Mr Simon Clulow
School of Environmental and Life Sciences (Biological Sciences)
- Phone:(02) 4921 5811
I am a biologist working in a variety of research fields including ecology, conservation, evolution and reproduction in terrestrial vertebrates. I am passionate about amphibians and these often form the core models for my research, which has led me to work in the Amphibian Research Laboratory at the University of Newcastle.
Many of my research projects involve long-term field work collecting significant data sets to explain ecological and evolutionary processes over time. The conservation of Australia’s unique fauna is also a major driver for my work. This has seen a multi-million dollar research program established to investigate and reverse the decline of the green and golden bell frog.
A major component of my research career has been the investigation of the impact of invasive cane toads on terrestrial ecosystems in the Kimberley wilderness of northern Western Australia, where I have been gathering data on the fauna of the east Kimberley, before the onset of toads. This work has led to numerous high-impact publications on the impacts of toads on Australian ecosystems, and ways in which to mitigate this impact.
My interest in reproductive biology along with my passion for conservation has led me to become a major advocate for biotechnological approaches to conservation and stopping species extinctions, such as gene banking and assisted reproductive technologies. This work has also resulted in a cutting-edge collaborative project on de-extinction that saw the revival of live embryos of an extinct frog species through cloning – which was named in TIME magazine’s top 25 inventions of 2013.
Due to my expertise and experience with frogs, I have been invited as a specialist expert scientist to participate in numerous workshops to inform and direct policy and management of Australia’s frog fauna, and have been invited to participate in Australian Geographic scientific expeditions as the lead amphibian biologist in 2011, 2012 & 2013.Research Expertise
My research is diverse and interdisciplinary, focused in the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, conservation biology and reproductive biology (specifically Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Gene Banking) within terrestrial vertebrates. I choose often to focus upon amphibians as my core model, although I also work on reptiles, mammals and birds. These research fields and techniques often integrate, with many of my projects incorporating both field and laboratory elements. My work in the fields of ecology, conservation, and evolutionary biology has often involved large-scale and/or long-term field projects that have collected significant long-term data sets to explain ecological and evolutionary processes over time. This has also involved gathering a large amount of data on species that are in remote/difficult areas and have been little studied. A good example of this is a current project investigating the impact of invasive cane toads on terrestrial ecosystems in the remote Kimberley wilderness of the Western Australia tropics, gathering long-term baseline data on the fauna of the east Kimberley before the onset of toads. Many of the projects that I have established in these fields as chief investigator have involved establishing good working relationships with external collaborators, some of which are at the top of their fields (e.g. Professor H. Carl Gerhardt - looking at the evolution of complex acoustic signalling in frogs; Professor Mike Archer – De-extinction and ART in Australian frogs; Dr Sean Doody – impact of invasive cane toads on Kimberley fauna). My interest in reproductive biology along with my passion for conservation has led me to become a major advocate for biotechnological approaches to conservation and stopping species extinctions, such as gene banking and assisted reproductive technologies. This work has also resulted in a cutting-edge collaborative project on de-extinction that saw the revival of live embryos of an extinct frog species through cloning – which was named in TIME magazine’s top 25 inventions of 2013. Despite being in the early stages of my research career, I have made many significant contributions in my field to date. I have published in major international journals such as Biological Invasions, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, Journal of Zoology and PLoS One. In my publications I have attempted to push new ground and have reported numerous novel findings e.g. investigating the drivers facilitating shifts between multiple spatio-temporal strategies in a single species (eastern grass owl) across its range. My work on de-extinction, which involved a collaborative project that saw the revival of live embryos of an extinct frog species through cloning, was named in TIME magazine’s top 25 inventions of 2013 – the only Australian invention to make the list. Current research projects include (some collaborative): - Impact of invasive cane toads in the Kimberley ranges, Western Australia - The development of cloning, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and gene banking for Australian frogs and reptiles - De-extinction of vertebrate fauna - Strategies for improving reproductive success in unpredictable environments using a model frog - Evolution of complex acoustic signalling in frogs - Social behaviour and complex nesting in the yellow-spotted monitor - Impact of introduced trout on threatened stream frogs in the NSW highlands - Investigations into the decline of the green and golden bell frog in NSW.
Teaching duties have included the preparation and delivery of lectures, tutorials, running practical classes such as laboratories and field trips, and course coordination roles. Lecturing duties have included preparing and delivering a series of 6 lectures on invasive species biology for a 3rd year biology course. I have also been the head tutor and had program convenor (course co-ordinator) responsibilities for a 1st year biology course (Organisms to Ecosystems) and a 2nd year course (Science in Practice), which is a compulsory course for all B. Sc. Students (approximately 165 students per year). Courses taught include BIOL1002 Organisms to Ecosystems; BIOL1003 Professional Skills for Biological Sciences 1; EMGT2050 Australian Fauna; BIOL2002 Laboratory Skills in Biological Systems; BIOL2070 Ecology; SCIT2000 Science in Practice; BIOL3350 Ecological Research and EMGT3030 Conservation Biology.
I have been fortunate enough to collaborate with several researchers at the top of their game which have led to ground breaking research outcomes including: Professor H. Carl Gerhardt - Looking at the evolution of complex acoustic signalling in frogs Professor Mike Archer – De-extinction and ART in Australian frogs Dr Sean Doody & Dr Colin McHenry – Impact of invasive cane toads on Kimberley fauna.
- Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Teaching, University of Newcastle
Fields of Research
|050202||Conservation and Biodiversity||30|
|060399||Evolutionary Biology not elsewhere classified||30|
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (28 outputs)
Abu Bakar A, Bower DS, Stockwell MP, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'Susceptibility to disease varies with ontogeny and immunocompetence in a threatened amphibian', Oecologia, 181 997-1009 (2016)
Â© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited pri... [more]
Â© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited prior exposure to pathogens can place less developed juveniles at a greater disease risk. By causing the disease chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection has led to the decline of many amphibian species. Despite increasing knowledge on how Bd varies in its effects among species, little is known on the interaction between susceptibility and development within host species. We compared the ontogenetic susceptibility of post-metamorphic green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea to chytridiomycosis by simultaneously measuring three host-pathogen responses as indicators of the development of the fungusÂ¿infection load, survival rate, and host immunocompetenceÂ¿following Bd exposure in three life stages (recently metamorphosed juveniles, subadults, adults) over 95Â¿days. Frogs exposed to Bd as recently metamorphosed juveniles acquired higher infection loads and experienced lower immune function and lower survivorship than subadults and adults, indicating an ontogenetic decline in chytridiomycosis susceptibility. By corresponding with an intrinsic developmental maturation in immunocompetence seen in uninfected frogs, we suggest these developmental changes in host susceptibility in L. aurea may be immune mediated. Consequently, the physiological relationship between ontogeny and immunity may affect host population structure and demography through variation in life stage survival, and understanding this can shape management targets for effective amphibian conservation.
Pizzatto L, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Finding a place to live: conspecific attraction affects habitat selection in juvenile green and golden bell frogs', Acta Ethologica, 19 1-8 (2016) [C1]
Â© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ISPA.Conspecific attraction plays an important role in habitat selection of several taxa and can affect and determine distribution p... [more]
Â© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ISPA.Conspecific attraction plays an important role in habitat selection of several taxa and can affect and determine distribution patterns of populations. The behaviour is largely studied and widespread among birds, but in amphibians, its occurrence seems limited to breeding habitats of adults and gregarious tadpoles. The Australian green and golden bell frogs (Litoria aurea) have suffered considerable shrinking of their original distribution in south-eastern Australia since the 1970s. Currently, with only about 40 populations remaining, the species is considered nationally threatened. In natural conditions, these frogs are aggregated in the landscape and do not seem to occupy all suitable ponds within the occurrence area. To date, studies focusing on the frogsÂ¿ habitat have failed in finding a general habitat feature that explains current or past occupancy. This led us to the hypothesis that social cues may play a key role in habitat selection in this species. Using two choice experiments, we tested the preference of juvenile green and golden bell frogs for habitats containing cues of conspecifics of similar size versus habitats without conspecific cues. Tested frogs did not show a preference for habitats containing only scent from conspecifics but did prefer habitats where conspecifics were present. Our results show that conspecific attraction is a determining factor in juvenile green and golden bell frog habitat selection. To our knowledge, this is the first time the behaviour is shown to occur in juvenile frogs in the habitat selection context. From a conservation management point of view, the behaviour may help to explain the failure of reintroductions to areas where the frogs have been extinct, and the non-occupation of suitable created habitats in areas where they still inhabit and develop appropriated management strategies.
Valdez J, Klop-Toker K, Stockwell MP, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'Microhabitat selection varies by sex and age class in the endangered green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea', Australian Zoologist, 38 223-234 (2016)
Although amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, little published evidence exists on effective management programs. In order for conservation initiatives to be su... [more]
Although amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, little published evidence exists on effective management programs. In order for conservation initiatives to be successful, an understanding of habitat use patterns is required to identify important environmental features. However, habitat use may differ between the different sexes and age classes due to different behavioural and resource requirements. For this study, we compared microhabitat use during the active breeding season among the sexes and age classes in the endangered green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea, a species which has had several failed management programs. We found aquatic vegetation was selected for by every L. aurea class, and should be the focus of future management plans for this species. Females were the only class to select for terrestrial vegetation more than availability. Increasing the amount of terrestrial vegetation around ponds may help encourage female occupancy, and possibly improve management outcomes, as they are typically a limiting resource. Although large rock piles have been used in past L. aurea habitat management, they were selected for by adults and juveniles, but not metamorphs. Therefore, large rocks may not be necessary for captive breeding portions of management initiatives, which typically only involve tadpoles and metamorphs prior to release. The results indicate that the most appropriate management plans should contain a habitat mosaic of various microhabitats, such as a large proportion of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation with patches of bare ground and a small proportion of rocks for basking and shelter. Recognizing differences in microhabitat use patterns between individuals in a population and implementing them into management strategies should be a pivotal step in any conservation plan.
Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies for the conservation of threatened amphibians and reptiles: bringing the ARTs up to speed.', Reproduction, fertility, and development, (2016) [C1]
Clulow S, Anstis M, Keogh JS, Catullo RA, 'A new species of australian frog (Myobatrachidae: Uperoleia) from the New South Wales mid-north coast sandplains', Zootaxa, 4184 285-315 (2016)
Â© Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press.The discovery of new vertebrate species in developed countries is still occurring at surprising rates for some taxonomic groups, especially the am... [more]
Â© Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press.The discovery of new vertebrate species in developed countries is still occurring at surprising rates for some taxonomic groups, especially the amphibians and reptiles. While this most often occurs in under-explored areas, it occasionally still happens in well-inhabited regions. We report such a case with the discovery and description of U. mahonyi sp. nov., a new species of frog from a highly populated region of New South Wales, Australia. We provide details of its morphology, calls, embryos and tadpoles, and phylogenetic relationships to other species of eastern Uperoleia. We also provide the results of targeted surveys to establish its distribution and provide observations of its habitat associations. As a consequence of these surveys, we comment on the likely restricted nature of the species' distribution and habitat, and place this in the context of a preliminary assessment of its putative conservation status, which should be assessed for listing under the IUCN's red list. We note this species, which is morphologically distinct, has gone unnoticed for many decades despite numerous eco-logical surveys for local development applications.
Klop-Toker K, Valdez J, Stockwell M, Fardell L, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.', PLoS One, 11 e0159143 (2016)
Bower DS, Scheltinga DM, Clulow S, Clulow J, Franklin CE, Georges A, 'Salinity tolerances of two Australian freshwater turtles, Chelodina expansa and Emydura macquarii (Testudinata: Chelidae).', Conserv Physiol, 4 cow042 (2016)
Pizzatto L, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'How to form a group: Effects of heterospecifics, kinship and familiarity in the grouping preference of green and golden bell frog tadpoles', Herpetological Journal, 26 157-164 (2016)
Â© 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved.Social aggregations are widespread among animal groups. They are relatively common in amphibian larvae, likely conferr... [more]
Â© 2016, British Herpetological Society. All rights reserved.Social aggregations are widespread among animal groups. They are relatively common in amphibian larvae, likely conferring protection against predators, advantages for microhabitat selection, foraging efficiency, and thermoregulatory efficiency. Group formation involves selection of individuals to group with by the other members, and several tadpoles are reported to recognise and prefer to aggregate with siblings or familiar individuals. In Australia, tadpoles of the endangered green and golden bell frog, Litoria aurea, are attracted to conspecifics and form schools. We conducted two choice experiments for captive breed tadpoles of this species to test their grouping preferences. Tadpoles preferred to aggregate with conspecifics to heterospecifics of a sympatric species; however, when conspecifics were absent they preferred to aggregate with the heterospecifcs than to remain alone. Tadpoles also preferred unfamiliar kin to unfamiliar non-kin conspecifics, but had no preferences between unfamiliar and familiar siblings. Once widespread in southeast Australia, the green and golden bell frog has suffered considerable declines and local extinctions in recent decades. Susceptibility to chytridiomycosis is likely the major threat for most remaining fragmented populations and the major challenge for reintroduction programs. The strong gregarious behaviour of this species may affect disease dynamics, especially chytridiomicosis that continues to threaten remaining wild populations.
Sanders MR, Clulow S, Bower DS, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'Predator Presence and Vegetation Density Affect Capture Rates and Detectability of Litoria aurea Tadpoles: Wide-Ranging Implications for a Common Survey Technique.', PloS one, 10 e0143733 (2015) [C1]
Doody JS, Clulow S, Kay G, D'Amore D, Rhind D, Wilson S, et al., 'The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.', PLoS One, 10 e0131186 (2015) [C1]
Germano JM, Field KJ, Griffiths RA, Clulow S, Foster J, Harding G, Swaisgood RR, 'Mitigation-driven translocations: are we moving wildlife in the right direction?', FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 13 100-105 (2015) [C1]
Clulow S, Harris M, Mahony MJ, 'Optimization, validation and efficacy of the phytohaemagglutinin inflammation assay for use in ecoimmunological studies of amphibians', Conservation Physiology, 3 (2015) [C1]
Doody JS, James H, Colyvas K, Mchenry CR, Clulow S, 'Deep nesting in a lizard, dÃ©jÃ vu devil's corkscrews: First helical reptile burrow and deepest vertebrate nest', Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, (2015) [C1]
Dating back to 255 Mya, a diversity of vertebrate species have excavated mysterious, deep helical burrows called Daimonelix (devil's corkscrews). The possible functions of such st... [more]
Dating back to 255 Mya, a diversity of vertebrate species have excavated mysterious, deep helical burrows called Daimonelix (devil's corkscrews). The possible functions of such structures are manifold, but their paucity in extant animals has frustrated their adaptive explanation. We recently discovered the first helical reptile burrows, created by the monitor lizard Varanus panoptes. The plugged burrows terminated in nest chambers that were the deepest known of any vertebrate, and by far the deepest of any reptile (mean = 2.3 m, range = 1.0-3.6 m, N = 52). A significant positive relationship between soil moisture and nest depth persisted at depths > 1 m, suggesting that deep nesting in V. panoptes may be an evolutionary response to egg desiccation during the long (approximately 8 months) dry season incubation period. Alternatively, lizards may avoid shallower nesting because even slight daily temperature fluctuations are detrimental to developing embryos; our data show that this species may have the most stable incubation environment of any reptile and possibly any ectotherm. Soil-filled burrows do not support the hypothesis generated for Daimonelix that the helix would provide more consistent temperature and humidity as a result of limited air circulation in dry palaeoclimates. We suggest that Daimonelix were used mainly for nesting or rearing young, because helical burrows of extant vertebrates are generally associated with a nest. The extraordinary nesting in this lizard reflects a system in which adaptive hypotheses for the function of fossil helical burrows can be readily tested.
Valdez JW, Stockwell MP, Klop-Toker K, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'Factors driving the distribution of an endangered amphibian toward an industrial landscape in Australia', Biological Conservation, 191 520-528 (2015) [C1]
Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Although human-modified habitats often result in a loss of biodiversity, some have been found to serve as habitat refuges for threatened species. Given the gl... [more]
Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Although human-modified habitats often result in a loss of biodiversity, some have been found to serve as habitat refuges for threatened species. Given the globally declining status of amphibians, understanding why some species are found in heavily modified environments is of considerable interest. We used the endangered green and golden bell frog (. Litoria aurea) as a model to investigate the factors influencing their distribution toward industrial areas within a landscape. The number of permanent waterbodies within a kilometer of surveyed sites was the best predictor of L. aurea occupancy, abundance and reproduction. It appears that industrial activities, such as dredging and waste disposal inadvertently created refuge habitat for L. aurea to fortuitously persist in a heavily modified landscape. Future conservation plans should mimic the positive effects of industrialization, such as increasing the number of permanent waterbodies, especially in areas containing ephemeral or isolated waterbodies and threatened with drought. Our findings also suggest that despite amphibians being relatively small animals, some species may require a larger landscape than anticipated. Recognizing life history traits, in combination with a landscape-based approach toward species with perceived limited motility, may result in more successful conservation outcomes. Identifying why threatened species persist in heavily disturbed landscapes, such as industrial sites, can provide direction toward future conservation efforts to prevent and reverse their decline.
Bainbridge L, Stockwell M, Valdez J, Klop-Toker K, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Tagging tadpoles: retention rates and impacts of visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags from the larval to adult amphibian stages', HERPETOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 25 133-140 (2015) [C1]
James MS, Stockwell MP, Clulow J, Clulow S, Mahony MJ, 'Investigating behaviour for conservation goals: Conspecific call playback can be used to alter amphibian distributions within ponds', Biological Conservation, 192 287-293 (2015) [C1]
Â© 2015.Conspecific attraction can prevent occupancy of restored or created habitats by limiting dispersal to unoccupied areas. This may cause problems for threatened taxa where h... [more]
Â© 2015.Conspecific attraction can prevent occupancy of restored or created habitats by limiting dispersal to unoccupied areas. This may cause problems for threatened taxa where habitat restoration and creation programmes are implemented as part of species recovery plans. Studies on birds have found that the introduction of artificial communication cues such as calling can increase occupancy of restored habitat. The endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) has a number of behavioural traits which suggest conspecific attraction occurs via a vocal mechanism, including a loud conspicuous call and large chorusing aggregations. To date, attempts to repopulate restored and created habitat through natural immigration and active translocation of tadpoles and juveniles have been met with limited success for this species. We used L. aurea to determine if distribution could be manipulated via conspecific attraction using artificial communication cues. We placed speaker systems in uninhabited areas of five inhabited ponds across two locations and broadcast calls of L. aurea to see if we could manipulate distribution into previously unoccupied pond areas. Surveys undertaken before and after broadcast indicate that we successfully manipulated L. aurea distribution for adults increasing both occupancy and calling around the speaker locations. This occurred in four of five replicate ponds over three months of experimental treatment, but controls remained low in abundance. We suggest that manipulation of distribution via conspecific attraction mechanisms could be a useful conservation tool for endangered amphibian habitat restoration and creation programmes, resulting in increased occupancy and programme success.
Doody JS, Soanes R, Castellano CM, Rhind D, Green B, McHenry CR, Clulow S, 'Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators', ECOLOGY, 96 2544-2554 (2015) [C1]
Doody JS, James H, Ellis R, Gibson N, Raven M, Mahony S, et al., 'Cryptic and Complex Nesting in the Yellow-Spotted Monitor, Varanus panoptes', JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY, 48 363-370 (2014) [C1]
Pizzatto L, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Chemical communication in green and golden bell frogs: do tadpoles respond to chemical cues from dead conspecifics?', Chemoecology, (2014) [C1]
Captive bred animals often lack the ability of predator recognition and predation is one of the strongest causes of failure of breed and release projects. Several tadpole and fish... [more]
Captive bred animals often lack the ability of predator recognition and predation is one of the strongest causes of failure of breed and release projects. Several tadpole and fish species respond defensively to chemical cues from injured or dead conspecifics, often referred to as alarm pheromones. In natural conditions and in species that school, the association of chemical cues from predators to alarm pheromones released by attacked conspecifics may lead to the learning of the predator-related danger without experiencing an attack. In the laboratory, this chemical communication can also be used in associative learning techniques to teach naÃ¯ve tadpoles to avoid specific predators and improve survivorship of released animals. In our experimental trials, tadpoles of the threatened green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) did not avoid or decrease their activity when exposed to solutions of conspecific macerate, suggesting that the chemicals released into the water by dead/injured conspecifics do not function as an alarm pheromone. This non-avoidance of dead conspecific chemicals may explain why green and golden bell frog tadpoles have seemingly not developed any avoidance behaviour to the presence of introduced mosquito fish, and may render attempts to teach naÃ¯ve tadpoles to avoid this novel predator more difficult. Â© 2014 Springer Basel.
Doody JS, Mayes P, Clulow S, Rhind D, Green B, Castellano CM, et al., 'Impacts of the invasive cane toad on aquatic reptiles in a highly modified ecosystem: the importance of replicating impact studies', Biological Invasions, 1-7 (2014) [C1]
Invasive species can have dramatic and detrimental effects on native species, and the magnitude of these effects can be mediated by a plethora of factors. One way to identify medi... [more]
Invasive species can have dramatic and detrimental effects on native species, and the magnitude of these effects can be mediated by a plethora of factors. One way to identify mediating factors is by comparing attributes of natural systems in species with heterogeneity of responses to the invasive species. This method first requires quantifying impacts in different habitats, ecosystems or geographic locations. We used a long-term, before-and-after study to quantify the impacts of the invasive and toxic cane toad (Rhinella marina) on two predators in a highly modified ecosystem: an irrigation channel in an agricultural landscape. Survey counts spanning 8Â¿years indicated a severe population-level decline of 84Â¿% in Merten's Water Monitor (Varanus mertensi) that was coincident with the arrival of cane toads. The impact of cane toads on V. mertensi was similar to that found in other studies in other habitats, suggesting that cane toads severely impact V. mertensi populations, regardless of habitat type or geographic location. In contrast, a decline was not detected in the Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni). There is now clear evidence that some C. johnstoni populations are vulnerable to cane toads, while others are not. Our results reinforce the need for the replication of impact studies within and among species; predicting impacts based on single studies could lead to overgeneralizations and potential mismanagement. Â© 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
|2013||Rhind D, Doody JS, Ellis R, Ricketts A, Scott G, Clulow S, McHenry C, 'Varanus glebopalma (black-palmed monitor) nocturnal activity and foraging', Herpetological Review, 44 687-688 (2013) [C3]|
|2013||Doody JS, James H, Dunlop D, D'Amore D, Edgar M, Fidel M, et al., 'Strophurus ciliaris (northern spiny-tailed gecko) communal nesting', Herpetological Review, 44 685 (2013) [C3]|
Mahony MJ, Hamer AJ, Pickett EJ, McKenzie DJ, Stockwell MP, Garnham JI, et al., 'Identifying Conservation and Research Priorities in the Face of Uncertainty: A Review of the Threatened Bell Frog Complex in Eastern Australia.', Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 8 519-538 (2013) [C1]
Lawson B, Clulow S, Mahony MJ, Clulow J, 'Towards Gene Banking Amphibian Maternal Germ Lines: Short-Term Incubation, Cryoprotectant Tolerance and Cryopreservation of Embryonic Cells of the Frog, Limnodynastes peronii', PLOS ONE, 8 (2013) [C1]
Clulow J, Clulow S, Guo J, French AJ, Mahony MJ, Archer M, 'Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae)', Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 10 60 (2012) [C1]
Clulow S, Blundell AT, 'Deliberate insectivory by the fruit bat Pteropus poliocephalus by aerial hunting', Acta Chiropterologica, 13 201-205 (2011) [C1]
Clulow S, Peters KL, Blundell AT, Kavanagh RP, 'Resource predictability and foraging behaviour facilitate shifts between nomadism and residency in the eastern grass owl', Journal of Zoology, 284 294-299 (2011) [C1]
Stockwell MP, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'The impact of the amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on a Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea reintroduction program at the Hunter Wetlands Centre Australia in the Hunter Region of NSW', Australian Zoologist, 34 379-386 (2008) [C1]
|Show 25 more journal articles|
Conference (22 outputs)
Aitken J, Clulow J, Freeman E, Metcalfe S, Fraser B, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Biobanking spermatozoa to preserve endangered amphibian species.', 12th International Symposium on Spermatology (2014) [E3]
|2014||D'Amore D, McHenry C, Doody S, Clulow S, Rhind D, 'Claw morphometrics in Western Australian monitor lizards: Functional morphology and niche separation within a top predator guild.', Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 74th Annual Meeting. Meeting Program and Abstracts (2014) [E3]|
Valdez J, Stockwell M, Klop-Toker K, Bainbridge L, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Ensuring successful habitat creation despite ecological experimental design constraints.', 4th International Statistical Ecology Conference. Book of Abstracts (2014) [E3]
Klop-Toker K, Stockwell M, Valdez J, Bainbridge L, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'A pathogen's impact on the reintroduction of a threatened frog species', EcoTas 13 Handbook (2013) [E3]
Valdez J, Stockwell M, Klop-Toker K, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Comparison of habitat selection by an endangered amphibian in a natural and created landscape', EcoTas 13 Handbook (2013) [E3]
|2013||Doody JS, Clulow S, Kay G, Wilson S, D'Amore D, Castellano C, et al., 'Mass movements across a landscape reveal that vertebrates use gorges as dry season refugia in a tropical woodland savannah', Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Ecology, London, United Kingdom (2013) [E3]|
Clulow S, Harris MS, Mahony MJ, 'Measuring amphibian immunocompetence: Validation of the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) assay in multiple Australian frogs', 2012 World Congress of Herpetology (2012) [E3]
|2010||Clulow S, Clulow J, 'Temporal and seasonal use of compensatory nest boxes by vertebrate fauna in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia', Australasian Wildlife Management Society: Book of Abstracts (2010) [E3]|
|2010||Clulow S, Mahony MJ, 'Understanding phenotypic plasticity in amphibian metamorphosis: could the costs outweigh the benefits?', Australian Society of Herpetologists: Conference Abstracts (2010) [E3]|
Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'Predicting amphibian occurrence and distribution by habitat association: A case study of two threatened stream frogs in south-east Australia', 10th International Congress of Ecology Abstracts (2009) [E3]
|2009||Clulow S, Peters K, Blundell A, Kavanagh R, 'Selective predator or opportunist? Diet of the Eastern Grass Owl in south-east Australia and its relation to prey availability', 10th International Congress of Ecology Abstracts (2009) [E3]|
Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony MJ, 'The relationship between habitat attributes and the occurence and distribution of two threatened stream frogs in south-east Australia (stuttering frog, Mixophyes balbus and glandular frog, Litoria subglandulosa): Implications for conservation and management', Conservation Management of Herpetofauna: Second Meeting of the Australasian Societies for Herpetology (2009) [E3]
Clulow S, Mahony MJ, Clulow J, 'Developmental plasticity in an Australian anuran wet forest ephemeral specialist: The Sandpaper frog, Lechriodus fletcheri', 6th World Congress of Herpetology CD-ROM (2008) [E3]
|2008||Clulow S, Peters KL, Blundell AT, Kavanagh R, 'Diet of a permanently resident (non-nomadic) population of the Eastern Grass Owl Tyto longimembris on the mid-north coast of New South Wales and its relation to seasonality and prey availability', Australasian Raptor Association National Conference Programme (2008) [E3]|
|2008||Blundell AT, Clulow S, Peters KL, Kavanagh R, 'Distribution, habitat usage and observed behaviour of a southern resident population of the Eastern Grass Owl Tyto longimembris near Newcastle, New South Wales', Australasian Raptor Association National Conference Programme (2008) [E3]|
Clulow S, Mahony MJ, Clulow J, 'The evolution of developmental plasticity in an amphibian ephemeral specialist: A density and food recouse independent model of phenotypic plasticity in the Sandpiper Frog, Lechriodus fletcheri', ASH 2007 Program and Abstracts (2007) [E3]
|Show 19 more conferences|
Other (17 outputs)
|2014||Wright D, Stockwell M, Clulow J, Mahony M, Clulow S, 'Modelling landscape level distribution and habitat restoration requirements for the green and golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) in south-eastern Australia.', ( pp.32-33): Society of Ecological Restoration Australasia (2014) [O1]|
|2014||James M, Stockwell M, Clulow J, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Investigating behaviour for conservation goals: Conspecific call playback can be used to alter amphibian distribution within ponds.', ( pp.34-34): Society of Ecological Restoration Australasia (2014) [O1]|
|2014||James M, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'The role of conspecific call attraction in the local distribution of the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea)', ( pp.19): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||James M, Clulow J, Pizzatto do Prado L, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Conspecific avoidance in the endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea): Do juveniles avoid chorusing males?', ( pp.31-31): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
Sanders M, Clulow S, Bower D, Clulow J, Mahony J, 'Predator presence and vegetation density affect capture rates and detectability of aquatic vertebrates: wide-ranging implications for a common survey technique.', ( pp.47-47): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]
|2014||Doody S, Clulow S, McHenry C, 'Project Kimberley: Toad impacts, mitigation and education.', ( pp.21-21): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Campbell L, Bower D, Stockwell M, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Exposure of the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis does not affect immunocompetence or locomotor performance independent of infection.', ( pp.16-16): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Green J, Doody S, McHenry C, Clulow S, 'A cause for concern: high levels of ecological overlap between the invasive cane toad and magnificent tree frog provide avenues for potential impact.', ( pp.25-25): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Callen A, Pizzatto do Prado L, Stockwell M, Clulow J, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Picking a pond - Do juvenile green and golden bell frogs have a preference for pond type?', ( pp.16-16): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||McHenry C, Clulow S, Doody S, 'Cane toad impact in the East Kimberley Â¿ the same old story again?', ( pp.38-38): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Vladez J, Stockwell M, Klop-Toker K, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'A frog in a bog: Trying to find a home for the endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea).', ( pp.51-51): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Abu-Bakar A, Bower D, Stockwell M, Clulow J, Clulow S, Mahony M, 'Ontogenetic variation in the susceptibility of an endangered frog species (Litoria aurea) to the lethal disease, chytridiomycosis.', ( pp.11-11): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Klop-Toker K, Stockwell M, Valdez J, Bainbridge L, Clulow S, Clulow J, Mahony M, 'Year-round effect of disease on a reintroduced population of threatened frogs', ( pp.34-34): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Gould J, Stockwell M, Clulow S, 'Transmission of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) on the external leg surfaces of the adult female mosquito.', ( pp.25-25): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Mahony M, Clulow J, Clulow S, 'Why is extinction still occurring? Proof of concept for the establishment of animal genome banks.', ( pp.37-37): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||James H, Doody S, Clulow S, McHenry C, 'Delving deep into the nesting biology of the yellow-spotted monitor.', ( pp.30-30): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|2014||Clulow S, Doody S, McHenry C, 'On the fence: Biodiversity and the invasive cane toad in the Kimberley.', ( pp.19-19): Australian Society of Herpetologists (2014) [O1]|
|Show 14 more others|
Number of supervisions
Total current UON EFTSL
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title / Program / Supervisor Type|
Optimising a Goanna Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol for Long-Term Storage and Gene Banking
PhD (Biological Sciences), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle
November 4, 2016
A University of Newcastle (UON) biologist has made the incredible discovery of a new frog species nearby Newcastle Airport, Australia.
January 21, 2014
Gene bank insures Kimberley wildlife against cane toad threat
November 22, 2013
University of Newcastle researchers are responsible for one of the world's most significant inventions of 2013, according to TIME Magazine's 25 Best Inventions of the year 2013, just released.
Mr Simon Clulow
Amphibian Research Group
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Faculty of Science and Information Technology
Casual Research Scientist
Amphibian Research Group
School of Environmental and Life Sciences
Faculty of Science
|Phone||(02) 4921 5811|
Callaghan, NSW 2308