Dr Mahmud Rahman

Dr Mahmud Rahman

Senior Research Fellow

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation

Career Summary

Biography

Dr. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman is a native of Bangladesh and was educated at the Jahangirnagar University where he received Bachelor of Science (Hons.) degree in Chemistry in 1996 and Master of Science in Chemistry (major in physical and inorganic chemistry) in 1999. He completed his PhD from the School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, India in March 2004 on “Present status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and detailed study of Murshidabad, one of the affected neighbouring districts in West Bengal, India. He received prestigious scholarship from the Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund, New Delhi, India for pursuing PhD study. 

Dr Rahman joined as Post-doctoral Research Associate in the Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR) located at the University of South Australia in 2004 where he was working in the “Arsenic in food chain of Bangladesh” project funded by the AusAID. In October 2015, he has moved to the University of Newcastle, Australia as Senior Research Fellow at the Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER). 

Although Dr Rahman’s research mostly focussed on arsenic, other trace elements such as cadmium, lead, mercury; nanomaterials including nano-encapsulated pesticides: formations and its fate and impact on the environment and other organic contaminants are also of interest. 

Dr Rahman has built up excellent national and international reputation as a young scientist in environmental and analytical research. He made significant contributions in the field of environmental science especially on groundwater arsenic contamination, arsenic related non-cancer effects such as dermatological symptoms, neurological involvement and pregnancy outcomes, arsenic in food crops grown in contaminated areas, evaluation of arsenic field testing kits and arsenic removal plants, social and socio-economic aspects of arsenicosis. He has elegantly combined laboratory-based studies with field survey to understand the arsenic chemistry, toxicity, mechanism, speciation, food chain and human health risk issues including arsenic related diseases.

Dr Rahman has extensive knowledge in the fields of analytical and speciation techniques of metals and metalloids such as arsenic, vanadium, chromium, tin and selenium in environmental samples such as water, soil and urine by ion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). 

Based on his research excellence and knowledge on arsenic research, he was invited by the Crawford Fund, Australia for organizing a training workshop on arsenic for young scientists from a few developing countries including Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam and Cambodia during 2011.

Dr. Rahman has international research collaboration links with renowned Scientists at various countries including USA, UK, India, Bangladesh, China, Nigeria etc.

Media coverage of my research findings
Some of my research findings received enormous interests and have been captured by media in several journal news and magazines. Details below:  
1. High arsenic levels revealed in soil, ground water near Karnataka gold mine. The Hindu, November 21, 2012 (http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-otherstates/high-arsenic-levels-revealed-in-soil-ground-water-near-karnataka-gold-mine/article4118175.ece).
2. Arsenic-free Water still a Pipedream. Nature Magazine, Vol 436, Page 313, 21st July 2005 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v436/n7049/pdf/436313a.pdf).
3. Arsenic's fatal legacy grows worldwide. New Scientist, August 6, 2003 (http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4024-arsenics-fatal-legacy-grows-worldwide.html).
4. Asia’s arsenic crisis deepens. Nature News, February 15, 2003 (http://www.nature.com/news/2003/030215/full/news030210-14.html).
5. Field kits fail to provide accurate measure of arsenic in groundwater. Environmental Science and Technology, 35a-38a, January 1, 2003 (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es0323289).
6. Flawed water tests put millions at risk. New Scientist (London), November, 13, 2002 (http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3048-flawed-water-tests-put-millions-at-risk.html).
7. Inaccurate arsenic test kits jeopardize water safety in Bangladesh and India. American Chemical Society News, November 19, 2002. (http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2002/E/2002324.html).
8. Arsenic field test kits may lead to mislabelled wells. RSC Environmental Chemistry Group Bulletin, January 2003, Page 5 (http://www.rsc.org/images/scaf003_200301_tcm18-9786.pdf).

Research higher degree supervisor
The University of Newcastle (UON) offers exciting opportunities for research higher degree candidates. Both national and international applicants are encourage to contact me directly. For more information about eligibility and available scholarships, please check the following links 

https://www.newcastle.edu.au/international/study-with-us/research-higher-degree   

http://www.newcastle.edu.au/research-and-innovation/graduate-research/phd-and-research-degrees/scholarships



Qualifications

  • PhD, Jadavpur University - Kolkata - India
  • Bachelor of Science, Jahangirnagar University
  • Master of Science, Jahangirnagar University

Keywords

  • Arsenic Geochemistry, speciation, Bioavailability
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Drinking Water Quality
  • Environmental Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Nanometerials
  • Environmental Remediation
  • Environmental Science and Management
  • Food Safety
  • Heavy metals pollution
  • Human Health Efftect
  • Metals speciation
  • Nano-encapsulation
  • Nano-pesticides
  • Phytoremediation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Toxicity
  • Water Quality Assessment
  • Water and waste water treatment

Languages

  • Bengali (Mother)
  • English (Fluent)

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
050299 Environmental Science and Management not elsewhere classified 50
050204 Environmental Impact Assessment 30
050206 Environmental Monitoring 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Senior Research Fellow University of Newcastle
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
3/09/2013 - 8/10/2015 Senior Research Fellow and Laboratory Manager University of South Australia
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR)
Australia
1/01/2012 - 2/09/2013 Senior Research Fellow University of South Australia
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR)
Australia
1/07/2007 - 31/12/2011 Research Fellow University of South Australia
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR)
Australia
21/06/2004 - 30/06/2007 Research Associate University of South Australia
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR)
Australia

Awards

Award

Year Award
2003 Jaharwal Nehru Memorial Scholarship Scheme
Jaharwal Nehru Memorial Scholarship Scheme
2002 Visiting Scientist Travel Award
National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
2002 Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) scholarship
Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR)
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (15 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Arsenic: Southeast Asia', Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 161-167 (2017)
DOI 10.1081/E-ESS3-120053532
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Rahman MM, Chakraborti D, Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in bengal delta and its health effects', Safe and Sustainable Use of Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers in the Gangetic Plain: A Multidisciplinary Approach 215-253 (2015)

© Capital Publishing Company 2015. Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been detected in more than 70 countries and has become a major public health concern worldwide (Bundsc... [more]

© Capital Publishing Company 2015. Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been detected in more than 70 countries and has become a major public health concern worldwide (Bundschuh et al. Environ Geochem Health 32:307-315, 2010). Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Southeast Asian regions received significant interest in recent years. In this region, count ries affected with As in groundwater include Bangladesh, several states of India, Nepal, Myanmar, Pakistan, Vietnam, Lao People¿s Democratic Republic, Cambodia, several provinces of China (Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia, Jilin, Shandong, Qinghai, Sichuan, Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Gansu, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hunan) and lowlands of Sumatra in Indonesia (Rahman et al. Environ Geochem Health 31:9-21, 2009; Yu et al. Environ Health Perspect 115:636-642, 2007).

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16124-2_14
Citations Scopus - 2
2014 Rahman MA, Rahman MM, Naidu R, 'Arsenic in Rice: Sources and Human Health Risk', Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netheralnds 365-375 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-401716-0.00028-3
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Deeba F, Rahman MM, 'Cognitive behaviour therapy for children and adolescents in Bangladesh', Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Non-Western Cultures 37-50 (2012)
Citations Scopus - 1
2012 Das A, Rahman M, Das B, Pati S, Dutta RN, Saha KC, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination', Encyclopedia of Environmental Management (EEM), CRC Press, CRC Press 1262-1280 (2012)
2009 Rahman MM, Das B, Chakraborti D, 'Sampling and Analysis of Arsenic in Groundwater in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh', Handbook of Water Purity and Quality 95-130 (2009)

This chapter provides an understanding of the contamination situation in an area. The sampling could be hotspot sampling, blanket sampling, and total screening of samples. Collect... [more]

This chapter provides an understanding of the contamination situation in an area. The sampling could be hotspot sampling, blanket sampling, and total screening of samples. Collection and preservation of samples are as important as analysis. Sampling technique is very crucial for the determination of arsenic in water samples. The major concern for sampling and storage are to prevent contamination and minimize the loss of trace amounts of analytes for assessing the total concentration of any element. Several analytical methods are currently used for the determination of total arsenic in water samples. The widely used analytical methods for the determination of arsenic in water are colorimetric/spectrophotometric/silver-diethyldithiocar-bamate (Ag-DDTC) methods, atomic absorption spectrometry (hydride generation and graphite furnace) methods, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. Various clinical, epidemiological, and hydrogeological studies are shown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal to determine the magnitude of arsenic contamination and its health effects. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-374192-9.00005-4
2008 Chakraborti D, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Rahman M, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain, its Health Effects and an Approach for Mitigation', UNESCO UCI Groundwater Conference Proceedings, UNESCO, the University of California, USGS, Irvine, United States 264-282 (2008)
2008 Chakraborti D, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Rahman M, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and its adverse health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain', Arsenic Calamity of Groundwater in Bangladesh: Contamination in water, soil and plants, Kingshuk Roy, Japan 13-44 (2008)
2007 Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain', Groundwater for Sustainable Development-Problems, Perspectives and Challenges, Taylor & Francis, Taylor & Francis 257-270 (2007)
2006 Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Das B, Ahamed S, et al., 'Arsenic contamination incidents around the world', Managing Arsenic in the Environment, CSIRO publishing, Australia 3-30 (2006)
2003 Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Ahamed S, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic exposure in india', 3-24 (2003)

The first report on arsenic in hand tubewells, dugwells and spring water was published in 1976 from India. It was reported that people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water in ... [more]

The first report on arsenic in hand tubewells, dugwells and spring water was published in 1976 from India. It was reported that people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water in Chandigarh and different villages of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh in northern India. High arsenic was found in the liver of those suffering from non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) and drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Arsenic groundwater contamination in the state of West Bengal first came to notice during July 1983. The problem first came to international attention after the international conference held in Calcutta during February 1995. Before Bangladesh¿s arsenic episode was discovered, West Bengal¿s arsenic problem was known as the world¿s biggest arsenic calamity. During July 1983, 16 patients with arsenical skin lesions were identified from one village in the district of 24-Parganas where people were drinking arseniccontaminated water from their hand tubewells in West Bengal. The present arsenic situation from 38,865 km2 of affected area with a population of 50 million in West Bengal up to August, 2002 is as follows: 3150 villages from 9 districts, 78 blocks/police stations have been identified where groundwater contains arsenic concentrations above 50 µg/l. On the basis of 125,000 water analyses by a laboratory method from the arsenic-affected areas it was estimated that more than 6 million people are drinking arsenic-contaminated water above 50 µg/l. So far, from our preliminary survey 8500 patients with arsenical skin lesions have been registered from 250 villages, and extrapolation of available data indicates that may be 300,000 people are suffering from arsenical skin lesions from 9 arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. The source of arsenic is geologic. The mechanism of arsenic contamination from the source to the aquifer has not yet been established. Groundwater arsenic contamination from industrial effluent discharge by a company producing parisgreen (copper-aceto-arsenite) and the suffering of people in Behala - Calcutta came to notice during 1989. The highest arsenic concentration in soil near the effluent discharged point was found to be 10,000 µg/gm and the highest arsenic concentration in hand tubewell water was 38,000 µg/l. The total number of people using arsenic-contaminated water was 7000, and around 200 people were identified with arsenical skin lesions. In the Rajnandgaon district of the state of Chattisgarh in India, a few villages were found where both dugwells and hand tubewells are arsenic contaminated. The source of arsenic is also geologic. The highest concentrations of arsenic found in the dugwells and hand tubewells were 520 and 880 µg/l, respectively. About 130 people were affected with arsenic poisoning. The number of people estimated to be at risk was 10,000. About 1000 people are suspected to be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from the Semria Ojha Patty village of Sahapur police station in Bhojpur district of Bihar in the middle Ganga Plain. The magnitude of the problem in Bhojpur district hence in Bihar is unknown. © 2003 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/B978-044451441-7/50002-6
Citations Scopus - 8
2003 Chowdhury UK, Rahman M, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Lodh D, Basu GK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh', Bioavailability, Toxicity and Risk Relationships in Ecosystems, Science Publishers Inc, Enfield (NH), USA 291-329 (2003)
2003 Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Quamruzzaman Q, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination', Encyclopedia of Water Science, CRC Press, CRC Press 324-329 (2003)
DOI 10.1081/E-EWS120010367
2003 Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Basu GK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India', Strategic Management of Environmental and Socio-economic Issues, Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, Guiyang, China 102-111 (2003)
2001 Chakraborti D, Basu GK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Rahman M, Paul K, et al., 'Characterization of arsenic bearing sediments in Gangetic delta of West Bengal-India', Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, Elsevier science, Amsterdam-Lausanne-New York-Oxford-Tokyo 27-52 (2001)
Show 12 more chapters

Journal article (75 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 Qi F, Lamb D, Naidu R, Bolan NS, Yan Y, Ok YS, et al., 'Cadmium solubility and bioavailability in soils amended with acidic and neutral biochar', Science of the Total Environment, 610-611 1457-1466 (2018) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting properties. Four Cd contaminated (50 mg/kg) soils (EN: Entisol, AL: Andisol, VE: Vertisol, IN: Inceptisol) were amended with 5% acidic wood shaving biochar (WS, pH = 3.25) and neutral chicken litter biochar (CL, pH = 7.00). Following a 140-day incubation, the solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) were assessed. Results showed that both biochars had no effect on reducing soluble (pore water) and bioavailable (CaCl 2 extractable) Cd for higher sorption capacity soils (AL, IN) while CL biochar reduced those in lower sorption capacity soils (EN, VE) by around 50%. Bioaccessibility of Cd to the human gastric phase (physiologically based extraction test (PBET) extractable) was not altered by the acidic WS biochar but reduced by neutral CL biochar by 18.8%, 29.7%, 18.0% and 8.82% for soil AL, EN, IN and VE, respectively. Both biochars reduced soluble Cd under acidic conditions (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable) significantly in all soils. Pore water pH was the governing factor of Cd solubility among soils. The reduction of Cd solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility by CL biochar may be due to surface complexation while the reduced mobility of Cd under acidic conditions (TCLP) by both biochars may result from the redistribution of Cd to less bioavailable soil solid fractions. Hence, if only leaching mitigation of Cd under acidic conditions is required, application of low pH biochars (e.g., WS biochar) may be valuable.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.228
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Nanthi Bolan, Dane Lamb
2017 Chakraborti D, Das B, Rahman MM, Nayak B, Pal A, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Arsenic in groundwater of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), India: Critical review and modes of mitigation.', Chemosphere, 180 437-447 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.051
2017 Islam S, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Naidu R, 'Effect of irrigation and genotypes towards reduction in arsenic load in rice', Science of the Total Environment, 609 311-318 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in rice grains has been identified as a major problem in Bangladesh and many other parts of the world. Suitable rice genotypes a... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in rice grains has been identified as a major problem in Bangladesh and many other parts of the world. Suitable rice genotypes along with proper water management practice regulating As levels in rice plants must be chosen and implemented. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation on the bioaccumulation of As in ten rice cultivars at three locations having different levels of soil As and irrigation water As. Results showed that As concentration in different parts of rice plants varied significantly (P¿ < ¿0.0001) with rice genotypes and irrigation practices in the three study locations. Lower levels of As in rice were found in AWD irrigation practice compared to CF irrigation practice. Higher grain As bioaccumulation was detected in plants in areas of high soil As in combination with CF irrigation practice. Our data show that use of AWD irrigation practice with suitable genotypes led to 17 to 35% reduction in grain As level, as well as 7 to 38% increase in grain yield. Overall, this study advances our understanding that, for moderate to high levels of As contaminatio n, the Binadhan-5, Binadhan-6, Binadhan-8, Binadhan-10 and BRRI dhan47 varieties were quite promising to mitigate As induced human health risk.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.111
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Liu Y, Bello O, Rahman MM, Dong Z, Islam S, Naidu R, 'Investigating the relationship between lead speciation and bioaccessibility of mining impacted soils and dusts', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 24 17056-17067 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-9250-8
Co-authors Morrow Dong, Ravi Naidu, Yanju Liu
2017 Islam S, Rahman MM, Rahman MA, Naidu R, 'Inorganic arsenic in rice and rice-based diets: Health risk assessment', Food Control, 82 196-202 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Total and inorganic arsenic (As) content in rice and rice-based diets (n = 59) obtained from supermarkets in South Australia were studied to investigate the c... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Total and inorganic arsenic (As) content in rice and rice-based diets (n = 59) obtained from supermarkets in South Australia were studied to investigate the contamination levels and whether consumption of these products pose potential health risks to young children and adults. Results show that of the 59 rice-based products, 31 (53%) exceeded the EU recommended value (100 µg/kg) of As for young children and 13 (22%) samples had higher than maximum level of 200 µg/kg recommended for adults. Arsenic content varies as rice crackers > baby rice > rice cakes > puffed rice > other rice-based snacks > ready-to-eat rice. Of the 6 categories of rice-based products, except ready-to-eat rice, all others exceeded the EU recommended value for young children. Even manufacture recommended servings deliver significant amounts (0.56¿6.87 µg) of inorganic As. These amounts are within the range of BMDL 01 values indicated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which means the risk cannot be avoided for young children and adults considering the levels of total and inorganic As in rice-based products.

DOI 10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.030
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Islam S, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Naidu R, 'Geographical variation and age-related dietary exposure to arsenic in rice from Bangladesh', Science of the Total Environment, 601-602 122-131 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. An extensive number (965) of rice samples collected by household survey from 73 upazilas (i.e. sub-districts) in Bangladesh was analyzed to determine regiona... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. An extensive number (965) of rice samples collected by household survey from 73 upazilas (i.e. sub-districts) in Bangladesh was analyzed to determine regional variation, distribution and associated health risks from arsenic (As). No previous study had conducted a study examining such a large number of rice samples. The mean and median concentrations of total As were 126¿µg/kg and 107¿µg/kg, respectively, ranging from between 3 and 680¿µg/kg. Importantly, total As levels of aromatic rice were significantly lower (average 58¿µg/kg) than non-aromatic rice (average 150¿µg/kg) and also varied with rice grain size. The variation in As content was dominated by the location (47% among the upazilas, 71% among districts) and rice variety (14%). Inorganic As content in rice grain ranged between 11 and 502¿µg/kg (n¿=¿162) with the highest fraction being 98.6%. The daily intake of inorganic As from rice ranged between 0.38 and 1.92¿µg/kg BW in different districts. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for individuals due to the consumption of rice varied between 0.57¿×¿10 -¿3 to 2.88¿×¿10 -¿3 in different districts, and 0.54¿×¿10 -¿3 to 2.12¿×¿10 -¿3 in different varieties, higher than the US EPA thresho ld. The 2¿10 age group experiences higher carcinogenic risks than others and females are more susceptible than males.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.184
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Usese A, Chukwu OL, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Islam S, Oyewo EO, 'Concentrations of arsenic in water and fish in a tropical open lagoon, Southwest-Nigeria: Health risk assessment', Environmental Technology and Innovation, 8 164-171 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This study assesses the concentrations of arsenic (As) in water, muscle tissue of four demersal fish species (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Mugil cephalus, Li... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This study assesses the concentrations of arsenic (As) in water, muscle tissue of four demersal fish species (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Mugil cephalus, Liza falcipinnis and Bathygobious soporator) and whole tissues of periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. The observed mean total As concentration in water (1.29µgl -1 ) during the wet and dry seasons did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10µgl -1 . Among the examined biota, Tympanotonus fuscatus recorded higher As levels (2.31±0.24mgkg -1 ) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus recorded the least As content (0.67±0.08mgkg -1 ). A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between As concentrations in fish muscles and water during the dry and wet seasons. The health risks associated with human consumption of fish estimated using Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were lower than the USEPA guideline value of 1 for all fish species examined except in populations that consume larger amounts of fish. However, higher THQ values ( > 2) were obtained for Tympanotonus fuscatus, suggesting the potential for non-carcinogenic health outcomes in adults after a prolonged period of consumption. This calls for continuous monitoring and enforcement of regulations to ensure safety of fishery resources from Lagos Lagoon.

DOI 10.1016/j.eti.2017.06.005
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Usese A, Chukwu OL, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Islam S, Oyewo EO, 'Enrichment, contamination and geo-accumulation factors for assessing arsenic contamination in sediment of a Tropical Open Lagoon, Southwest Nigeria', Environmental Technology and Innovation, 8 126-131 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The presence of toxic heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic environments constitutes a major risk and there is an urgent need for continuous monitoring of s... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The presence of toxic heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic environments constitutes a major risk and there is an urgent need for continuous monitoring of such pollutants. This study assesses the concentrations of arsenic (As) in surface sediments from 15 locations on the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria during the wet and dry seasons to determine the degree of contamination. The results showed that the mean total As concentration in sediment (2.44 mg kg -1 dry weight) did not exceed the Canadian Interim Sediment Quality Guideline (CISQG) value of 7.24 mg kg -1 dry weight during the wet and dry seasons. Based on the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and ecological risk assessment using the enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ), the study's results indicate two things: firstly, low to moderate and significant levels of enrichment from As; and secondly, low to moderate degree of contamination in Lagos Lagoon during the study period.

DOI 10.1016/j.eti.2017.06.006
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Das B, Chatterjee A, Das D, Nayak B, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India', Hydrogeology Journal, 25 1165-1181 (2017)

© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. During a 28-year field survey in India (1988¿2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the st... [more]

© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. During a 28-year field survey in India (1988¿2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic > 10¿µg/L (maximum concentration 3,700¿µg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

DOI 10.1007/s10040-017-1556-6
Citations Scopus - 2
2017 Islam S, Rahman MM, Duan L, Islam MR, Kuchel T, Naidu R, 'Variation in arsenic bioavailability in rice genotypes using swine model: An animal study', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 599 324-331 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.215
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Luchun Duan
2016 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, Dutta RN, Pati S, Mukherjee SC, 'Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India', Chemosphere, 152 520-529 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological ... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological samples and its health effects such as dermatological, neurological and obstetric outcome in some villages. We collected 1365 hand tube-well water samples and analyzed for As by the flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 61% and 44% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 µg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1466 µg/l. Our medical team examined 712 villagers and registered 69 (9.7%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical sk in lesions were also observed in 9 children of 312 screened. We analyzed 176 biological samples (hair, nail and urine). Out of these, 69 people had arsenical skin lesions and rest without skin lesions. We found 100% of the biological samples had As above the normal levels (concentrations of As in hair, nail and urine of unexposed individuals usually ranges from 20 to 200 µg/kg, 20-500 µg/kg and < 100 µg/l, respectively), indicating many people are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 40.5% of 37 arsenicosis patients with 73.3% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 26.7% for sensor-motor. Among patients, different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features and abnormal quantitative sensory perception thresholds were also noted. The study also found that As exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. People including children in the affected areas are in danger. To combat As situation in affected areas, villagers urgently need (a) provision of As-safe water for drinking and cooking, (b) awareness about the danger of As toxicity, and (c) nutritious food.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.119
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2016 Dong Z, Yan K, Liu Y, Naidu R, Duan L, Wijayawardena A, et al., 'A meta-analysis to correlate lead bioavailability and bioaccessibility and predict lead bioavailability', Environment International, 92-93 139-145 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.009
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Morrow Dong, Yanju Liu, Ayanka Wijayawardena, Luchun Duan
2016 Kumar M, Rahman MM, Ramanathan AL, Naidu R, 'Arsenic and other elements in drinking water and dietary components from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India: Health risk index', Science of the Total Environment, 539 125-134 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.. This study investigates the level of contamination and health risk assessment for arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water, vegetables and other fo... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.. This study investigates the level of contamination and health risk assessment for arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water, vegetables and other food components in two blocks (Mohiuddinagar and Mohanpur) from the Samastipur district, Bihar, India. Groundwater (80%) samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value (10. µg/L) of As while Mn exceeded the previous WHO limit of 400. µg/L in 28% samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from drinking water and food components were 169, 19, 26, 882, 4645, 14582, 474, 1449 and 12,955. µg, respectively (estimated exposure 3.70, 0.41, 0.57, 19.61, 103.22, 324.05, 10.53, 32.21 and 287.90. µg per kg bw, respectively). Twelve of 15 cooked rice contained high As concentration comp ared to uncooked rice. Water contributes (67%) considerable As to daily exposure followed by rice and vegetables. Whereas food is the major contributor of other elements to the dietary exposure. Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated natural source for As but for other elements, presence of diffused anthropogenic activities were responsible. The chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were also estimated from the generated data. The HRI were > . 1 for As in drinking water, vegetables and rice, for Mn in drinking water, vegetables, rice and wheat, for Pb in rice and wheat indicated the potential health risk to the local population. An assessment of As and other elements of other food components should be conducted to understand the actual health hazards caused by ingestion of food in people residing in the middle Gangetic plain.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.039
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Bello O, Naidu R, Rahman MM, Liu Y, Dong Z, 'Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways', Science of the Total Environment, 542 908-914 (2016) [C1]

© 2015. Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7. yea... [more]

© 2015. Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7. years of age and adults (above 18. years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 µg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 µg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5. µg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Dis ease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 µg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 µg/dL and 2 µg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6. year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 µg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.143
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Yanju Liu, Morrow Dong, Ravi Naidu
2016 Lamb DT, Kader M, Wang L, Choppala G, Rahman MM, Megharaj M, Naidu R, 'Pore-Water Carbonate and Phosphate As Predictors of Arsenate Toxicity in Soil', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 50 13062-13069 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.6b03195
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Liang Wang
2016 Perelomov L, Sarkar B, Rahman MM, Goryacheva A, Naidu R, 'Uptake of lead by Na-exchanged and Al-pillared bentonite in the presence of organic acids with different functional groups', Applied Clay Science, 119 417-423 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.. This study investigated the uptake of lead (Pb) ions by Na-rich bentonite (Na-bentonite) and Al-pillared bentonite (Al-bentonite) in the presence or absence... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.. This study investigated the uptake of lead (Pb) ions by Na-rich bentonite (Na-bentonite) and Al-pillared bentonite (Al-bentonite) in the presence or absence of organic acids containing different functional groups. Na-bentonite was an effective adsorbent for Pb 2+ ions. The element was taken up by the mineral through ion exchange mechanism; and the formation of a lead carbonate hydroxide (hydrocerussite) also occurred. Al-bentonite adsorbed a smaller amount of Pb than Na-bentonite. XRD data indicated that the totality of clay interlayers was occupied by the pillaring agent that led to decrease in Pb uptake. The amount of Pb taken up by Na-bentonite decreased with increasing concentration of citric acid both when Pb and organic acid were added together as a mixture, and when citric acid was added 2 h before the metal ions. Possible reasons for this were the formation of Pb-citrate complexes which had less affinity to Na-bentonite, and also hydrocerussite dissolution at acidic pH. Citric acid, however, did not change Pb uptake by Al-bentonite. Addition of lysine together with Pb did not have any effect on Pb uptake by Na-bentonite and Al-bentonite, which indicated occupation of different adsorption sites by Pb and lysine compared to citrate. However, lysine addition at 1:1 ratio 2 h before Pb decreased the metal uptake, which again may be explained by the effect of lysine in hydrocerussite dissolution. Uptake of Pb in the presence of lysine was also higher when using Na-bentonite compared to Al-bentonite.

DOI 10.1016/j.clay.2015.11.004
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Nuruzzaman M, Rahman MM, Liu Y, Naidu R, 'Nanoencapsulation, Nano-guard for Pesticides: A New Window for Safe Application', JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 64 1447-1483 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05214
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 23
Co-authors Yanju Liu, Ravi Naidu
2016 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Chatterjee A, Das D, Das B, Nayak B, et al., 'Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches', JOURNAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, 38 33-45 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.05.001
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2016 Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Rahman MM, Naidu R, 'Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India', Science of the Total Environment, 573 1103-1114 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Concentrations of inorganic forms [arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) of arsenic (As) present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments ... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Concentrations of inorganic forms [arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) of arsenic (As) present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments located in the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India were determined. Approximately 73% of the groundwater samples (n¿=¿19) show As(III) as the dominant species while 27% reveals As(V) was the dominant species. The concentration of As(III) in agricultural soil samples varies from not detectable to 40¿µg/kg and As(V) was observed as the major species (ranging from 1050 to 6835¿µg/kg) while the total As concentration varied from 3528 to 14,690¿µg/kg. Total extracted concentration of As was higher in the subsurface sediments (range 9119¿20,056¿µg/kg in Methrapur and 4788¿19,681¿µg/kg in Harail Chapar) than the agricultural soil, indicating the subsurface sediment as a source of As. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) revealed the presence of hematite and goethite throughout the vertical section below while magnetite was observed only in the upper oxidized layer at Methrapur and Harail Chapar. Alteration of Fe-oxides and presence of fibrous goethite indicating presence of diagenetic sediment. Siderite plays a crucial role as sinks to the As in subsurface sediments. The study also concluded that decomposition of organic matter present in dark and grey sections promote the redox conditions and trigger mobilization of As into groundwater.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.109
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Islam S, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Naidu R, 'Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk', Environment International, 96 139-155 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world&apos;s population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countrie... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50¿years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk.

DOI 10.1016/j.envint.2016.09.006
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Prasath Annamalai, Ravi Naidu
2016 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, Dutta RN, Pati S, Mukherjee SC, 'Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its induced health effects in Shahpur block, Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India: risk evaluation', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 9492-9504 (2016) [C1]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, B... [more]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India and its health effects such as dermal, neurological, obstetric effects, and cancer risk. The School of Environmental Studies (SOES) collected 4704 tube-well water samples from all 88 villages of Shahpur, which were analyzed for arsenic. We found 40.3 and 21.1¿% of the tube-wells had arsenic above 10 and 50¿µg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1805¿µg/l. The study shows that 75,000, 39,000, and 10,000 people could be exposed to arsenic-contaminated water greater than 10, 50, and 300¿µg/l, respectively. Our medical team examined 1422 villagers from Shahpur and registered 161 (prevalence rate, 11.3¿%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 29 children of 525 screened. We analyzed 579 biological samples (hair, nail, and urine) from Shahpur and found that 82, 89, and 91¿% of hair, nail, and urine, respectively, had arsenic above the normal levels, indicating many people in the study area are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 48¿% of 102 arsenicosis patients. The study also found that arsenic exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated based on the generated data. Safe drinking water supply is urgently required to combat arsenic situation in affected villages of Shahpur.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-6149-8
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 4
2015 Azizur Rahman M, Hogan B, Duncan E, Doyle C, Rahman MM, Nguyen TV, et al., 'Ecotoxicological Effects of an Arsenic Remediation Method on Three Freshwater Organisms - Lemna disperma, Chlorella sp. CE-35 and Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 226 1-10 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Chemical methods have been used for the remediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated water; however, ecological consequences of ... [more]

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Chemical methods have been used for the remediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated water; however, ecological consequences of these methods have not been properly addressed. The present study evaluated the effects of the Fe-oxide-coated sand (IOCS) remediation method on As toxicity to freshwater organisms (Lemna disperma, Chlorella sp. CE-35, and Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia). The As removal efficiency by IOCS decreased substantially with time. The IOCS remediation method was less effective at suppressing the toxicity of As V than As III to L. disperma but was highly effective in reducing both the As III and As V toxicity to C. cf. dubia. The growth of Chlorella sp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in remediated and pre-remediated water than in controls (non-As-contaminated filtered Colo River water) for As III , while the opposite was observed for As V , indicating that As V is more toxic than As III to this microalga. Although the IOCS can efficiently remove As from contaminated water, residual As and other constituents (e.g. Fe, nitrate) in the remediated water had a significant effect on freshwater organisms.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-015-2668-z
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Rahman MM, Dong Z, Naidu R, 'Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: Potential cancer risk', Chemosphere, 139 54-64 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.051
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 16
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Morrow Dong
2015 Chakraborti D, Rahman MMA, Mukherjee A, Alauddin M, Hassan M, Dutta RNA, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research', Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 31 237-248 (2015)

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. ... [more]

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub-clinically affected. SOES and DCH made a few follow-up studies in some districts to know their overall situations after 9 to 18 years of their first exposure. The overall conclusion from these follow-up studies is (a) villagers are now more aware about the danger of drinking arsenic contaminated water (b) villagers are currently drinking less arsenic contaminated water (c) many villagers in affected village died of cancer (d) arsenic contaminated water is in use for agricultural irrigation and arsenic exposure from food chain could be future danger. Since at present more information is coming about health effects from low arsenic exposure, Bangladesh Government should immediately focus on their huge surface water management and reduce their permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water.

DOI 10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.01.003
Citations Scopus - 5
2015 Shakoor MB, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Dong Z, et al., 'Unraveling health risk and speciation of arsenic from groundwater in rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 12371-12390 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality paramet... [more]

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62) were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan) of Punjab in Pakistan. The mean and median As concentrations in groundwater were 37.9 and 12.7 µg¿L -1 (range = 1.5¿201 µg¿L -1 ). Fifty three percent groundwater samples showed higher As value than WHO safe limit of 10 µg¿L -1 . Speciation of As in groundwater samples (n = 13) showed the presence of inorganic As only; arsenite (As(III)) constituted 13%¿67% of total As and arsenate (As(V)) ranged from 33% to 100%. For As health risk assessment, the hazard quotient and cancer risk values were 11¿18 and 46¿600 times higher than the recommended values of US-EPA (i.e., 1.00 and 10 -6 , respectively). In addition to As, various water quality parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity, Na, Ca, Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Fe, Mn, Pb) also enhanced the health risk. The results show that consumption of As-contaminated groundwater poses an emerging health threat to the communities in the study area, and hence needs urgent remedial and management measures.

DOI 10.3390/ijerph121012371
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 22
Co-authors Morrow Dong, Ravi Naidu
2014 Rahman MM, Mondal D, Das B, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, et al., 'Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report', Journal of Hydrology, 518 363-372 (2014)

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of g... [more]

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50. µg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50. µg/L with maximum observed level of 3200. µg/L. We estimated that about 2.1. million and 0.6. million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50. µg/L, respectively, while 0.048. million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300. µg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.10.037
Citations Scopus - 12
2014 Goswami R, Rahman MM, Murrill M, Sarma KP, Thakur R, Chakraborti D, 'Arsenic in the groundwater of Majuli - The largest river island of the Brahmaputra: Magnitude of occurrence and human exposure', Journal of Hydrology, 518 354-362 (2014)

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. Arsenic (As) concentrations in tube-well water, sediment, and biological samples, including hair, nail and urine were measured to determine the degree of con... [more]

© 2013 Elsevier B.V. Arsenic (As) concentrations in tube-well water, sediment, and biological samples, including hair, nail and urine were measured to determine the degree of contamination in groundwater and its impact on local inhabitants in the largest populated riverine island Majuli, Assam, India. Arsenic in the groundwater (. n=. 380) ranged from < 3 to 468. µg/L with 37.6% and 16% of the samples having As above 10. µg/L and 50. µg/L, respectively. Arsenic concentration in the groundwater gradually decreased beyond 25. m depth of tube-wells. Nearly 90% of urine, 100% of hair and 97% of nail samples had As above the normal ranges, but mean As concentrations in hair, nail and urine of Majuli residents were lower than those in o ther contaminated areas of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain. Significant positive correlations were observed between As in drinking water and As concentrations in hair, nail and urine samples (. r=. 0.71-0.78). The range of As concentration in bore-hole sediment was 0.29-1.44. mg/kg. The correlation between As and iron in sediment was found to be very poor. Hydrogeological studies are required to understand the source and mobilization process of As in groundwater of Majuli. Early mitigation measures are urgently needed to save the inhabitants of Majuli from arsenic exposure and possible health effects.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.09.022
Citations Scopus - 7
2014 Rahman MA, Rahman MM, Reichman SM, Lim RP, Naidu R, 'Arsenic speciation in australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: Implications for human health risk', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62 6016-6024 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/jf501077w
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2014 Rahman MA, Rahman MM, Reichman SM, Lim RP, Naidu R, 'Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: Health hazard', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 100 53-60 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.024
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 34
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2014 Rahman MA, Hogan B, Duncan E, Doyle C, Krassoi R, Rahman MM, et al., 'Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp CE-35)', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 106 126-135 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.03.004
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Hossain MA, Rahman MM, Murrill M, Das B, Roy B, Dey S, et al., 'Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India', Science of the Total Environment, 463-464 1217-1224 (2013)

A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per ... [more]

A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12. ±. 1.17. L/day and 78.07. ±. 47.08. mL/kg/day (± SD), res pectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age < . 15. years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14. L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55. years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15. years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80. ±. 0.64. L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10. L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92. L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24. L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.057
Citations Scopus - 22
2013 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Murrill M, Das R, Siddayya, Patil SG, et al., 'Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 262 1048-1055 (2013)

This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in... [more]

This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10µgL -1 (maximum 303µgL -1 ). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000mgkg -1 possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in three out of four patients. Based on the time-course of As-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.002
Citations Scopus - 23
2013 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain, its health effects and an approach for mitigation', Environmental Earth Sciences, 70 1993-2008 (2013)

The authors&apos; survey of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain (area 569,749 km 2 ; population &gt; 500 million) over the past 20 years and analysis of more than 220,000 ha... [more]

The authors' survey of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain (area 569,749 km 2 ; population > 500 million) over the past 20 years and analysis of more than 220,000 hand tube-well water samples revealed groundwater arsenic contamination in the floodplains of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Assam) in India and the Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river in Bangladesh. On average, 50 % of the water samples contain arsenic above the World Health Organization guideline value of 10 µg/L in India and Bangladesh. More than 100 million people in the GMB plain are potentially at risk. The authors' medical team screened around 155,000 people from the affected villages and registered 16,000 patients with different types of arsenical skin lesions. Arsenic neuropathy and adverse pregnancy outcomes have been recorded. Infants and children drinking arsenic-contaminated water are believed to be at high risk. About 45,000 biological samples analyzed from arsenic-affected villages of the GMB plain revealed an elevated level of arsenic present in patients as well as non-patients, indicating that many are sub-clinically affected. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, there are huge surface water in rivers, wetlands, and flooded river basins. In the arsenic-affected GMB plain, the crisis is not over water scarcity but about managing the available water resources. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s12665-013-2699-y
Citations Scopus - 15
2013 Rahman MM, Asaduzzaman M, Naidu R, 'Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 262 1056-1063 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.06.045
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 31
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Mitra S, Chatterjee A, Das D, Das B, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in India: A review of its magnitude, health, social, Socio-economic effects and approaches for arsenic mitigation', Journal of the Indian Society of Agricultural Statistics, 67 236-266 (2013)
2013 Rahman M, Chakraborti D, 'Comment on ¿High arsenic in rice is associated with elevated genotoxic effects in humans¿', Scientific Reports, 3 (2013)
DOI 10.1038/srep02195
2012 Sarkar B, Naidu R, Rahman MM, Megharaj M, Xi Y, 'Organoclays reduce arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility in contaminated soils', JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS, 12 704-712 (2012)
DOI 10.1007/s11368-012-0487-z
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2010 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Das B, Murrill M, Dey S, Chandra Mukherjee S, et al., 'Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: A 14-year study report', Water Research, 44 5789-5802 (2010)

Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 dis... [more]

Since 1996, 52,202 water samples from hand tubewells were analyzed for arsenic (As) by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) from all 64 districts of Bangladesh; 27.2% and 42.1% of the tubewells had As above 50 and 10 µg/l, respectively; 7.5% contained As above 300 µg/l, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. The groundwater of 50 districts contained As above the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water (50 µg/l), and 59 districts had As above the WHO guideline value (10 µg/l). Water analyses from the four principal geomorphological regions of Bangladesh showed that hand tubewells of the Tableland and Hill tract regions are primarily free from As contamination, while the Flood plain and Deltaic region, including the Coastal region, are highly As-contaminated. Arsenic concentration was usually observed to decrease with increasing tubewell depth; however, 16% of tubewells deeper than 100 m, which is often considered to be a safe depth, contained As above 50 µg/l. In tubewells deeper than 350 m, As > 50 µg/l has not been found. The estimated number of tubewells in 50 As-affected districts was 4.3 million. Based on the analysis of 52,202 hand tubewell water samples during the last 14 years, we estimate that around 36 million and 22 million people could be drinking As-contaminated water above 10 and 50 µg/l, respectively. However for roughly the last 5 years due to mitigation efforts by the government, non-governmental organizations and international aid agencies, many individuals living in these contaminated areas have been drinking As-safe water. From 50 contaminated districts with tubewell As concentrations > 50 µg/l, 52% of sampled hand tubewells contained As < 10 µg/l, and these tubewells could be utilized immediately as a source of safe water in these affected regions provided regular monitoring for temporal variation in As concentration. Even in the As-affected Flood plain, sampled tubewells from 22 thanas in 4 districts were almost entirely As-safe. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the challenge of managing available water resources. The development of community-specific safe water sources coupled with local participation and education are required to slow the current effects of widespread As poisoning and to prevent this disaster from continuing to plague individuals in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.051
Citations Scopus - 100
2009 Chakraborti D, Das B, Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Biswas B, Goswami AB, et al., 'Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in the state of West Bengal, India: A 20-year study report', Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53 542-551 (2009)

Since 1988 we have analyzed 140 150 water samples from tube wells in all 19 districts of West Bengal for arsenic; 48.1% had arsenic above 10 µg/L (WHO guideline value), 23.8% abo... [more]

Since 1988 we have analyzed 140 150 water samples from tube wells in all 19 districts of West Bengal for arsenic; 48.1% had arsenic above 10 µg/L (WHO guideline value), 23.8% above 50 µg/L (Indian Standard) and 3.3% above 300 µg/L (concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions). Based on arsenic concentrations we have classified West Bengal into three zones: highly affected (9 districts mainly in eastern side of Bhagirathi River), mildly affected (5 districts in northern part) and unaffected (5 districts in western part). The estimated number of tube wells in 8 of the highly affected districts is 1.3 million, and estimated population drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 and 50 µg/L were 9.5 and 4.2 million, respectively. In West Bengal alone, 26 million people are potentially at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated water (above 10 µg/L). Studying information for water from different depths from 107 253 tube wells, we noted that arsenic concentration decreased with increasing depth. Measured arsenic concentration in two tube wells in Kolkata for 325 and 51 days during 2002-2005, showed 15% oscillatory movement without any long-term trend. Regional variability is dependent on sub-surface geology. In the arsenic-affected flood plain of the river Ganga, the crisis is not having too little water to satisfy our needs, it is the crisis of managing the water. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

DOI 10.1002/mnfr.200700517
Citations Scopus - 100
2009 Rahman MM, Naidu R, Bhattacharya P, 'Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Southeast Asia region', ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 31 9-21 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-008-9233-2
Citations Scopus - 73Web of Science - 54
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2009 Rahman MM, Chen Z, Naidu R, 'Extraction of arsenic species in soils using microwave-assisted extraction detected by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry', ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 31 93-102 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-008-9227-0
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Zuliang Chen, Ravi Naidu
2009 Rahman MM, Owens G, Naidu R, 'Arsenic levels in rice grain and assessment of daily dietary intake of arsenic from rice in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh-implications to groundwater irrigation', ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 31 179-187 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-008-9238-x
Citations Scopus - 50Web of Science - 46
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2009 Rahman MM, Ng JC, Naidu R, 'Chronic exposure of arsenic via drinking water and its adverse health impacts on humans', ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 31 189-200 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-008-9235-0
Citations Scopus - 153Web of Science - 136
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2009 Guo Z, Megharaj M, Beer M, Ming H, Rahman MM, Wu W, Naidu R, 'Heavy metal impact on bacterial biomass based on DNA analyses and uptake by wild plants in the abandoned copper mine soils', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 100 3831-3836 (2009)
DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.043
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 25
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2009 Das B, Rahman MM, Nayak B, Pal A, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjee SC, et al., 'Groundwater Arsenic Contamination, Its Health Effects and Approach for Mitigation in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh', Water Quality, Exposure and Health, 1 5-21 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s12403-008-0002-3
2008 Chen Z, Akter KF, Rahman MM, Naidu R, 'The separation of arsenic species in soils and plant tissues by anion-exchange chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry using various mobile phases', MICROCHEMICAL JOURNAL, 89 20-28 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/j.microc.2007.10.007
Citations Scopus - 26Web of Science - 26
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Zuliang Chen
2007 Chen Z, Rahman MM, Naidu R, 'Speciation of vanadium by anion-exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and con. rmation of vanadium complex formation using electrospray mass spectrometry', JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, 22 811-816 (2007)
DOI 10.1039/b705481e
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Zuliang Chen
2006 Hossain MA, Mukharjee A, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, et al., 'Million dollar arsenic removal plants in West Bengal, India: Useful or not?', Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 41 216-225 (2006)

The effectiveness of arsenic removal plants (ARPs) to provide safe water was evaluated based on a study of 577 ARPs out of 1900 installed in 5 arsenic-affected districts of West B... [more]

The effectiveness of arsenic removal plants (ARPs) to provide safe water was evaluated based on a study of 577 ARPs out of 1900 installed in 5 arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 577, 145 (25.1%) were found in defunct condition. Both raw and filtered water from 305 ARPs were analyzed for total arsenic concentration. Forty-eight ARPs were installed despite raw water arsenic concentrations below the Indian standard (50 µg/L) and in 22 cases even below the WHO guideline value (10 µg/L). Among the 264 ARPs having raw water arsenic above 50 µg/L, 140 (53.1%) and 73 (27.7%) failed to remove arsenic below the WHO guideline value and Indian standard, respectively. The highest arsenic concentration in treated water was 705 µg/L. Analysis of 217 treated water samples for iron showed that 175 (80.6%) failed to remove iron below 300 µg/L. The treated water became coloured on standing 6 to 8 h, for 191 (44.2%) ARPs and 25 (5.8%) produced bad-odoured water. Overall, the study showed that 475 (82.3%) of the ARPs were not useful. The reasons for ineffectiveness and poor performance of these ARPs include improper maintenance, sand gushing problems, a lack of user-friendliness and absence of community participation. A comparative study of ARPs in two different blocks (Domkol in Murshidabad district and Swarupnagar in North 24 Parganas) showed that 39 (80%) and 38 (95%) ARPs, respectively, were not useful. Further study in Gram Panchayet Kolsur, Deganga block, North 24 Parganas, showed that 14 (87.5%) ARPs were not useful. Proper watershed management with active participation from the villagers is urgently required for successful mitigation. Copyright © 2006, CAWQ.

Citations Scopus - 14
2006 Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, et al., 'Arsenic contamination in groundwater: A global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario', Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 24 142-163 (2006)

The incidence of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has emerged as a major public-health problem. With newer-affected sites discovered during the last decade, a sign... [more]

The incidence of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has emerged as a major public-health problem. With newer-affected sites discovered during the last decade, a significant change has been observed in the global scenario of arsenic contamination, especially in Asian countries. This communication presents an overview of the current scenario of arsenic contamination in countries across the globe with an emphasis on Asia. Along with the present situation in severely-affected countries in Asia, such as Bangladesh India and China, recent instances from Pakistan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Cambodia, etc. are presented. © 2006 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Citations Scopus - 225
2006 Ahamed S, Sengupta MK, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Mukherjee A, Rahman MM, et al., 'An eight-year study report on arsenic contamination in groundwater and health effects in Eruani Village, Bangladesh and an approach for its mitigation', Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 24 129-141 (2006)

Based on several surveys during 1997-2005 and visits of a medical team to Eruani village, Laksham upazila, Comilla district, Bangladesh, the arsenic contamination situation and co... [more]

Based on several surveys during 1997-2005 and visits of a medical team to Eruani village, Laksham upazila, Comilla district, Bangladesh, the arsenic contamination situation and consequent clinical manifestations of arsenicosis among the villagers, including dermatology, neuropathy, and obstetric outcome, are reported here. Analysis of biological samples from patients and non-patients showed high body burden of arsenic. Even after eight years of known exposure, village children were still drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and many of them had arsenical skin lesions. There were social problems due to the symptoms of arsenicosis. The last survey established that there is a lack of proper awareness among villagers about different aspects of arsenic toxicity. The viability of different options of safe water, such as dugwells, deep tubewells, rainwater harvesting, and surface water with watershed management in the village, was studied. Finally, based on 19 years of field experience, it was felt that, for any successful mitigation programme, emphasis should be given to creating awareness among villagers about the arsenic problem, role of arsenic-free water, better nutrition from local fruits and vegetables, and, above all, active participation of women along with others in the struggle against the arsenic menace. © 2006 International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Citations Scopus - 38
2006 Chen Z, Akter KF, Mahmudur M, Rahman, Naidu R, 'Speciation of arsenic by ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ammonium eluents', JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, 29 2671-2676 (2006)
DOI 10.1002/jssc.200500304
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Zuliang Chen, Ravi Naidu
2005 Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Rahman MM, Mondal D, Lodh D, et al., 'Ineffectiveness and poor reliability of arsenic removal plants in West Bengal, India', Environmental Science and Technology, 39 4300-4306 (2005)

In the recent past, arsenic contamination in groundwater has emerged as an epidemic in different Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and China. Arsenic removal plants (ARP... [more]

In the recent past, arsenic contamination in groundwater has emerged as an epidemic in different Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and China. Arsenic removal plants (ARP) are one possible option to provide arsenic-safe drinking water. This paper evaluates the efficiency of ARP projects in removing arsenic and iron from raw groundwater, on the basis of our 2-year-long study covering 18 ARPs from 11 manufacturers, both from home and abroad, installed in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India, known as th e Technology Park Project (TP project). Immediately after installation of ARPs on August 29, 2001, the villagers began using filtered water for drinking and cooking, even though our first analysis on September 13, 2001 found that 10 of 13 ARPs failed to remove arsenic below the WHO provisional guideline value (10 µg/L), while six plants could not achieve the Indian Standard value (50 µg/L). The highest concentration of arsenic in filtered water was observed to be 364 µg/L. Our 2-year study showed that none of the ARPs could maintain arsenic in filtered water below the WHO provisional guideline value and only two could meet the Indian standard value (50 µg/L) throughout. Standard statistical techniques showed that ARPs from the same manufacturers were not equally efficient. Efficiency of the ARPs was evaluated on the basis of point and interval estimates of the proportion of failure. During the study period almost all the ARPs have undergone minor or major modifications to improve their performance, and after our study, 15 (78%) out of 18 ARPs were no longer in use. In this study, we also analyzed urine samples from villagers in the TP project area and found that 82% of the samples contained arsenic above the normal limit. © 2005 American Chemical Society.

DOI 10.1021/es048703u
Citations Scopus - 78
2005 Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain A, et al., 'Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83 49-57 (2005)

An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact o... [more]

An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact of this contamination on residents. The flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) method was used to measure arsenic concentrations in water and biological samples. Dermatologists recorded the dermatological features of arsenicosis. Out of a total of 336 hand-pumped tube-wells in Rajapur, 91% (307/336) contained arsenic at concentrations > 10 µ/l, and 63% (213/336) contained arsenic at > 50 µ/l. The type of arsenic in groundwater, the variation in concentrations of arsenic as the depth of tube-wells changed, and the iron concentration in the wells were also measured. Altogether 825 of 3500 residents were examined for skin lesions; of these, 149 had lesions caused by exposure to arsenic. Of the 420 biological samples collected and analysed, 92.6% (389) contained arsenic at concentrations that were above normal. Thus many villagers might be subclinically affected. Although five arsenic-filtering devices had been installed in Rajapur, it appears that villagers are still exposed to raised concentrations of arsenic in their drinking-water. Detailed village-level studies of arsenic-affected areas in West Bengal are required in order to understand the magnitude of contamination and its effects on people. Villagers are ill-inf ormed about the dangers of drinking arsenic-contaminated water. The contamination could be brought under control by increasing community awareness of the dangers and implementing proper watershed management techniques that involve local people.

Citations Scopus - 44
2005 Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, Das B, et al., 'The magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its health effects to the inhabitants of the Jalangi - One of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India', Science of the Total Environment, 338 189-200 (2005)

To better understand the magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on human beings, a detailed study was carried out in Jalangi, one of the 85 arsenic affe... [more]

To better understand the magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on human beings, a detailed study was carried out in Jalangi, one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India. Jalangi block is approximately 122 km 2 in size and has a population of 215 538. Of the 1916 water samples analyzed (about 31% of the total hand tubewells) from the Jalangi block, 77.8% were found to have arsenic above 10 µg l -1 [the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended level of arsenic in drinking water], 51% had arsenic above 50 µg l -1 (the Indian standard of permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water) and 17% had arsenic at above 300 µg l -1 (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions). From our preliminary medical screening, 1488 of the 7221 people examined in the 44 villages of Jalangi block exhibit definite arsenical skin lesions. An estimation of probable population that may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer in the Jalangi block has been evaluated comparing along with international data. A total of 1600 biologic samples including hair, nail and urine have been analyzed from the affected villages of Jalangi block and on an average 88% of the biologic samples contain arsenic above the normal level. Thus, a vast population of the block may have arsenic body burden. Cases of Bowen's disease and cancer have been identified among adults who also show arsenical skin lesions and children in this block are also seriously affected. Obstetric examinations were also carried out in this block. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.06.022
Citations Scopus - 61
2005 Basu A, Som A, Ghoshal S, Mondal L, Chaubey RC, Bhilwade HN, et al., 'Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals susceptible to arsenic induced toxicity in West Bengal, India', Toxicology Letters, 159 100-112 (2005)

Assessment of DNA damage was carried out using alkaline comet assay in lymphocytes of 30 individuals exposed to high levels of arsenic (247.12 ± 18.93 µg/l) through contaminated... [more]

Assessment of DNA damage was carried out using alkaline comet assay in lymphocytes of 30 individuals exposed to high levels of arsenic (247.12 ± 18.93 µg/l) through contaminated groundwater in North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. All of them exhibited high arsenic contents in nail (4.20 ± 0.67 µg/g), hair (2.06 ± 0.20 µg/g) and urine (259.75 ± 33.89 µg/l) samples and manifested various arsenical skin lesions. Unexposed samples were collected from 30 residents of the unaffected East Midnapur district with very little or no exposure to arsenic (7.69 ± 0.49 µg/l) in drinking water. The results were evaluated principally by manual analysis of comets and partly by computerized image analysis. Both the analytical methods exhibited a high degree of agreement in results. The exposed participants expressed significantly higher DNA damage (p < 0.01) in their lymphocytes than the unexposed participants. Alkaline comet assay was also combined with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase enzyme digestion to confirm that arsenic induced oxidative base damage in the lymphocytes. Significant positive trend effects of comet lengths in relation to arsenic levels in water prove that DNA damage can be used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic exposure. This study demonstrates that arsenic induced significant DNA damage in the exposed participants, which could correspond to a higher susceptibility to arsenic induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.05.001
Citations Scopus - 37
2005 Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain MA, et al., 'Status of groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in a Gram Panchayet (cluster of villages) in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected districts in West Bengal, India', Journal of Water and Health, 3 283-296 (2005)

A detailed study was carried out in a cluster of villages known as Sagarpara Gram Panchayet (GP), covering an area of 20km 2 and population of 24,419 to determine the status of g... [more]

A detailed study was carried out in a cluster of villages known as Sagarpara Gram Panchayet (GP), covering an area of 20km 2 and population of 24,419 to determine the status of groundwater arsenic contamination and related health effects. The arsenic analysis of all hand tubewells (n = 565) in working condition showed, 86.2% and 58.8% of them had arsenic above 10, and 50 µgl -1 , respectively. The groundwater samples from all 21 villages in Sagarpara GP contained arsenic above 50 µgl -1 . In our preliminary clinical survey across the 21 villages, 3,302 villagers were examined and 679 among them (20.6%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A total of 850 biological samples (hair, nail and urine) were analysed from the affected villages and, on average, 85% of them contained arsenic above the normal level. Thus, many people of Sagarpara might be sub-clinically affected. Our data was compared with the international one to estimate population in Sagarpara GP at risk from arsenical skin lesions and cancer. Proper watershed management and economical utilization of available surface water resources along with the villagers' participation is urgently required to combat the present arsenic crisis. © IWA Publishing 2005.

DOI 10.2166/wh.2005.038
Citations Scopus - 11
2005 Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Murshidabad - One of the nine groundwater arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: Dermatological, neurological, and obstetric findings', Clinical Toxicology, 43 835-848 (2005)

Introduction. To understand the severity of related health effects of chronic arsenic exposure in West Bengal, a detailed 3-year study was carried out in Murshidabad, one of the n... [more]

Introduction. To understand the severity of related health effects of chronic arsenic exposure in West Bengal, a detailed 3-year study was carried out in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Methods. We screened 25,274 people from 139 arsenic-affected villages in Murshidabad to identify patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity for evidence of multisystemic features and collected biological samples such as head hair, nail, and spot urine from the patients along with the tubewell water they were consuming. Results. Out of 25,274 people screened, 4813 (19%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A case series involving arsenical skin lesions resulting in cancer and gangrene were noted during this study. Representative histopathological pictures of skin biopsy of different types of lesions were also presented. Out of 2595 children we examined for arsenical skin lesions, 122 (4%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions, melanosis with or without keratosis. Different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features were noticed among the arsenic-affected villagers. Both the arsenic content in the drinking water and duration of exposure may be responsible in increasing the susceptibility of pregnant women to spontaneous ab ortions, stillbirths, preterm births, low birth weights, and neonatal deaths. Some additional multisystemic features such as weakness and lethargy, chronic respiratory problems, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anemia were also recorded in the affected population. Discussion. The findings from this survey on different health effects of arsenic exposure were compared to those from previous studies carried out on arsenic-affected populations in India and Bangladesh as well as other affected countries. Conclusion. Multisystemic disorders, including dermal effects, neurological complications, and adverse obstetric outcomes, were observed to be associated with chronic arsenic exposure in the study population in Murshidabad, West Bengal. The magnitude of severity was related to the concentration of arsenic in water as well as duration of the exposure. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc.

DOI 10.1080/15563650500357495
Citations Scopus - 70
2005 Mahmudur Rahman M, Kumar Sengupta M, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Amir Hossain M, et al., 'Murshidabad - One of the nine groundwater arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part I: Magnitude of contamination and population at risk', Clinical Toxicology, 43 823-834 (2005)

Introduction. To understand the severity of the arsenic crisis in West Bengal, India, a detailed, 3-year study was undertaken in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected dist... [more]

Introduction. To understand the severity of the arsenic crisis in West Bengal, India, a detailed, 3-year study was undertaken in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. The district covers an area of 5324 km 2 with a population of 5.3 million. Methods. Hand tubewell water samples and biologic samples were collected from Murshidabad and analyzed for arsenic by FI-HG-AAS method. Inter laboratory analysis and analyses of standards were undertaken for quality assurance. Results. During our survey we analyzed 29,612 hand tubewell water samples for arsenic from both contaminated and noncontaminated areas, and 26% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L while 53.8% had arsenic above 10 µg/L. Of the 26 blocks in Murshidabad, 24 were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L. Based on our generated data we estimated that approximately 0.2 million hand tubewells are installed in all 26 blocks of Murshidabad and 1.8 million in nine arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. It was estimated on the basis of our data that about 2.5 million and 1.2 million people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations above 10 and 50 µg/L levels respectively in this district. The analysis of total 3800 biologic (nail, urine, and hair) samples from arsenic-affected villages revealed that 95% of the nail and 94% of the urine samples contained arsenic above the normal levels and 75% of the hair samples were found to have arsenic above the toxic level. Thus, many villagers in the affected areas of Murshidabad might be subclinically affected. Discussion and Conclusion. Comparing our extrapolated data with international dose response results, we estimated how many people may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer. Finally, if the exposed population is provided safe water, better nutrition, and proper awareness about the arsenic problem, lives can be saved and countless suffering of the affected population can be avoided. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc.

DOI 10.1080/15563650500357461
Citations Scopus - 25
2004 Acharyya SK, Shah BA, Chakraborti D, Ahamed S, Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, et al., 'Risk of arsenic contamination in groundwater affecting the Ganga Alluvial Plain, India (multiple letters) [3]', Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 21
2004 Oller A, Bates H, Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, et al., 'Metals in perspective: Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain', Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 6 (2004)
DOI 10.1039/b406573p
Citations Scopus - 49
2004 Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain.', Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM, 6 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 134
2003 Sengupta MK, Mukherjee A, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Rahman MM, Lodh D, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain of India and Bangladesh', Archives of Environmental Health, 58 701-702 (2003)
DOI 10.3200/AEOH.58.11.701-702
Citations Scopus - 18
2003 Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Sengupta MK, Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, et al., 'Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: A future danger?', Environmental Health Perspectives, 111 1194-1201 (2003)

The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga ... [more]

The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 µg/L, with 19.9% > 300 µg/L, the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a self-selected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 µg/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation.

Citations Scopus - 293
2003 Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chowdhury UK, Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, 'Arsenic Toxicity from Homeopathic Treatment', Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 41 963-967 (2003)

Homeopathic medicine is commonly believed to be relatively harmless. However, treatment with improperly used homeopathic preparations may be dangerous. Case Reports. Case 1 presen... [more]

Homeopathic medicine is commonly believed to be relatively harmless. However, treatment with improperly used homeopathic preparations may be dangerous. Case Reports. Case 1 presented with melanosis and keratosis following short-term use of Arsenic Bromide 1-X followed by long-term use of other arsenic-containing homeopathic preparations. Case 2 developed melanotic arsenical skin lesions after taking Arsenicum Sulfuratum Flavum-1-X (Arsenic S.F. 1-X) in an effort to treat his white skin patches. Case 3 consumed Arsenic Bromide 1-X for 6 days in an effort to treat his diabetes and developed an acute gastrointestinal illness followed by leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diffuse dermal melanosis with patchy desquamation. Within ~2 weeks, he developed a toxic polyneuropathy resulting in quadriparesis. Arsenic concentrations in all three patients were significantly elevated in integument tissue samples. In all three cases, arsenic concentrations in drinking water were normal but arsenic concentrations in samples of the homeopathic medications were elevated. Conclusion. Arsenic used therapeutically in homeopathic medicines can cause clinical toxicity if the medications are improperly used.

DOI 10.1081/CLT-120026518
Citations Scopus - 34
2003 Mukherjee SC, Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, et al., 'Neuropathy in arsenic toxicity from groundwater arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India', Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 38 165-183 (2003)

Large number of people from 9 out of 18 districts of West Bengal, India are endemically exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater due to drinking of tubewell water containing ar... [more]

Large number of people from 9 out of 18 districts of West Bengal, India are endemically exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater due to drinking of tubewell water containing arsenic level above World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 µg/L. From our ongoing studies on neurological involvement in patients of arsenicosis from different districts of West Bengal, we report our findings in a total of 451 patients of three districts (Murshidabad, Nadia, and Burdwan), comprising 267 males and 184 females with age ranging from 11 to 79 years. They all had arsenical skin lesions, positive biomarkers and identified source of arsenic contaminated water drinking. Peripheral neuropathy was the predominant neurological complication in these patients affecting 154 (37.3%) of 413 patients of Group 1 and 33 (86.8%) of 38 patients of Group 2. Other possible causes and alternative explanations of neuropathy were excluded. The temporal profile in most of the cases (154 of Group 1) were of chronic affection while the 33 patients of Group 2 developed both neuropathy and dermopathy subacutely. Subacutely affected Group 2 patients had much higher incidence of neuropathy. Paresthesias and pains in the distal parts of extremities were much higher in incidence in Group 2 (73.7% and 23.7% respectively) than in Group 1 (18.4% and 11.1%). Distal limb weakness or atrophy was evident in 7.3% in Group 1 and 10.5% in Group 2. Overall, sensory features were more common than motor features in patients of neuropathy and sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in 30% and 76.3% and sensorimotor in 7.3% and 10.5% respectively in Group 1 and Group 2 subjects. Nerve conduction and electromyographic studies performed in 88 cases revealed dysfunction of sensory nerve in 45% and 27% and of motor nerve in 20% and 16.7% of patients with moderate degree and mild degree of clinical neuropathies respectively. Evoked potential studies performed in 20 patients were largely normal except for two instances each of abnormal visual evoked potential and brainstem auditory evoked potential findings. Prognosis was favorable in mild and early diagnosed cases of neuropathy whereas most of the other more severe and late diagnosed cases showed slow and partial recovery or even deterioration. Outcome in neuropathic patients of arsenicosis and long term toxic neurologic effects yet unexplored and unknown remain as matters of future concern requiring close monitoring.

DOI 10.1081/ESE-120016887
Citations Scopus - 87
2003 Chowdhury UK, Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Roy S, et al., 'Pattern of excretion of arsenic compounds [arsenite, arsenate, MMA(V), DMA(V)] in urine of children compared to adults from an arsenic exposed area in Bangladesh', Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 38 87-113 (2003)

Urinary arsenic is generally considered as the most reliable indicator of recent exposure to inorganic arsenic and is used as the main bio-marker of exposure. However, due to the ... [more]

Urinary arsenic is generally considered as the most reliable indicator of recent exposure to inorganic arsenic and is used as the main bio-marker of exposure. However, due to the different toxicity of arsenic compounds, speciation of arsenic in urine is generally considered to be more convenient for health risk assessment than measuring total arsenic concentration. Additionally, it can give valuable information about the metabolism of arsenic species within the body. In our study, for exposed group - 42 urine samples were collected from Datterhat (South) village of Madaripur district, Bangladesh and an average arsenic concentration in their drinking water was 376 µg/L (range 118 to 620 µg/L). For control group, 27 urine samples were collected from a non-affected district, Badhadamil village of Medinipur district, West Bengal, India, where arsenic concentration in their drinking water is below 3 µg/L. The arsenic species in the urine were separated and quantified by using HPLC-ICP-MS. The sum of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites was also determined by FI-HG-AAS. Results indicate that average total urinary arsenic metabolites in children's urine is higher than adults and total arsenic excretion per kg body weight is also higher for children than adults. For arsenic species between adults and children, it has been observed that inorganic arsenic (In-As) in average is 2.36% and MMA is 6.55% lower for children than adults while DMA is 8.91% (average) higher in children than adults. The efficiency of the methylation process is also assessed by the ratio between urinary concentration of putative product and putative substrate of the arsenic metabolic pathway. Higher values mean higher methylation capacity. Results show the values of the MMA/In-As ratio for adults and children are 0.93 and 0.74 respectively. These results indicate that first reaction of the metabolic pathway is more active in adults than children. But a significant increase in the values of the DMA/MMA ratio in children than adults of exposed group (8.15 vs. 4.11 respectively) indicates 2nd methylation step is more active in children than adults. It has also been shown that the distribution of the values of DMA/MMA ratio to exposed group decrease with increasing age (2nd methylation process). Thus from these results we may infer that children retain less arsenic in their body than adults. This may also explain why children do not show skin lesions compared to adults when both are drinking same contaminated water.

DOI 10.1081/ESE-120016883
Citations Scopus - 67
2003 Rahman MM, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, et al., 'Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India', Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 38 25-59 (2003)

To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Ar... [more]

To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking, cooking and 29.2% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L, the maximum permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and 52.8% have arsenic above 10 µg/L, WHO recommended value of arsenic in drinking water. Out of the 22 blocks of North 24-Parganas, in 20 blocks arsenic has been found above the maximum permissible limit and so far in 16 blocks people have been identified as suffering from arsenical skin lesions. From the generated data, it is estimated that about 2.0 million and 1.0 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 µg/L and 50 µg/L level, respectively in North 24-Parganas alone. So far, in our preliminary study 33,000 people have been examined at random from arsenic affected villages in North 24-Parganas and 2274 people have been registered with arsenical skin lesions. Extrapolation of the available data indicates about 0.1 million people may be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from North 24-Parganas alone. A sum of 21,000 hair, nail, and urine samples analyses from arsenic affected villages show 56%, 80%, and 87% people have arsenic in biological specimen more than normal/toxic (hair) level, respectively. Thus, many may be subclinically affected. Due to use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for agricultural irrigation, rice and vegetable are getting arsenic contaminated. Hence there is an additional arsenic burden from food chain. People from arsenic affected villages are also suffering from arsenical neuropathy. A followup study indicates that many of the victims suffering from severe arsenical skin lesions for several years are now suffering from cancer or have already died of cancer.

DOI 10.1081/ESE-120016658
Citations Scopus - 89
2002 Rahman MM, Mukherjee D, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, et al., 'Effectiveness and reliability of arsenic field testing kits: Are the million dollar screening projects effective or not?', Environmental Science Technology, 36 5385-5394 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 133
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2002 Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, et al., 'Arsenic calamity in the Indian subcontinent: What lessons have been learned?', Talanta, 58 3-22 (2002)

Groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in West Bengal (WB, India) was first reported in December 1983, when 63 people from three villages of two districts were identified by healt... [more]

Groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in West Bengal (WB, India) was first reported in December 1983, when 63 people from three villages of two districts were identified by health officials as suffering from As toxicity. As of October 2001, the authors from the School of Environmental Studies (SOES) have analyzed > 105 000 water samples, > 25 000 urine/hair/nail/skin-scale samples, screened approximately 86 000 people in WB. The results show that more than 6 million people from nine affected districts (total population approximately 42 million) of 18 total districts are drinking water containing = 50 µg 1 -1 As and > 300 000 people may have visible arsenical skin lesions. 2 700 villages have so far been identified where groundwater contains arsenic above 50 µg 1 -1 . The As content of the physiological samples indicates that many more may be sub-clinically affected. Children in As-affected villages may be in special danger. In 1995, we had found three villages in two districts of Bangladesh where groundwater contained = 50 µg 1 -1 As. The present situation is that in 2000 villages in 50 out of total 64 districts of Bangladesh, groundwater contains As above 50 µg 1 -1 and more than 25 million people are drinking water above = 50 µg 1 -1 As. After years of research in WB and Bangladesh, additional affected villages are being identified on virtually every new survey. The present research may still reflect only the tip of iceberg in identifying the extent of As contamination. Although the WB As problem became public almost 20 years ago, there are still few concrete plans, much less achievements, to solve the problem. Villagers are probably in worse condition than 20 years ago. Even now, many who are drinking As-contaminated water are not even aware of that fact and its consequences. 20 years ago when the WB government was first informed, it was a casual matter, without the realization of the magnitude this problem was to assume. At least up to 1994, one committee after another was formed but no solution was forthcoming. None of the expert reports has suggested solutions that involve awareness campaigns, education of the villagers and participation of the people. Initially, international aid agencies working in the subcontinent simply did not consider that As could be present in groundwater. Even now, while As in drinking water is being highlighted, there have been almost no studies on how additional As is introduced through the food chain, as large amounts of As are present in the agricultural irrigation water. Past mistakes, notably the ceaseless exploitation of groundwater for irrigation, continue unabated today; at this time, more groundwater is being withdrawn than ever before. No efforts have been made to adopt effective watershed management to harness the extensive surface water and rainwater resources of this region. Proper watershed management and participation by villagers are needed for the proper utilization of water resources and to combat the As calamity. As in groundwater may just be nature's initial warning about more dangerous toxins yet to come. What lessons have we really learned? © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

DOI 10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00270-9
Citations Scopus - 315
2002 Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Rahman M, Chakraborti D, 'Arsenic exposure and health effects', Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 40 529-530 (2002)
2002 Mazumder DNG, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Rahman MM, Chakraborti D, 'Arsenic exposure and health effects [6] (multiple letters)', Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 40 527-530 (2002)
2001 Rahman MM, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjee SC, Mondal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, et al., 'Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India - A review and commentary', Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 39 683-700 (2001)

Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization&apos;s maximum permissible limit of 50µ... [more]

Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50µg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km 2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km 2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50µg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 µg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 µg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement was evident with and without neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic studies proved helpful for the diagnosis of neurological involvement. Advanced neglected cases with many years of exposure presented with cancer of skin and of the lung, liver, kidney, and bladder. The diagnosis of subclinical arsenicosis was made in 83%, 93%, and 95% of hair, nail and urine samples, respectively, in Bangladesh; and 57%, 83%, and 89% of hair, nail, and urine samples, respectively in West Bengal. Approximately 90% of children below 11 years of age living in the affected areas show hair and nail arsenic above the normal level. Children appear to have a higher body burden than adults despite fewer dermatological manifestations. Limited trials of 4 arsenic chelators in the treatment of chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal over the last 2 decades do not provide any clinical, biochemical, or histopathological benefit except for the accompanying preliminary report of clinical benefit with dimercaptopropanesulfonate therapy. Extensive efforts are needed in both countries to combat the arsenic crisis including control of tube-wells, watershed management with effective use of the prodigious supplies of surface water, traditional water management, public awareness programs, and education concerning the apparent benefits of optimal nutrition.

DOI 10.1081/CLT-100108509
Citations Scopus - 297
2001 Chowdhury UK, Rahman M, Mandal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Basu GK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in West Bengal - India and Bangladesh', Environmental Sciences, 8 393-415 (2001)
1999 Chakraborti D, Biswas BK, Basu GK, Chowdhury UK, Roy Chowdhury T, Lodh D, et al., 'Possible arsenic contamination free groundwater source in Bangladesh', Journal of Surface Science and Technology, 15 180-188 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 14
1994 Rahman MM, 'A review of the institutional housing finance situation in the urban areas of Bangladesh', Third World Planning Review, 16 71-85 (1994)

This paper presents an overview of the institutional housing finance situation in Bangladesh. It examines the contributions of financial institutions, housing societies and govern... [more]

This paper presents an overview of the institutional housing finance situation in Bangladesh. It examines the contributions of financial institutions, housing societies and government schemes in urban housing finance and evaluates the performance of the country's only specialised housing finance institution. It also assesses the possibility of obtaining external funds for housing and related development activities. It concludes with a discussion of ways to increase institutional housing finance in the urban areas of Bangladesh, and makes recommendations towards that in general and housing finance for low- and middle-income groups in particular. -from Author

Show 72 more journal articles

Conference (49 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Shakoor MB, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Shahid M, et al., 'Speciation and health risk assessment of arsenic in groundwater of Punjab, Pakistan', Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 (2016) [E1]
DOI 10.1201/b20466-215
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Rahman MM, Naidu R, Bhattacharya P, 'Arsenic and trace elements in groundwater, vegetables and selected food grains from middle gangetic plain¿human health perspective', Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 (2016) [E1]
DOI 10.1201/b20466-154
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Islam S, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Nuruzzaman M, Naidu R, 'Can irrigation practice for rice cultivation reduce the risk of arsenic to human?', Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 (2016)

© 2016 Taylor &amp; Francis Group, London. Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in Bangladesh and many parts of the world. Rice is one o... [more]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in Bangladesh and many parts of the world. Rice is one of the crops affected by arsenic due to its semiaquatic nature. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of variety and water management on the bioaccumulation of arsenic within the rice plants in different rice cultivars. Ten of the most popularly grown BRRI, BINA and local rice cultivars were screened for susceptibility to arsenic under varying irrigation options. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with conventional irrigation practice. Results showed that appropriate water management practice and suitable variety resulted in a reduction of grain arsenic level around 39% in addition to increase grain yield around 38%.

Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Nuruzzaman M, Rahman M, Liu Y, Islam S, Naidu R, 'Nano-encapsulated pesticides: dream or nightmare, an environmental aspect' (2015)
2015 Usese A, Chukwu OL, Naidu R, Rahman M, Islam S, Oyewo EO, 'Human health implications of arsenic levels in a tropical open lagoon' (2015)
2015 Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Concentration of arsenic in home grown vegetables: health implications' (2015)
2015 Islam S, Rahman M, Islam MR, Naidu R, 'Total arsenic levels in rice from Bangladesh and human health implications' (2015)
2015 Islam S, Rahman M, Duan L, Islam MR, Nuruzzaman M, Naidu M, 'Bioavailability of arsenic from rice: significance of rice genotypes', Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As2016) (2015)
2015 Rahman M, 'Geographical variation of arsenic in rice grain from Bangladesh' (2015)
2015 Islam S, Rahman M, Islam MR, Nuruzzaman M, Naidu R, 'Water management practices impacts arsenic toxicity and yield in rice' (2015)
2014 Nuruzzaman M, Islam MS, Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Effect of heat on particle size distribution of nano calcium carbonate' (2014)
2014 Nuruzzaman M, Islam MS, Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Dispersion of nanoparticles in aqueous suspension as influenced by pH and ultrasonication' (2014)
2013 Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Potential human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements in contaminated regions of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India' (2013)
2013 Krehel A, Sankar MS, Bednar A, Hettiarachchi G, Rahman M, Attanayake C, et al., 'Groundwater-Sediment sorption mechanisms and bioaccumulation of arsenic in rice within West Bengal, India' (2013)
2013 Islam MM, Rahman M, Naidu R, 'Effect of nano-zeolite and biosolids on plants grown in saline soils' (2013)
2012 Rahman M, Asaduzzman M, Naidu R, 'Concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead in home grown vegetables' (2012)
2012 Rahman M, Asaduzzman M, Naidu R, 'Arsenic intake from water, rice and vegetables in Bangladesh' (2012)
2012 Rahman MM, Asaduzzaman M, Naidu R, 'Concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead in home garden vegetables of Bangladesh', Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment (2012)

The study assesses the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in home-garden vegetables from a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. The mean concentrat... [more]

The study assesses the concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in home-garden vegetables from a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 87 vegetables were 113 %mu;g/kg, 134 %mu;g/kg and 3100 %mu;g/kg, respectively. The daily total consumption of As, Cd and Pb from vegetables alone for adult was 18 %mu;g, 22 %mu;g and 440 %mu;g, respectively. Vegetables alone did not contribute sufficiently enough to exceed Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) values for Cd except for Pb. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.

Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2011 Chakraborti D, Das B, Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra Plain: health effects, arsenic in food chain, social, socio-economic effects, future cancer risk and approach for mitigation' (2011)
2011 Rahman M, Asaduzzman M, Naidu R, 'Concentration of arsenic in home grown vegetables' (2011)
2011 Naidu R, Rahman M, 'Identification and treatment of arsenicosis patients, arsenic in food chain and mitigation issues: experience from arsenic contaminated regions' (2011)
2011 Rahman M, 'Ingestion of arsenic from drinking water, rice and vegetables: A case study. International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements' (2011)
2011 Rahman M, Chen Z, Naidu R, 'Extraction of arsenic species in soils using microwave assisted extraction detected by IC-ICP-MS' (2011)
2010 Naidu R, Rahman M, 'Concentration of arsenic and other metals in agricultural soils of Bangladesh' (2010)
2010 Rahman MM, Megharaj M, Naidu R, Asaduzzaman M, 'Arsenic exposure from drinking water and rice in the Noakhali district of Bangladesh', Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, As 2010 - 3rd International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment (2010)
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2009 Chan Z, Rahman M, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R, 'Speciation study of metals and metal complexes using IC-ICPMS technique' (2009)
2007 Rahman M, 'A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs and an estimation of daily dietary intake of arsenic by the villagers from an arsenic affected police station of Bangladesh' (2007)
2006 Rahman M, 'Potential arsenic exposure pathways in Bangladesh' (2006)
2006 Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Rahman M, et al., 'Major issues to be addressed to combat arsenic crisis in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain' (2006)
2004 Hossain MA, Mandal D, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Rahman M, Lodh D, et al., 'Effectiveness and usefulness of arsenic removal plants: an experience in West Bengal, India' (2004)
2004 Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Das B, Hossain MA, et al., 'Status of groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected district of West Bengal, India' (2004)
2004 Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Ahamed S, Das B, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and health effects in Bangladesh-eight years study report' (2004)
2004 Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Rahman M, Lodh D, Das B, et al., 'Increasing trend in hand tubewells and arsenic concentration in affected areas of West Bengal, India: A future danger' (2004)
2004 Pati S, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Rahman M, Lodh D, et al., 'Pregnancy outcome associated with chronic arsenic exposure: A preliminary study in the states of West Bengal and Bihar of India' (2004)
2004 Ahamed S, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Rahman M, Lodh D, Das B, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and suffering of people in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand states of India in Ganga plain' (2004)
2004 Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Lodh D, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in Ganga- Meghna-Brahmaputra plain' (2004)
2004 Mukherjee SC, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Rahman M, Lodh D, et al., 'Arsenic neuropathy from groundwater arsenic contamination in India' (2004)
2003 Ahamed S, Rahman M, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain MA, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in middle Ganga plain: health effects of chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water in Bihar-India' (2003)
2003 Grant TD, Vela NP, Heitkemper DT, Chowdhury UK, Rahman M, Samanta G, et al., 'Speciation of arsenic in rice, vegetables, and soil samples from areas irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh' (2003)
2002 Paul K, Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Basu GK, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India' (2002)
2002 Mukherjee SC, Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury K, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, et al., 'Neuropathy in chronic arsenic toxicity due to groundwater arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India' (2002)
2002 Rahman M, 'Key issues for arsenic crisis and an approach for its remediation: West Bengal (India) experience' (2002)
2002 Chowdhury UK, Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Paul K, Lodh D, Chanda CR, et al., 'Speciation of arsenic compounds [As(V), As(III), MMA, DMA] in human urine from an arsenic exposed area in Bangladesh' (2002)
2002 Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Chowdhury UK, Paul K, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Basu GK, 'Present groundwater arsenic contamination status in West Bengal, India' (2002)
2001 Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Saha KC, et al., 'Magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected districts in West Bengal, India', Book of Abstract (2001)
2001 Biswas BK, Basu GK, Chowdhury UK, Chowdhury TR, Mandal BK, Rahman M, et al., 'Arsenic distribution in underground aquifer water in Bangladesh' (2001)
2001 Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Lodh D, Basu GK, Roy S, 'Current status of arsenic pollution and health impacts in West Bengal and Bangladesh' (2001)
2001 Chakraborti D, Rahman M, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, et al., 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in South East Asia, with special reference to Bangladesh and West Bengal, India' (2001)
2001 Das D, Chatterjee A, Samanta G, Chowdhury TR, Mandal BK, Dhar RK, et al., 'A simple household device to remove arsenic from groundwater and two years performance report of arsenic removal plant for treating groundwater with community participation' (2001)
Show 46 more conferences

Report (14 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2010 Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and consequent health effects in a historic gold mining area of Gulbarga district, Karnataka: Preliminary study', Preliminary study (2010)
2010 Rahman M, 'Are millions in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain already exposed to arsenic contaminated water potentially at risk from cancer?', preliminary follow up study (2010)
2009 Rahman M, 'Pathways of arsenic transfer in soils irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater of Bangladesh', ACIAR (2009)
2009 Rahman M, 'Uptake of heavy metals in plants grown in contaminated soils from metal smelter in South Australia', University of South Australia (2009)
2008 Rahman M, 'Investigation on stability and preservation of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater', University of South Australia (2008)
2006 Rahman M, 'Monitoring of heavy metals in soils and groundwater of a CCA treated site in South Australia', CRC-CARE (2006)
2005 Rahman M, 'Million-dollar arsenic project in Bangladesh: Arsenic situation deteriorated in Eruani village of Laksam Police Station, Comilla district from 1997 to 2005', . (2005)
2004 Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination in Assam: The latest findings in the Ganga¿Meghna¿Brahmaputra Plain', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
2004 Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenicosis patients in Uttar Pradesh (UP)-India', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
2004 Rahman M, 'Many million dollar projects for arsenic issue in Bangladesh', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
2004 Rahman M, 'Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Project', AusAID (2004)
2004 Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and health effects in Maner block of Patna district, Bihar-India', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
2004 Rahman M, 'Groundwater arsenic contamination and people suffering from arsenicosis from Jharkhand state in Middle Ganga Plain, India', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
2004 Rahman M, '6th report on Arsenic Removal Plants (ARPs) installed in arsenic affected villages of West Bengal', School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India (2004)
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 15
Total funding $204,950

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20171 grants / $7,300

Concentrations of lead and copper in household tap water and plumbing materials of Hunter regions, New South Wales. $7,300

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Scheme University of Newcastle Small Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20164 grants / $18,900

Mapping of arsenic and other elements in paddy soils and rice grain using synchrotron based techniques$7,500

Funding body: Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle

Funding body Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle
Project Team

Dr Luchun Duan and Dr Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Scheme Faculty Strategic Small Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Effect of biosolids application on plant grown in sodic soils: role of microbial activities$7,400

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Scheme Faculty Strategic Small Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

PVC Conference Assistance Grant Scheme$2,000

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Scheme PVC Conference Assistance Grant Scheme
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

PVC Conference Assistance Grant Scheme$2,000

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Scheme PVC Conference Assistance Grant Scheme
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20152 grants / $17,500

Can organic matter amendment reduce/enhance arsenic accumulation in vegetables grown in soil irrigated with arsenic contaminated water? $10,000

Funding body: ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia

Funding body ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia
Project Team

Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Ravi Naidu and Md. Harunur Rashid

Scheme Crawford Fund Research Fellowship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Nano-encapsulation materials for pesticides delivery: synthesis and control release behaviour. $7,500

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Project Team

Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Scheme University of Newcastle New Appointee Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20131 grants / $15,800

Analysis of arsenic and other elements in various environmental samples using advanced analytical techniques$15,800

Funding body: ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia

Funding body ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia
Scheme Crawford Fund Fellowship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20121 grants / $75,000

Arsenic bioavailability, biomagnification, detoxification in aquatic systems and eco-toxicological validation$75,000

Funding body: CRC-CARE

Funding body CRC-CARE
Project Team

Md. Azizur Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Ravi Naidu

Scheme Research project
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding CRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Category 4CRC
UON N

20111 grants / $22,900

Arsenic in drinking water, soil and food crops in Southeast Asia$22,900

Funding body: ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia

Funding body ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia
Scheme Crawford Fund Workshop
Role Lead
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2011
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20093 grants / $26,650

Pathways of arsenic transfer in soils irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh.$14,150

Funding body: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)

Funding body Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
Project Team

Ravi Naidu, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Uptake of heavy metals in plants grown in contaminated soils from metal smelter in South Australia. $6,500

Funding body: UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)

Funding body UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)
Scheme ECR Research grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

ECR Travel Award$6,000

Funding body: UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)

Funding body UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)
Scheme ECR Travel Award
Role Lead
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20082 grants / $20,900

Sampling, assessment and analytical speciation of arsenic in water and biological samples. $10,900

Funding body: ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia

Funding body ATSE Crawford Fund, Australia
Scheme Crawford Fund Fellowship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2008
Funding Finish 2008
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Investigation on stability and preservation of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater$10,000

Funding body: UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)

Funding body UNiversity of SOuth AUstralia (UniSA)
Scheme ECR Research grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2008
Funding Finish 2008
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed1
Current5

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD2.15

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2017 PhD Implication of Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2017 PhD Role of Iron and Manganese Transporters on Cadmium Uptake in Rice PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2017 PhD Arsenic Risk Remediation in Agricultural Crops Through Organic Amendment PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2017 PhD Effect of Manure and Water Management on Cadmium Availability in Paddy Soil and Accumulation in Rice Grain PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2015 PhD Nanoencapsulated Pesticide: Insights Of Pesticide Loading To Enhance The Sustainability Of Nanocarriers PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2017 PhD Arsenic in Rice: Genotypic Variation and its Bioavailability with Respect to Human Health Risk Assessment PhD (Environment Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
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Dr Mahmud Rahman

Position

Senior Research Fellow
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation
Faculty of Science

Contact Details

Email mahmud.rahman@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4913 8754

Office

Room ATC-139
Building Advanced Technology Centre
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