Mr John Gould

Mr John Gould

Casual Academic

School of Environmental and Life Sciences

Career Summary

Biography

Current PhD candidate at the University of Newcastle, Australia, studying the life history and reproductive biology of Australian amphibians. Broadly speaking, my research interests lie in understanding the adaptive purpose of animal behaviours, as well as how species have evolved in response to the selecting pressures of their environment, not only from a natural history perspective but to apply this knowledge to improve the efficacy of management programs. My goal is to acquire further experience in a laboratory position, where I hope to be able to utilise my skills to assist in biology or biochemistry related research. 

Qualifications

  • Bachelor of Science (Biological Science), University of Newcastle

Keywords

  • animal behaviour
  • biology
  • conservation
  • evolution
  • natural history
  • reproductive biology

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Casual Academic University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Australia
Casual Academic University of Newcastle
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Australia
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (22 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2021 Gould J, 'Hauling up a hefty meal: Long-Jawed spider (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) uses silk lines to transport large prey vertically through the air in the absence of a web', Ethology, 127 438-442 (2021) [C1]

The most well-known use of silk among spiders is the formation of webs to capture flying prey. However, spiders have evolved many different foraging strategies involving silk, inc... [more]

The most well-known use of silk among spiders is the formation of webs to capture flying prey. However, spiders have evolved many different foraging strategies involving silk, including the capture and subsequent manipulate of prey prior to consumption. Herein, I report on the use of silk lines by a long-jawed spider from the Tetragnatha genus to move a large prey item vertically through the air. Field observations revealed a long-jawed spider attaching multiple silk lines across the body of an adult dragonfly that had recently emerged from its final moult and attaching these threads to overlying vegetation to incrementally haul the prey item from the surface of a waterbody. My observations suggest that some Tetragnatha spiders are able to move large prey items that are much heavier then themselves using a series of silk lines that allow lift to be accomplished in a gradual and controlled manner. This is an interesting finding, given that other individuals from the same population were using web structures to passively catch much smaller, flying prey. This indicates that some Tetragnatha spiders not only participate in the mobile pursuit of prey but that they possess multiple foraging strategies that may allow them to exploit a larger number of prey types.

DOI 10.1111/eth.13137
Citations Web of Science - 1
2021 Gould J, Valdez JW, 'Terrestrial slug uses a vertical bridge of mucus to descend rapidly from heights', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, 46 680-682 (2021) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/aec.13011
2021 Gould J, Valdez J, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Left High and Dry: Froth Nesting Allows Eggs of the Anuran Amphibian to Complete Embryogenesis in the Absence of Free-Standing Water', Ichthyology and Herpetology, 109 537-544 (2021)

For amphibians that oviposit in temporary aquatic systems, there is a high risk of desiccation-induced offspring mortality when water evaporates prior to the completion of embryo ... [more]

For amphibians that oviposit in temporary aquatic systems, there is a high risk of desiccation-induced offspring mortality when water evaporates prior to the completion of embryo or tadpole development. Such a strong selective pressure has led to the evolution of a variety of traits in reproducing females and their offspring to improve the odds of reproductive success when free-standing water is temporarily available. Herein, we describe an adaptive function of froth nesting in the Sandpaper Frog, Lechriodus fletcheri, as a possible maternal strategy for protecting embryos from the immediate risk of desiccating in highly ephemeral pools that frequently dry prior to hatching. Field observations revealed that embryos located near the core of nests remained alive and continued to develop for several days after becoming stranded out of water due to declining water levels, with embryo viability maintained long enough for additional rainfall to recharge pools and support hatching of tadpoles into water in some cases. In laboratory trials, the proportion of embryos surviving in nests exposed to desiccating conditions was positively correlated with nest volume, while the rate of water loss relative to nest mass declined, both of which are likely a function of reduced surface area relative to volume in larger nests. We suggest that the encapsulation of embryos within an aerated mucus shields them from desiccation by trapping moisture around their external surfaces. As embryos of L. fletcheri complete development rapidly, the ability for the froth nest to protect against desiccation for several days may allow embryogenesis to be completed largely out of water despite the larval phase not being terrestrial. These results suggest froth nesting has played an important role in facilitating this species' use of ephemeral habitats that most other amphibians with aquatic reproductive modes are incapable of exploiting.

DOI 10.1643/h2020142
Co-authors Simon Clulow, John Clulow
2021 Gould J, Clulow J, Rippon P, Doody JS, Clulow S, 'Complex trade-offs in oviposition site selection in a cannibalistic frog', Animal Behaviour, 175 75-86 (2021) [C1]

For oviparous animals such as amphibians, the presence or absence of conspecifics can influence site selection, with each life history stage potentially influencing the decision-m... [more]

For oviparous animals such as amphibians, the presence or absence of conspecifics can influence site selection, with each life history stage potentially influencing the decision-making process in a different manner. In the present study, we tested the effect of conspecific life history stage on oviposition site selection in the sandpaper frog, Lechriodus fletcheri. We quantified preferences for spawning in pools that were unused by conspecifics, as well as pools with conspecific spawn or tadpoles present, or both. The study included two ecological contexts: a system of naturally occurring breeding pools and a field experiment with 40 artificial pools that controlled for habitat variation. Mothers preferred to oviposit in pools that already contained conspecific spawn, despite the likelihood of intense resource competition upon offspring hatching. This could be due to the potential benefits obtained by providing offspring access to a significant nutrient supply upon hatching via cannibalism of conspecific tadpoles and might be an important adaptation for completing tadpole development in highly ephemeral and resource-limited pools prior to desiccation. In contrast, mothers avoided ovipositing in pools with conspecific tadpoles, a probable adaptation to avoid their own offspring from becoming victims of cannibalism themselves prior to hatching. Such nuances in the effect of conspecific presence on offspring survival highlight the often complex decision-making process that amphibians need to make when selecting oviposition sites, as well as the influence cannibalism can have on the evolution of reproductive behaviour.

DOI 10.1016/j.anbehav.2021.02.021
Co-authors Paul Rippon, Simon Clulow, John Clulow
2021 Valdez JW, Gould J, Garnham JI, 'Global assessment of artificial habitat use by amphibian species', Biological Conservation, 257 (2021) [C1]

Human modification of natural landscapes is a key threatening process contributing to the decline of global biodiversity. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to this threat, wi... [more]

Human modification of natural landscapes is a key threatening process contributing to the decline of global biodiversity. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to this threat, with over a third of species threatened as a direct result. However, some habitat modifications may be less detrimental than others, with some species known to successfully thrive in certain artificial habitats while others undergo further declines. Yet, recognizing how amphibians respond to different habitat modifications remains limited, particularly on a global scale. Herein, we examine the known artificial habitat associations of amphibian species globally, demonstrating artificial habitat use is dependent on their conservation status, life history, taxonomic order, and geographical location. Approximately one-third of all amphibians were found to use artificial habitats, including nearly half of all non-threatened and one-sixth of threatened species, with usage decreasing as conservation status increased. Terrestrial, generalist, and caecilian species were much more likely to use artificial habitats. Non-threatened species were more likely to utilize artificial habitats such as aquaculture ponds, pastureland, canals, excavations, urban areas, and rural gardens. Plantations, heavily degraded former forests, and wastewater treatment areas contained a greater proportion of threatened species, particularly in Afrotropical, Indomalayan, and Oceanian regions. Countries with the most amphibians utilizing artificial habitats were Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Madagascar, and Ecuador. However, the greatest number of threatened species using artificial habitats were found in Mexico, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, and China. We highlight the potential value or threat of each artificial habitat type, which may be used to better focus valuable conservation efforts.

DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109129
2021 Gould J, Valdez JW, 'Locomotion with a twist: Aquatic beetle walks upside down on the underside of the water's surface', ETHOLOGY, 127 669-673 (2021)
DOI 10.1111/eth.13203
2021 Gould J, Callen A, Maynard C, Knibb G, Mcgregor J, Gill L, et al., 'Standing out in a crowd: Intraspecific variability in dorsal patterning allows for photo-identification of a threatened anuran', AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, (2021)
DOI 10.1111/aec.13092
2021 Gould J, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Using citizen science in the photo-identification of adult individuals of an amphibian based on two facial skin features.', PeerJ, 9 e11190 (2021) [C1]
DOI 10.7717/peerj.11190
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Simon Clulow, John Clulow
2020 Gould J, 'Build me up to break me down: frothed spawn in the sandpaper frog, Lechriodus fletcheri, is formed by female parents and later broken down by their offspring', Australian Journal of Zoology, 67 153-161 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/ZO20038
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2020 Gould J, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Front Cover', Ethology, 126 (2020)
DOI 10.1111/eth.12895
2020 Gould J, 'Build me up to break me down: Frothed spawn in the sandpaper frog, Lechriodus fletcheri, is formed by female parents and later broken down by their offspring (2020)
DOI 10.1101/2020.02.06.937409
2020 Cerullo AR, Lai TY, Allam B, Baer A, Barnes WJP, Barrientos Z, et al., 'Comparative Animal Mucomics: Inspiration for Functional Materials from Ubiquitous and Understudied Biopolymers', ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, 6 5377-5398 (2020)

The functions of secreted animal mucuses are remarkably diverse and include lubricants, wet adhesives, protective barriers, and mineralizing agents. Although present in all animal... [more]

The functions of secreted animal mucuses are remarkably diverse and include lubricants, wet adhesives, protective barriers, and mineralizing agents. Although present in all animals, many open questions related to the hierarchical architectures, material properties, and genetics of mucus remain. Here, we summarize what is known about secreted mucus structure, describe the work of research groups throughout the world who are investigating various animal mucuses, and relate how these studies are revealing new mucus properties and the relationships between mucus hierarchical structure and hydrogel function. Finally, we call for a more systematic approach to studying animal mucuses so that data sets can be compared, omics-style, to address unanswered questions in the emerging field of mucomics. One major result that we anticipate from these efforts is design rules for creating new materials that are inspired by the structures and functions of animal mucuses.

DOI 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00713
2020 Gould J, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Food, not friend: Tadpoles of the sandpaper frog (Lechriodus fletcheri) cannibalise conspecific eggs as a food resource in ephemeral pools', Ethology, 126 486-491 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/eth.12995
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Simon Clulow, John Clulow
2019 Gould J, Valdez JW, Upton R, 'Adhesive defence mucus secretions in the red triangle slug (Triboniophorus graeffei) can incapacitate adult frogs', ETHOLOGY, 125 587-591 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/eth.12875
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Rose Upton Uon
2019 Gould J, Valdez JW, Stockwell MP, Clulow S, Mahony MJ, 'Mosquitoes as a potential vector for the transmission of the amphibian chytrid fungus', Zoology and Ecology, 29 36-42 (2019)

The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease responsible for the worldwide decline of amphibian species. To mitigate these declines,... [more]

The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease responsible for the worldwide decline of amphibian species. To mitigate these declines, it is necessary to identify the various vectors by which the fungus can be transmitted between individuals and populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether adult female mosquitoes can carry and transfer Bd fungal cells. Mosquitoes were exposed to netting soaked in a live Bd zoospore suspension to determine whether they are able to externally acquire the fungus. Another group was placed into containers with a sterile and Bd-inoculated agar plate to determine whether mosquitoes could transfer Bd between these surfaces. Bd DNA was found to be present on mosquito legs exposed to inoculated netting and agar plates suggesting that Bd can be transmitted by the mosquito over short distances. This is the first study to demonstrate that an insect host may be a mechanical vector of Bd and suggests that we should begin to consider the role of mosquitoes in the dissemination and control of the fungus.

DOI 10.35513/21658005.2019.1.5
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Simon Clulow
2019 Gould J, 'Tadpoles of the sandpaper frog, Lechriodus fletcheri, hunt mosquito larvae in ephemeral pools', Australian Journal of Zoology, 67 9-11 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/ZO19065
2019 Gould J, Valdez JW, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Diving beetle offspring oviposited in amphibian spawn prey on the tadpoles upon hatching', ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 22 393-397 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/ens.12381
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 7
Co-authors John Clulow, Simon Clulow
2019 Gould J, Valdez J, Clulow S, Clulow J, 'Diving beetle offspring oviposited in amphibian spawn prey on the tadpoles upon hatching (2019)
DOI 10.1101/666008
2019 Hayward MW, Scanlon RJ, Callen A, Howell LG, Klop-Toker KL, Di Blanco Y, et al., 'Reintroducing rewilding to restoration Rejecting the search for novelty', Biological Conservation, 233 255-259 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.011
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Matthew Hayward, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Andrea Griffin, Kaya Klop-Toker, Anita Chalmers, John Rodger, Alex Callen, Rose Upton Uon
2018 Clulow S, Gould J, James H, Stockwell M, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Elevated salinity blocks pathogen transmission and improves host survival from the global amphibian chytrid pandemic: Implications for translocations', JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, 55 830-840 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/1365-2664.13030
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 19
Co-authors Simon Clulow, John Clulow
Gould J, 'Safety Bubbles: A Review of the Proposed Functions of Froth Nesting among Anuran Amphibians', Ecologies, 2 112-137
DOI 10.3390/ecologies2010006
Gould J, Beranek C, Valdez J, Mahony M, 'Quality versus quantity: The balance between egg and clutch size among Australian amphibians is related to life history and environmental conditions
DOI 10.1101/2020.03.15.992495
Co-authors Chad Beranek
Show 19 more journal articles

Other (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2019 Gould J, Valdez J, Upton R, 'Adhesive defence mucus secretions in the red triangle slug (Triboniophorus graeffei) can incapacitate adult frogs', bioRxiv (2019) [O1]
DOI 10.1101/544775
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Mr John Gould

Positions

Casual Academic
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
College of Engineering, Science and Environment

Research Assistant
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
College of Engineering, Science and Environment

Casual Senior Research Assistant
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
College of Engineering, Science and Environment

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