Associate Professor Jason Bendall
University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health (Anaesthesia and Intensive Care)
- Phone:(02) 4055 1900
Associate Professor Jason Bendall is the Clinical Dean at the Manning Clinical School within the Department of Rural Health. Jason completed his undergraduate studies in 1991 completing a honours degree in medical science before becoming a paramedic. Jason graduated with a medical degree and (MBBS) and a PhD in medicine in 2004 subsequently specialising in anaesthesia. Jason has undertaken further postgraduate studies in clinical epidemiology and biostatistics.
Jason's clinical and research interests include paramedicine, prehospital and retrieval medicine, clinical anaesthesia, resuscitation, trauma and acute pain management.
Jason is the Convenor of the First Aid sub-committee of the Australian Resuscitation Council and is a member of the International Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) first aid task force.
- Doctor of Philosophy, University of Sydney
- Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, University of Sydney
- Clinical Epidemiology
- First Aid
- Pain Management
- Prehospital & Retrieval Medicine
- Auslan (Working)
Fields of Research
|Title||Organisation / Department|
|Clinical Dean||University of Newcastle
University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health
|Dates||Title||Organisation / Department|
Non-executive Director ; Strategic volunteer leadership and governance role
|St John Ambulance Australia | NSW
|12/2/2018 -||Staff Specialist in Anaesthesia||John Hunter Hospital
Anaesthesia & Pain Medicine
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (34 outputs)
Douma MJ, Aves T, Allan KS, Bendall JC, Berry DC, Chang WT, et al., 'First aid cooling techniques for heat stroke and exertional hyperthermia: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Resuscitation, 148 173-190 (2020)
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Background: Heat stroke is an emergent condition characterized by hyperthermia (>40 °C/>104 °F) and nervous system dysregulation. There are two primary ... [more]
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Background: Heat stroke is an emergent condition characterized by hyperthermia (>40 °C/>104 °F) and nervous system dysregulation. There are two primary etiologies: exertional which occurs during physical activity and non-exertional which occurs during extreme heat events without physical exertion. Left untreated, both may lead to significant morbidity, are considered a special circumstance for cardiac arrest, and cause of mortality. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods and risk of bias assessments to determine the certainty and quality of evidence. We included randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, cohort studies and case series of five or more patients that evaluated adults and children with non-exertional or exertional heat stroke or exertional hyperthermia, and any cooling technique applicable to first aid and prehospital settings. Outcomes included: cooling rate, mortality, neurological dysfunction, adverse effects and hospital length of stay. Results: We included 63 studies, of which 37 were controlled studies, two were cohort studies and 24 were case series of heat stroke patients. Water immersion of adults with exertional hyperthermia [cold water (14¿17 °C/57.2¿62.6 °F), colder water (8¿12 °C/48.2¿53.6 °F) and ice water (1¿5 °C/33.8¿41 °F)] resulted in faster cooling rates when compared to passive cooling. No single water temperature range was found to be associated with a quicker core temperature reduction than another (cold, colder or ice). Conclusion: Water immersion techniques (using 1¿17 °C water) more effectively lowered core body temperatures when compared with passive cooling, in hyperthermic adults. The available evidence suggests water immersion can rapidly reduce core body temperature in settings where it is feasible.
De Brier N, Dorien O, Borra V, Singletary EM, Zideman DA, De Buck E, et al., 'Storage of an avulsed tooth prior to replantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Dental Traumatology, (2020)
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background/Aim: It is crucial to store an avulsed tooth appropriately to preserve the viability of the... [more]
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background/Aim: It is crucial to store an avulsed tooth appropriately to preserve the viability of the periodontal ligament cells prior to replantation. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the best available evidence for the effectiveness of any technique available to laypeople for storing an avulsed tooth compared with storage in milk or saliva. Methods: The following databases were searched (September 2019): Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase. Two reviewers independently considered trial eligibility, then extracted and analyzed data, and assessed the risk of bias. The certainty of the body of evidence was appraised according to the GRADE methodology. Results: Out of 4118 references, 33 studies were included and reported 23 comparisons of which 10 were synthesized in a meta-analysis. The limited evidence available favors storing an avulsed tooth in Hank's balanced salt solution (pooled SMD 2.47, 95% CI [1.59;3.34], P¿<.00001), propolis solution (pooled SMD 1.73, 95% CI [1.12;2.33], P¿<.00001), oral rehydration salts (pooled SMD 4.16, 95% CI [2.10;6.23], P¿<.0001), rice water, and cling film compared with storage in milk. The cell viability rate was significantly lower in teeth stored in saline solutions (pooled SMD -4.35, 95% CI [-7.55;-1.14], P¿=.008), tap water, buttermilk, castor oil, GC Tooth Mousse, and turmeric extract than those stored in milk. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against temporary storage of an avulsed tooth in saliva compared with alternative solutions. The certainty of evidence was considered low to very low due to limitations in study design, indirect study populations and outcome measures, and imprecision. Conclusion: Although milk was shown to extend the periodontal ligament cell viability before replantation compared with saline or tap water, the following media have also demonstrated efficacy at preserving the cell viability: Hank's balanced salt solution, propolis, oral rehydration salts, rice water, and cling film.
Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Greif R, et al., '2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations', Resuscitation, 145 95-150 (2019) [C1]
© 2019 European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-revi... [more]
© 2019 European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed, published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the third annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. It addresses the most recent published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Task Force science experts. This summary addresses the role of cardiac arrest centers and dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the role of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults and children, vasopressors in adults, advanced airway interventions in adults and children, targeted temperature management in children after cardiac arrest, initial oxygen concentration during resuscitation of newborns, and interventions for presyncope by first aid providers. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the certainty of the evidence on the basis of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in the Justification and Evidence to Decision Framework Highlights sections. The task forces also listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.
Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Greif R, et al., '2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces', CIRCULATION, 140 E826-E880 (2019) [C1]
Mikolaizak AS, Lord SR, Tiedemann A, Simpson P, Caplan GA, Bendall J, et al., 'A multidisciplinary intervention to prevent subsequent falls and health service use following fall-related paramedic care: A randomised controlled trial', Age and Ageing, 46 200-208 (2017)
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. Background: approximately 25% of older people who fall and receive paramedic c... [more]
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. Background: approximately 25% of older people who fall and receive paramedic care are not subsequently transported to an emergency department (ED). These people are at high risk of future falls, unplanned healthcare use and poor health outcomes. Objective: to evaluate the impact of a fall-risk assessment and tailored fall prevention interventions among older community-dwellers not transported to ED following a fall on subsequent falls and health service use. Design, setting, participants: Randomised controlled trial involving 221 non-transported older fallers from Sydney, Australia. Intervention: the intervention targeted identified risk factors and used existing services to implement physiotherapy, occupational therapy, geriatric assessment, optometry and medication management interventions as appropriate. The control group received individualised written fall prevention advice. Measurements: primary outcome measures were rates of falls and injurious falls. Secondary outcome measures were ambulance re-attendance, ED presentation, hospitalisation and quality of life over 12 months. Analysis was by intentionto- treat and per-protocol according to self-reported adherence using negative binominal regression and multivariate analysis. Results: ITT analysis showed no significant difference between groups in subsequent falls, injurious falls and health service use. The per-protocol analyses revealed that the intervention participants who adhered to the recommended interventions had significantly lower rates of falls compared to non-adherers (IRR: 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32-0.87)). Conclusion: a multidisciplinary intervention did not prevent falls in older people who received paramedic care but were not transported to ED. However the intervention was effective in those who adhered to the recommendations. Trial registration: the trial is registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12611000503921, 13/05/2011.
Simpson P, Thomas R, Bendall J, Lord B, Lord S, Close J, ' Popping nana back into bed - a qualitative exploration of paramedic decision making when caring for older people who have fallen', BMC Health Services Research, 17 (2017)
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Older fallers constitute a large proportion of ambulance work, and as many as 25% are not transported to hospital following paramedic assessment.... [more]
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Older fallers constitute a large proportion of ambulance work, and as many as 25% are not transported to hospital following paramedic assessment. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making process used by paramedics when caring for older fallers. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Purposive sampling was used to recruit paramedics to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data analysis commenced with line-by-line coding, developing into formation of theoretical categories. Theoretical sampling was then used to clarify emerging theoretical concepts, with data collection and analysis continuing until theoretical saturation was achieved. Results: A total of 33 paramedics participated in 13 interviews and 4 focus groups. When caring for older fallers, paramedic decision making is profoundly affected by ¿role perception¿, in which the individual paramedic¿s perception of what the role of a paramedic is determines the nature of the decision making process. Transport decisions are heavily influenced by a sense of ¿personal protection¿, or their confidence in the ambulance service supporting their decisions. ¿Education and training¿ impacts on decision making capacity, and the nature of that training subliminally contributes to role perception. Role perception influences the sense of legitimacy a paramedic attaches to cases involving older fallers, impacting on patient assessment routines and the quality of subsequent decisions. Conclusions: Paramedic decision making processes when caring for older people who have fallen appear to be strongly influenced by their perception of what their role should be, and the perceived legitimacy of incidents involving older fallers as constituting ¿real¿ paramedic work.
McRae PJ, Bendall JC, Madigan V, Middleton PM, 'PARAMEDIC-PERFORMED FASCIA ILIACA COMPARTMENT BLOCK FOR FEMORAL FRACTURES: A CONTROLLED TRIAL', JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 48 581-589 (2015)
Reed B, Bendall JC, 'Rurality as a factor in ambulance use in health emergencies', Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 12 (2015)
© 2015, Paramedics Australasia. All rights reserved. Introduction Ambulance use in rural and remote parts of Australia has been reported anecdotally to be lower than urban areas. ... [more]
© 2015, Paramedics Australasia. All rights reserved. Introduction Ambulance use in rural and remote parts of Australia has been reported anecdotally to be lower than urban areas. Experiences of paramedics in rural locations gave rise to questions of whether this phenomenon was occurring and to what degree. Methods Data from emergency department (ED) records was obtained from the Hunter New England Area Health Service from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. In total, 354,909 records were obtained. These records were de-identified and analysed to determine the method of arrival to ED, specifically in high acuity patients. Results People from inner regional areas are 41.5% less likely overall and 27.7% less likely in serious health emergencies to attend EDs by ambulance compared to people in major cities. People from outer regional and remote areas are 55.1% less likely overall and 27.9% less likely in serious health emergencies to attend EDs by ambulance compared to people living in major cities. Logistic regression modelling indicated rurality was a significant factor in ambulance use in adults in areas outside major cities and in children in inner regional areas. Age was a significant predictor of ambulance demand with older people using ambulances more. Discussion This study indicates disparity between rates of ambulance use in urban and non-urban areas. The concept of unmet need should be considered as a more complex phenomenon than simply a utilisation gap and exploration of unmet need is warranted. Conclusion A clearer understanding of how rurality affects ambulance use has a number of implications for ambulance services.
Middleton PM, Simpson PM, Thomas RE, Bendall JC, 'Higher insertion success with the i-gel (R) supraglottic airway in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A randomised controlled trial', RESUSCITATION, 85 893-897 (2014)
Simpson PM, Fouche PF, Thomas RE, Bendall JC, 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for relieving acute pain in the prehospital setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 21 10-17 (2014)
Simpson PM, Bendall JC, Tiedemann A, Lord SR, Close JCT, 'EPIDEMIOLOGY OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICE RESPONSES TO OLDER PEOPLE WHO HAVE FALLEN: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY', PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE, 18 185-194 (2014)
Fouche PF, Simpson PM, Bendall J, Thomas RE, Cone DC, Doi SAR, 'AIRWAYS IN OUT-OF-HOSPITAL CARDIAC ARREST: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS', PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE, 18 244-256 (2014)
Simpson PM, Bendall JC, Toson B, Tiedemann A, Lord SR, Close JCT, 'PREDICTORS OF NONTRANSPORT OF OLDER FALLERS WHO RECEIVE AMBULANCE CARE', PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE, 18 342-349 (2014)
Lord B, Bendall J, Reinten T, 'The influence of paramedic and patient gender on the administration of analgesics in the out-of-hospital setting', Prehospital Emergency Care, 18 195-200 (2014)
Objective. To determine whether analgesic administration in the out-of-hospital setting is influenced by the gender of the patient or the gender of the paramedic. Methods. This re... [more]
Objective. To determine whether analgesic administration in the out-of-hospital setting is influenced by the gender of the patient or the gender of the paramedic. Methods. This retrospective cohort study of patient care records included adult patients (age > 15 years) with moderate to severe pain (verbal numerical rating score 4-10) treated by paramedics between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Data extracted included patient pain severity score, analgesia provided by paramedics, and gender of the treating paramedic. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, ¿2 test, and logistic regression. The primary outcome measures were the effect of patient and paramedic gender on analgesic administration. Results. The study population comprised 42,051 patients, median age of 57 years (38-75); 50.4% were female and 51% were administered an analgesic agent. For the outcome of receiving any analgesia, neither patient gender nor paramedic gender was predictive (p = NS). In a multivariate model for the outcome of receiving any analgesia, patient gender, paramedic gender, and the interaction between patient and paramedic gender were all nonsignificant (p = NS). For the outcome of receiving opioid analgesia (i.e., morphine or fentanyl), male patients were at greater odds of receiving an opioid (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.29-1.79, p < 0.0001). Paramedic gender was not predictive of whether an opioid was given (p = NS). Conclusions. The gender of the paramedic did not appear to influence the odds of analgesic administration. Female patients were less likely to receive opioids. Paramedic gender does not explain this finding. © 2014 National Association of EMS Physicians.
Long D, Bendall J, Bower A, 'Out-of-hospital administration of corticosteroids to patients with acute asthma: A case study and literature review', Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 6 (2014)
© 2008, Paramedics Australasia, All rights reserved. Objectives: Asthma is an important health problem in Australia with more than 2.2. million Australians currently diagnosed wit... [more]
© 2008, Paramedics Australasia, All rights reserved. Objectives: Asthma is an important health problem in Australia with more than 2.2. million Australians currently diagnosed with Asthma. Asthma is associated with significant mortality and frequent use of emergency medical services. The objectives of this paper were to: a) present a case study of a near-fatal episode of severe acute asthma in which the patient was administered corticosteroids by an Ambulance Service of New South Wales Extended Care Paramedic; b) review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of acute asthma as well as current pharmacotherapy in asthma management; and c) conduct a literature search and critical appraisal of existing evidence supporting the out-of-hospital administration of corticosteroids for acute asthma by paramedics.Methods: The purpose of the literature search was to identify comparative studies of adult patients with ¿acute¿ asthma treated by paramedics with corticosteroids prior to arrival at the emergency department (ED) to evaluate whether this intervention is associated with improved outcomes. A literature search of databases included the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Reviews Issue 4 2008), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials), Medline (1950-November 2008), EMBASE and CINAHL. A pre-hospital filter was applied to increase the sensitivity of the searches as appropriate. MeSH headings included exp/asthma, exp/hydrocortisone, exp/prednisone, exp/prednisolone and exp/glucocorticoids. Searched text words included asthma, hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone. Titles and abstracts of interest were inspected to identify relevant articles with the full text of selected articles retrieved. Identified papers were independently appraised by two reviewers.Results: Only two original studies were identified. The first was a retrospective comparative study of adult patients with moderate to severe asthma who received 125 mg methylprednisolone prior to transport to hospital or after arrival in the ED. The second study was a retrospective chart review to determine whether the out-of-hospital administration of systemic steroids to asthmatic patients had any effect on hospital admission rates.Conclusion: Corticosteroids have been widely used in the hospital setting for many years in the treatment of acute asthma and there is good evidence to support their early administration in an ED setting. Out-of-hospital studies provide only weak evidence of benefit. There is insufficient evidence of adequate quality to determine if corticosteroids should be routinely used by paramedics. A prospective randomised controlled trial is needed to determine the true value of early corticosteroid administration in the ambulance setting.
Simpson PM, Bendall JC, Tiedemann A, Lord SR, Close JCT, 'Provision of Out-of-hospital Analgesia to Older Fallers With Suspected Fractures: Above Par, but Opportunities for Improvement Exist', ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 20 761-768 (2013)
Simpson PM, Bendall JC, Patterson J, Tiedemann A, Middleton PM, Close JCT, 'Epidemiology of ambulance responses to older people who have fallen in New South Wales, Australia', AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL ON AGEING, 32 171-176 (2013)
Price R, Bendall JC, Patterson JA, Middleton PM, 'What causes adverse events in prehospital care? A human-factors approach', EMERGENCY MEDICINE JOURNAL, 30 583-588 (2013)
Mikolaizak AS, Simpson PM, Tiedemann A, Lord SR, Caplan GA, Bendall JC, et al., 'Intervention to prevent further falls in older people who call an ambulance as a result of a fall: a protocol for the iPREFER randomised controlled trial', BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, 13 (2013)
|Show 31 more journal articles|
Review (2 outputs)
|2019||Jensen JL, Cassan P, Meyran D, NG KC, Ohshimo S, Singletary EM, et al., 'First Aid Interventions for Presyncope Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations (2019)|
|2018||Bora V, Carlson JN, De Buck E, Djärv T, singletary EM, Zideman D, Bendall J, 'Methods of Glucose Administration in First Aid for Hypoglycemia (2018)|
Conference (3 outputs)
|2019||Bendall J, 'Anaphylaxis', Sydney, NSW (2019)|
|2019||Bendall J, 'Cervical collars and tourniquets are they in or out?', Sydney, NSW (2019)|
Simpson PM, McCabe B, Bendall JC, Cone DC, Middleton PM, 'PARAMEDIC-PERFORMED DIGITAL NERVE BLOCK TO FACILITATE FIELD REDUCTION OF A DISLOCATED FINGER', PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE (2012)
Number of supervisions
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2019||Masters||Acute Pain Management for Rib Fractures||M Philosophy (Medicine), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2019||Masters||Antibiotic Allergy De-labeling in the Perioperative Setting||M Philosophy (Medicine), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|Year||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
Epidemiology of older fallers attended by paramedics: A study of clinical and operational outcomes.
Falls is the most common incident category to which an emergency ambulance is dispatched in New South Wales (NSW), with approximately 60% of these involving patients aged 65 years or more. This thesis explores the epidemiology of older fallers attended by paramedics, employing a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods with the aim of providing new information in an area of paramedic practice about which little is known. A retrospective, population-level study (n=42,331), prospective cohort study (n=1,610), and retrospective linked data analysis (n=34,313) form the basis of the epidemiological analyses, reporting operational and clinical outcomes arising from an ambulance response and paramedic intervention. A qualitative investigation, using grounded theory methodology, presents a theoretical model exploring paramedic decision making when providing care to older people who have fallen. Significant findings include:1. Older fallers constitute 5.1% of the annual emergency ambulance workload in NSW; 28% are not transported to hospital.2. 1 in 10 older fallers who receive an ambulance response experience a &amp;lsquo;long lie&amp;rsquo; (&amp;gt;1 hour on the ground).3. Prediction of non-transport at time of dispatch is not feasible for cases involving older fallers, making risk management through dispatch of specialised resources unfeasible.4. Rates of analgesia administration among fallers with suspected hip fracture (67%) has increased compared to earlier research, but almost one third still receive no prehospital pain relief.5. Non-transported older fallers are at twice the risk of death at 28 days compared to those transported to ED and discharged without admission. Ambulance re-attendance within one month is common.6. Paramedics do not perceive cases involving older fallers to be &amp;lsquo;real paramedic work&amp;rsquo;. This arises from confusion around role perception, and impacts negatively on the clinical decision making relating to the treatment of older fallers.The findings of this thesis constitute a comprehensive analysis of an area of paramedicine about which little was previously known in an Australasian context. The results will inform clinical and operational strategy being developed by ambulance services and will make a meaningful contribution to optimising prehospital service delivery to, and improving outcomes of, older people who have fallen.
|General Medicine, University of New South Wales||Co-Supervisor|
Associate Professor Jason Bendall
University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
|Phone||(02) 4055 1900|
|Building||Manning Education Centre|