Dr Mehdi Khaki

Dr Mehdi Khaki

Lecturer

School of Engineering

Career Summary

Biography

After finishing my study on the application of satellite remote sensing in hydrology and geodesy during my MSc in 2014, I started my PhD in 2015 in Curtin University and finished it in 2018, focusing on the integrating satellite data products with hydrological models using advanced statistical methods. My research is centred about the application of geodetic and remote sensing techniques and their integration with available models to improve the hydrological knowledge in various spatial scales, e.g., from medium- to large-scale river basins to a global scale. During my researches, I have used a variety of satellite data products to study Earth and proposed new satellite data filtering, e.g., to account for satellite radar altimetry and the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) errors and to improve the quality of their data. The enhanced satellite products have been used for different objectives such as studying inland surface water variations, coastal water level changes, deriving gravity anomalies over areas without reliable ground measurements, and last but not least improving land hydrological models estimates.

During and after my PhD I have mainly worked in the field of satellite data assimilation. I have developed data assimilation techniques for integrating multiple satellite-derived measurements, e.g., from terrestrial water storage (TWS) from GRACE and satellite soil moisture with hydrological models using nonlinear static analysis. The proposed methods include parametric and non-parametric (data-driven) approaches, which led to a more accurate estimation of changes in water storage compartments (including surface and subsurface storage compartments), as well as internal interactions between storage changes and fluxes (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) or external-interactions due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere phenomena. My experience with statistical analyses in model-data integration and implementing various satellite remote sensing data in hydrology and geodesy have helped me to study global water cycles, as well as to acquire unprecedented information about water storage changes over different regions such as Australia, Bangladesh, South America, and Africa. I have also merged various datasets from different satellite platforms and ground-based measurements to analyse the anthropogenic and climatic impacts on different water compartments, e.g., over Iran, Nile, and Lake Victoria, as well as to study global hydrological drought. 


Qualifications

  • PhD, Curtin University
  • Bachelor of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran - Iran
  • Master of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran - Iran

Keywords

  • Data assimilation
  • Geodesy
  • Satellite remote sensing

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
490399 Numerical and computational mathematics not elsewhere classified 20
370603 Geodesy 60
379901 Earth system sciences 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Lecturer University of Newcastle
School of Engineering
Australia

Awards

Award

Year Award
2020 ASIA-PACIFIC Spatial Excellence Awards
The Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute (SSSI)

Recipient

Year Award
2019 Western Australia Asia-Pacific Spatial Excellence Awards (APSEA-WA)
The Surveying & Spatial Sciences Institute (SSSI)

Scholarship

Year Award
2015 Curtin International Postgraduate Research Scholarships (CIPRS)
Curtin University
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2020 Khaki M, Satellite Remote Sensing in Hydrological Data Assimilation, Springer Nature, 290 (2020)

Chapter (2 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2021 Khaki M, Awange J, 'Improved Remotely Sensed Satellite Products', Lake Victoria Monitored from Space, Springer, Cham, Switzerland (2021)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-60551-3_7
2021 Khaki M, Awange J, '978-3-030-64756-8', Modelling the Nile s Waters: Assimilation, Springer Nature, Switzerland (2021)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-64756-8_9

Journal article (29 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2021 Khaki M, Awange J, 'The 2019 2020 rise in lake victoria monitored from space: exploiting the state-of-the-art grace-fo and the newly released era-5 reanalysis products', Sensors, 21 (2021)

During the period 2019¿2020, Lake Victoria water levels rose at an alarming rate that has caused various problems in the region. The influence of this phenomena on surface and sub... [more]

During the period 2019¿2020, Lake Victoria water levels rose at an alarming rate that has caused various problems in the region. The influence of this phenomena on surface and subsurface water resources has not yet been investigated, largely due to lack of enough in situ measurements compounded by the spatial coverage of the lake¿s basin, incomplete/inconsistent hydrometeorological data, and unavailable governmental data. Within the framework of joint data assimilation into a land surface model from multi-mission satellite remote sensing, this study employs the state-of-art Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment follow-on (GRACE-FO) time-variable terrestrial water storage (TWS), newly released ERA-5 reanalysis, and satellite radar altimetry products to understand the cause of the rise of Lake Victoria on the one hand, and the associated impacts of the rise on the total water storage compartments (surface and groundwater) triggered by the extreme climatic event on the other hand. In addition, the study investigates the impacts of large-scale ocean¿atmosphere indices on the water storage changes. The results indicate a considerable increase in water storage over the past two years, with multiple subsequent positive trends mainly induced by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Significant storage increase is also quantified in various water components such as surface water and water discharge, where the results show the lake¿s water level rose by ~ 1.4 m, leading to approximately 1750 gigatonne volume increase. Multiple positive trends are observed in the past two years in the lake¿s water storage increase with two major events in April¿May 2019 and December 2019¿January 2020, with the rainfall occurring during the short rainy season of September to November (SON) having had a dominant effect on the lake¿s rise.

DOI 10.3390/s21134304
2021 Khaki M, Han S-C, Yeo I-Y, Frost A, 'The application of CYGNSS data for soil moisture and inundation mapping in Australia', IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 1-1 (2021)
DOI 10.1109/jstars.2021.3117296
2020 Khaki M, El-Mowafy A, 'Characterizing Positioning Errors When Using the Second-Generation Australian Satellite-Based Augmentation System', Artificial Satellites: journal of planetary geodesy, 55 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.2478/arsa-2020-0001
Citations Scopus - 1
2020 Khaki M, Zerihun A, Awange JL, Dewan A, 'Integrating satellite soil-moisture estimates and hydrological model products over Australia', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, 67 265-277 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/08120099.2019.1620855
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2020 Khaki M, Ait-El-Fquih B, Hoteit I, 'Calibrating land hydrological models and enhancing their forecasting skills using an ensemble Kalman filter with one-step-ahead smoothing', Journal of Hydrology, 584 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.124708
Citations Scopus - 3
2020 Khaki M, Filmer MS, Featherstone WE, Kuhn M, Bui LK, Parker AL, 'A Sequential Monte Carlo Framework for Noise Filtering in InSAR Time Series', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 58 1904-1912 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1109/TGRS.2019.2950353
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2020 Liu H, Jia Y, Niu C, Su H, Wang J, Du J, et al., 'Development and validation of a physically-based, national-scale hydrological model in China', Journal of Hydrology, 590 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125431
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2020 Murray H, Khaki M, 'Analysis of Surface Water Areal changes using Remote Sensing Data', Advances in Environmental and Engineering Research, 02 1-1 (2020)
DOI 10.21926/aeer.2103019
2020 Sherin VR, Durand F, Papa F, Islam AS, Gopalakrishna VV, Khaki M, Suneel V, 'Recent salinity intrusion in the Bengal delta: Observations and possible causes', Continental Shelf Research, 202 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.csr.2020.104142
Citations Scopus - 4
2020 Khaki M, Awange J, 'Altimetry-derived surface water data assimilation over the Nile Basin', Science of the Total Environment, 735 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139008
Citations Scopus - 3
2020 Khaki M, Hendricks Franssen H-J, Han SC, 'Multi-mission satellite remote sensing data for improving land hydrological models via data assimilation', Scientific Reports, 10 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-75710-5
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Shin-Chan Han
2019 Khaki M, Awange J, 'The application of multi-mission satellite data assimilation for studying water storage changes over South America', Science of the Total Environment, 647 1557-1572 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.079
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 20
2019 Khaki M, Hoteit I, Kuhn M, Forootan E, Awange J, 'Assessing data assimilation frameworks for using multi-mission satellite products in a hydrological context', Science of the Total Environment, 647 1031-1043 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.032
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 14
2019 Awange JL, Hu KX, Khaki M, 'The newly merged satellite remotely sensed, gauge and reanalysis-based Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation: Evaluation over Australia and Africa (1981 2016)', Science of the Total Environment, 670 448-465 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.148
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 24
2019 Forootan E, Khaki M, Schumacher M, Wulfmeyer V, Mehrnegar N, van Dijk AIJM, et al., 'Understanding the global hydrological droughts of 2003 2016 and their relationships with teleconnections', Science of the Total Environment, 650 2587-2604 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.231
Citations Scopus - 48Web of Science - 44
2019 Khaki M, Awange J, 'Improved remotely sensed satellite products for studying Lake Victoria's water storage changes', Science of the Total Environment, 652 915-926 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.279
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 17
2018 Khaki M, Awange J, Forootan E, Kuhn M, 'Understanding the association between climate variability and the Nile's water level fluctuations and water storage changes during 1992 2016', Science of the Total Environment, 645 1509-1521 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.212
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 14
2018 Khaki M, Forootan E, Kuhn M, Awange J, Longuevergne L, Wada Y, 'Efficient basin scale filtering of GRACE satellite products', REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 204 76-93 (2018)
DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2017.10.040
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 29
2018 Khaki M, Hamilton F, Forootan E, Hoteit I, Awange J, Kuhn M, 'Nonparametric Data Assimilation Scheme for Land Hydrological Applications', WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 54 4946-4964 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1029/2018WR022854
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 12
2018 Khaki M, Forootan E, Kuhn M, Awange J, Papa F, Shum CK, 'A study of Bangladesh's sub-surface water storages using satellite products and data assimilation scheme', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 625 963-977 (2018)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.289
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 26
2018 Anyah RO, Forootan E, Awange JL, Khaki M, 'Understanding linkages between global climate indices and terrestrial water storage changes over Africa using GRACE products', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 635 1405-1416 (2018)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.159
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 36
2018 Khaki M, Forootan E, Kuhn M, Awange J, van Dijk AIJM, Schumacher M, Sharifie MA, 'Determining water storage depletion within Iran by assimilating GRACE data into the W3RA hydrological model', ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, 114 1-18 (2018)
DOI 10.1016/j.advwatres.2018.02.008
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 41
2018 Khaki M, Ait-El-Fquih B, Hoteit I, Forootan E, Awange J, Kuhn M, 'Unsupervised ensemble Kalman filtering with an uncertain constraint for land hydrological data assimilation', Journal of Hydrology, 564 175-190 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.06.080
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 16
2017 Khaki M, Ait-El-Fquih B, Hoteit I, Forootan E, Awange J, Kuhn M, 'A two-update ensemble Kalman filter for land hydrological data assimilation with an uncertain constraint', JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY, 555 447-462 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.10.032
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 32
2017 Khaki M, Hoteit I, Kuhn M, Awange J, Forootan E, van Dijk AIJM, et al., 'Assessing sequential data assimilation techniques for integrating GRACE data into a hydrological model', ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, 107 301-316 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.07.001
Citations Scopus - 46Web of Science - 46
2017 Khaki M, Schumacher M, Forootan E, Kuhn M, Awange JL, van Dijk AIJM, 'Accounting for spatial correlation errors in the assimilation of GRACE into hydrological models through localization', ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES, 108 99-112 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.07.024
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 30
2015 Khaki M, Forootan E, Sharifi MA, Awange J, Kuhn M, 'Improved gravity anomaly fields from retracked multimission satellite radar altimetry observations over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea', GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, 202 1522-1534 (2015)
DOI 10.1093/gji/ggv240
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 11
2015 Khaki M, Forootan E, Sharifi MA, Safari A, 'Retracking satellite radar altimetry using a new approach 'ExtR method'; Case study: Persian Gulf', Journal of the Earth and Space Physics, 41 107-123 (2015)

Monitoring of the water levels within the seas and oceans has been enhanced by application of satellite radar altimetry missions, compared to the traditional in-situ tide gauge me... [more]

Monitoring of the water levels within the seas and oceans has been enhanced by application of satellite radar altimetry missions, compared to the traditional in-situ tide gauge measurements, due to their vast coverage and better spatial resolution. Satellite radar altimetry, which is originally designed to measure global ocean surface height, has been applied to inland surface water hydrological studies. Satellite radar altimetry, well known as TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON, ENVISAT, which have been originally designed to measure global ocean surface height, nowadays, also demonstrated a great potential for the applications of inland water body studies. Altimetry was designed to determine the sea surface height based on spatial technology, electronic technology and microwave technology and basically work with sending and receiving electromagnetic pulse. Waveform is actually a curve, which shows the power of mentioned pulse reflected back to the altimeter. Altimeter on board of the satellite measures the range by sending and receiving a short pulse and calculating its travel time. The most important output of this procedure is the altimeter range. Due to the effect of topography and heterogeneity of reflecting surface and atmospheric effects, the expected waveform for altimeter returns over land differs from that over the ocean surfaces and subsequently the range is not as accurate. As a result, sea surface height values derived from altimetry over ice sheets and inland water bodies (particularly close to the coast lines) represent more errors in compared to the waveforms returned from other part of the ocean surface and may include missing data. We have developed a water-detection algorithm based on statistical analysis of decadal TOPEX/POSEIDON and JASON-1 height measurement time series and also their ground passes of the sea surface height in Persian Gulf. The Persian Gulf is certainly one of the most vital bodies of water on the planet; as gas and oil from Middle Eastern countries flow through it, supplying much of the world's energy needs.This algorithm contains a noise elimination process that includes Outlier Detection and Elimination of Unwanted Waveforms (ODEUW), an unsupervised classification of the satellite waveforms, and finally a retracking procedure. An unsupervised classification algorithm is implemented to classify the waveforms into consistent groups for which the appropriate retracking algorithms are performed. On the other hand the waveforms belong to the same group which refer to almost the land with common properties. The waveform retracking method is mainly used to calculate the offset between the practical middle point of waveform leading edge and the designed gate, based on which the retracked distance correction can be computed. Four different methods are implemented for retracking the waveforms. This includes the three previously introduced algorithms, including off center of gravity, threshold retracking and optimized iterative least squares fitting, after some improvements. We also introduce a new method based on edge detection and extracting extremum point, which is called 'ExtR retracking method'. At the end two different methods for validation of our results are examined, first consider the SSH time series before and after retracking then compare those with in situ data, the second, retrack the ground pass track lines data from two satellites and compare them with the geoid data.

2014 Khaki M, Forootan E, Sharifi MA, 'Satellite radar altimetry waveform retracking over the Caspian Sea', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, 35 6329-6356 (2014)
DOI 10.1080/01431161.2014.951741
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 20
Show 26 more journal articles

Conference (3 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2020 Wang K, El-Mowafy A, Khaki M, Sutherland T, Rubinov E, 'Assessment of the New DFMC and PPP services of the second-generation SBAS in the Mining and Urban environments', UNSW Australia (2020)
2019 Ramhormozi LA, Azh AH, Khaki M, 'The Effect of Internet of Things on E-Business and Comparing Friedman s Results with Factor Analysis (Case Study: Business in Online Stores Member of Iranian E-Mail Symbol)', Communications in Computer and Information Science (2019)

This research studies the factors affecting the Internet of Things. The research community is a survey of 277 Internet shoppers (Digi Commodity, Kimia Online, Digi Style, Alyar). ... [more]

This research studies the factors affecting the Internet of Things. The research community is a survey of 277 Internet shoppers (Digi Commodity, Kimia Online, Digi Style, Alyar). The research tool was a questionnaire with a Likert scale of 7 which has been verified by experts and reliability has been confirmed by Cronbach¿s alpha higher than 0.7. For our research questions, descriptive and deductive analyzes (Friedman, T single-sample and analytic factor) have been used, and at the end, the outputs of the two models of the same are compared. The results showed that according to Friedman rankings, the price management system with the highest 6.38 and advertising and marketing management with the lowest of 4.28 in priority of one and nine in the number of factors influencing the Internet of Things in the electronic business have been affected. But in the ECRM factor analysis, top priority and product management are top priority. Also, the two components of post-sales/post-sales/post-delivery management are equally important in the third rank and pay management/advertising and marketing management are equally ranked fourth in importance.

DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-33495-6_15
2018 Rateb A, Kuo C-Y, Scanlon BR, Forootan E, Khaki M, Othman A, 'DECLINING WATER STORAGE IN THE MIDDLE EAST AS OBSERVED BY GRACE, ALTIMETRY, HYDROLOGICAL MODELS, AND IN-SITU DATA' (2018)
DOI 10.1130/abs/2018am-324037
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 6
Total funding $146,423

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20214 grants / $134,423

Research equipment$119,664

Funding body: UON

Funding body UON
Scheme UON Australia
Role Lead
Funding Start 2021
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Teaching equipment$10,200

Funding body: College of Engineering, Science and Environment, UON

Funding body College of Engineering, Science and Environment, UON
Scheme CESE EQUIPMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT SCHEME (2021)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2021
Funding Finish 2022
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Lockdown support scheme$3,000

Funding body: College of Engineering, Science and Environment, University of Newcastle

Funding body College of Engineering, Science and Environment, University of Newcastle
Scheme Lockdown support scheme
Role Lead
Funding Start 2021
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Research grant$1,560

Funding body: College of Engineering, Science and Environment, UON

Funding body College of Engineering, Science and Environment, UON
Scheme College of Engineering, Science and Environment research support
Role Lead
Funding Start 2021
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20192 grants / $12,000

Research grant$10,000

Funding body: UoN

Funding body UoN
Scheme Research grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2019
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Conference Travel$2,000

Funding body: UoN

Funding body UoN
Scheme Faculty Conference Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2019
Funding Finish 2019
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current5

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2021 Honours Regional TWS variation by Combination of Geodetic Observations and output of hydrological models Surveying, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2021 Masters Hydrometeorological characterization of Limpopo River Basin (1979–2021) using remote sensing and reanalysis products Surveying, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2020 PhD Addressing the Challenges at the Food-Soil-Water Nexus: An Integration Data Modelling Approach Using Remotely Sensed Biomass and Water Budget Ensembles Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2019 Masters Study on the underground water storage using satellite gravimetry Surveying, University of Tehran Co-Supervisor
2019 PhD Temporal time series prediction based on remote sensing data Surveying, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle Consultant Supervisor
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Dr Mehdi Khaki

Position

Lecturer
School of Engineering
College of Engineering, Science and Environment

Contact Details

Email mehdi.khaki@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 6626
Mobile 0410620379

Office

Room EA128
Building Engineering Administration Building
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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