Associate Professor Therese Kairuz
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
- Phone:(02) 4921 5691
Associate Professor Therése Kairuz is a pharmacist registered with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA), the New Zealand Pharmacy Council and the South African Pharmacy Council; she has experience in community and hospital sectors.
Her research is centred within the Quality Use of Medicines with a strong focus on Health Literacy and Drug Utilisation. Many of her studies have included vulnerable populations such as paediatrics, the aged, and refugees. She uses qualitative, survey, and drug utilisation methods to investigate a broad range of medical conditions and medicines within clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice.
She is a recipient of an Early Career Award (University of Auckland) and from the Pharmacists Board of Queensland, was a Principal Investigator in the $1.1M Health Literacy in Pharmacy (HeLP) project commissioned by the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. She has received funding administered by the Pharmacy Guild, The Pharmacists Board of Queensland, The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the New Zealand Pharmacy Education Research Foundation, and the New Zealand Police. She has published a broad range of peer-reviewed research papers in well respected pharmacy journals as well as articles in professional journals.
Therése has extensive undergraduate teaching experiencing in pharmacy subjects including extemporaneous compounding, pharmacy law and ethics, pharmacy practice and the quality use of medicines. Her teaching philosophy is to convey to students a desire to improve patient health outcomes through the appropriate use of medicines. She has been actively involved in curriculum design, and pharmacy education research, in pharmacy programs across a broad range of universities and among culturally and diverse (CALD) student populations.
Associate Professor Kairuz has a particular interest in supervising research students (Honours, Master’s and PhD), encouraging curiosity while sharing her enthusiasm for inquiry; she advocates striving for excellence.
- Doctor of Philosophy, University of Port Elizabeth - South Africa
- Diploma in Pharmacy, The South African Pharmacy Council
- Master of Pharmacy, Potchefstroom University - South Africa
- Graduate Certificate in Higher Education, University of Queensland
- Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice
- Drug Utilisation Review
- Health Literacy
Fields of Research
|111503||Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice||100|
|Title||Organisation / Department|
|Associate Professor||University of Newcastle
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Early Career Researcher Award -Exploring health literacy in communty pharmacy
Pharmacist Board of Queensland
Early Research Career Award
The University of Auckland
Scholarship, National Excellence in Education Leadership
National Excellence in Educational Leadership Initiative (NEELI)
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (68 outputs)
Thiruchelvam K, Wong PS, Kairuz T, Babar ZU-D, Hasan SS, 'Consolidated Medication Review Algorithm to Improve Medications Use in Older Adults: Components, Scoring Scheme, and Implementation.', J Am Med Dir Assoc, 19 717-718 (2018)
Drovandi A, Robertson K, Tucker M, Robinson N, Perks S, Kairuz T, 'A systematic review of clinical pharmacist interventions in paediatric hospital patients', European Journal of Pediatrics, 177 1139-1148 (2018)
© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Clinical pharmacists provide beneficial services to adult patients, though their benefits for paediatric hospital pa... [more]
© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Clinical pharmacists provide beneficial services to adult patients, though their benefits for paediatric hospital patients are less defined. Five databases were searched using the MeSH terms ¿clinical pharmacist¿, ¿paediatric/paediatric¿, ¿hospital¿, and ¿intervention¿ for studies with paediatric patients conducted in hospital settings, and described pharmacist-initiated interventions, published between January 2000 and October 2017. The search strategy after full-text review identified 12 articles matching the eligibility criteria. Quality appraisal checklists from the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to appraise the eligible articles. Clinical pharmacist services had a positive impact on paediatric patient care. Medication errors intercepted by pharmacists included over- and under-dosing, missed doses, medication history gaps, allergies, and near-misses. Interventions to address these errors were positively received, and implemented by physicians, with an average acceptance rate of over 95%. Clinical pharmacist-initiated education resulted in improved medication understanding and adherence, improved patient satisfaction, and control of chronic medical conditions. Conclusion: This review found that clinical pharmacists in paediatric wards may reduce drug-related problems and improve patient outcomes. The benefits of pharmacist involvement appear greatest when directly involved in ward rounds, due to being able to more rapidly identify medication errors during the prescribing phase, and provide real-time advice and recommendations to prescribers.What is Known:¿ Complex paediatric conditions can require multiple pharmaceutical treatments, utilised in a safe manner to ensure good patient outcomes¿ The benefits of pharmacist interventions when using these treatments are well-documented in adult patients, though less so in paediatric patientsWhat is New:¿ Pharmacists are adept at identifying and managing medication errors for paediatric patients, including incorrect doses, missed doses, and gaps in medication history¿ Interventions recommended by pharmacists are generally well-accepted by prescribing physicians, especially when recommendations can be made during the prescribing phase of treatment.
|2017||Kairuz T, Truter I, Rossato L, Pudmenzky A, 'Dispensing patterns of anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics: a feasibility study comparing datasets from a developed and developing country (Australia and South Africa).', Current Drug Safety, (2017)|
|2017||Kairuz TE, Carson S, 'Improving the accuracy of medication profiles held by General Practitioners through the use of Home Medication Reviews', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, In press (2017)|
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'The validity of personal disturbance scale (DSSI/sAD) in people with diabetes mellitus, using longitudinal data', PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 72 182-188 (2015) [C1]
Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Relation between mental health-related variables and glycemic control in Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)', International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 35 211-218 (2015) [C1]
© 2014, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression, anxiety symptoms, and glycemic cont... [more]
© 2014, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression, anxiety symptoms, and glycemic control in Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Another objective was to examine the association between glycemic control and mental status, measured by mental composite score (MCS). This study was conducted on 611 randomly sampled Malaysian women with T2DM who were treated as outpatients at medication therapy adherence clinics (MTAC). The Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory: State of Anxiety and Depression (DSSI/SAD) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 10 (CES-D 10) were used. Five most recent readings of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting, and random glucose levels were recorded. Regression analysis was used to correlate glycemic control with depression, anxiety symptoms, and MCS, while considering potential confounders. For depression symptoms, an increase of one category was associated with a small average HbA1c increase of 0.10¿% (95¿% CI -0.38, 0.68), whereas for anxiety symptoms, there was a small decrease in average HbA1c of 0.44¿% (95¿% CI -1.17, 0.28); both were not significant. Very poorly controlled HbA1c was not significantly associated with symptoms of depression (OR 1.43, 95¿% CI 0.45¿4.55) or anxiety (OR 0.47, 95¿% CI 0.15¿1.49). MCS was found to have a strong inverse correlation with HbA1c. That is, women who reported poor MCS had a significantly higher, and therefore very poorly controlled, HbA1c (OR 1.70, 95¿% CI 1.01¿2.88). The presence of depression and anxiety symptoms was not significantly associated with glycemic control in women with T2DM, supporting the hypothesis that argues against the existence of a link between depression, anxiety, and glycemic control.
Bellamy K, Ostini R, Martini N, Kairuz T, 'Access to medication and pharmacy services for resettled refugees: a systematic review', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH, 21 273-278 (2015) [C1]
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Australian Women: A Longitudinal Study', JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 24 889-898 (2015) [C1]
|2015||Kairuz T, Lawrence B, Bond J, 'Comparing student and tutor perceptions regarding feedback', PHARMACY EDUCATION, 15 290-296 (2015) [C1]|
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'A comparative drug utilisation study of the treatment of diabetes in Malaysia and Australia', AUSTRALASIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 8 179-188 (2015) [C1]
Fredericks I, Hollingworth S, Pudmenzky A, Rossato L, Syed S, Kairuz T, 'Consumer knowledge and perceptions about antibiotics and upper respiratory tract infections in a community pharmacy', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY, 37 1213-1221 (2015) [C1]
Kairuz TE, Bellamy KM, Lord E, Ostini R, Emmerton LM, 'Health literacy among consumers in community pharmacy: perceptions of pharmacy staff', HEALTH EXPECTATIONS, 18 1041-1051 (2015) [C1]
Hasan SS, Mamun AA, Clavarino AM, Kairuz T, 'Incidence and Risk of Depression Associated with Diabetes in Adults: Evidence from Longitudinal Studies', Community Mental Health Journal, 51 204-210 (2014)
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This meta-analysis examined depression as a consequence of diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis, using data from longitudinal s... [more]
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This meta-analysis examined depression as a consequence of diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis, using data from longitudinal studies. Databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Incidence of depression is presented as cumulative incident proportion (CIP). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects model. The data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR) and CIP. The 16 studies selected for review generated 16 datasets of which 11 studies reporting binary estimates (RR) and 5 studies reporting time-to-event estimates [hazard ratio (HR)]. Both RR and HR were significant at 1.27 (95¿% CI 1.17¿1.38) and 1.23 (95¿% CI 1.08¿1.40) for incident depression associated with diabetes mellitus. Our observations also revealed greater cumulative incidence of depression in diabetes than in non diabetes groups. Our study shows that diabetes is a significant risk factor for the onset of depression.
Emmerton L, Chaw XY, Kelly F, Kairuz T, Marriott J, Wheeler A, Moles R, 'Management of children's fever by parents and caregivers: Practical measurement of functional health literacy', JOURNAL OF CHILD HEALTH CARE, 18 302-313 (2014) [C1]
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Psychological Health and the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Australian Women: A 21-Year Prospective Study', JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 23 912-919 (2014) [C1]
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Incidence and risk of diabetes mellitus associated with depressive symptoms in adults: Evidence from longitudinal studies', Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 8 82-87 (2014) [C1]
Aims We estimated the incidence and risk of diabetes associated with depressive symptoms using data from longitudinal studies. Materials and methods Databases were systematically ... [more]
Aims We estimated the incidence and risk of diabetes associated with depressive symptoms using data from longitudinal studies. Materials and methods Databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Incidence of diabetes is presented as cumulative incident proportion (CIP). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects model. The data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR). Results The 16 studies selected for review generated 16 datasets of which 8 studies reporting binary estimates (RR) and 8 studies reporting time-to-event estimates (hazard ratio (HR)). Both RR and HR were significant at 1.67 (95% CI: 1.30-2.15) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.12-1.87) for incident diabetes associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our observations revealed greater cumulative incidence of diabetes in depressed than in non depressed groups. Depression should be included among risk factors that required regular screening for diabetes. © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doggrell SA, Kairuz T, 'Comparative studies of how living circumstances influence medication adherence in =65 year olds', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36 30-35 (2014) [C1]
Background: Resources to help the older aged (=65 year olds) manage their medicines should probably target those in greatest need. The older-aged have many different types of livi... [more]
Background: Resources to help the older aged (=65 year olds) manage their medicines should probably target those in greatest need. The older-aged have many different types of living circumstances. There are different locations (urban, rural), different types of housing (in the community or in retirement villages), different living arrangements (living alone or with others), and different socioeconomic status (SES) circumstances. However, there has been limited attention to whether these living circumstances affect adherence to medicines in the =65 year olds. Aim of the review: The aim was to determine whether comparative studies, including logistic regression studies, show that living circumstances affect adherence to medicines by the =65 year olds. Methods: A literature search of Medline, CINAHL and the Internet (Google) was undertaken. Results: Four comparative studies have not shown differences in adherence to medicines between the =65 year olds living in rural and urban locations, but one study shows lower adherence to medicines for osteoporosis in rural areas compared to metropolitan, and another study shows greater adherence to antihypertensive medicines in rural than urban areas. There are no comparative studies of adherence to medicines in the older-aged living in indigenous communities compared to other communities. There is conflicting evidence as to whether living alone, being unmarried, or having a low income/worth is associated with nonadherence. Preliminary studies have suggested that the olderaged living in rental, low SES retirement villages or leasehold, middle SES retirement villages have a lower adherence to medicines than those living in freehold, high SES retirement villages. Conclusions: The =65 year olds living in rural communities may need extra help with adherence to medicines for osteoporosis. The =65 year olds living in rental or leasehold retirement villages may require extra assistance/resources to adhere to their medicines. Further research is needed to clarify whether living under certain living circumstances (e.g. living alone, being unmarried, low income) has an effect on adherence, and to determine whether the =65 year olds living in indigenous communities need assistance to be adherent to prescribed medicines. © Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2013.
Ostini R, Kairuz T, 'Investigating the association between health literacy and non-adherence', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36 36-44 (2014) [C1]
Background: Low health literacy is expected to be associated with medication non-adherence and early research indicated that this might be the case. Further research suggested tha... [more]
Background: Low health literacy is expected to be associated with medication non-adherence and early research indicated that this might be the case. Further research suggested that the relationship may be more equivocal. Aim of the review: The goal of this paper is initially to clarify whether there is a clear relationship between health literacy and non-adherence. Additionally, this review aims to identify factors that may influence that relationship and ultimately to better understand the mechanisms that may be at work in the relationship. Method: English language original research or published reviews of health literacy and non-adherence to orally administered medications in adults were identified through a search of four bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBSCO Health). Results: The search protocol produced 78 potentially relevant articles, of which 16 articles addressed factors that contribute to non-adherence and 24 articles reported on the results of research into the relationship between non-adherence and health literacy. Factors that contribute to non-adherence can be categorised into patient related factors, including patient beliefs; medication related factors; logistical factors; and factors around the patient-provider relationship. Of the 23 original research articles that investigated the relationship between non-adherence and health literacy, only five reported finding clear evidence of a relationship, four reported mixed results and 15 articles reported not finding the expected relationship. Research on possible mechanisms relating health literacy to non-adherence suggest that disease and medication knowledge are not sufficient for addressing non-adherence while self-efficacy is an important factor. Other findings suggest a possible U-shaped relationship between non-adherence and health literacy where people with low health literacy are more often non-adherent, largely unintentionally; people with moderate health literacy are most adherent; and people with high health literacy are somewhat non-adherent, sometimes due to intentional non-adherence. Conclusion: It is clear that relevant research generally fails to find a significant relationship between non-adherence and health literacy. A U-shaped relationship between these two conditions would explain why linear statistical tests fail to identify a relationship across all three levels of health literacy. It can also account for the conditions under which both positive and negative relationships may be found. © Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2013.
Lau ETL, Jones AL, Kairuz T, Nissen LM, Steadman KJ, 'Compounding practices in Queensland: Experiences and perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy students', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 43 19-24 (2013) [C1]
Background: Changes in the roles of the contemporary pharmacist has seen a decline in the number and variety of extemporaneously compounded dosage forms. Pharmacy curricula refl e... [more]
Background: Changes in the roles of the contemporary pharmacist has seen a decline in the number and variety of extemporaneously compounded dosage forms. Pharmacy curricula refl ect this change with a reduction in the emphasis on extemporaneous compounding practice. Aim: To elicit information about extemporaneously compounded dosage forms and perceptions of compounding practice from pharmacists and pharmacy students. Method: Self-administered surveys were mailed to 1063 pharmacists and offered online to 896 pharmacy undergraduates across the 4 years of a Bachelor of Pharmacy program in Queensland. Results: 382 (36%) pharmacists and 455 (51%) students completed the survey. Most pharmacists (96%) reported compounding a product in the 12 months prior to the survey, particularly semi-solids (89%) and liquids (64%) for external use. Most pharmacies (> 96%) owned basic compounding equipment, such as a slab and spatula, mortar and pestle, and cylindrical/conical measures. Half of the pharmacies used mechanical rather than electronic balances. Students expressed greater confi dence in their ability to use basic compounding equipment and to perform basic compounding tasks as they progressed through the 4-year degree course. Pharmacists' views on students' ability to compound basic products at the end of their degree were generally similar to the proportion of fi nal-year students who reported they could confi dently complete the task. Conclusion: Despite a decline in extemporaneously compounded products in community pharmacy, pharmacy graduates need to be competent in compounding techniques.
Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women', Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 7 191-197 (2013)
Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian wom... [more]
Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. Materials and methods A case-control study of women with T2DM (n = 160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n = 160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and =3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). Conclusion In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. © 2013 Diabetes India.
Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Doi SAR, Kairuz T, 'Population impact of depression either as a risk factor or consequence of type 2 diabetes in adults: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies', Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6 460-472 (2013) [C1]
This meta-analysis examined the reciprocal relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) by conducting a bias adjusted meta-analysis of longitudinal studies ... [more]
This meta-analysis examined the reciprocal relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) by conducting a bias adjusted meta-analysis of longitudinal studies using relative and absolute risk estimates. Specifically, the data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), and the number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH) or benefited (NNEB). The 25 studies selected for review generated 29 datasets of which 15 examined endpoint A (depression as a risk factor for T2DM), and 14 examined endpoint B (T2DM as a risk factor for depression). For both endpoints, there was a small relative risk increase (for both the RR and hazard ratio (HR)) though with significant heterogeneity between studies. This however translated to a non-significant NNEH of 87 (NNEB 161 to 8 to NNEH 35) and NNEH of 233 (NNEB 28 to 8 to NNEH 23) for studies examining endpoint A and endpoint B respectively. This study suggests that the magnitude of the relative risk increase for depression as a risk factor or consequence of T2DM is small without significant impact on absolute risk indices. While these risks may be considered in terms of individual patient management, they are unlikely to have an impact on a population perspective. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Hasan SS, Wong PS, Ahmed SI, Chong DWK, Mai CW, Pook P, Kairuz T, 'Perceived impact of clinical placements on students' preparedness to provide patient-centered care in Malaysia', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 5 303-310 (2013)
Objective: Over the last two decades the pharmacy profession has seen a major revision to patient-focused teaching and practice. This study evaluated the perceived impact of exper... [more]
Objective: Over the last two decades the pharmacy profession has seen a major revision to patient-focused teaching and practice. This study evaluated the perceived impact of experiential clinical pharmacy placements on students' preparedness to provide patient-centered care. Methods: This cross-sectional study among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) final-year students used a validated self-administered questionnaire, administered before and after the students' clinical placements undertaken at hospitals. Subjects' responses were rated on a 7-point Likert scale anchored at 1 (not at all) and 7 (very well prepared). The Wilcoxon test was applied to assess the differences in pre- and post-mean scores of individual items. Results: One hundred six students agreed to participate in the study. Despite the low percentage of clinical curricular content coverage, significant augmentation in post-placement overall mean scores in aspects of patient-centered care was found; therapeutic (4.8 vs 3.5; 38.3% change), psycho-social (4.9 vs 4.1, 19.5% change) and communication skills (5.05 vs 3.9, 30.8% change) aspects of patient-centered care were noted. The mean score for each item in the three aspects increased from pre- to post-clinical placements and were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Perceived patient centered care skills grow as the students' complete coursework, and changes to that coursework, including clinical learning, can impact both actual and perceived patient-centered-care competencies. The findings highlight areas for curriculum improvement and this evaluation reinforces the need for experiential placements in the BPharm curriculum. There is value in the development of pharmacy practice skills which occurs during undergraduate placements through experiential learning. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Kairuz TE, Laksmana I, Steadman KJ, 'History of extemporaneous compounding in Australia: Changes and developments in the Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 43 117-121 (2013) [C1]
Background: The Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary (APF) has diversified in content and grown in size. Change can be indicative of progress within, and influences on, a professio... [more]
Background: The Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary (APF) has diversified in content and grown in size. Change can be indicative of progress within, and influences on, a profession. Aim: To determine variations to the formulary sections of the 22 editions of the APF (1902 to 2012) with respect to dosage forms, ingredients and compounding methods. Method: Each formula in the APF was entered into a customised Excel spreadsheet with descriptors including formula type, dosage form, active ingredient and route of administration. Data were analysed using features in Excel. Results: A total of 1197 different formulae were identified in the 22 editions of the APF. The first edition consisted almost entirely of formulae (81% of the total number of pages) and this percentage decreased considerably to 3% to 5% in APFs published since 2002. The greatest number of formulae (n = 496) were included in 1934 (APF6), the edition which also had the greatest number of new formulae (n = 307). Most new formulae appeared for the first time between 1930 and 1964 (APF 5 to 9). A total of 47 different dosage forms were identified and the top 5 in descending order were mixtures (17%), solutions (8%), ointments (7%), eye drops (6%) and creams (5%). Most of the formulae contained in APF22 originated from APF9. Conclusion: The number of formulae has decreased in the APF over time, with recent deletions based on lack of safety and efficacy data or due to the availability of commercial products. There have been comparatively few alterations to the formulary section in the last decade.
|Show 65 more journal articles|
Conference (5 outputs)
|2017||Carson S, Kairuz TE, 'Exploring the Impact of Home Medication Reviews in Optimising the Quality Use of Medicines in Northern Queensland', Sydney, NSW (2017)|
|2017||Kairuz TE, Todd M, Carson S, 'Potentially modifiable Cautionary and Advisory Labels ¿ a pilot study in North Queensland', Sydney, NSW (2017)|
|2017||Truter I, Kairuz TE, Kotze TJVW, 'A longitudinal study into the dispensing patterns of benzodiazepines and z-drugs in a South African private healthcare setting', Windhoek, Namibia (2017)|
|Show 2 more conferences|
Grants and Funding
|Number of grants||5|
Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.
20171 grants / $15,600
Health Literacy project$15,600
Funding body: James Cook University
|Funding body||James Cook University|
|Project Team||Associate Professor Therese Kairuz|
|Type Of Funding||C2110 - Aust Commonwealth - Own Purpose|
20161 grants / $3,103
Investigating potential misuse of (i) codeine-containing products and (ii) proton pump inhibitors using de-identified dispensing data from pharmacies$3,103
Funding body: Rsearch Infrastructure Block Grant
|Funding body||Rsearch Infrastructure Block Grant|
T.Kairuz; A.Pudmenzky; LRossato
|Scheme||Research Infrastructure Block Grant|
|Type Of Funding||International - Competitive|
20151 grants / $4,625
Developing a drug utilisation dataset in North Queensland – investigating PBS and non-PBS medicines with potential for misuse$4,625
Funding body: Research Infrastructure Block Grant
|Funding body||Research Infrastructure Block Grant|
T.Kairuz; A.Pudmenzky; L.Rossato
|Scheme||Research Infrastructure Block Grant (RIBG)|
|Type Of Funding||International - Competitive|
20121 grants / $14,800
Funding body: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
|Funding body||Pharmaceutical Society of Australia|
|Type Of Funding||External|
20111 grants / $1
Funding body: Pharmacy Guild of Australia
|Funding body||Pharmacy Guild of Australia|
G Duncan, L Emmerton, B Chaar, J Hughes, B Suen, K McNamara, S Hussainy, K Stewart, P Darzins, K Wiliams, T Kairuz, R Ostini R Bush, F Boyle, M Jiwa, K Hoti
|Scheme||Health Literacy -Pharmacy Guild|
|Type Of Funding||Aust Competitive - Commonwealth|
Number of supervisions
Total current UON EFTSL
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2018||PhD||Exploration into Drug Utilisation Within Newcastle and Hunter Valley Area||PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2018||PhD||Sports Pharmacy: Investigating an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Model for Australian Pharmacists||PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Principal Supervisor|
|2017||PhD||Improving the Role of Pharmacists in Primary Care of IBD Patients||PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
Associate Professor Therese Kairuz
Quality Use of Medicines
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine
|Phone||(02) 4921 5691|
|Fax||(02) 4921 2022|