Professor Lyndall Ryan
School of Humanities and Social Science (History)
- Phone:(02) 49216692
Behind masked massacres
The story of Professor Lyndall Ryan from Newcastle's Centre for the History of Violence began in her mid twenties when she was knee deep in archives in Hobart - a "historian's delight" in her words - documenting the history of Tasmania's convict system.
"I was a research assistant at the time for Professor Manning Clark at the Australian National University in Canberra. He was working on Volume 2 of his six volume History of Australia and dispatched me to Hobart for six weeks, to uncover details of Governor Arthur's policies.
It was during this six-week sojourn that the archivist showed her the 18 volumes of letters and reports on Tasmania's Black War in the 1820s. He then suggested that if she were considering postgraduate study they would make a wonderful topic.
"This really whet my appetite. I kept coming back to the idea time and time again, and then decided to follow through with the archivist's proposal."
This decision was a pivotal moment, carving Lyndall's path for the next 40 years as a leading academic on Aboriginal, Australian and Feminist history.
"People had assumed that Tasmanian Aboriginals had died out but what we discovered was that in fact, they were well and truly alive."
Following her thesis research, Lyndall published her first book in 1981 called The Aboriginal Tasmanians, which documented the extraordinary and dramatic history of Tasmanian Aborigines from first colonisation to the present.
As an Australian historian, Lyndall says she is bestowed with a responsibility to present the available facts and figures in a way that people can understand and come to terms with the events of the past.
"The more research I do, the more dumbfounded I am by the amount of violence and brutality that actually took place."
"Invaluable new knowledge is constantly being brought to the surface, which is critical to comprehending who we are today and the reasons behind why Aboriginal communities are faced with the current state of social circumstances," she explained.
In November 2013, Lyndall and Dr Jonathon Richards from the University of Queensland were awarded an Australian Research Council (ARC) Grant to pursue their enquiry into the violence, which took place on the Australian colonial frontier from 1788 through to 1960.
"There are gaps in our knowledge and inaccuracies masked by blank walls," said Lyndall.
"People still do not want to talk about what took place on this land not all that long ago, which indicates that we have more work to do… This project is designed to use new analytical methods to study how Aborigines and settlers were killed on the Australian frontier," she continued.
Lyndall and Johnathon will be producing new estimates of casualties by scrutinising archives, books, texts, newspapers, and stories recording the massacres – any sources they can get their hands on from the time – to produce a collaborative and coherent assessment, which will be made accessible online in the form of an interactive map.
"Sadly, there is still so little known, especially in NSW. There are snippets of information but no one has yet pieced together the overall picture."
"The stories are not dead either. They exist today in a profound way and it is our job to bring those to stories to light in a way that people are prepared to look at it. That's the challenge: finding a way to present this ever so critical information in a way that engages people and encourages them to learn more," she shared.
"It is also significant for Aboriginal communities and the healing process. They want the past to be acknowledged and we have a distinct role to play in creating opportunities for justice."
Discussing career climaxes, Lyndall shares of a steep learning curve that rocked her reputation and research some ten years ago. "I was accused of fabricating frontier massacres in my research and my career was severely under the gun. It was a traumatizing experience and generated enormous publicity. I thought for some time why I was in this line of work if I was going to be treated like this. But it taught me that you have to be prepared to be crticised as a historian because you are exposing information and truths many do not want to hear."
Looking ahead, Lyndall is diligently juggling multiple projects in different stages of development.
Along with director Professor Philip Dwyer and Professor Roger Markwick, Lyndall established the Centre for the History of Violence within the Faculty of Education and Arts three years ago. One of the trio's motivations was to address the blanket of silence that surrounded the topic of massacre..
Lyndall says that it wasn't until the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre, which claimed the lives of more than 7000 Bosnian Muslims, that European scholars were awoken to the importance of massacre as a subject of study. Since then important new research has appeared, including by Professor Dwyer and herself.
One important ARC-funded collaborative research project coming to fruition is titled Colonisation and Massacres 1780-1820, with Lyndall covering Australia and Oceania; Philip investigating the Napoleonic spread into Eastern Europe; Nigel Penn from the University of Cape Town focusing on South Africa; and Native American Professor Barbara Mann from the University of Toledo, Ohio, investigating the frontiers of Michigan and Ohio – then outside the boundaries of the new American republic.
Comparing and contrasting these four areas of investigation, the group expects to produce a book in the coming year.
"There are important differences and interesting similarities, it is a very exciting project," Lyndall says, adding that the remoteness of history helps soften the blow of what can be gruesome subject matter.
"The distance of the past gives you a sense that you can stand back and look at it. As historians, we have the luxury of working outside the heat of the moment, and it allows us to be sceptical, to look at things with a piercing eye.
"It's more like detective work and it's always very interesting to explore the context in which these incidents occurred. It is the past, and that helps, and once you've found a few clues, of course, you have to stay on the scent."
A new project to be led by Lyndall is also in development involving six scholars from three universities who aim to determine the links between intimacy and violence in white settler societies on the Pacific Rim (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and western USA) from 1830 – 1930.
"We are trying discover how well people on both sides of the frontier actually knew each other. It appears that, they knew each other quite well before, during and after the violence," said Lyndall.
1986-1998: Head of the Women's Studies Program, Flinders University of South Australia
1999-2003: Head of the School of Humanities at the University of Newcastle, Ourimbah Campus
2004-2005: Director of Research, School of Humanities at the University of Newcastle, Ourimbah Campus
- PhD, Macquarie University
- Master of Arts Qualifying, Australian National University
- Bachelor of Arts/Diploma of Education, University of Sydney
- Aboriginal History
- Australian History
- Australian Studies
- Feminist History
- Women's Studies
Fields of Research
|160199||Anthropology not elsewhere classified||15|
|210399||Historical Studies not elsewhere classified||50|
|219999||History and Archaeology not elsewhere classified||35|
|Dates||Title||Organisation / Department|
|1/10/1998 - 1/7/2005||Foundation Professor of Australian Studies||University of Newcastle
School of Humanities and Social Science
|1/12/1977 - 1/6/1986||Lecturer/Senior Lecturer||Griffith University
School of Humanities
|1/1/1979 -||Membership - Australian Historical Association||Australian Historical Association
|1/1/1985 -||Membership - International Association of Australian Studies||International Association of Australian Studies
|1/1/1986 - 31/12/2010||Membership - Association of Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand||Association of Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand
|1/1/1988 - 31/12/2010||Membership - Australian Women's Studies Association||Australian Women's Studies Association
|1/1/2013 -||Membership - ARC College of Experts - HCA Panel||ARC College of Experts - HCA Panel
|1/6/1986 - 1/8/1998||Reader/ Professor of Women's Studies||Flinders University
Faculty of Social Sciences
|Year||Title / Rationale|
How Many? The doctrine of the self-exterminating and its influence on the historical debate about estimating the Aboriginal population in Tasmania in 1803
Organisation: Riawunna, University of Tasmaia, Hobart Campus Description: How Many? The doctrine of the self-exterminating and its influence on the historical debate about estimating the Aboriginal population in Tasmania in 1803
Massacre in Tasmania: How Do We Know?
Organisation: University of Adelaide Description: 'Massacre in Tasmania: How Do We Know?' Barr Smith Library Research Lecture Series,
|Year||Title / Rationale|
'Risdon Cove: Contested Site in Tasmanian History'
Organisation: University of Newcastle Description: Plenary Address: Australian Historical Association Conference
|Year||Title / Rationale|
'Imagined Republics: Australia in the 21st Century'.
Organisation: University of Newcastle Description: Inaugural Lecture, Foundation Chair in Australian Studies,
'The Struggle for Trukanini'
Organisation: Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart Description: 'The Struggle for Trukanini'
|Year||Title / Rationale|
'The Queensland Government and Aboriginal Policy Making 1859-1984'
Organisation: Griffith University Description: Griffith University Research Lecture, Brisbane
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Book (3 outputs)
|2018||Remembering the Myall Creek Massacre, NewSouth, Sydney, 215 (2018)|
Dwyer PG, Ryan L, Theatres of Violence: Massacre, Mass Killing and Atrocity throughout History, Berghahn Books, New York, 323 (2012) [A3]
|2012||Ryan L, Tasmanian Aborigines: A History Since 1803, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 418 (2012) [A1]|
Chapter (17 outputs)
|2018||Ryan L, 'The Myall Creek massacre: Was it typical of the time?', Remembering the Myall Creek Massacre, NewSouth, Sydney 85-99 (2018)|
|2018||Ryan L, ''A very bad business': Henry Dangar and the Myall Creek massacre 1838', Remembering the Myall Creek Massacre, NewSouth, Sydney 15-37 (2018)|
|2018||Ryan L, 'Introduction: Remembering Myall Creek', Remembering the Myall Creek Massacre, NewSouth, Sydney 1-14 (2018) [B1]|
Maynard JM, 'Myall Creek memories', Remembering the Myall Creek Massacre, NewSouth, Sydney 111-129 (2018) [B1]
Dwyer PG, Ryan L, 'On Genocide and Settler-Colonial Violence: Australia in Comparative Perspective', The United Nations and Genocide, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 32-53 (2016) [B1]
|2015||Ryan L, ''No right to the land': The role of the wool industry in the destruction of aboriginal societies in Tasmania (1817-1832) and Victoria (1835-1851) compared', Genocide on Settler Frontiers: When Hunter-Gatherers and Commercial Stock Farmers Clash 185-209 (2015)|
|2012||Ryan L, 'Settler massacres on the Australian Colonial Frontier, 1836-1851', Theatres of Violence: Massacre, Mass Killing and Atrocity throughout History, Berghahn Books, New York 94-109 (2012) [B1]|
Ryan L, 'Settler Massacres on the Australian colonial frontier, 1836-1851', Theatres of Violence: Massacre, Mass Killing, and Atrocity Throughout History 120-135 (2012)
|2010||Ryan L, ''Hard evidence': The debate about massacre in the Black War in Tasmania', Passionate Histories: Myth, Memory and Indigenous Australia, ANU E Press, Canberra 39-50 (2010) [B1]|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Historians, friendly mission and the contest for Robinson and Trukanini', Reading Robinson: Companion Essays to Friendly Mission, Quintus Publishing, Hobart, Tasmania 147-159 (2008) [B1]|
|2004||Ryan L, 'Australian Studies - The Germinal Texts: 1978-1982', Thinking Australian Studies teaching across cultures, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia 42-59 (2004) [B1]|
|2003||Ryan L, 'Who Is the Fabricator?', Whitewash: On Keith Windschuttle's Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Black Inc, Melbourne 230-257 (2003) [B1]|
|2003||Ryan L, 'Waterloo Creek, northern NSW, 1838', Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience, National Museum of Australia, Canberra 33-43 (2003) [B1]|
|2002||Ryan L, 'Remembering the Australian Women's Weekly in the 1950s', Who Was That Woman? The Australian Women's Weekly in the Post War Years., University of New South Wales Press, Sydney 55-66 (2002) [B1]|
|Show 14 more chapters|
Journal article (52 outputs)
Nettelbeck A, Ryan L, 'Salutary Lessons: Native Police and the Civilising Role of Legalised Violence in Colonial Australia', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 46 47-68 (2018)
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Over much of the nineteenth century, recurring problems of covert and opportunistic conflict between settlers a... [more]
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Over much of the nineteenth century, recurring problems of covert and opportunistic conflict between settlers and Indigenous peoples produced considerable debate across the British settler world about how frontier violence could be legally curbed. At the same time, the difficulty of imposing a rule of law on new frontiers was often seen by colonial states as justification for the imposition of order through force. Examining all the mainland Australian colonies from the 1830s to the end of the nineteenth century, this paper asks how this contradictory dilemma played out through deployment of ¿native police¿ and the ¿civilising¿ role of legalised violence as a strategy for managing the settler frontier. In light of wider debate about a humanely administered empire, Australia¿s first native police force established in New South Wales in 1837 was conceived as a measure that would assist in the conciliation and ¿amelioration¿ of Aboriginal people. In the coming decades, other Australian colonies employed native police either as dedicated forces or as individual assistants attached to mounted police detachments. Over time, the capacity they held to impose extreme violence on Aboriginal populations in the service of protecting pastoral investments came to reflect an implicit acceptance that punitive measures were required to bring order to disorderly frontiers. By tracing a gradual shift in the perceived role of native police from one of ¿civilising¿ Aboriginal people to one of ¿civilising¿ the settler state itself, this paper draws out some of the conditions under which state-sanctioned force became naturalised and legitimated. It concludes that, as an instrument of frontier management, native policing reflected an enduring problem for Australia¿s colonial governments in reconciling a legal obligation to treat Aboriginal people as subjects of the crown with a perceived requirement to bring them under colonial authority through the ¿salutary lessons¿ of legalised violence.
Dwyer PG, Ryan L, 'Reflections on Genocide and Settler-Colonial Violence', History Australia, 13 335-350 (2016) [C1]
|2014||Ryan L, 'Grease and Ochre: The Blending of Two Cultures on the Colonial Frontier', JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIAN STUDIES, 38 132-134 (2014) [C3]|
|2014||Ryan L, 'Roving Mariners Australian Aboriginal Whalers and Sealers in the Southern Oceans, 1790-1870', JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIAN STUDIES, 38 132-134 (2014) [C3]|
Ryan L, 'Edna Ryan and Leadership: The Womens Trade Union Commission, 1976', LABOUR HISTORY, 119-130 (2013) [C1]
Ryan L, 'The Black Line in Van Diemen's Land: Success or failure?', Journal of Australian Studies, 37 3-18 (2013) [C1]
The Black Line in Tasmania in 1830 was the largest force ever assembled against Aborigines anywhere in Australia. Tasmanian historians have dismissed the Line as an aberration by ... [more]
The Black Line in Tasmania in 1830 was the largest force ever assembled against Aborigines anywhere in Australia. Tasmanian historians have dismissed the Line as an aberration by Governor George Arthur and a complete fiasco by virtue of the fact that only two Tasmanian Aborigines were recorded captured and two others killed. This article contests this view by locating the Line within British imperial policy at the time, and it makes three important new findings. Far from being an aberration, the Line was a common strategy employed across the British Empire to forcibly remove indigenous peoples from their homelands. Further, there was not just one but three Lines in force over the fifteen-month period of the entire operation, and they played a decisive role in ending the Black War. The article concludes that in making George Arthur the scapegoat, historians have overlooked the Line's significance as an important instrument of British imperial power in the early nineteenth century. © 2013 International Australian Studies Association.
Ryan L, 'Introduction: The Black Line in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), 1830', Journal of Australian Studies, 37 1-2 (2013) [C3]
Dwyer PG, Ryan L, ''Massacre and its Use in the Old and New European Worlds: 1780-1820'', Journal of Genocide Research, 15 111-115 (2013) [C1]
|2011||Ryan L, 'My Father's Daughter: Memories of an Australian Childhood', Labour History, 216-217 (2011) [C3]|
Ryan L, 'Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836-1851', Journal of Australian Studies, 34 257-273 (2010) [C1]
|2009||Ryan L, 'The long shadow of remembrance: Remembering the debate about massacre in the Black War in Tasmania', Coolabah, 3 51-59 (2009) [C2]|
|2009||Ryan L, 'Ever Manning: Selected Letters of Manning Clark, 1938-1991', OVERLAND, 84-86 (2009)|
|2009||Ryan L, ''The axe had never sounded': Place, people and heritage of Recherche Bay, Tasmania', Australian Archaeology, - 74-76 (2009) [C3]|
Ryan L, 'Massacre in the Black War in Tasmania 1823-34: A case study of the Meander River Region, June 1827', Journal of Genocide Research, 10 479-499 (2008) [C1]
|2008||Ryan L, 'List of multiple killings of Aborigines in Tasmania: 1804-1835', Online Encyclopaedia of Mass Violence, 1-8 (2008) [C2]|
|2008||Ryan L, ''Van Diemen's land'', OVERLAND, 83-84 (2008)|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Aborigines and Activism: Race, Aborigines and the Coming of the Sixties to Australia', OVERLAND, 91-92 (2008)|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Spinning the Dream: Assimilation in Australia 1950-1970', OVERLAND, 91-92 (2008)|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Heartsick for Country: Stories of Love, Spirit and Creation', OVERLAND, 91-92 (2008)|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Rediscovering Recherche Bay', HISTORICAL RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE, 19 104-108 (2008)|
|2008||Ryan L, ''The axe had never sounded': Place, people and heritage of Recherche Bay, Tasmania', HISTORICAL RECORDS OF AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE, 19 104-108 (2008)|
Ryan L, 'Race, nation, history: A conference in honour of Henry Reynolds, Canberra, 29-30 August 2008', Labour History, 95 247-249 (2008) [C3]
|2008||Ryan L, 'Forged by War (Book Review)', Overland, 191 83-84 (2008) [C3]|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Assimilating Australia', Overland, 193 91-92 (2008) [C3]|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Irynej Skira (1950-2005): A scientific life', Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 142 1-12 (2008) [C1]|
|2008||Ryan L, 'Rediscovering Recherche Bay and The axe had never sounded: Place, people and heritage of Recherche Bay, Tasmania', Historical Records of Australian Science, 19 104-108 (2008) [C3]|
Ryan L, 'Genocide and settler society: Frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian history', Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 21 158-161 (2007) [C3]
|2007||Ryan L, 'A history of Queensland', OVERLAND, 89-91 (2007)|
|2007||Ryan L, 'A history of New South Wales', OVERLAND, 89-91 (2007)|
|2007||Ryan L, 'In quite a state', Overland, 189 89-91 (2007) [C3]|
|2006||Ryan L, 'The French explorers and the aboriginal Australians 1772-1839 (Book review)', Australian Historical Studies, 37 228-229 (2006) [C3]|
|2006||Ryan L, 'Massacre in Tasmania? How can we know?', Australian & New Zealand Law & History E-Journal, 2006 1-21 (2006) [C1]|
Ryan L, 'Shopping Malls Country: Reading the Central Coast of NSW', Journal of Australian Studies, 153-160 (2006) [C1]
Ryan L, 'Betty Vivian Pybus (1923-2004) - Obituary', Australian Feminist Studies, 20 165-167 (2005) [C3]
Ryan L, 'Mother and Daughter Feminists, 1969-1973. Or Why Didn't Edna Ryan Join Women's Liberation?', Australian Feminist Studies, 19 75-85 (2004) [C1]
|2004||Ryan L, 'Risdon Cove and the massacre of 3 May 1804: Their place in Tasmanian history', Tasmanian Historical Studies, 9 107-123 (2004) [C1]|
|2003||Ryan L, 'Reflections by a target of a media witch hunt', History Australia, 1 105-109 (2003) [C2]|
|2003||Ryan L, 'The Right Book for the Right Time?', Labour History, 85 202-206 (2003) [C1]|
|2003||Ryan L, 'Review of Marilyn Lake's biography of Faith Bandler, Faith Bandler, Gentle Activist', Australian Humanities Review, May 2003 4 (2003) [C3]|
|2002||Ryan L, 'Explorations in Australian Feminist Biography: Notes towards a Biography of my Mother, Edna Ryan (1904-1997)', School of Humanities: Working Papers, Vol 1, 1 117-135 (2002) [C1]|
|2001||Ryan L, 'Aboriginal History Wars', Australian Historical Association Bulletin, 92 31-37 (2001) [C3]|
Ryan L, 'Barbara Curthoys - Obituary', AUSTRALIAN FEMINIST STUDIES, 16 9-11 (2001)
|2001||Ryan L, 'A Turning Point for the Weekly and a Turning Point for Women? Debate about Women and University in Australian Women's Weekly in 1961', Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 2 52-65 (2001) [C1]|
Ripper M, Ryan L, 'The Role of the 'Withdrawal Method' in the Control of Abortion', Australian Feminist Studies, 13 313-322 (1998) [C3]
|Show 49 more journal articles|
Review (2 outputs)
|2002||Ryan L, 'New Perspectives on the Frontier Wars', Australian Book Review (2002) [D1]|
Ryan L, 'REVIEWS', Oceania (1978)
The Tasmanian Aborigines. By N. J. B. Plomley. A short account of them and some aspects of their life. Published by the author in association with the Adult Education Division, Ta... [more]
The Tasmanian Aborigines. By N. J. B. Plomley. A short account of them and some aspects of their life. Published by the author in association with the Adult Education Division, Tasmania. Launceston, 1977. viii + 72 pp. Copies available at $2.50 from the author, P.O. Box 1276 Launceston, Tasmania. 7250. © 1978 The University of Sydney
Conference (3 outputs)
|2001||Ryan L, 'Edna Ryan's Struggles for Equal Pay in the 1960s', Work Organisation Struggle, ANU, Canberra (2001) [E1]|
|2001||Ryan L, 'Too Close for Clarity? The Dilemma of a daughter biographer'', Proceedings from Interdisciplinary Gender Studies Conference, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah (2001) [E2]|
|2001||Ryan L, 'Sydney Women's Liberation Movement 1969-1972', Social Movements in Australia 1965-1975., University of Sydney (2001) [E2]|
Other (1 outputs)
Ryan Lyndall, Debenham Jennifer, Pascoe William, Brown Mark, 'Colonial Frontier Massacres in Eastern Australia 1788-1872', (2017)
Number of supervisions
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2020||PhD||Age of the Barri-ma: Tactics of Indigenous Warriors pre-1788-1897||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2017||PhD||The Kidnapping of Australian Aboriginal People in the Colonial Period: Labour, Retaliation and The Colonial Project in Queensland and Western Australia, 1850 to 1901||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|2017||PhD||'The Early History of Civilisation at Brisbane Water has Been, to a Considerable Extent, Forgotten by Even its Oldest European Inhabitants' Henry Kendall, 1875. Remembering Contact History on the Central Coast of New South Wales.||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|2016||PhD||Aboriginal/Settler Relations on the Central Coast of New South Wales from 1788 to 1874 [End date has been altered]||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|Year||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2013||PhD||Representations of Aborigines in Australian Documentary Film 1901 - 2009||PhD (Humanities), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Sole Supervisor|
|2008||PhD||Value to Vermin: The Donkey in Australia||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|2006||PhD||The Impact of Detention on Iraqi Artists in Australia and the Use of Art Practice as a Method of Healing||PhD (Fine Art), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|2005||PhD||Testimonio: Witnessing my Mother's Life: Race and Identity in Twentieth Century Australia||PhD (Humanities), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2004||PhD||Being Hula: The appropriation of Christianity in Irupara village, Papua New Guinea||PhD (Humanities), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Sole Supervisor|
|2003||PhD||Desire for Social Justice: Equal Pay, the International Labour Organisation, and Australian Government Policy, 1919-1975||PhD (History), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
|2003||Masters||A Knowledge of Body - Feminist Transformative Action Re-search on Body Image Dissatisfaction in Women Using Narrative Therapy Techniques||M Social Sc (Humanities) [R], Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2002||PhD||Emerging Literacy in New South Wales Rural and Urban Indigenous Families||PhD (Humanities), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
March 19, 2020
November 29, 2019
November 18, 2019
September 6, 2019
April 15, 2019
March 21, 2019
November 27, 2018
September 17, 2018
July 27, 2018
March 5, 2018
October 6, 2017
August 1, 2017
July 5, 2017
November 5, 2014
November 5, 2014
August 6, 2014
May 16, 2014
April 29, 2014
November 8, 2013
Professor Lyndall Ryan
Centre for the History of Violence
School of Humanities and Social Science
Faculty of Education and Arts
Callaghan, NSW 2308