Dr Hayley Croft
Lecturer in Pharmacy
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy (Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology)
- Phone:(02) 4985 4263
My research interests are focused on developing and evaluating professional pharmacy education. Since 2011 I have been actively involved in research investigating simulation-based teaching and learning approaches within pharmacy school curricula. These areas of simulation have included high fidelity manikins, simulated patients and augmented/ virtual reality. In 2013 I led a project supported by a Teaching and Learning grant, examining the use of video and animation for improving communication skill acquisition for pharmacy students. Since then I have investigated the use of simulation based assessments in health professional training, and used simulated patient interactions to examine clinical decision making processes by community pharmacists using a qualitative methodology. This has led to my current area of study which involves the development and validation of a framework for providing evaluation of pharmacists during simulated medication supply tasks.
Other research interests include optimising the role of the accredited pharmacist, professional service delivery in community pharmacy, the role of the pharmacist in supply of medicinal cannabis and enhancing medication management skills for Nurse Practitioners.
I am a registered pharmacist and an accredited consultant pharmacist, and practice in the community pharmacy sector regularly. I contribute to teaching into the areas of Pharmacy Practice, Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapeutics in the B.Pharm at the University of Newcastle.
- Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacy, University of Newcastle
- Bachelor of Pharmacy, University of Sydney
- Clinical Reasoning
- Community Pharmacy
- Competency assessment
- Medication Reviews
Fields of Research
|080111||Virtual Reality and Related Simulation||10|
|111503||Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice||60|
|Title||Organisation / Department|
|Lecturer in Pharmacy||University of Newcastle
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (6 outputs)
Croft H, Gilligan C, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, Schneider J, 'Developing a validity argument for a simulation-based model of entrustment in dispensing skills assessment framework', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, (2020)
© 2020 Introduction: Integrated assessment of multiple competencies at once, including entrustable professional activity (EPA) based assessment, is emerging as an effective approa... [more]
© 2020 Introduction: Integrated assessment of multiple competencies at once, including entrustable professional activity (EPA) based assessment, is emerging as an effective approach to competency-based evaluation of health professionals. However, there is an absence of validated assessment frameworks in entry level pharmacy education. We aimed to develop an assessment framework and establish a validity argument, containing multiple sources of evidence, for use in the integrated assessment of pharmacy student's competency in all aspects of the supply of prescribed medicine(s). Methods: A two-phase prospective study was conducted. Phase 1 involved development and content validation of the Model of Entrustment in Dispensing Skills (MEDS) assessment framework using a literature review, a think-aloud study, and expert consultation. In phase 2, a pilot study was conducted with faculty and expert assessors to test the framework. Subsequent analysis involved psychometric evaluation of rating scales and usability testing. Results: Validity evidence was collected and organised across the two study phases. The MEDS framework had good evidence of content validity supported by the rigorous development and consultation process, as well as case sampling, with 88% of national practice-based competencies represented across the two simulations. Reliability coefficients were high and acceptable, supporting strong agreement across domains, students, and simulations as well as a strong correlation between the EPA and total score (spearman correlation rho 0.725, P < .001). Conclusions: This study describes a valid and rigorous approach for the implementation and interpretation of an integrated simulation-based assessment tool for determining pharmacy student's progress towards entrustment for independent medication supply practice.
Croft H, Gilligan C, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, Schneider J, 'Development and inclusion of an entrustable professional activity (EPA) scale in a simulation-based medicine dispensing assessment', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 12 203-212 (2020)
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Background and purpose: Effective, safe, and patient-centred dispensing is a core task of community pharmacists. Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) of... [more]
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Background and purpose: Effective, safe, and patient-centred dispensing is a core task of community pharmacists. Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) offer a way of defining and assessing these daily practice activities. Although EPAs have become popular within competency-based medical education programs, their use is new to pharmacy education and assessment. Educational activity and setting: A simulation-based assessment framework containing a scale of entrustment was developed to evaluate the readiness of Year 4 undergraduate pharmacy students to safely manage the supply of prescribed medicine(s) in a community pharmacy. The assessment framework was piloted in a fourth year ¿Transition to Practice¿ course with 28 simulation-based assessments conducted. Findings: An entrustment framework was developed and implemented successfully with Year 4 undergraduate pharmacy students. The EPA for medicine dispensing integrates competency domains that include information gathering, providing patient-centred care, clinical reasoning, medicine dispensing, and professional communications. On a scale ranging from level 1 to level 5, the majority (73%) of entrustment ratings were level 2 or level 3; and of the students who achieved different ratings between clinical scenarios, 75% of students improved on their second simulation attempt. There was a strong correlation between the global EPA ratings with the total score achieved across the domains. Using simulation-based assessment, entrustment decision making can be incorporated in ¿entry to profession¿ undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy courses to assess students' readiness to transition between learning and professional practice.
Croft HA, Glass B, Gilligan C, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, 'Integrated simulation-based skills assessment for evaluating pharmacist competence: A scoping review', Pharmacy Education, 19 381-396 (2019) [C1]
Croft H, Gilligan C, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, Schneider J, 'Current Trends and Opportunities for Competency Assessment in Pharmacy Education-A Literature Review.', Pharmacy (Basel), 7 (2019) [C1]
Croft H, Gilligan C, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, Schneider J, 'Thinking in Pharmacy Practice: A Study of Community Pharmacists' Clinical Reasoning in Medication Supply Using the Think-Aloud Method.', Pharmacy, 6 (2018) [C1]
Croft H, Nesbitt K, Rasiah R, Levett-Jones T, Gilligan C, 'Safe dispensing in community pharmacies: applying the software, hardware, environment and liveware (SHELL) model', Clinical Pharmacist, 9 1-15 (2017) [C1]
|Show 3 more journal articles|
Conference (4 outputs)
Hookham G, Nesbitt K, Cooper J, Croft H, Rasiah R, 'Gamification for education: Designing a pharmacy education game', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (2015) [E1]
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. A key motivator for the use of serious games has been the notion that ¿gamification¿ provides users with an additional level ... [more]
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. A key motivator for the use of serious games has been the notion that ¿gamification¿ provides users with an additional level of engagement. This study examines a traditional model of usability in terms of engagement and efficacy, presenting the results obtained from a formative evaluation of a serious game prototype that has been developed to assist in pharmacy education.
Hunter SM, Johnston CL, Rasiah R, Roberts E, O'Toole G, MacDonald-Wicks L, et al., 'Using healthy ageing as a vehicle for interprofessional education', 6th International Clinical Skills Conference. Abstracts, Prato, Tuscany (2015) [E3]
Croft H, Rasiah R, Cooper J, Nesbitt K, 'Comparing Animation with Video For Teaching Communication Skills', Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Newcastle, NSW (2014) [E1]
Hookham G, Cooper J, Rasiah R, Croft H, Nesbitt K, 'Efficacy and Usability in the Design of a Pharmacy Education Game', ENTERTAINMENT COMPUTING - ICEC 2014, Sydney, AUSTRALIA (2014) [E3]
|Show 1 more conference|
Grants and Funding
|Number of grants||1|
Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.
20181 grants / $9,940
Simulation based assessment for evaluating pharmacists' competence in clinical decision making during medication review and supply$9,940
Funding body: Pharmacy Council of New South Wales
|Funding body||Pharmacy Council of New South Wales|
|Project Team||Doctor Hayley Croft, Associate Professor Conor Gilligan, Associate Professor Jenny Schneider, Associate Professor Rohan Rasiah, Tracy Levett-Jones|
|Type Of Funding||C2220 - Aust StateTerritoryLocal - Other|
Dr Hayley Croft
Lecturer in Pharmacy
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine
Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology
|Phone||(02) 4985 4263|
|Fax||(02) 4921 7903|
|Building||Medical Sciences Building|
Callaghan, NSW 2308