Dr Rohan Stanger

Dr Rohan Stanger

Research Associate

School of Engineering

Career Summary

Biography

As a early career researcher my contributions to the field have only occurred within the last 5 years.  However, my work in developing novel testing apparatus for coal behaviour and in oxy-fuel compression has already shown an impact in both a research capacity and in a industrial context.

Pioneer work on maceral separation – I have been instrumental in pioneering the use of the Reflux Classifier (invented by Prof Galvin, also of University of Newcastle) for the separation of coal into its natural organic constituents (macerals).  This is significant because standard dense medium separation can interfere with the thermal behaviour and are often difficult to do a large scale.  This technique has enabled a new field of research on maceral chemistry and conversion.

Coal/biomass apparatus – I developed these 2 novel thermal analysis techniques as part of an ARC Discovery grant (DP1097016).  They are now part of a larger industrial project (ACARP C22037) which has attracted significant interest from a leading coking coal mining company leading to a current scoping study.  The apparatus has been the focus of seven completed undergraduate honours research projects with another 2 projects this year.  A PhD thesis has been completed using these apparatus and a further PhD study is on-going.  Both maceral separation methodologies and pyrolysis techniques are novel and world class and have been incorporated into a current ARC Discovery project on coal metaplast (DP1400104185).  They have been incorporated into a ARC research Hub proposal on brown coal and are also expected to be incorporated into a ARC linkage proposal in the next funding round.  They are a central feature of an ARC Discovery proposal this year on coal maceral products.

High pressure apparatus for mercury and toxic gas – I have developed these apparatus under ANLECR&D funding (a public-private funding body between federal government and the Australia Coal Association).  These apparatus have produced fundamental understanding of impurity behaviour during compression of flue gas and has supported the largest operating oxy-fuel demonstration project in the world (90MWt Callide Oxyfuel Project, Biloela Queensland Australia).  The body of knowledge generated from this work has de-risked the scale-up of oxyfuel technology, with considerable interest in the work from the US and UK where the next largest units are currently being developed (FutureGen2.0 in the US and White Rose Project in the UK).  This technology is at a critical juncture and toxic gas behaviour in compression is relatively unknown, owing to the difficulties in laboratory testing (which this work has overcome).  At the time of writing, three PhD theses have been completed on this apparatus.  These facilities are also the feature of an ARC DECRA proposal this year on mercury in compression and will enable a new avenue for research opportunities.

Field Campaigns at the Callide Oxy-fuel Project – I have managed four field campaigns at the worlds largest oxyfuel demonstration.  These tests were highly specialised.  The success of these tests has had a large impact on the successful demonstration of oxy-fuel technology in Australia.  I consider this a career high-light and a great honour to be part of this project.

Oxyfuel Working Group Technical Secretary – this position has provided me with the opportunity to work with international leaders of oxyfuel technology and representatives from the large scale demonstration projects.  My involvement in the international “Oxyfuel Capacity Building Courses” was to provide the Science of Oxyfuel fundamentals.  The audience for these courses where researchers, industry representatives and government officials looking for a start in the technology.  These courses had a deep impact in proliferating the science and industrial know-how to new markets and while still in development, there are now large oxyfuel projects occurring in Asia (Korea, x2 in China) and Europe (UK, Spain) which can be traced back these courses.  As a result, these courses have had an impact in both advancing the science and the technological development.  A further outcome was the international collaboration between the University of Newcastle and the University of Stuttgart on oxyfuel impurity behaviour during combustion, resulting in several Masters thesis and a PhD thesis.

Overall, my involvement in apparatus development and as Technical Secretary of the APP OFWG has resulted in 5 PhD studies, 3 Masters studies, seven undergraduate honours studies which have produced 2 book chapters, 33 journal articles, 11 conference submissions and 9 technical reports to industry.  Four international courses on oxyfuel technology have also been produced as well as the research support behind the successful demonstration of the worlds largest oxyfuel project. As an early career researcher, this represents a significant research impact showing both technical excellence and a high degree of collaboration with industry.


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Newcastle
  • Bachelor of Engineering (Chemical Eng ) (Honours), University of Newcastle

Keywords

  • NOx, SOx, Mercury
  • coal & biomass pyrolysis
  • coking
  • flue gas compression
  • maceral separation
  • oxyfuel combustion
  • thermoplasticity

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
090401 Carbon Capture Engineering (excl. Sequestration) 50
091407 Pyrometallurgy 30
091404 Mineral Processing/Beneficiation 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Casual Academic University of Newcastle
School of Engineering
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
12/01/2009 - 18/12/2015 Post Doctoral Researcher

I have focussed on oxyfuel combustion and coal pyrolysis during my post-doctoral research.

University of Newcastle - Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment

Professional appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
18/11/2002 - 18/12/2005 Coal Quality Engineer

I worked as a Coal Quality Engineer for both SGS and ACIRL, managing test campaigns and performing diagnostics on unit operations at Hunter Valley Coal Preparation Plants

SGS, ACIRL
Australia
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (3 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2013 Liu Y, Zhou H, Liu YH, Stanger R, Elliot L, Wall T, Cen KF, 'The Study of Calcium Sulfate Decomposition by Experiments Under O2/CO2 Atmosphere', Cleaner Combustion and Sustainable World, Springer, Berlin 323-329 (2013) [B1]
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-30445-3_46
Co-authors Terry Wall, Liza Elliott
2013 Wall TF, Stanger RJ, McDonald D, 'Coal-fired Oxy-fuel Technology for Carbon Capture and Storage', Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (2013)
Co-authors Terry Wall
2011 Wall TF, Stanger RJ, 'Industrial scale oxy-fuel technology demonstration', Oxy-fuel combustion for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, Woodhead Publishing, Oxford 54-75 (2011) [B1]
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Terry Wall

Journal article (43 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Stanger R, Tran QA, Smith N, Kennedy E, Stockenhuber M, Lucas J, Wall T, 'Separation and analysis of high range extractable molecules formed during coal pyrolysis using coupled thin layer chromatography-imaging mass spectrometry (TLC-LDI-IMS)', FUEL, 196 269-279 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.02.010
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Terry Wall, Michael Stockenhuber, John Lucas, Eric Kennedy
2016 Stanger R, Tran QA, Xie W, Smith N, Lucas J, Yu J, et al., 'The use of LDI-TOF imaging mass spectroscopy to study heated coal with a temperature gradient incorporating the plastic layer and semi-coke', Fuel, 165 33-40 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This work has used high range imaging mass spectrometry to study a coal sample that has undergone heating with a temperature gradient. A custom made hotplate... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This work has used high range imaging mass spectrometry to study a coal sample that has undergone heating with a temperature gradient. A custom made hotplate was heated to 1000°C and the coal was allowed to heat naturally through conduction to produce a large thermal gradient typical of conditions in a coke oven. The sample was quenched, sectioned and analysed using laser desorption time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF-IMS) to study the molecular changes that occur within the plastic layer and in the semi-coke. The raw coal was observed to have a molecular weight range between 500 and 20,000 Da with a peak occurring at 2000 Da. The plastic layer was observed to have a prevalence for increasing 500-1000 Da structures though this formed part of the larger molecular weight range. Resolidification of the plastic layer coincided with a rise in 4000 Da structures. The semi-coke spectrum had a series of repeating peaks separated by 24 Da extending from 1000 Da to 3000 Da. This was considered evidence of broad molecular ordering. A second phenomenon was observed in the semi-coke associated with low range molecular weights (50-300 Da). This appeared as high intensity signals in a molecular range typically considered as ion fragments (being too low in size to remain in the high vacuum environment). It was speculated that these low range structures may be associated with the coking of volatile tars exiting the hot-side of the plastic layer through high temperature semi-coke. Overall, this preliminary work provides a novel methodology to study the heating impacts during coking on a molecular level.

DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.028
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Terry Wall, Wei Xie, Michael Stockenhuber, Jianglong Yu, Eric Kennedy, John Lucas
2016 Quang AT, Stanger R, Xie W, Smith N, Lucas J, Wall T, 'Impacts of Mild Pyrolysis and Solvent Extraction on Coking Coal Thermoplasticity', ENERGY & FUELS, 30 9293-9302 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02018
Co-authors Terry Wall, Wei Xie, John Lucas
2016 Stanger R, Quang AT, Attalla T, Smith N, Lucas J, Wall T, 'The pyrolysis behaviour of solvent extracted metaplast material from heated coal using LDI-TOF mass spectroscopy measurements', JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL AND APPLIED PYROLYSIS, 120 258-268 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jaap.2016.05.014
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Terry Wall, John Lucas
2016 Tran QA, Stanger R, Xie W, Lucas J, Yu J, Stockenhuber M, et al., 'Maceral separation from coal by the Reflux Classifier', FUEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, 143 43-50 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.11.009
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors John Lucas, Terry Wall, Jianglong Yu, Michael Stockenhuber, Wei Xie, Eric Kennedy
2016 Stanger R, Belo L, Ting T, Spero C, Wall T, 'Mercury and SO3 measurements on the fabric filter at the Callide Oxy-fuel Project during air and oxy-fuel firing transitions', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, 47 221-232 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.01.049
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Terry Wall
2016 Liu D, Wall T, Stanger R, 'CO2 quality control in Oxy-fuel technology for CCS: SO2 removal by the caustic scrubber in Callide Oxy-fuel Project', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, 51 207-217 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.05.026
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Terry Wall
2016 Liu D, Xiong Z, Jin J, Wall T, Stanger R, 'Conceptual design of a packed bed for the removal of SO2 in Oxy-fuel combustion prior to compression', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, 53 65-78 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.031
Co-authors Terry Wall
2016 Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, Stanger R, 'Thermo-swelling Behavior of Australian Coking Coals from Different Basins: Relating to Rank and Maceral Compositions', ENERGY & FUELS, 30 10126-10135 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01683
Co-authors Terry Wall, Wei Xie, John Lucas
2016 Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, Stanger R, 'Chemical Changes of Australian Coking Coals from Different Basins with Various Ranks and Maceral Compositions: Linking to Both Physical and Thermal Changes', ENERGY & FUELS, 30 10136-10147 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01684
Co-authors Wei Xie, John Lucas, Terry Wall
2016 Tran QA, Stanger R, Xie W, Smith N, Lucas J, Wall T, 'Linking Thermoplastic Development and Swelling with Molecular Weight Changes of a Coking Coal and Its Pyrolysis Products', Energy and Fuels, 30 3906-3916 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 American Chemical Society. The thermoplastic development of an Australian coking coal was investigated by linking thermal swelling with changes in molecular weight of its ... [more]

© 2016 American Chemical Society. The thermoplastic development of an Australian coking coal was investigated by linking thermal swelling with changes in molecular weight of its pyrolysis products. Coal thermal swelling was investigated together with volatiles evolution and characterization of generated volatiles (including volatile tar and light gases). The molecular weight distributions of coal and its solvent extracts were measured by using laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (LDI-TOF-MS). Solvent extraction (by acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF)) was initially used on the raw coal to aid interpretation of thermoswelling by volumetric expansion measurements. The removal of ~2% solvent-soluble matter from the raw coal (the mobile phase) reduced its swelling extent during heating by up to 22% (from 86% down to 68% and 64% for acetone- and THF-residues, respectively). Volatile release after solvent treatment remained unaffected. This suggested that the majority of the coals swelling behavior could be attributed to the formation of heat-generated liquid matter (the Metaplast) during pyrolysis. Broad molecular weight changes were found in the solvent extractable component (metaplastic material extracted by acetone and THF) of the semicoke. Prior to softening (350 °C), the extractable components were composed of molecules mainly < 500 Da. The upper limit in molecular weight distribution of solvent extracts increased significantly to 1800 Da at the onset of swelling (400-450 °C) and decreased back to ~500 Da at the end of swelling (500 °C). The spectra showed that the volatile tar and acetone extract (the light solvent extract) consisted of similar repeating structures separated 12-14 Da apart. As the treatment temperature increased, the molecular weight distribution of volatile tar increased in molecular mass, approaching that of the acetone extract distribution (~600 Da). The THF extract molecular weight distribution was a mixture of 12-14 and 24 Da repeating units which only became apparent at molecular weight above 600 Da. The LDI-TOF-MS analysis of the solid coal showed that it contained a distribution of molecular structures centered at 2000 Da and spanning between 500 and 7000 Da. This raw coal spectrum also contained multiple repeating mass lines every 24 Da apart. Overall, these results suggested that the coal consisted of complicated structures which subsequently degraded into smaller fragments capable of forming a complex intermediate liquid phase and a distribution of lighter volatile tar species.

DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00324
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 4
Co-authors John Lucas, Wei Xie, Terry Wall
2016 Belo LP, Elliott LK, Stanger RJ, Wall TF, 'Impacts of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Speciation and Capture by Fly Ash during Oxy-fuel Pulverized Coal Combustion', Energy and Fuels, 30 8658-8664 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 American Chemical Society. Coal-fired utility boilers are the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions. Mercury is a naturally occurring trace element in c... [more]

© 2016 American Chemical Society. Coal-fired utility boilers are the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions. Mercury is a naturally occurring trace element in coal and, when combusted, may exist in three different forms: Hg 0 , Hg 2+ , or Hg particulate. During oxy-fuel combustion, impurity concentrations, such as SO x , NO x , and Hg, can be up to 4 times higher than concentrations in air combustion. An increased mercury concentration is of concern because mercury is known to attack aluminum heat exchangers required in the compression of CO 2 . As a result of the elevated concentrations during oxy-fuel conditions, interactions of Hg and SO x were investigated in this study to verify if there is any competition between SO x and Hg. The effect of Hg, SO x , H 2 O, and temperature on the native capture of Hg by fly ash was assessed using a quartz flow reactor packed with fly ash to simulate a bag filter. Doubling Hg in the system from 5 to 10 µg/Nm 3 doubled the amount of Hg captured in the fly ash from 1.6 to 2.8% and increased the amount of Hg unaccounted from 5.8 to 18.1%. Increased SO 2 decreased the proportion of Hg 0 in the flue gas. The temperature in the bag filter was found to have a large impact on the mercury capture by fly ash. As the temperature was increased from 90 to 200 °C, Hg 0 in the flue gas was found to increase from 77.9 to 98.3%, indicating better capture of Hg at lower temperatures.

DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01078
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Liza Elliott, Terry Wall
2015 Xie W, Stanger R, Lucas J, Mahoney M, Elliott L, Yu J, Wall T, 'Thermo-swelling Properties of Particle Size Cuts of Coal Maceral Concentrates', Energy & Fuels, 29 4893-4901 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01122
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Jianglong Yu, John Lucas, Wei Xie, Terry Wall, Liza Elliott
2015 Liu D, Wall T, Stanger R, 'CO2 quality control through scrubbing in oxy-fuel combustion: Rate limitation due to S(IV) oxidation in sodium solutions in scrubbers and prior to waste disposal', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, 39 148-157 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.05.015
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Terry Wall
2015 Liu D, Wall T, Stanger R, Luo C, 'CO

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising CCS technology which is being demonstrated prior to commercialization. While the flue gas in oxy-fuel combustion is concen... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising CCS technology which is being demonstrated prior to commercialization. While the flue gas in oxy-fuel combustion is concentrated in CO 2 , it contains impurities such as SO 2 . The elimination of SO 2 can provide a clean CO 2 stream ready for storage. SO 2 is commonly washed by sodium based spray towers with high efficiency but CO 2 impacts are significant. A theoretical model was developed based on the two-film mass transfer model, and considering both the SO 2 and CO 2 reactions with sodium solutions. This model was firstly used to simulate the dynamic experimental results reported in our previous paper to confirm its applicability. With this model, simulations then were carried out on the absorption rate of SO 2 into droplets with three droplet sizes: 100µm, 500µm and 1000µm, one sodium concentration of 0.08M (back calculated from liquid analysis), a range of pH from 4 to 12.5 and a range of SO 2 concentrations from 19ppm to 1500ppm.Simulations focus on the impacts of droplet position, gas phase CO 2 and droplet size on the absorption rate of SO 2 . These impacts are closely related with pH values. Taking a typical pH of 7 for example, the absorption rates of SO 2 for droplets close to nozzles which move relative to the gas are significantly higher than these below nozzles which are at the terminal velocities, and the differences between two positions are larger for higher concentrations of SO 2 with the concentrations range from 200ppm to 1500ppm. CO 2 has a negative impact on the absorption rate of SO 2 through reducing the gas phase mass transfer coefficient of SO 2 in the gas phase controlled region and also through generating more acidic conditions at the liquid phase interface. Reducing the droplet size from 500µm to 100µm has a more significant improvement on the absorption rate of SO 2 than from 1000µm to 500µm. Result: have implications in the controlling region and the operational liquid pH region. The controlling region is related to the droplet position. The droplets close to nozzles are located in the mixed controlled region or the gas film controlled region; and the droplets below nozzles can be located in three regions depending on the concentration of SO 2 and pH. A lower concentration of SO 2 and a higher pH are favourable for the absorption rates of SO 2 to be located in the gas phase controlled region.The operational pH of the exit liquid may be established based on two criteria: a reasonable absorption rate of SO 2 and a sodium reagent loss as NaHCO 3 . The optimal operational region is then in the region 2 where the absorption rate of SO 2 is still high and reagent use is minimized. The region 2 can be further divided into four sub regions. In the region 2-1 and the region 2-2, the absorption rate is moderate, but there is too much Na + wasted for CO 2 capture. In the region 2-3, there is a moderate amount of Na + wasted for CO 2 capture. In the region 2-4, Na + wasted for CO 2 capture is minimized, but the effective ratio of Na + is still not the maximum.The necessary operational pH region graph can be used to guide the operation of a spray tower.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.03.006
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Terry Wall
2015 Stanger R, Ting T, Belo L, Spero C, Wall T, 'Field measurements of NO x and mercury from oxy-fuel compression condensates at the Callide Oxyfuel Project', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 42 485-493 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.08.021
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Terry Wall
2015 Xie W, Stanger R, Wall TF, Lucas JA, Mahoney MR, 'Associations of physical, chemical with thermal changes during coking as coal heats - Experiments on coal maceral concentrates', Fuel, 147 1-8 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Dynamic measurements of physical, chemical and thermal changes in the transformation of coal maceral concentrates were made during heati... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Dynamic measurements of physical, chemical and thermal changes in the transformation of coal maceral concentrates were made during heating at a rate of 10°C/min to 1000°C. The endothermic and exothermic processes were identified by measurements of apparent specific heat while the fluidity was indicated by the estimated thermal conductivity. Measurements of swelling and bed permeability were made, with continuous quantitative elemental analysis of gases and tars as they evolved. Data for two coal concentrates of high and moderate vitrinite indicate that the same reactions and events are occurring for the two samples, but to a greater extent for the high vitrinite sample. The research has noted the significance of evolved tars in the early events, being the lowest temperature event identified, with rapid tar evolution prior to the onset of swelling associated with permeability change. Further tar release and gas evolution is associated with a rapid swelling event, this event being substantially greater for the high vitrinite sample. The data has also quantified contraction at higher temperatures following swelling which is associated with the release of hydrogen containing gases. Evolved tars from the high vitrinite sample showed elevated H/C ratio indicating that vitrinite tars appear to be more aliphatic than those evolved from inertinite. A comparison of measured swelling with estimated volumetric flow rate of the volatiles has indicated that thermo-expansion of coal utilised up to 21% of the volatiles to drive bubble growth. This utilisation rate varied significantly across the plastic temperature range.

DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.01.016
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Wei Xie, Terry Wall, John Lucas
2015 Stanger R, Borrowdale J, Smith N, Xei W, Tran QA, Lucas J, Wall T, 'Changes in Solvent-Extracted Matter for Heated Coal during Metaplast Formation Using High-Range Mass Spectrometry', Energy and Fuels, 29 7101-7113 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 American Chemical Society. A fundamental study was undertaken to characterize the changes in solvent-extracted matter formed during the thermoplastic phase of coking. Coal... [more]

© 2015 American Chemical Society. A fundamental study was undertaken to characterize the changes in solvent-extracted matter formed during the thermoplastic phase of coking. Coal samples were heated to fixed temperatures within the pyrolytic plastic range of 400-500 °C, and the volatile material was extracted in a two-stage extraction with acetone (light extract) and then tetrahydrofuran (THF heavy extract). The extracted material was analyzed using laser desorption ionization (time-of flight) mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF-MS). The LDI-TOF-MS results showed that three extracted fractions could be broadly classified here as overlapping molecular weight ranges as volatile tars (200-450 Da), light acetone-soluble extract (250-500 Da), and heavy THF-soluble extract (300-1200 Da). A further class of compounds was identified from THF extraction of the raw coal in the range of 600-2500 Da that required higher laser powers to ionize and was not observed in the thermally generated samples. Negligible changes were observed in the composition of the acetone-soluble extracts with temperature, while the THF-soluble extract showed smaller proportions of larger molecules with higher treatment temperatures. It was observed that each molecular weight spectrum showed repeating structural units forming peaks every 12-14 Da (homologous series), with distributions of species around each peak. The volatile tar and acetone-soluble material shared common repeating structures also evident in the raw coal extract. This suggested that the material in this fraction was thermally stable over the analyzed temperature range. The repeating features of the THF-soluble extract species appeared to be structurally different. Overall, this work has indicated that development of extractable matter expected to be associated with fluidity during coking and subsequent resolidification relies on < 1000 Da compounds. The results showed that > 600 Da compounds are thermally sensitive. Compounds with molecular weights of < 450 Da may be removed during coking, possibly as a vapor, resulting in a reduction in fluidity. There has been speculation that the thermally stable (acetone-soluble) material identified in both raw coal extract and those from thermally treated samples may be capable of undergoing a phase change to initiate plastic deformation.

DOI 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01850
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 7
Co-authors John Lucas, Terry Wall, Wei Xie
2015 Stanger R, Wall T, Spörl R, Paneru M, Grathwohl S, Weidmann M, et al., 'Oxyfuel combustion for CO2 capture in power plants', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 40 55-125 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.06.010
Citations Scopus - 69Web of Science - 56
Co-authors Terry Wall
2015 Stanger R, Ting T, Spero C, Wall T, 'Oxyfuel derived CO2 compression experiments with NOx, SOx and mercury removal-Experiments involving compression of slip-streams from the Callide Oxyfuel Project (COP)', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 41 50-59 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.06.022
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Terry Wall
2015 Liu D, Wall T, Stanger R, 'CO

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising CCS technology which is being demonstrated prior to commercialisation. While the flue gas in oxy-fuel combustion is concen... [more]

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising CCS technology which is being demonstrated prior to commercialisation. While the flue gas in oxy-fuel combustion is concentrated in CO 2 , it contains impurities such as SO 2 . The elimination of SO 2 can provide a clean CO 2 stream ready for storage. This paper is to understand the absorption of SO 2 in scrubbing relevant to those used in oxy-fuel technology.Steady state experiments were conducted in a continuous well stirred reactor to understand the absorption rate of SO 2 /CO 2 into a total concentration of 0.28M of mixtures of NaHSO 3 and NaHCO 3 simulating liquids formed by scrubbers using NaOH as the reagent at solution pH values from 4 to 7 with the exiting gas concentrations of SO 2 from 19ppm to 1500ppm and a constant CO 2 concentration of 70%. Online measurement included gas phase SO 2 and liquid pH, and offline measurement included CO 2 (aq), HCO 3 - , S (IV), SO 3 2- and S (VI) after each experiment. Three aspects investigated were the impacts of pH on the solution chemistry, the significance of solution pH and the concentration of gas phase SO 2 on the absorption rate of SO 2 .The total sulphur concentration in liquid was found to be related to the effectiveness of Na + . The effective ratio of Na + can be defined as the total sulphur to Na + ratio and this effectiveness ratio of Na + is pH dependent. At pH < 5, Na + is 99% effective. It reduces dramatically from 99% at a pH 5 to less than 15% at pH above 7. With regard to carbon based species also absorbed, super saturation of CO 2 (aq) was observed at pH > 5.5. The concentration of HCO 3 - increases dramatically above pH 6 and below this pH, the concentration of HCO 3 - is negligible.The absorption rate of SO 2 was found to increase with pH with some increase with the concentration of SO 2 . The operational pH window for scrubbing may be defined by an upper limit pH where the absorption rate of SO 2 starts to decreases from the maximum absorption rate of SO 2 and the lower limit pH where the absorption rate of SO 2 reduces to half of the maximum absorption rate of SO 2 . Both the upper limit and the lower limit decrease initially and stay stable with the concentration of SO 2 . This decrease is caused by the reversible reaction of the hydrolysis of SO 2 and confirmed by equilibrium experiments of SO 2 and sodium solutions. Operation within region 2 (pH 5-6) is recommended, depending on the scrubber design. The operation exit pH of the produced liquid can be varied within the region.The absorption rates of SO 2 obtained in the steady state experiments were predicted by a model based on the instantaneous reaction assumption. This model generally overestimates the absorption rates of SO 2 at pH values below 6 indicating a kinetic limitation of SO 2 and water reaction at low pH values. The analysis on the controlling regions indicates that the gas side mass transfer resistance decreases with the concentration of SO 2 . Liquid side resistance becomes more important at a lower pH and a higher concentration of SO 2 .

DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10.019
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Terry Wall
2014 Stanger R, Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, 'Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis', Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 3 2-8 (2014)

A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described... [more]

A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed. © 2013 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.10.012
Citations Scopus - 9
Co-authors John Lucas, Wei Xie, Terry Wall
2014 Spörl R, Walker J, Belo L, Shah K, Stanger R, Maier J, et al., 'SO

The sulfur oxide (SO x ) concentrations during oxy-fuel combustion are generally higher compared to conventional air firing. The higher SO x concentrations, particularly sulfur ... [more]

The sulfur oxide (SO x ) concentrations during oxy-fuel combustion are generally higher compared to conventional air firing. The higher SO x concentrations, particularly sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) in combination with high concentration of water in the recycled flue gas, increase the sulfuric acid dew point temperature in oxy-fuel fired systems, thereby increasing allowable flue gas temperatures and reducing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. This paper presents results of experiments carried out at a 20 kW once-through combustion rig of the Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK) of the University of Stuttgart simulating different extents of oxy-fuel recycle gas cleaning by impurities injection to the oxidant gas of a once-through combustion reactor. Three Australian coals that have previously been tested under air and oxy-fuel conditions at the Aioi furnace of IHI in Japan were used in the experiments. The SO x emissions were measured, conversion ratios of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) to SO 3 were calculated, and results were compared with existing literature, finding good agreement. The experiments with different extents of recycle gas cleaning and therefore different SO 2 levels in the system, revealed differences in the SO 3 generation behavior: A coal-specific trend of increasing conversion ratios of SO 2 to SO 3 with increased flue gas SO 2 levels was observed that could be related to the ash composition of the three different coals. The capture of SO x in a baghouse filter was also evaluated. Acid dew point temperatures (ADPs) for the flue gas were calculated for the various firing conditions. Acid dew point (ADP) temperatures increased by up to 50°C when changing from air to oxy-firing with recycling of H 2 O and SO 2 . Considerable differences in the ADPs were found for different extents of oxy-fuel recycle gas treatment and were evaluated in respect to power plant efficiency implications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

DOI 10.1021/ef500806p
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 19
Co-authors Terry Wall
2014 Shah K, Atkin R, Stanger R, Wall T, Moghtaderi B, 'Interactions between vitrinite and inertinite-rich coals and the ionic liquid - [bmim][Cl]', Fuel, 119 214-218 (2014) [C1]

The interactions between vitrinite and inertinite-rich coals and the ionic liquid butylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl] ) heated to 100 C have been characterised. Differences in t... [more]

The interactions between vitrinite and inertinite-rich coals and the ionic liquid butylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl] ) heated to 100 C have been characterised. Differences in the interactions of coal macerals and ionic liquids have been identified. [bmim][Cl] is able to dissolve 22 wt% of a high-vitrinite coal fraction compared to 14 wt% of a high-inertinite coal fraction. The vitrinite-rich coal fraction tends to swell to a greater extent compared to the inertinite-rich coal fraction, which was fractured and fragmented rather than swelled. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.11.038
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Terry Wall, Behdad Moghtaderi, Rob Atkin
2014 Spoerl R, Belo L, Shah K, Stanger R, Giniyatullin R, Maier J, et al., 'Mercury Emissions and Removal by Ash in Coal-Fired Oxy-fuel Combustion', ENERGY & FUELS, 28 123-135 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/ef4014604
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 28
Co-authors Terry Wall
2014 Belo LP, Spörl R, Shah KV, Elliott LK, Stanger RJ, Maier J, Wall TF, 'Sulfur capture by fly ash in air and oxy-fuel pulverized fuel combustion', Energy and Fuels, 28 5472-5479 (2014) [C1]

Ash produced during oxy-fuel combustion is expected to differ from ash produced during air combustion because of the higher CO 2 and SO 2 atmospheres in which it is generated. ... [more]

Ash produced during oxy-fuel combustion is expected to differ from ash produced during air combustion because of the higher CO 2 and SO 2 atmospheres in which it is generated. For a quantitative understanding of the sulfation behavior of fly ash in oxy-fuel combustion, fly ash from three commercial Australian sub-bituminous coals was tested and decomposed under an inert atmosphere. Thermal evolved gas analysis was completed for ash produced in both air and oxy-fuel environments. Pure salts were also tested under the same conditions to allow for identification of the species in the ash that capture sulfur, along with thermodynamic modeling using FactSage 6.3. Sulfur evolved during the decomposition of air and oxy-fuel fly ash was compared to the total sulfur in the ash to close the sulfur balance. Both total sulfur captured by the ash and sulfur evolved during decomposition were higher for oxy-fuel fly ash than their air counterparts. Correlations of capture with ash chemistry are presented. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

DOI 10.1021/ef500855w
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Liza Elliott, Terry Wall
2014 Belo LP, Elliott LK, Stanger RJ, Spörl R, Shah KV, Maier J, Wall TF, 'High-temperature conversion of SO

© 2014 American Chemical Society. The reaction of SO 2 with fly ash in the presence of O 2 and H 2 O involves a series of reactions that lead to the formation of SO 3 and even... [more]

© 2014 American Chemical Society. The reaction of SO 2 with fly ash in the presence of O 2 and H 2 O involves a series of reactions that lead to the formation of SO 3 and eventually H 2 SO 4 . Homogeneous experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the procedural variables, i.e., temperature, gas concentrations, and residence time, on the post-combustion conversion of SO 2 to SO 3 . The results were compared to existing global kinetics and found to be dependent upon SO 2 , O 2 , residence time, and temperature and independent of H 2 O content. For a residence time of 1 s, temperatures of about 900 °C are needed to have an observable conversion of SO 2 to SO 3 . Literature suggested that the conversion of SO 2 to SO 3 is dependent upon the iron oxide content of the fly ash. Experiments using three different fly ash samples from Australian sub-bituminous coals were used to investigate the catalytic effects of fly ash on SO 2 conversion to SO 3 at a temperature range of 400-1000 °C. It was observed that fly ash acts as a catalyst in the formation of SO 3 , with the largest conversion occurring at 700 °C. A homogeneous reaction at 700 °C, without fly ash present, converted 0.10% of the available SO 2 to SO 3 . When fly ash was present, the conversion increased to 1.78%. The catalytic effect accounts for roughly 95% of the total conversion. Average SO 3 /SO 2 conversion values between fly ash derived from air and oxy-fuel firing and under different flue gas environments were found to be similar.

DOI 10.1021/ef5020346
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 22
Co-authors Terry Wall, Liza Elliott
2014 Liu D, Liu Y, Wall T, Stanger R, 'CO2 quality control by scrubbing in oxy-fuel combustion prior to compression: Relating pH to the liquid composition from absorption of SO2 into sodium based solutions to identify an operational pH window (vol 19C, pg 462, 2013)', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, 22 330-330 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.02.012
Co-authors Terry Wall
2014 Ting T, Stanger R, Wall T, 'Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and NOx at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 29 125-134 (2014) [C1]

Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas ... [more]

Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NO x ; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with NO x and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.08.007
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Terry Wall
2014 Stanger R, Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, 'Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis', Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 3 2-8 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.10.012
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Wei Xie, Terry Wall, John Lucas
2014 Cassey J, Salter J, Colyvas K, Burstal R, Stanger R, 'The effect of convective heating on evaporative heat loss in anesthetized children', Paediatric Anaesthesia, 24 1274-1280 (2014) [C1]

© 2014 John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd. Background: Convective warming is effective in maintaining core temperature under anesthesia. It may increase evaporative water loss (EWL). If... [more]

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Background: Convective warming is effective in maintaining core temperature under anesthesia. It may increase evaporative water loss (EWL). If significant, further investigation of warming modifications to minimize this impact would be warranted. Objectives: To quantify EWL in two groups of children (warmed and nonwarmed) having surgical procedures under anesthesia. Methods: We performed an observational study of well children having general anesthesia for elective surgical procedures lasting =60 min. They were recruited sequentially to each of three age groups: 1-12 months, 13 months - 5 years, and 5-12 years - with each age group divided into convectively warmed (43°C) and nonwarmed (21°C) subgroups. Evaporative heat loss (EHL) was calculated from accurate measurement of net EWL during the surgical period. Results: Sixty children were studied. As a percentage of body mass, mean EWLs were 0.29 (warmed) and 0.09 (nonwarmed). Using an ANCOVA model, only procedure duration had a significant impact and explained why the extended procedural time in some convectively warmed children led to higher mean EWLs for that group. For the nonwarmed group, the mean T core drop was 1.27°C with a contribution from EWL of 0.6°C over ~70 min. Conclusions: Within the age range 1 month-12 years, EHL is not significantly influenced by convective heating under anesthesia. There is no thermal advantage in exploring technique modifications such as humidifying the warming air. Previous estimates of the contribution of EHL to total heat loss in anesthetized children may require revision.

DOI 10.1111/pan.12454
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Kim Colyvas
2014 Stanger R, Ting T, Wall T, 'High pressure conversion of NO x and Hg and their capture as aqueous condensates in a laboratory piston-compressor simulating oxy-fuel CO 2 compression', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 29 209-220 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.08.006
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Terry Wall
2013 Xie W, Stanger R, Lucas J, Wall T, Mahoney M, 'Coal macerals separation by reflux classification and thermo-swelling analysis based on the Computer Aided Thermal Analysis', FUEL, 103 1023-1031 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.07.061
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 12
Co-authors John Lucas, Terry Wall, Wei Xie
2013 Wall T, Stanger R, Liu Y, 'Gas cleaning challenges for coal-fired oxy-fuel technology with carbon capture and storage', FUEL, 108 85-90 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.03.037
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 28
Co-authors Terry Wall
2013 Stanger R, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, 'Dynamic Elemental Thermal Analysis (DETA) - A characterisation technique for the production of biochar and bio-oil from biomass resources', FUEL, 108 656-667 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.02.065
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Terry Wall, John Lucas
2013 Stanger R, Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, 'Dynamic Elemental Thermal Analysis: A technique for continuous measurement of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen chemistry of tar species evolved during coal pyrolysis', Fuel, 103 764-772 (2013) [C1]

A novel technique is described which provides quantitative and continuous analysis of light gas and condensable tar components as they are evolved in terms of carbon, hydrogen and... [more]

A novel technique is described which provides quantitative and continuous analysis of light gas and condensable tar components as they are evolved in terms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The technique has also been used to directly characterise the total tar sample in terms of carbon distribution and boiling point. It has been found that changes to the dynamic tar-H/C ratio correspond well with particular temperatures measured by Geiseler Plastometer for softening, maximum fluidity and re-solidification. This technique can enhance the chemical understanding of mechanisms occurring during de-polymerisation and cross-linking of coal (i.e. metaplast development and the transfer of hydrogen) while also monitoring tar evolution. A tar collection and re-vaporisation method provides a means of identifying tar groups that contribute towards the metaplast phase and temperatures at which they evolve. Both methods are unique in studying chemical aspects of coal and tar behaviour with heating, in a field based on thermo-physical techniques (e.g. H 1 NMR, high temperature rheology, Geiseler plastometry, dilatation). Overall, the Dynamic Elemental Thermal Analysis (DETA) technique can give new insight into the fundamental mechanisms prevalent in coal pyrolysis and provides quantitative chemical assessment of tar nature (i) during the heating of coal and (ii) as a final (total) condensed product. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.071
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Terry Wall, Wei Xie, John Lucas
2013 Cassey J, Armstrong P, Colyvas K, Stanger R, 'Comment on 'Prevention of intraoperative hypothermia...' Witt L, Denhardt N, Eich C et al.', PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, 23 970-970 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/pan.12251
Co-authors Kim Colyvas
2013 Stanger R, Xie W, Wall T, Lucas J, Mahoney M, 'Dynamic behaviour of coal macerals during pyrolysis-Associations between physical, thermal and chemical changes', Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34 2393-2400 (2013) [C1]

A fundamental study on the behaviour of heating coal macerals has been undertaken using two novel thermal analysis techniques. The apparent specific heat was determined during hea... [more]

A fundamental study on the behaviour of heating coal macerals has been undertaken using two novel thermal analysis techniques. The apparent specific heat was determined during heating using an inverse calorimetric method (computer aided thermal analysis, CATA) and combined with pressure and displacement measurements to correlate endothermic and exothermic behaviour with measurement of swelling. The second technique used a post-oxidation stage to combust the tars and gases into products which were analysed. This method was used to study the elemental character of volatiles release from coal maceral concentrates in terms of carbon and hydrogen. Extents of swelling and exothermicity during primary devolatilisation were found to be correlated with vitrinite content and were associated with tar evolution. For the highest vitrinite fraction (of 86.4% vitrinite) swelling was initiated at the same temperature range for exothermic reactions, and maximum swelling coincided with the peak release of light gases. Tar evolution was found to change in chemical character (as defined by H/C ratio) during progressive heating, initially rising in the early stages of tar formation ( < 430°C) to a maximum of 1.24, then gradually decreasing to a minimum of 0.64 at 550°C. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.003
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 11
Co-authors Terry Wall, Wei Xie, John Lucas
2013 Ting T, Stanger R, Wall T, 'Laboratory investigation of high pressure NO oxidation to NO

Oxyfuel combustion enables carbon dioxide capture for storage and can therefore significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants. However, CO 2 derived ... [more]

Oxyfuel combustion enables carbon dioxide capture for storage and can therefore significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants. However, CO 2 derived from oxyfuel combustion has impurities that cause corrosion to plant equipment and transport lines and may be subjected to certain storage and end user requirements. The use of the CO 2 compression system in an oxyfuel power plant to remove these impurities has been proposed and tested by international gas vendors both at laboratory and power-plant scale; however the extent of quantitative removal of these impurities by the compression system is unknown. The current research uses laboratory experiments to study the reactions of nitrogen oxides in the compression system. These include the oxidation of NO to NO 2 in the gas phase, the absorption in liquid water and also reactions with water vapour in conditions from ambient conditions to pressures of 30bar. The reactor used was a bubble column that was preloaded with liquid water. Results show that nitric oxide is readily oxidised to water-soluble nitrogen dioxide at elevated pressures. This reaction is kinetically controlled and can be predicted using an equation derived for atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting nitrogen dioxide is shown to react with liquid water to form nitrous and nitric acid. Single experiments also showed the potential for gas phase acid formation and condensation. Overall mass balances across the gas-liquid system were complicated by the stability of the absorbed NO x species in the liquid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.06.016
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Terry Wall
2013 Liu D, Liu Y, Wall T, Stanger R, 'CO2 quality control by scrubbing in oxy-fuel combustion prior to compression: Relating pH to the liquid composition from absorption of SO2 into sodium based solutions to identify an operational pH window', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 19 462-470 (2013) [C1]

Oxy-fuel combustion is an emerging technology to mitigate CO 2 emissions from power plants. Compared with other CO 2 capture technologies, gas impurities in oxy-fuel flue gas ar... [more]

Oxy-fuel combustion is an emerging technology to mitigate CO 2 emissions from power plants. Compared with other CO 2 capture technologies, gas impurities in oxy-fuel flue gas are highly concentrated, among which SO 2 is of concern. Sodium based quench units have been used in oxyfuel projects to directly cool the gas prior to compression and to also remove SO 2 . However, the high concentration of CO 2 in the flue gas can interfere with the capture of SO 2 . Dynamic transient experiments were therefore conducted in a semi-batch well stirred reactor (WSR) to study the mechanisms of SO 2 absorption from gas mixtures of both SO 2 /N 2 and SO 2 /CO 2 into sodium based aqueous solutions, with measurements of SO 2 absorption rate and decreasing liquid pH during the experiments. The liquids were analysed by ion chromatography (IC) and acid titration with equilibrium calculations to estimate sulfur and carbon species formed in the liquid.The dynamic absorption results for SO 2 /CO 2 show three pH regions of absorption behaviour as pH reduced during the experiments, namely, region 1 with a constant gas absorption rate at pH values above 8.32 (this being 9.65 for the SO 2 /N 2 experiments); region 2 where the gas absorption rate reduced at pH values from 8.32 to 4.22 (from 9.65 to 4.82 for SO 2 /N 2 ); and region 3 where gas absorption reduced rapidly with pH, at pH values below 4.22 (4.82 for SO 2 /N 2 ). From liquid analyses and thermodynamic calculations it is concluded that region 1 is associated with the consumption of OH - to give SO 3 2- , region 2 with the consumption of HCO 3 - /SO 3 2- and the formation of HSO 3 - , and region 3 with the consumption of H 2 O and the accumulation of HSO 3 - and SO 2 .The operational pH of the sodium based quench units is recommended to be in region 2, where a high absorption rate of SO 2 and low sodium loss are expected. An operational pH window is thereby defined in terms of upper and lower limits. The operational pH window is found to be related to the concentration of sodium solutions when an inlet concentration of SO 2 is proximately 3000ppm, and the window narrows at high concentrations of sodium solutions. The operational window is secondarily related with the concentrations of SO 2 and narrows at low concentrations of SO 2 . © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.10.010
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Terry Wall
2011 Wall TF, Stanger RJ, Santos S, 'Demonstrations of coal-fired oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage and issues with commercial deployment', International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 5 S5-S15 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.03.014
Citations Scopus - 59Web of Science - 51
Co-authors Terry Wall
2011 Stanger RJ, Wall TF, 'Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage', Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 37 69-88 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.pecs.2010.04.001
Citations Scopus - 107Web of Science - 87
Co-authors Terry Wall
2009 Stanger RJ, Colyvas KJ, Cassey JG, Robinson IA, Armstrong P, 'Predicting the efficacy of convection warming in anaesthetized children', British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103 275-282 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/bja/aep160
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Kim Colyvas
Show 40 more journal articles

Conference (8 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Spörl R, Maier J, Belo L, Shah K, Stanger R, Wall T, Scheffknecht G, 'Mercury and SO

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents results on experiments carried out at a 20 kW combustion rig simulating different extents of oxy-fuel recycle g... [more]

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents results on experiments carried out at a 20 kW combustion rig simulating different extents of oxy-fuel recycle gas cleaning by impurities injection to the oxidant gas of the once-through combustion reactor. A comprehensive set of total (Hgtot), elemental (Hg 0 ) and oxidized (Hg 2+ ) mercury as well as SO 3 concentrations was obtained before and after the combustion rig's baghouse filter for in total 14 air and oxy-fuel experiments with 3 Australian coals. Based on this data, an assessment in respect to Hg oxidation, SO 2 /SO 3 conversion and Hg and SO 3 capture on the test rig's filter was performed. The air and the oxyfuel experiments with different extents of recycle gas cleaning, revealed differences in the Hg and SO 3 formation and capture behavior: The Hg 2+ /Hgtot ratios in the flue gas are higher during oxy-fuel combustion compared to air-firing. This effect is even more pronounced at the filter outlet, after flue gas has passed through the filter ash. In some experiments, even a net oxidation of Hg 0 entering the filter to Hg 2+ was observed. The Hg capture by ash in the baghouse filter has been found to reduce the Hg emissions considerably. However, the Hg capture was altered by the different oxy-fuel recycle configurations, leading to decreased Hg capture efficiencies on the filter for one of the coals. A coal-specific trend of increased SO 2 /SO 3 conversion ratios with increased flue gas SO 2 levels was observed that could be related to the ash composition of the three different coals. This and the higher SO 2 concentrations in the flue gas lead to considerably higher SO 3 levels in oxy-fuel combustion with SO 2 recycling. During the experiments, also a considerable capture of SO 3 in the baghouse filter was observed (up to 80% under air- And up to 66% under oxy-fired conditions). A reduction of the SO 3 capture on the filter under oxy-fuel conditions may be related to the higher SO 3 levels in this process.

DOI 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.041
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Terry Wall
2013 Mahoney MR, Xie W, Stanger R, Wall T, Lucas J, 'Physical, chemical and thermal behaviours during cokemaking using CATA and DETA techniques', 10th Australian Coal Science Conference Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E2]
Co-authors Terry Wall, John Lucas, Wei Xie
2013 Ting T, Stanger RJ, Wall T, 'Removal of NOx from Oxyfuel Derived CO2 by Reaction with Water Condensate Formed During Compression', Proceedings of The Australian Combustion Symposium 2013, Perth, W.A. (2013) [E1]
Co-authors Terry Wall
2013 Xie W, Stanger RJ, Wall TF, Lucas JA, Mahoney MR, 'Physical, Chemical and Thermal Changes in the Transformation of Coal to Coke', Proceedings of the Australian Combustion Symposium, Perth, W.A. (2013) [E1]
Co-authors Terry Wall, John Lucas
2012 Liu Y, Zhou H, Liu YH, Stanger R, Elliot L, Wall T, Cen KF, 'The Study of Calcium Sulfate Decomposition by Experiments Under O-2/CO2 Atmosphere', CLEANER COMBUSTION AND SUSTAINABLE WORLD, Harbin Inst Technol, Combust Engn Res Inst, Harbin, PEOPLES R CHINA (2012)
2012 Stanger RJ, Xie W, Wall TF, Lucas JA, Mahoney MR, 'Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis', Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking, Rio de Janeiro (2012) [E2]
Co-authors John Lucas, Terry Wall, Wei Xie
2011 Xie W, Stanger RJ, Lucas JA, Wall TF, Mahoney MR, 'Influence of heating rate and particle size on thermo-swelling properties of heating coal', Proceedings of the Australian Combustion Symposium 2011, Shoal Bay (2011) [E1]
Co-authors Terry Wall, John Lucas, Wei Xie
2009 Wall TF, Stanger RJ, Maier J, 'Sulfur and coal-fired oxyfuel combustion with CCS: Impacts and control options', 1st Oxyfuel Combustion Conference: Book of Abstracts, Cottbus, Germany (2009) [E2]
Co-authors Terry Wall
Show 5 more conferences

Report (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Mahoney MR, Stanger R, Xie W, Lucas J, Wall T, 'Fundamental reasons for different coking behaviour of coals from different basins - behaviour of semi-inerts', Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP), 77 (2014) [R1]
Co-authors John Lucas, Wei Xie, Terry Wall
Edit

Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 16
Total funding $1,498,797

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20176 grants / $378,583

Low Cost Online Measurement of Particle Size and Density of Diagnostics Across the Fine Coal Circuit$119,633

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Dr Peter Stepien, Dr Dave Osborne
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1700170
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Review of ACARP research to support marketing of Australian thermal coal$102,200

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Doctor Jianglong Yu, Doctor Liza Elliott
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2018
GNo G1701430
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Relevance of maceral concentrates to whole coal coking predicts$69,500

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Wei Xie, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Doctor Merrick Mahoney, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Associate Professor John Lucas, Doctor Jianglong Yu
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1700654
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Physical and chemical interactions occurring between macerals during cokemaking and their influence on coke strength$54,750

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Wei Xie, Doctor Merrick Mahoney, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Associate Professor John Lucas, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Doctor Jianglong Yu, Dr Karen Steel
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1700655
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Carbon fibre production from coal for market grade quantities$20,000

Funding body: FEBE, UoN

Funding body FEBE, UoN
Project Team

Rohan Stanger, Terry Wall, John Lucas

Scheme Strategic pilot Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Rare earth elements in coal ash$12,500

Funding body: Delta Electricity

Funding body Delta Electricity
Project Team Doctor Liza Elliott, Doctor Rohan Stanger
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1701104
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - State
Category 2OPS
UON Y

20165 grants / $729,439

Scope study of technological options for SOx treatment for CTSCo project $377,949

Funding body: Australian National Low Emissions Coal Research & Development

Funding body Australian National Low Emissions Coal Research & Development
Project Team Doctor Jianglong Yu, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Associate Professor John Lucas, Professor Behdad Moghtaderi, Dr Hai Yu, Dr Lianbo Liu, Dr Hongwei Niu
Scheme Research Project
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1600812
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

Optimising the performance of solid bowl centrifuge for tailing dewatering$125,560

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger, Associate Professor John Lucas, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Doctor Jianglong Yu, Doctor Wei Xie
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1600043
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Using high range mass spectrometry to study the link between coal structure, coke strength and thermoplastic chemistry in blends$104,240

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Associate Professor John Lucas, Doctor Jianglong Yu, Doctor Wei Xie, Doctor Merrick Mahoney
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1600044
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Concentrating coke oven sized inertinite particles to study their behaviour in targeted coking blends$91,690

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Wei Xie, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Doctor Merrick Mahoney, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Associate Professor John Lucas, Doctor Jianglong Yu
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1600048
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Scoping study on Matmor feed material using novel thermal analysis$30,000

Funding body: Environmental Clean Technologies Limited

Funding body Environmental Clean Technologies Limited
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Associate Professor John Lucas, Doctor Wei Xie, Professor Eric Kennedy, Professor Michael Stockenhuber
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1600680
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

20151 grants / $213,530

An in-situ study of the plastic layer formation in coking coals using a lab-scale test furnace$213,530

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Jianglong Yu, Doctor Merrick Mahoney, Doctor Rohan Stanger, Associate Professor John Lucas, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2018
GNo G1400697
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

20141 grants / $19,958

Hydrothermal treatment of biomass to optimise biofuel production $19,958

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger
Scheme Pilot Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2014
GNo G1400977
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20131 grants / $149,187

Fundamental reasons for different coking behaviour of coals from different basins – behaviour of semi-inerts $149,187

Funding body: Australian Coal Research Limited

Funding body Australian Coal Research Limited
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger, Emeritus Professor Terry Wall, Associate Professor John Lucas, Doctor Merrick Mahoney
Scheme Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2014
GNo G1201237
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

20121 grants / $1,200

34th International Symposium on Combustion, Warsaw University Institute of Technology, Poland, 29 July - 3 August 2012$1,200

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1200856
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20091 grants / $6,900

Thermal Analysis of Coal with Continuous Volumetric Measurement$6,900

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Doctor Rohan Stanger
Scheme Early Career Researcher Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo G0190534
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y
Edit

Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current2

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.9

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2015 PhD A Mechanistic Study on the Formation of Plastic Layer during Heating of Coking Coal PhD (Chemical Engineering), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2014 PhD Mechanisms of Metaplast Formation during Coal Pyrolysis PhD (Chemical Engineering), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
Edit

Research Projects

ARC Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of metaplast development in coal and biomass during pyrolysis 2014 - 2016

This project will investigate the principle mechanisms involved in the most poorly understood area of coal researchmetaplast

formation. Not all coals undergo a meta-stable plastic transition (ie soften and deform) during pyrolysis,

but those that do are highly prized for their thermal properties and Australia has some of the worlds most abundant

supplies. This project will track the chemical and physical changes occurring during metaplast development for a

range of coal measures and their macerals constituents with a focus on the dynamic interplay between primary

decomposition products and final volatile species. These results will be directly compared with several biomass

varieties and their polymer constituents (eg. cellulose, lignin). This analysis capability has only recently been

developed as part of a current ARC grant (DP1097016) and this proposal builds on the research momentum already

achieved.


ARC Thermal characterisation of coal macerals 2010 - 2012

The aim of this research was to investigate exo & endothermic reactions in density separated coal of

different rank. A novel thermal analysis technique was used to characterise pyrolytic behaviour in coal

macerals. This proposal studied fluidity effects on hydrogen transfer and tar formation and identify

convective influences during devolatilisation. The results generated fundamental thermal and kinetic

data to understand and model coal pyrolysis behaviour in a new and highly sensitive way. This advanced

modelling capacity is directly applicable to combustion and gasification processes and enhances design

for existing and future technologies.


ANLEC R&D Gas quality impacts, assessment and control in oxyfuel technology for CCS -Part 1 2013 - 2014

The cost of gas cleaning is likely to be more significant for oxyfuel than for other CC technologies.

The CO2 gas quality from oxyfuel technology for CCS differs greatly from pre- and post-combustion technologies in quality and quantity, having higher levels of inert gases (N2 and Ar) , oxygen (O2) – with several impurities, sulphur and nitrogen gases (SO2, SO3, NO, NO2), mercury gases (Hgo and Hg++). Options are available for adjusting gas quality, in the furnace, and by cleaning and treating flue gas with potentially further removal of impurities during compression by technology which is yet to be proven at scale. Thus, knowledge of the impact of gas quality on the capital and operating costs of power plant, CO2 compression, on transport systems and also gas quality regulations for storage is required.

The technology significance of the research is due to: Uncertainty of the oxyfuel technology flowsheet, in the need and optimum locations for gas cleaning unit operations; The higher concentrations of gas impurities in the furnace and flue gas compared to air firing (by about a factor of 3) due to removal of N2 in the oxidant; Uncertain future regulatory requirements of CO2 gas quality for transport and storage; The significance of impurities on CO2 recovery (% capture) and energy for compression; Uncertainty regarding the optimum location and units for removal of S, N and Hg gases

The project has both general objectives relevant to the technology and specific objectives identified by the Callide Oxyfuel Project to be of significance, using the same rigs for laboratory experiments and experiments on slip streams at the COP. The five objectives are to:

1. Establish the extent to gas scrubbing prior to CO2 compression removes gas impurities

2. Establish the feasibility of gas quality control by removal of impurities in compression

3, Establish the removal of mercury species in CO2 processing

4, Provide options for monitoring of sulphur-derived corrosion at the COP

5. Provide flow sheets for gas cleaning options to be used in the ANLECR&D TEA program

The outcomes will be reductions in the uncertainties given above, with options from objective 5 to allow the quantification of the reduction of plant and operating costs.


ANLEC R&D Gas quality impacts, assessment and control in oxyfuel technology for CCS - Part 2 2014

The ANLECR&D Project 6-0710-0061 on “Gas quality impacts, assessment and control in oxy-fuel technology for CCS”, which concludes in April 2013 has established the feasibility of cleaning of mercury gases from oxyfuel flue gas in a fabric filter and during CO2 compression. The proposed project quantifies the extent of removal and the impact of other gas impurities in the CO2, using existing apparatus and analysis techniques, with new techniques to clarify uncertainties in reaction mechanisms determining removal. The project uses laboratory experiments on laboratory “synthetic’ oxyfuel gas and culminates with two trials at the COP to test the impact of ‘real’ gas with analyses on sampled (slip stream) gases and liquids from an apparatus developed  for compression of oxyfuel flue gas.

The project is needed due to the cost and risk associated with CO2 gas quality in the Callide Oxyfuel Project (COP) and to future oxyfuel technology deployment in Australia and elsewhere. The removal of mercury species prior to CO2 liquefaction is critical in avoiding the cost and risk of corrosion in brazed aluminium cryogenic heat exchangers of the CPU.

The aim is that by two testing periods on “real” oxyfuel flue gas at the COP in 2014 to suit the COP schedule.  Together with related controlled laboratory measurements on “synthetic” gas  the project will:

  • Quantify and provide understanding of the impact (reduction) of Hg capture due to SO2/SO3 with associated high acid dew point temperature by ash in the fabric filter in oxyfuel combustion

  • Quantify and provide understanding  of Hg removal in (liquid) acid condensates formed by NOx/H2O reactions in oxyfuel flue gas compression and the stabilisation of the liquid during pressure reduction required for its disposal.


ANLEC R&D PRODUCTS FORMED FROM GAS IMPURITIES IN OXYFUEL-DERIVED CO2 COMPRESSION 2015 - 2016

The project  will quantify the release (emissions) of NOX and mercury gases from condensates formed during CO2 compression, while providing options for their stabilisation, characterise the solid mercury formed in the compressor and provide options for  waste utilisation. :

  • quantify the decomposition/stability of the wastes on depressurisation of condensates from CO2 compression to form NOx and mercury gases and  provide experimentally-proven options for their stabilisation.

  • Establish the effect of recycled NOx to the CO2 compression, a feature of the Callide CPU and a possible common feature of other plant

  • establish the stability on decompression and removal of the non-condensable (solid) mercury species found to be retained in the compressor

  • provide options for their potential use for saleable products by a literature review

The project  will be based on laboratory measurements which have been proven to match Callide Oxyfuel Project (COP) measurements , and is general for oxyfuel technology while also being specific for the COP flowsheet and Australian  flue gas conditions,


Edit

Dr Rohan Stanger

Positions

Research Associate
School of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Casual Academic
School of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Contact Details

Email rohan.stanger@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 6108

Office

Room EB126A
Building Engineering EB
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
Edit