Dr Sarah Walmsley

Dr Sarah Walmsley

Physiotherapy Course Coordinator

School of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy)

Career Summary

Biography

Dr Sarah Walmsley has had a physiotherapy career that has spanned many years and embraced both clinical and academic settings.  Commencing in the New South Wales Public Hospital system in Australia Sarah’s early career focused largely on clinical orthopaedic physiotherapy. Sarah completed the Master of Applied Science (Physiotherapy) at the University of South Australia, Adelaide in 1995 and subsequently a PhD degree at The University of Newcastle in 2014. Sarah currently combines a part time academic appointment as well as working in a private practice in Newcastle which specializes in the management of disorders of the upper limb. Her research focus is in the early diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) and she has presented her research at many national and international conferences. Being able to combine research, teaching and clinical work is what Sarah enjoys about being a physiotherapist.


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Newcastle
  • Master of Applied Science (Physiotherapy), University of South Australia

Keywords

  • Adhesive capsulitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Frozen shoulder
  • Musculoskeletal physiotherapy

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
110399 Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified 100

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Physiotherapy Course Coordinator University of Newcastle
School of Health Sciences
Australia
Casual Academic University of Newcastle
School of Health Sciences
Australia

Awards

Award

Year Award
1995 Lifecare physiotherapy award for essay on Masters thesis
The University of South Australia
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Dougherty J, Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, 'Passive range of movement of the shoulder: A standardized method for measurement and assessment of intrarater reliability', Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 38 218-224 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater reliability and reproducibility of a standardized procedure for... [more]

© 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater reliability and reproducibility of a standardized procedure for measuring passive shoulder movement in asymptomatic individuals. Methods A single assessor used a digital inclinometer and standardized protocol to measure the passive range of motion of 7 shoulder movements in 168 asymptomatic shoulders. Following a warm-up maneuver, 3 measurements were taken for each movement on 2 occasions. Both shoulders were measured using a standardized order of movement. Selection of measurement beginning with left or right shoulder was randomly determined. The entire process was repeated 7 days later to assess reproducibility. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals and standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were calculated to assess the intrarater reliability of the methods. Results The intrarater reliability of our methods was substantial for total shoulder flexion (ICC = 0.82, SEM = 12.3°), whereas all other movements demonstrated moderate reliability (ICC range = 0.64-0.75) except external rotation in neutral abduction, for which reliability was classed as slight (ICC = 0.28, SEM = 31°). Moderate reliability was evident for all movements on follow-up at 7 days (ICC range = 0.60-0.77). Conclusions These methods of measurement have moderate to substantial reliability for the majority of tested passive shoulder movements, with moderate reliability sustained after 1 week, in a large sample of asymptomatic individuals.

DOI 10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.11.006
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly
2014 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Clinical identifiers for early-stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: Are we seeing the real picture?', Physical Therapy, 94 968-976 (2014) [C1]

Background. Adhesive capsulitis is often difficult to diagnose in its early stage and to differentiate from other common shoulder disorders. Objective. The aim of this study was t... [more]

Background. Adhesive capsulitis is often difficult to diagnose in its early stage and to differentiate from other common shoulder disorders. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate any or all of the 8 clinical identifiers of early-stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis established in an earlier Delphi study. Design. This was a cross-sectional study. Methods. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with early-stage adhesive capsulitis by a physical therapist or medical practitioner were included in the study. Eight active and 8 passive shoulder movements and visual analog scale pain scores for each movement were recorded prior to and immediately following an intra-articular injection of corticosteroid and local anesthetic. Using the local anesthetic as the reference standard, pain relief of > 70% for passive external rotation was deemed a positive anesthetic response (PAR). Results. Sixteen participants (25%) demonstrated a PAR. Univariate logistic regression identified that of the proposed identifiers, global loss of passive range of movement (odds ratio [OR] =0.26, P=.03), pain at the end of range of all measured active movements (OR=0.06, P=.02), and global loss of passive glenohumeral movements (OR=0.23, P=.02) were associated with a PAR. Following stepwise removal of the variables, pain at the end of range of all measured active movements remained the only identifier but was associated with reduced odds of a PAR. Limitations. The lack of a recognized reference standard for diagnosing early-stage adhesive capsulitis remains problematic in all related research. Conclusions. None of the clinical identifiers for early-stage adhesive capsulitis previously proposed by expert consensus have been validated in this study. Clinicians should be aware that commonly used clinical identifiers may not be applicable to this stage. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

DOI 10.2522/ptj.20130398
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2014 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Movement and pain patterns in early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: A factor analysis', Physiotherapy (United Kingdom), 100 336-343 (2014) [C1]

© 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Objectives: To evaluate patients clinically diagnosed with early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis to determine the existenc... [more]

© 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Objectives: To evaluate patients clinically diagnosed with early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis to determine the existence of any pattern of movement loss and associated pain that may facilitate early recognition. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Private upper limb specialty clinic, Newcastle, Australia. Participants: Fifty-two patients clinically diagnosed with early stage adhesive capsulitis by a medical practitioner or physiotherapist. Main outcome measures: Percentage loss of active and passive ranges of eight shoulder movements and the pain level at the end of each movement. The reason for limitation of movement was also recorded. Results: Factor analysis clearly identified two groups for percentage loss of active range of movement. Notably external rotation movements grouped separately from other movements. A single group emerged for percentage loss of passive range of movement suggesting a non-specific global loss. For both pain at the end of active range of movement and passive range of movement two groups emerged, however the delineation between the groups was less clear than for percentage loss of active range of movement suggesting a pattern of end range pain may be less useful in identifying patients in this stage. Conclusions: External rotation movements in neutral and abduction generally group together and behave differently to other shoulder movements in patients clinically diagnosed with early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. In particular external rotation in abduction has emerged as the most painfully limited movement in this sample. This study provides preliminary evidence of patterns of range of movement and end range pain that require testing in a population of mixed shoulder diagnoses to determine their diagnostic utility for early stage adhesive capsulitis.

DOI 10.1016/j.physio.2014.02.001
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2014 Johnston CL, Newstead CJ, Walmsley S, MacDonald L, 'Allied Health Student Clinical Placements in Residential Aged Care Facilities: Staff Opinions, Attitudes, and Support Needs.', The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice., 12 1-13 (2014) [C1]
Co-authors Cath Johnston, Lesley Wicks
2013 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Walker CJ, Rivett DA, 'Power Doppler ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: An exploratory study', Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 36 428-435 (2013) [C1]

Objective The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if increased vascularity in the rotator interval area of the glenohumeral joint capsule could be visualized with p... [more]

Objective The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if increased vascularity in the rotator interval area of the glenohumeral joint capsule could be visualized with power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of early-stage adhesive capsulitis. Methods Demographic and clinical characteristics from a consecutive series of 41 patients diagnosed with early-stage adhesive capsulitis were recorded and examination with PDUS was undertaken. Images were reviewed by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, and consensus was determined on the presence of increased signal in the rotator interval area. Results Consensus was achieved on the presence of increased signal in 12 (29%) of the 41 cases. Participants with an increased PDUS signal did not demonstrate a characteristic set of identifying features, suggesting that those with increased vascularity may not constitute a distinct subgroup. Conclusion This study found that some patients diagnosed with early-stage adhesive capsulitis demonstrated increased vascularity in the rotator interval area when examined with PDUS. These findings suggest that PDUS may have the potential to assist in the identification of increased vascularization in early stages of this disorder. Further research in the use of PDUS in diagnosing early-stage adhesive capsulitis is warranted. © 2013 National University of Health Sciences.

DOI 10.1016/j.jmpt.2013.05.024
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2012 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, McKiernan ST, 'Early diagnosis of primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: Can imaging contribute?', International Musculoskeletal Medicine, 34 166-174 (2012) [C1]
Co-authors Sharmaine Mckiernan, Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2009 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Adhesive capsulitis: Establishing consensus on clinical identifiers for stage 1 using the DELPHI technique', Physical Therapy, 89 906-917 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.2522/ptj.20080341
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
Show 4 more journal articles

Conference (13 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis - which clinical identifiers are valid?', Early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis - which clinical identifiers are valid? (2016)
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2016 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Movement and pain patterns in early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis; Do they assist diagnosis?', Proceedings of International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists conference (2016)
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2015 Dougherty J, Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, 'Passive range of movement of the shoulder. A standardised method for measurement and assessment of inter rater reliability', Proceedings of the Australian Physiotherapy Association Conference 2015 (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly
2014 Johnston CL, MacDonald L, Newstead CJ, Walmsley S, 'Allied Health student clinical placements in residential aged care facilities: Staff attitudes and support needs.', ANZAHPE 2014 Conference Handbook & Program (2014) [E3]
Co-authors Cath Johnston, Lesley Wicks
2013 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Movement loss patterns in patients diagnosed with early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: preliminary results.', ICSES/ICSET 2013 (2013) [E3]
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2013 Johnston CL, Newstead CJ, Walmsley S, MacDonald-Wicks L, Chiarelli P, 'Physiotherapy student clinical placements in the aged care setting: practitioner attitudes and support needs.', Journal of Physiotherapy (2013) [E3]
Co-authors Pauline Chiarelli, Cath Johnston, Lesley Wicks
2013 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Validation of a set of clinical identifiers for the early stage of primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis', Journal of Physiotherapy, eSupplement 2013 APA Conference Abstracts (2013) [E3]
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2013 Walmsley S, Osmotherly PG, Rivett DA, 'Movement and pain patterns in early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis', Proceedings of the Australian Physiotherapy Association Conference 2013 (2013) [E3]
Citations Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2012 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Validation of a set of clinical identifiers for the early stage of primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: Preliminary results', Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2012) [E3]
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2011 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Power Doppler ultrasound in the early diagnosis of primary / idiopathic adhesive capsulitis', APA Physiotherapy Conference 2011 Abstract Presentations (2011) [E3]
Co-authors Darren Rivett, Peter Osmotherly
2011 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Power doppler ultrasound in the early diagnosis of primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: A pilot study', Proceedings of the 16th International WCPT Congress (2011) [E3]
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2009 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Adhesive capsulitis: Establishing consensus on clinical identifiers for stage one using the Delphi technique', Australian Journal of Physiotherapy: eSupplements (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Peter Osmotherly, Darren Rivett
2007 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly P, 'Establishing consensus of stage one adhesive capsulitis using the Delphi technique: A pilot study. Presented at the 7th Triennial Congress of the International Federation of Shoulder and Hand Therapists (IFSHT). Sydney, Australia. 2007.', 7th Triennial Congress of the International Federation of Shoulder and Hand Therapists (IFSHT). (2007)
Co-authors Darren Rivett
Show 10 more conferences

Other (3 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2008 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Adhesive capsulitis: establishing clinical identifiers for stage one using the Delphi technique. Presented at the Closed Conference of Shoulder and Elbow Physiotherapists Australia (SEPA) 3rd Biennial Conference. Perth, Australia. 2008', (2008)
Co-authors Darren Rivett
2008 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'The frozen shoulder. Presented at the Shoulder and Elbow Physiotherapists Australia (SEPA) 3rd Biennial Conference. Perth, Australia. 2008.', (2008)
Co-authors Darren Rivett
2006 Walmsley S, Rivett DA, Osmotherly PG, 'Establishing diagnostic criteria of stage one adhesive capsulitis: protocol of a Delphi study. Presented at the Closed Conference of Shoulder and Elbow Physiotherapists Australia (SEPA). Victor Harbour, Australia. 2006.', (2006)
Co-authors Darren Rivett

Thesis / Dissertation (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Walmsley S, Clinical identifiers for early stage primary/idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, University of Newcastle (2014)
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 1
Total funding $5,000

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20131 grants / $5,000

Grant-in-Aid$5,000

Funding body: Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle

Funding body Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle
Scheme Grants-in-aid
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N
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Dr Sarah Walmsley

Positions

Physiotherapy Course Coordinator
School of Health Sciences
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Casual Academic
School of Health Sciences
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Focus area

Physiotherapy

Contact Details

Email sarah.walmsley@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 49218792

Office

Room HE05
Building Hunter Building
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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