and sable occurring at low density), or behaviourally (e.g. the large herd size and increased vigilance of eland). Warthog are below the preferred weight range yet are taken in accordance with their availability and this is probably due to their sympatry with lion, their relatively slow evasion speed and their lower level of vigilance. Plots of prey preference against prey body mass follows a bell curve with a right skew that, we argue, is caused by collective hunting by lions of larger-bodied prey. Our methods can be used on all large predators and are likely to be useful in assessing competition in sympatric communities of predators, cooperative hunting and predicting predator diets. This will allow us to move beyond descriptive dietary studies to improve our predictive understanding of the mechanisms underlying predator-prey interactions. © 2005 The Zoological Society of London.

DOI 10.1017/S0952836905007508
Citations Scopus - 192Web of Science - 184
2005 Hayward MW, 'Diet of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) (Macropodidae:Marsupialia) in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia', Wildlife Research, 32 15-22 (2005)

The diet of the quokka in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia was investigated by microscopic examination of faecal pellets of known individuals and comparison with a ... [more]

The diet of the quokka in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia was investigated by microscopic examination of faecal pellets of known individuals and comparison with a reference collection of plant epidermal tissue. Twenty-nine plant species were identified from the 97 faecal pellet groups collected from 53 individuals, confirming that the quokka is a browsing herbivore that favours leaves and stems. Of those 29 species, 11 made up over 90% of the diet and five species accounted for 71%. Thomasia species were the most common in the diet and the most preferred; Dampiera hederacea was also preferred and these species, along with Bossiaea aquifolia, Mirbelia dilatata and Agonis linearifolia, were the five most important food items. The seasonal variation in the diet of the quokka, and that between sites, can be attributed to increases in nutrient content associated with fresh growth associated with season or vegetation seral stage after fire. The reduced dietary diversity at sites with younger seral stages (<10 years after fire) and the importance of certain species that are more common in these younger ages explains the cause of the species' habitat preference for sites with a mosaic of young and old (>25 years after fire) age classes. The relatively short availability of sufficient, high-quality, succulent plants in the seral succession of swamps occupied by quokkas is likely to drive a regular pattern of local extinction and recolonisation. © CSIRO 2005.

DOI 10.1071/WR03051
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2005 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Augee ML, Banks PB, 'Mortality and survivorship of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) (Macropodidae : Marsupialia) in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia', Wildlife Research, 32 715-722 (2005)

The potential for the quokka (Setonix brachyurus (Quoy &amp; Gaimard, 1830)), a threatened macropodid marsupial, to increase in abundance following the initiation of predator cont... [more]

The potential for the quokka (Setonix brachyurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830)), a threatened macropodid marsupial, to increase in abundance following the initiation of predator control was investigated by determining the cause of deaths of radio-collared individuals. Predation was identified as a major cause of death followed by road kills. The non-parametric Kaplan-Meier method modified for staggered entry of individuals was used to estimate survivorship. Although males and females were affected differently by each cause of mortality, their overall survivorship did not differ significantly. Individuals alive at the beginning of the 25-month study had a 61% chance of surviving to the end. This represented an 81% chance of surviving for 1 year. There was no significant difference in survivorship between adults and juveniles. Current rates of adult and juvenile survivorship should allow population recovery, although none has been evident. Pouch young mortality is hypothesised to have inhibited the anticipated quokka population increase since the initiation of predator control. The observed expulsion of pouch young by females when threatened may be a primary predator avoidance strategy. © CSIRO 2005.

DOI 10.1071/WR04111
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2005 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Dillon MJ, Fox BJ, Banks PB, 'Using faecal pellet counts along transects to estimate quokka (Setonix brachyurus) population density', Wildlife Research, 32 503-507 (2005)

A study was conducted to determine the validity of using transect counts of faecal pellet groups to estimate population densities of a threatened, macropodid marsupial - the quokk... [more]

A study was conducted to determine the validity of using transect counts of faecal pellet groups to estimate population densities of a threatened, macropodid marsupial - the quokka (Setonix brachyurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1830)). Mark-recapture estimates of population density were regressed against counts of faecal pellet groups at six sites with and three sites without fox control within the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia. Significant linear relationships were found between population density and pellet counts for all sites (r2= 0.56, P < 0.02) and when all unbaited sites were excluded (r2= 0.98, P < 0.01). We suggest that this method could be used for broad-scale monitoring of this threatened species. © CSIRO 2005.

DOI 10.1071/WR03046
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 4
2004 Hayward MW, de Tores PJ, Augee ML, Fox BJ, Banks PB, 'Home range and movements of the quokka Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae : Marsupialia), and its impact on the viability of the metapopulation on the Australian mainland', JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 263 219-228 (2004)
DOI 10.1017/S0952836904005060
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 24
2004 de Tores PJ, Hayward MW, Rosier SM, 'The western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis, and the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, case studies: Western Shield review - February 2003', Conservation Science Western Australia, 5 235-257 (2004)

Case studies are presented for the western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis, and the quokka, Setonix brachyurus. The ringtail case study summarises information from a r... [more]

Case studies are presented for the western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis, and the quokka, Setonix brachyurus. The ringtail case study summarises information from a recent review of the species' distribution and conservation status, collates information on ringtail populations within the areas covered by the Department of Conservation and Land Management's (CALM) fauna recovery program, Western Shield, and draws extensively on the recent findings from translocation programs. Critical to the case study is the finding that (i) monitoring of the response to fox control programs is poor, or non-existent, at all known sites, with the exception of research specific translocation sites. This may reflect the difficulty in censusing and monitoring this species; and (ii) translocation success has not been demonstrated at any translocation release site and the primary translocation site, Leschenault Peninsula Conservation Park, has suffered a significant population decline. Hypotheses are proposed to explain this decline and, in the absence of demonstrated translocation success, critical components for monitoring western ringtail possum translocations are recommended. Monitoring protocols are also recommended for other extant populations within the species' geographic range. The quokka case study also summarises information from a recent review of the species' distribution and conservation status and collates information on quokka populations within the areas covered by Western Shield. The case study also draws extensively on the findings from recent research from the northern jarrah forest. As for the ringtail case study, the quokka case study found monitoring is non-existent or poor, or ad hoc at best, at all known sites, with the exception of research specific sites within the northern jarrah forest. Consistent with recently published research findings, intervention management is recommended at these northern jarrah forest sites. An active adaptive management framework, using fire as a tool to create the preferred structural habitat mosaic, is recommended. Both case studies highlight the need to review data collection, collation, analyses and reporting processes to ensure data are collected in a manner to allow objective analyses and scrutiny. Under this proposed scenario, any conservation gains can be quantified and documented. Conversely, in circumstances where desired outcomes have not been met, the failure to meet set goals can be identified and mechanisms can be implemented to improve conservation management.

Citations Scopus - 15
2003 Hayward MW, De Tores PJ, Dillon MJ, Fox BJ, 'Local population structure of a naturally occurring metapopulation of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus Macropodidae: Marsupialia)', Biological Conservation, 110 343-355 (2003)

We investigated the population structure of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) on the mainland of Western Australia using mark-recapture techniques. Seven previously known local popu... [more]

We investigated the population structure of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) on the mainland of Western Australia using mark-recapture techniques. Seven previously known local populations and one unconfirmed site supporting the preferred, patchy and discrete, swampy habitat of the quokka were trapped. The quokka is now considered as locally extinct at three sites. The five remaining sites had extremely low numbers, ranging from 1 to 36 individuals. Population density at these sites ranged from 0.07 to 4.3 individuals per hectare. There has been no response to the on-going, 6 year fox control programme occurring in the region despite the quokkas' high fecundity and this is due to low recruitment levels. The remaining quokka populations in the northern jarrah forest appear to be the terminal remnants of a collapsing metapopulation. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00240-9
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 26
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 7
Total funding $1,128,473

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20184 grants / $579,269

Regional understanding of the context and cumulative impact of the Dendrobium Mine (South32 Limited) on the population of Litoria litttlejohni (Littlejohn's tree frog)$537,000

Funding body: South32

Funding body South32
Project Team Professor Michael Mahony, Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2020
GNo G1701381
Type Of Funding C3111 - Aust For profit
Category 3111
UON Y

Determining adaptive capacity of mountain top frogs to climate change predictions$30,000

Funding body: NSW Office of Environment and Heritage

Funding body NSW Office of Environment and Heritage
Project Team Professor Michael Mahony, Doctor Alex Callen, Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2019
GNo G1800796
Type Of Funding C2210 - Aust StateTerritoryLocal - Own Purpose
Category 2210
UON Y

Using bird communities to monitor Lake Macquarie foreshore restoration works$7,769

Funding body: Lake Macquarie City Council

Funding body Lake Macquarie City Council
Project Team Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
Scheme Lake Macquarie Environmental Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2019
GNo G1800254
Type Of Funding C2210 - Aust StateTerritoryLocal - Own Purpose
Category 2210
UON Y

Fungi: friend or foe? An investigation into species of the genus Chalciporus in Australia$4,500

Funding body: Lake Macquarie City Council

Funding body Lake Macquarie City Council
Project Team Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
Scheme Lake Macquarie Environmental Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2018
GNo G1800939
Type Of Funding C2210 - Aust StateTerritoryLocal - Own Purpose
Category 2210
UON Y

20172 grants / $185,024

Aesculapian snakes$92,512

Funding body: ERC European Research Council

Funding body ERC European Research Council
Project Team

Wolfgang Wuster and John Mulley (Bangor University) and Matt Hayward (University of Newcastle)

Scheme KESS
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2020
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON N

Neonicotinoid pesticide impacts on biodiversity$92,512

This studentship addresses one of the world’s biggest contemporary environmental challenges, namely how to ensure the continued ecosystem service delivery of neonicotinoid impacted soil ecosystems. This interdisciplinary study will involve training in field monitoring and laboratory methods, and will focus on three of the potentially most affected species interacting with neonicotinoid contaminated soils, namely soil invertebrates, solitary bees and hedgehogs.

The cultivation of arable crops, such as oil seed rape, have relied increasingly on the seed coating of a range of neonicotinoid compounds to control insect pests. Their use is thought to have significantly impacted pollinators across the world resulting in their banned use throughout Europe and the UK. The long-term impacts of neonicotinoid applications on a range of biota remains unknown but is likely to include cascading impacts throughout the trophic levels (i.e. a human-induced trophic cascade). Year 1 of the PhD will focus on formal research training in environmental and soil science research.

The student will also undertake an ecosystem service mapping assessment of UK arable systems as part of the study’s experimental design. In Year 2, the student will undertake field-scale trials to evaluate the impact of neonicotinoids under different soil conditions.

Year 3 will quantify the trophic impact and relationship to differing historical usage patterns and in-field residual concentrations use on the three target species. The PhD will be written up as scientific papers to maximise the training experience. The studentship will be jointly supervised by Bangor University (Dr Paul Cross, Dr Matt Hayward and Prof Davey Jones) and CEH (Richard Pywell).

Funding body: ERC European Research Council

Funding body ERC European Research Council
Project Team

Paul Cross (Bangor University), Davey Jones (Bangor University), Richard Pywell (CEH Wallingsly) and Matt Hayward (University of Newcastle)

Scheme KESS
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2020
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON N

20101 grants / $364,180

Return of the Native: reintroductions, reinvasion and a new paradigm in restoration ecology$364,180

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding body ARC (Australian Research Council)
Project Team

Peter Banks (UNSW), Roger Pech (Landcare NZ), Dan Lunney (Landcare NZ), Matt Hayward (AWC), Andrea Byrom (Landcare NZ)

Scheme Linkage Projects
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2010
Funding Finish 2013
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current17

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2018 PhD Designing wildlife corridors in Belize: white-lipped peccaries as a case study.
&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Maarten is a FONASO PhD candidate at the universities of G&amp;ouml;ttingen (Germany) and Bangor (Wales) working on landscape ecology and connectivity for large mammals in tropical forests. Specifically, he is working on the ecology and movement of the white-lipped peccary, a Neotropical wild pig, in the forests of Belize, Central America. Data from the field is used to model movements and predict the most feasible corridors among forest fragments. &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;For almost 15 years, Maarten has been involved in on-the-ground conservation work throughout the world in projects focusing on a diversity of animals, ranging from large mammals and bats to birds, reptiles and amphibians. Equipped with a BSc in Wildlife Management from the Netherlands and a MSc in Ecology from Uppsala University in Sweden, he has been working on landscape ecology and connectivity modelling in Belgium for 1.5 years before joining the Ya'axch&amp;eacute; Conservation Trust in Belize as Research Coordinator in 2010. In Belize, he worked on the development of Ya'axch&amp;eacute;'s biodiversity monitoring programme, provided strategic ecologcal advice, and liaised with national and international academic institutions to initiate biological, socio-economical and archaeological research in Ya'axch&amp;eacute;'s protected areas and their buffer communities&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
Natural and Physical Sciences, University of Göttingen Co-Supervisor
2018 PhD How the interactions of carnivores and their prey influence the interactions of carnivores and people in East Africa
&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Jackie Beck is primarily supervised by Bob Montgomery of Michigan State University (https://www.recaplaboratory.com/lab-members.html).&amp;amp;nbsp; Jackie received her B.S. degree in Wildlife and Fisheries Science from the Pennsylvania State University. Thereafter, she worked as a research coordinator for the Georgia Department of Natural Resources where her primary focus was bat conservation. Jackie's research interests include carnivore movement and behavior, the application of conservation policies, and human-wildlife conflict resolution. Within RECaP Jackie is assessing how the interactions of carnivores and their prey influence the interactions of carnivores and people in&amp;amp;nbsp; East Africa.&lt;/span&gt;
Natural and Physical Sciences, Michigan State University Co-Supervisor
2018 PhD The context dependence of apex predators: wolf and mesopredator interactions in Croatia.
&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Pete Haswell's PhD research is being conducted in collaboration with Josip Kusak at Zagreb University, Croatia. The project aims to further our understanding of the impacts of apex predators, as well as understanding how the human context can influence the extent of these impacts. The study aims to improve understanding of spatio-temporal partitioning between wolves, ungulates (prey), mesopredators (kleptoparasites) and humans (competitors/predators). Interspecific interactions with the grey wolf will be examined in regions of varying human disturbance in Croatia using GPS technology and motion activated cameras alongside traditional field studies.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;See &lt;/span&gt;&lt;a href="https://www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy/subject-areas/conservation/PeteHaswell.php.en" target="_blank"&gt;Pete's Bangor Uni webpage &lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt; for more details.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
Ecology and Evolution, Bangor University Principal Supervisor
2018 PhD Prey Preference in Early Humans PhD (Biological Sciences), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2018 PhD Conservation ecology of Kuwait's spiny-tailed lizard : Ecological and genetic studies on the Spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis Blanford, 1875).
&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Wafa'a Behbehani works at Kuwait Zoo as a member of the animal research group for the Public Authority of Agriculture Affairs; Fish Resources (PAAF). She has been working there since 2005, and was working in CITES convention, issuing the CITES permits and certificates for fauna species and issuing falcon passports at Kuwait Zoo from 2008 - 2014. Wafa'a's Ph.D. thesis is on the conservation ecology of Kuwait's spiny-tailed lizard : Ecological and genetic studies on the Spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis;&amp;amp;nbsp; Blanford, 1875) in the State of Kuwait. She is working with Dr.&amp;amp;nbsp; Matt Hayward as her supervisor at the University of Newcastle. More information can be found at https://www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy/subject-areas/conservation/Wafaa.php.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Co-Supervisor
2018 PhD Leopard ecology in a zone of high human-wildlife conflict
&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Carolyn Deven's PhD is looking at the role and impact of edge effects and private land management ethics and attitudes on the spatial ecology and conservation of leopard across a heavily transformed region. The leopard survives as the last free roaming top predator throughout the Eastern and Western Capes and occurs across a highly variable and human dominated landscape. This research aims to understand the landscape dynamic between this top predator and humans, and the ecological and social factors affecting this human-wildlife conflict. &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;See &lt;/span&gt;&lt;a href="https://www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy/subject-areas/conservation/CarolynDevens.php.en" target="_blank"&gt;Carolyn's webpage&lt;/a&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt; for more details.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
Natural and Physical Sciences, University of Pretoria Co-Supervisor
2018 PhD Spatio-temporal patterns of habitat use by mammalian species in forested riverscape in Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary, the Northern Western Ghats, India
&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;This study, by Nawaz Jelil, will look into mammal assemblages in rivers/streams - as whether they use dry streams for movement has not been thoroughly documented in detail. With this background, this project will primarily seek to understand if different groups of mammals use different stream orders and adjacent riparian forests within a landscape.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Justification of the study:&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Our understanding of species assemblages in different stream order-riparian forests is limited, especially regarding terrestrial mammals. Also the role of smaller streams as corridors and as passages to other adjacent forests has received little academic attention. Maharashtra faces serious droughts, however, the study area in Western Maharashtra is known for water security, with major dams present here. However, landscapes are ever changing, hence the stream network and riverscapes study here will elaborate on the present state of the system and help us predict what measures could be taken for future sustainability. The stream network does not only support rich biodiversity here but also provide critical ecosystem services to society, in general. Since different orders of streams are situated in different elevations, this study will also generally elaborate on the species-habitat relationship concepts and species assemblages over elevation gradients, in general, and in the study, in particular. &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Objectives: &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;1. Assessing the structure and function of the stream network &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;&amp;nbsp; (a) Identifying different order of streams;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;&amp;nbsp; (b) Assess physical stream characteristics (discharge, flow regimes) &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;2. Investigate the use of different order of streams by different groups of terrestrial mammals&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;3. Spatial prioritization of key habitats based on water regime towards supporting management; and developing and proposing riverscape management strategies&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Research questions:&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;- What is the structure and characteristics of the stream network of Koyna WLS (study area)?&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;- Do the changing structural conditions of a river (such as drying up) affect the distribution or assemblage of terrestrial mammals?&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;- Does the presence of apex predators alter the distribution of terrestrial herbivores along different stream order-riparian forests? &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;- What management strategies could help restore the stream network, if needed and what could be done to sustain it in the future? &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Study Area: The study will be carried in Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary. Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary is a part of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve (STR) located in the state of Maharashtra, India.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&lt;p&gt;&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;This work is being conducted in association with the Wildlife Institute of India, and Dr Ramesh Krishnamurthy.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;
Biological Sciences, Wildlife Institute of India Co-Supervisor
2017 PhD Analysing the risk of the Aesculapian snake becoming invasive in the UK.
Tom is working with Wolfgang Wuster, John Mulley (both of Bangor University) and Matt Hayward of the University of Newcastle to determine the likelihood of the Aesculapian snake population around the Welsh Mountain Zoo at Colwyn Bay (North Wales) becoming invasive and factors affecting that.
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Co-Supervisor
2017 PhD How large mammals spatially respond to- and hopefully cope with- sources of anthropogenic disturbance - oil and gas development in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda
&lt;span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:small;"&gt;Tutilo Mudumba is primarily supervised by Bob Montgomery at Michigan State University (https://www.recaplaboratory.com/lab-members.html). Tutilo received a B.S. in Conservation Biology from Makerere University, Uganda in 2007. Thereafter, he was awarded a prestigious scholarship to complete a postgraduate diploma course in the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) at the University of Oxford. Tutilo has since worked as a carnivore ecologist and project coordinator for the Wildlife Conservation Society. Tutilo is interested in understanding how large mammals spatially respond to- and hopefully cope with- sources of anthropogenic disturbance. Of specific interest is the effect of oil and gas development on the movement ecology and behavior of lions and other large mammals in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/span&gt;
Natural and Physical Sciences, Michigan State University Co-Supervisor
2017 Masters Influence of apex predators on the track use of mesopredators.
Emily's current research for her Masters of Science by Research explore's the limitations of occupancy modelling for mesopredators, where their detectability is influenced by the presence of apex predators. I will also be looking at how habitat use in apex predators, particularly movement along tracks/roads, influences the way mesopredators use the same habitat.&amp;amp;nbsp; Emily carried out fieldwork in South Africa in February 2017 to collect the data for herresearch. She intends to monitor the movement patterns of her target species using camera traps, and then analyse this data to determine how each species uses the habitat. More info can be found at https://www.bangor.ac.uk/senrgy/subject-areas/conservation/EmilyOReganMRes.php.en
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Principal Supervisor
2017 Masters The evolution of zebra stripes: the role of parasites.
There are four theories as to why zebras evolved their unique stripy pelage, and Will is investigating the role of parasites. Field work will be conducted in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Principal Supervisor
2017 PhD Impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on fossorial fauna.
Jess is looking at the impact of neonics on the ecology of the soil microfauna and the food chain that depends on this. Jess is supervised by Paul Cross and Davy Jones of Bangor University, and Matt Hayward at the University of Newcastle.
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Co-Supervisor
2017 PhD The factors affecting the survival and reproduction of giraffe populations throughout East Africa
Arthur's primary supervisor is Bob Montgomery at Michigan State (https://www.recaplaboratory.com/lab-members.html). Arthur received his B.S. degree from the Catholic University of Eastern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya. While educated in Kenya, Arthur is originally from Rwanda. Thereafter Arthur became a MasterCard Foundation Scholar at Michigan State University where he completed his M.S. degree in the RECaP Lab in May, 2016. Arthur's thesis research quantified spatial variation in prevalence, manifestation, and severity of Giraffe Skin Disease. Arthur's Ph.D. research investigates the variety of factors affecting the survival and reproduction of giraffe populations throughout East Africa. Of specific interest is the affect of anthropogenic disturbance on giraffes.
Natural and Physical Sciences, Michigan State University Co-Supervisor
2017 Masters The evolution of zebra stripes: the role of social factors.
There are four theories as to why zebras evolved their unique stripy pelage and Dan is looking at the role of stripiness in social interactions via field work in Addo Elephant National Park.&amp;nbsp;
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Principal Supervisor
2017 Masters The evolution of zebra stripes: the role of temperature.
Rhodri is testing the theory that the zebra's stripy pelage affects body temperature with field work in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.
Natural and Physical Sciences, Bangor University Principal Supervisor
2016 PhD How leopards avoid costly interactions with dominant predators (lions, hyaenas).
Kasim is working with Tico McNutt of the Botswana Predator Conservation Trust, Neil Jordan of UNSW, Carlo Meloro and Serge Wich of Liverpool John Moores University, and Matt Hayward of the University of Newcastle to discover how leopards avoid being killed by lions and hyaenas.&amp;nbsp;
Natural and Physical Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University Co-Supervisor
2015 PhD Factors affecting elephant movements in the Borderlands of Kenya and Tanzania.
Luda is using GPS collared elephants to see how a variety of land uses affect elephant spatial ecology. She is supervised by Niko Balkenhol at Goettingen, and Matt Hayward at the University of Newcastle.&nbsp;
Natural and Physical Sciences, University of Göttingen Co-Supervisor
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Research Opportunities

Responses of bird communities to foreshore revegetation

We have won a grant from Lake Macquarie City Council (LMCC) to research the impact of their foreshore revegetation works on bird communities. There are two honours projects available and the students will work in close cooperation to conduct surveys of terrestrial and wading birds around Lake Macquarie. This project will inform LMCC of the effectiveness of their conservation activities. The project will also be a valuable training ground for people interested in birds and looking for a career in impact assessment, as well as conservation research. If you have a passion for birds and their ecology and conservation; and love working around the beautiful Lake Macquarie, the this project might be of interest. To be eligible, you need a GPA of 5.0+ and standard English proficiency. For more information about honours requirements and eligibility, please see https://www.newcastle.edu.au/degrees/bachelor-of-science-honours If you are interested or would like more information, please contact Matt Hayward; matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au, 02 9421 7472.

Honours

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

22/05/2018 - 1/11/2019

Contact

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au

Study of iron floc staining on tadpole development

- Iron floc staining is a natural process where water carrying heavy loads of dissolved iron from underground, is oxidised by bacteria which can stain the water red, create an oily sheen, and gelatinous slime. Although a natural process, iron floc staining is greatly exacerbated with mine subsidence and little is known of the effect this staining has on tadpole development or stream communities. This project will involve a fieldwork component to assess the degree of iron-floc staining across the mined area, and assess tadpole and invertebrate numbers within these ponds compared to unaffected streams. There will also be a controlled lab experiment to assess the direct effect of this staining on tadpole development.

Honours

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

22/05/2018 - 1/11/2019

Contact

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au

Study of the impact of mine subsidence on invertebrate communities

- The loss of stream habitat and changes to water quality due to underground coal mining, is likely to impact entire stream communities. Like frogs, many invertebrates have a duel life cycle with an aquatic juvenile stage(s). Therefore, aquatic invertebrate abundance is predicted to be lower across the mine site compared to controlled sites. Invertebrates are an essential component of a healthy ecosystem, and are particularly important to frogs as they make-up the majority of a frog’s diet. This study will involve fieldwork to assess the aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate abundance and water quality across streams that are both affected and unaffected by mine subsidence.

Honours

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

22/05/2018 - 1/11/2019

Contact

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au

Investigation of L. littlejohni and H. australiacus breeding ecology

- Litoria littlejohni and H. australiacus are both listed as nationally vulnerable, and are suspected to be declining across their range. Very little is currently known about their ecology and breeding biology. As mine subsidence threatens breeding habitats in a significant proportion of their range, understanding the basic ecology and natural history of these species is imperative for us to understand the potential impact this threat has on the recruitment of these species, and to improve conservation management. This project will involve a large fieldwork component collecting seasonal data on breeding behaviour and tadpole abundance, as well as analysing call recordings, and conducting occupancy models.

Honours

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

22/05/2018 - 1/11/2019

Contact

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au

Identifying the drivers of macro-ecological patterns

Ecological niche modelling has been extensively used to describe and predict the distribution of individual species, and the factors that drive their distributions. This project aims to exploit the power of niche models in a novel way to investigate the ecological conditions which favour the persistence of particular functional traits, rather than of particular species. We will look across species for abiotic and biotic environmental variables, which predict spatial patterns in the prevalence of features such as: climatic drivers of migration in mammals; drivers of stick-nest building in mammals; drivers of hole-drilling bird distribution worldwide; drivers of facial ornamentation in micro bats; and the drivers of a subterranean life. https://www.newcastle.edu.au/research-and-innovation/graduate-research/phd-scholarships/phd-scholarships/identifying-the-drivers-of-macro-ecological-processes

PHD

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

22/05/2018 - 2/07/2021

Contact

Associate Professor Matthew Hayward
University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au

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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
South Africa 78
Australia 62
United Kingdom 50
Poland 29
United States 20
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Associate Professor Matthew Hayward

Position

Associate Professor
Conservation Biology @ UoN
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Faculty of Science

Contact Details

Email matthew.hayward@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 7472
Links Twitter
Research Networks
Research Networks
YouTube
Research Networks
Research Networks
Research Networks

Office

Room .B-LG11
Building Biology Building
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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