Dr Therese Kairuz

Associate Professor

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy

Career Summary

Biography

Associate Professor Therése Kairuz is a pharmacist registered with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA), the New Zealand Pharmacy Council and the South African Pharmacy Council; she has experience in community and hospital sectors.

Her research is centred within the Quality Use of Medicines with a strong focus on Health Literacy and Drug Utilisation. Many of her studies have included vulnerable populations such as paediatrics, the aged, and refugees. She uses qualitative, survey, and drug utilisation methods to investigate a broad range of medical conditions and medicines within clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice.

She is a recipient of an Early Career Award (University of Auckland) and was a Principal Investigator  in the $1.1M Health Literacy in Pharmacy (HeLP) project. She has received funding administered by the Pharmacy Guild, The Pharmacists Board of Queensland, The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the New Zealand Pharmacy Education Research Foundation, and the New Zealand Police. She has published a broad range of peer-reviewed research papers in well respected pharmacy journals as well as articles in professional journals.

Therése has extensive undergraduate teaching experiencing in pharmacy subjects including extemporaneous compounding, pharmacy law and ethics, pharmacy practice and the quality use of medicines. Her teaching philosophy is to convey to students a desire to improve patient health outcomes through the appropriate use of medicines. She has been actively involved in curriculum design, and pharmacy education research, in pharmacy programs across a broad range of universities and among culturally and diverse (CALD) student populations.

Associate Professor Kairuz has a particular interest in supervising research students (Honours, Master’s and PhD), encouraging curiosity while sharing her enthusiasm for inquiry; she advocates striving for excellence.


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Port Elizabeth - South Africa
  • Diploma in Pharmacy, The South African Pharmacy Council
  • Master of Pharmacy, Potchefstroom University - South Africa
  • Graduate Certificate in Higher Education, University of Queensland

Keywords

  • Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice
  • Drug Utilisation Review
  • Health Literacy

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111503 Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice 100

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Associate Professor University of Newcastle
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Australia

Awards

Award

Year Award
2010 Early Career Researcher Award -Exploring health literacy in communty pharmacy
Pharmacist Board of Queensland
2005 Early Research Career Award
The University of Auckland

Scholarship

Year Award
2016 Scholarship, National Excellence in Education Leadership
National Excellence in Educational Leadership Initiative (NEELI)
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (63 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Bond JA, Cheng A, Kairuz T, 'Relating variance in feedback effectiveness to learning styles', Pharmacy Education, 17 8-14 (2017)

© 2017 FIP. Introduction: Students consider feedback to be an important aspect of good teaching, and meta-analyses confirm its influence on academic achievement. Anecdotal observ... [more]

© 2017 FIP. Introduction: Students consider feedback to be an important aspect of good teaching, and meta-analyses confirm its influence on academic achievement. Anecdotal observations in pharmacy practice workshops at our institution suggested variance in students¿ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of feedback. Aim: To explore reasons students perceive the effectiveness of feedback differently from each other. Methodology: As a conceptual paper, this article does not conform to the standard format of empirical research papers. Instead, it develops an argument by drawing on two established theories about the learning process, Vygotsky¿s theory of Social Constructivism and Learning Style theory. Results: The effectiveness of feedback may be influenced by factors other than quality. We propose an original model that links feedback preferences with learning styles, and make recommendations to pharmacy educators grounded in research findings. Conclusion: The Matched-Mismatched Feedback Model may account for some of the variation in feedback effectiveness. Further empirical research to explore the validity of our model is recommended.

2017 Bellamy K, Ostini R, Martini N, Kairuz T, 'Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 25 358-364 (2017)

© 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Austr... [more]

© 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. Methods: A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a ¿health information conduit¿ between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Key findings: Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees¿ expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: This exploratory study has established a foundation for further research into the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees. The findings are likely to be applicable to a wider population.

DOI 10.1111/ijpp.12324
2017 Thiruchelvam K, Hasan SS, Wong PS, Kairuz T, 'Residential Aged Care Medication Review to Improve the Quality of¿Medication Use: A Systematic Review', Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18 87.e1-87.e14 (2017)

© 2016 AMDA ¿ The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine Background Aging is often associated with various underlying comorbidities that warrant the use of multiple ... [more]

© 2016 AMDA ¿ The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine Background Aging is often associated with various underlying comorbidities that warrant the use of multiple medications. Various interventions, including medication reviews, to optimize pharmacotherapy in older people residing in aged care facilities have been described and evaluated. Previous systematic reviews support the positive impact of various medication-related interventions but are not conclusive because of several factors. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the impact of medication reviews in aged care facilities, with additional focus on the types of medication reviews, using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Methods A systematic searching of English articles that examined the medication reviews conducted in aged care facilities was performed using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, TRiP, and the Cochrane Library, with the last update in December 2015. Extraction of articles and quality assessment of included articles were performed independently by 2 authors. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted from the included studies. The SIGN checklist for observational studies and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in RCTs were applied. Outcomes assessed were related to medications, reviews, and adverse events. Results Because of the heterogeneity of the measurements, it was deemed inappropriate to conduct a meta-analysis and thus a narrative approach was employed. Twenty-two studies (10 observational studies and 12 controlled trials) were included from 1141 evaluated references. Of the 12 trials, 8 studies reported findings of pharmacist-led medication reviews and 4 repor ted findings of multidisciplinary team-based reviews. The medication reviews performed in the included trials were prescription reviews (n¿=¿8) and clinical medication reviews (n¿=¿4). In the case of the observational studies, the majority of the studies (8/12 studies) reported findings of pharmacist-led medication reviews, and only 2 studies reported findings of multidisciplinary team-based reviews. Similarly, 6 studies employed prescription reviews, whereas 4 studies employed clinical medication reviews. The majority of the recommendations put forward by the pharmacist or a multidisciplinary team were accepted by physicians. The number of prescribed medications, inappropriate medications, and adverse outcomes (eg, number of deaths, frequency of hospitalizations) were reduced in the intervention group. Conclusion Medication reviews conducted by pharmacists, either working independently or with other health care professionals, appear to improve the quality of medication use in aged care settings. However, robust conclusions cannot be drawn because of significant heterogeneity in measurements and potential risk for biases.

DOI 10.1016/j.jamda.2016.10.004
2017 Kairuz T, Truter I, Rossato L, Pudmenzky A, 'Dispensing Patterns of Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics: A Feasibility Study Comparing Datasets from a Developed and a Developing Country (Australia and South Africa).', Curr Drug Saf, 12 57-61 (2017)
DOI 10.2174/1574886312666170109115741
2017 Fredericks I, Hollingworth S, Pudmenzky A, Rossato L, Kairuz T, ''Repeat' prescriptions and antibiotic resistance: Findings from Australian community pharmacy', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 25 50-58 (2017)
DOI 10.1111/ijpp.12273
2016 Bellamy K, Ostini R, Martini N, Kairuz T, 'Erratum to: Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees (Int J Clin Pharm, DOI 10.1007/s11096-016-0261-1)', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 38 469 (2016)
DOI 10.1007/s11096-016-0276-7
2016 Kairuz TE, ANDRIES L, NICKLOES T, 'Consequences of KPIs and Performance Management in Higher Education', International Journal of Educational Management, 30 881-893 (2016)
2016 HASAN SS, CLAVARINO AM, MAMUN A, DOI SAR, KAIRUZ T, 'The global distribution of comorbid depression and anxiety in people with diabetes mellitus: Risk-adjusted estimates', Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 7 80-86 (2016)
2016 BELLAMY K, OSTINI R, MARTINI N, KAIRUZ T, 'Seeking to understand: Using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 38 671-675 (2016)
2016 Kairuz TE, ANDRIES L, NICKLOES T, 'Consequences of KPIs and Performance Management in Higher Education', International Journal of Educational Management, 30 881-893 (2016) [C1]
2016 HASAN SS, CLAVARINO AM, MAMUN A, DOI SAR, KAIRUZ T, 'The global distribution of comorbid depression and anxiety in people with diabetes mellitus: Risk-adjusted estimates', Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 7 80-86 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.4103/2045-080X.186172
2016 BELLAMY K, OSTINI R, MARTINI N, KAIRUZ T, 'Seeking to understand: Using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 38 671-675 (2016) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Anxiety symptoms and the risk of diabetes mellitus in Australian women: Evidence from 21-year follow-up', Public Health, 130 21-28 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.07.022
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2016 Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Psychological health and menopause-specific quality of life of Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes', Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 23 56-63 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ajp.2016.07.005
2015 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'The validity of personal disturbance scale (DSSI/sAD) in people with diabetes mellitus, using longitudinal data', PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 72 182-188 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.005
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2015 Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Relation between mental health-related variables and glycemic control in Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)', International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 35 211-218 (2015) [C1]

© 2014, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression, anxiety symptoms, and glycemic con... [more]

© 2014, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression, anxiety symptoms, and glycemic control in Malaysian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Another objective was to examine the association between glycemic control and mental status, measured by mental composite score (MCS). This study was conducted on 611 randomly sampled Malaysian women with T2DM who were treated as outpatients at medication therapy adherence clinics (MTAC). The Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory: State of Anxiety and Depression (DSSI/SAD) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 10 (CES-D 10) were used. Five most recent readings of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting, and random glucose levels were recorded. Regression analysis was used to correlate glycemic control with depression, anxiety symptoms, and MCS, while considering potential confounders. For depression symptoms, an increase of one category was associated with a small average HbA1c increase of 0.10¿% (95¿% CI -0.38, 0.68), whereas for anxiety symptoms, there was a small decrease in average HbA1c of 0.44¿% (95¿% CI -1.17, 0.28); both were not significant. Very poorly controlled HbA1c was not significantly associated with symptoms of depression (OR 1.43, 95¿% CI 0.45¿4.55) or anxiety (OR 0.47, 95¿% CI 0.15¿1.49). MCS was found to have a strong inverse correlation with HbA1c. That is, women who reported poor MCS had a significantly higher, and therefore very poorly controlled, HbA1c (OR 1.70, 95¿% CI 1.01¿2.88). The presence of depression and anxiety symptoms was not significantly associated with glycemic control in women with T2DM, supporting the hypothesis that argues against the existence of a link between depression, anxiety, and glycemic control.

DOI 10.1007/s13410-014-0250-7
2015 Bellamy K, Ostini R, Martini N, Kairuz T, 'Access to medication and pharmacy services for resettled refugees: a systematic review', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH, 21 273-278 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/PY14121
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2015 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Australian Women: A Longitudinal Study', JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 24 889-898 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1089/jwh.2015.5210
2015 Kairuz T, Lawrence B, Bond J, 'Comparing student and tutor perceptions regarding feedback', PHARMACY EDUCATION, 15 290-296 (2015) [C1]
2015 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'A comparative drug utilisation study of the treatment of diabetes in Malaysia and Australia', AUSTRALASIAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 8 179-188 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.4066/AMJ.2015.2330
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2015 Fredericks I, Hollingworth S, Pudmenzky A, Rossato L, Syed S, Kairuz T, 'Consumer knowledge and perceptions about antibiotics and upper respiratory tract infections in a community pharmacy', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY, 37 1213-1221 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s11096-015-0188-y
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2015 Kairuz TE, Bellamy KM, Lord E, Ostini R, Emmerton LM, 'Health literacy among consumers in community pharmacy: perceptions of pharmacy staff', HEALTH EXPECTATIONS, 18 1041-1051 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/hex.12077
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2014 Hasan SS, Mamun AA, Clavarino AM, Kairuz T, 'Incidence and Risk of Depression Associated with Diabetes in Adults: Evidence from Longitudinal Studies', Community Mental Health Journal, 51 204-210 (2014)

© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This meta-analysis examined depression as a consequence of diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis, using data from longitudinal ... [more]

© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This meta-analysis examined depression as a consequence of diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis, using data from longitudinal studies. Databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Incidence of depression is presented as cumulative incident proportion (CIP). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects model. The data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR) and CIP. The 16 studies selected for review generated 16 datasets of which 11 studies reporting binary estimates (RR) and 5 studies reporting time-to-event estimates [hazard ratio (HR)]. Both RR and HR were significant at 1.27 (95¿% CI 1.17¿1.38) and 1.23 (95¿% CI 1.08¿1.40) for incident depression associated with diabetes mellitus. Our observations also revealed greater cumulative incidence of depression in diabetes than in non diabetes groups. Our study shows that diabetes is a significant risk factor for the onset of depression.

DOI 10.1007/s10597-014-9744-5
Citations Scopus - 9
2014 Emmerton L, Chaw XY, Kelly F, Kairuz T, Marriott J, Wheeler A, Moles R, 'Management of children's fever by parents and caregivers: Practical measurement of functional health literacy', JOURNAL OF CHILD HEALTH CARE, 18 302-313 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1177/1367493513496663
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2014 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Dingle K, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Psychological Health and the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Australian Women: A 21-Year Prospective Study', JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, 23 912-919 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1089/jwh.2014.4832
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
2014 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Incidence and risk of diabetes mellitus associated with depressive symptoms in adults: Evidence from longitudinal studies', Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 8 82-87 (2014) [C1]

Aims We estimated the incidence and risk of diabetes associated with depressive symptoms using data from longitudinal studies. Materials and methods Databases were systematically ... [more]

Aims We estimated the incidence and risk of diabetes associated with depressive symptoms using data from longitudinal studies. Materials and methods Databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Incidence of diabetes is presented as cumulative incident proportion (CIP). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects model. The data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR). Results The 16 studies selected for review generated 16 datasets of which 8 studies reporting binary estimates (RR) and 8 studies reporting time-to-event estimates (hazard ratio (HR)). Both RR and HR were significant at 1.67 (95% CI: 1.30-2.15) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.12-1.87) for incident diabetes associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our observations revealed greater cumulative incidence of diabetes in depressed than in non depressed groups. Depression should be included among risk factors that required regular screening for diabetes. © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.dsx.2014.04.023
Citations Scopus - 8
2014 Doggrell SA, Kairuz T, 'Comparative studies of how living circumstances influence medication adherence in =65 year olds', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36 30-35 (2014) [C1]

Background: Resources to help the older aged (=65 year olds) manage their medicines should probably target those in greatest need. The older-aged have many different types of livi... [more]

Background: Resources to help the older aged (=65 year olds) manage their medicines should probably target those in greatest need. The older-aged have many different types of living circumstances. There are different locations (urban, rural), different types of housing (in the community or in retirement villages), different living arrangements (living alone or with others), and different socioeconomic status (SES) circumstances. However, there has been limited attention to whether these living circumstances affect adherence to medicines in the =65 year olds. Aim of the review: The aim was to determine whether comparative studies, including logistic regression studies, show that living circumstances affect adherence to medicines by the =65 year olds. Methods: A literature search of Medline, CINAHL and the Internet (Google) was undertaken. Results: Four comparative studies have not shown differences in adherence to medicines between the =65 year olds living in rural and urban locations, but one study shows lower adherence to medicines for osteoporosis in rural areas compared to metropolitan, and another study shows greater adherence to antihypertensive medicines in rural than urban areas. There are no comparative studies of adherence to medicines in the older-aged living in indigenous communities compared to other communities. There is conflicting evidence as to whether living alone, being unmarried, or having a low income/worth is associated with nonadherence. Preliminary studies have suggested that the olderaged living in rental, low SES retirement villages or leasehold, middle SES retirement villages have a lower adherence to medicines than those living in freehold, high SES retirement villages. Conclusions: The =65 year olds living in rural communities may need extra help with adherence to medicines for osteoporosis. The =65 year olds living in rental or leasehold retirement villages may require extra assistance/resources to adhere to their medicines. Further research is needed to clarify whether living under certain living circumstances (e.g. living alone, being unmarried, low income) has an effect on adherence, and to determine whether the =65 year olds living in indigenous communities need assistance to be adherent to prescribed medicines. © Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2013.

DOI 10.1007/s11096-013-9894-5
Citations Scopus - 3
2014 Ostini R, Kairuz T, 'Investigating the association between health literacy and non-adherence', International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 36 36-44 (2014) [C1]

Background: Low health literacy is expected to be associated with medication non-adherence and early research indicated that this might be the case. Further research suggested tha... [more]

Background: Low health literacy is expected to be associated with medication non-adherence and early research indicated that this might be the case. Further research suggested that the relationship may be more equivocal. Aim of the review: The goal of this paper is initially to clarify whether there is a clear relationship between health literacy and non-adherence. Additionally, this review aims to identify factors that may influence that relationship and ultimately to better understand the mechanisms that may be at work in the relationship. Method: English language original research or published reviews of health literacy and non-adherence to orally administered medications in adults were identified through a search of four bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBSCO Health). Results: The search protocol produced 78 potentially relevant articles, of which 16 articles addressed factors that contribute to non-adherence and 24 articles reported on the results of research into the relationship between non-adherence and health literacy. Factors that contribute to non-adherence can be categorised into patient related factors, including patient beliefs; medication related factors; logistical factors; and factors around the patient-provider relationship. Of the 23 original research articles that investigated the relationship between non-adherence and health literacy, only five reported finding clear evidence of a relationship, four reported mixed results and 15 articles reported not finding the expected relationship. Research on possible mechanisms relating health literacy to non-adherence suggest that disease and medication knowledge are not sufficient for addressing non-adherence while self-efficacy is an important factor. Other findings suggest a possible U-shaped relationship between non-adherence and health literacy where people with low health literacy are more often non-adherent, largely unintentionally; people with moderate health literacy are most adherent; and people with high health literacy are somewhat non-adherent, sometimes due to intentional non-adherence. Conclusion: It is clear that relevant research generally fails to find a significant relationship between non-adherence and health literacy. A U-shaped relationship between these two conditions would explain why linear statistical tests fail to identify a relationship across all three levels of health literacy. It can also account for the conditions under which both positive and negative relationships may be found. © Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2013.

DOI 10.1007/s11096-013-9895-4
Citations Scopus - 11
2013 Lau ETL, Jones AL, Kairuz T, Nissen LM, Steadman KJ, 'Compounding practices in Queensland: Experiences and perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy students', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 43 19-24 (2013) [C1]

Background: Changes in the roles of the contemporary pharmacist has seen a decline in the number and variety of extemporaneously compounded dosage forms. Pharmacy curricula refl e... [more]

Background: Changes in the roles of the contemporary pharmacist has seen a decline in the number and variety of extemporaneously compounded dosage forms. Pharmacy curricula refl ect this change with a reduction in the emphasis on extemporaneous compounding practice. Aim: To elicit information about extemporaneously compounded dosage forms and perceptions of compounding practice from pharmacists and pharmacy students. Method: Self-administered surveys were mailed to 1063 pharmacists and offered online to 896 pharmacy undergraduates across the 4 years of a Bachelor of Pharmacy program in Queensland. Results: 382 (36%) pharmacists and 455 (51%) students completed the survey. Most pharmacists (96%) reported compounding a product in the 12 months prior to the survey, particularly semi-solids (89%) and liquids (64%) for external use. Most pharmacies ( > 96%) owned basic compounding equipment, such as a slab and spatula, mortar and pestle, and cylindrical/conical measures. Half of the pharmacies used mechanical rather than electronic balances. Students expressed greater confi dence in their ability to use basic compounding equipment and to perform basic compounding tasks as they progressed through the 4-year degree course. Pharmacists' views on students' ability to compound basic products at the end of their degree were generally similar to the proportion of fi nal-year students who reported they could confi dently complete the task. Conclusion: Despite a decline in extemporaneously compounded products in community pharmacy, pharmacy graduates need to be competent in compounding techniques.

2013 Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Ahmed SI, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T, 'Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women', Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 7 191-197 (2013)

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian wom... [more]

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. Materials and methods A case-control study of women with T2DM (n = 160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n = 160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and =3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). Conclusion In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalenc e of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. © 2013 Diabetes India.

DOI 10.1016/j.dsx.2013.10.023
Citations Scopus - 2
2013 Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Doi SAR, Kairuz T, 'Population impact of depression either as a risk factor or consequence of type 2 diabetes in adults: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies', Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6 460-472 (2013) [C1]

This meta-analysis examined the reciprocal relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) by conducting a bias adjusted meta-analysis of longitudinal studies ... [more]

This meta-analysis examined the reciprocal relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) by conducting a bias adjusted meta-analysis of longitudinal studies using relative and absolute risk estimates. Specifically, the data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), and the number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH) or benefited (NNEB). The 25 studies selected for review generated 29 datasets of which 15 examined endpoint A (depression as a risk factor for T2DM), and 14 examined endpoint B (T2DM as a risk factor for depression). For both endpoints, there was a small relative risk increase (for both the RR and hazard ratio (HR)) though with significant heterogeneity between studies. This however translated to a non-significant NNEH of 87 (NNEB 161 to 8 to NNEH 35) and NNEH of 233 (NNEB 28 to 8 to NNEH 23) for studies examining endpoint A and endpoint B respectively. This study suggests that the magnitude of the relative risk increase for depression as a risk factor or consequence of T2DM is small without significant impact on absolute risk indices. While these risks may be considered in terms of individual patient management, they are unlikely to have an impact on a population perspective. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.09.008
Citations Scopus - 11
2013 Hasan SS, Wong PS, Ahmed SI, Chong DWK, Mai CW, Pook P, Kairuz T, 'Perceived impact of clinical placements on students' preparedness to provide patient-centered care in Malaysia', Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 5 303-310 (2013)

Objective: Over the last two decades the pharmacy profession has seen a major revision to patient-focused teaching and practice. This study evaluated the perceived impact of exper... [more]

Objective: Over the last two decades the pharmacy profession has seen a major revision to patient-focused teaching and practice. This study evaluated the perceived impact of experiential clinical pharmacy placements on students' preparedness to provide patient-centered care. Methods: This cross-sectional study among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) final-year students used a validated self-administered questionnaire, administered before and after the students' clinical placements undertaken at hospitals. Subjects' responses were rated on a 7-point Likert scale anchored at 1 (not at all) and 7 (very well prepared). The Wilcoxon test was applied to assess the differences in pre- and post-mean scores of individual items. Results: One hundred six students agreed to participate in the study. Despite the low percentage of clinical curricular content coverage, significant augmentation in post-placement overall mean scores in aspects of patient-centered care was found; therapeutic (4.8 vs 3.5; 38.3% change), psycho-social (4.9 vs 4.1, 19.5% change) and communication skills (5.05 vs 3.9, 30.8% change) aspects of patient-centered care were noted. The mean score for each item in the three aspects increased from pre- to post-clinical placements and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Perceived patient centered care skills grow as the students' complete coursework, and changes to that coursework, including clinical learning, can impact both actual and perceived patient-centered-care competencies. The findings highlight areas for curriculum improvement and this evaluation reinforces the need for experiential placements in the BPharm curriculum. There is value in the development of pharmacy practice skills which occurs during undergraduate placements through experiential learning. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

DOI 10.1016/j.cptl.2013.01.010
Citations Scopus - 1
2013 Kairuz TE, Laksmana I, Steadman KJ, 'History of extemporaneous compounding in Australia: Changes and developments in the Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 43 117-121 (2013) [C1]

Background: The Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary (APF) has diversified in content and grown in size. Change can be indicative of progress within, and influences on, a professio... [more]

Background: The Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary (APF) has diversified in content and grown in size. Change can be indicative of progress within, and influences on, a profession. Aim: To determine variations to the formulary sections of the 22 editions of the APF (1902 to 2012) with respect to dosage forms, ingredients and compounding methods. Method: Each formula in the APF was entered into a customised Excel spreadsheet with descriptors including formula type, dosage form, active ingredient and route of administration. Data were analysed using features in Excel. Results: A total of 1197 different formulae were identified in the 22 editions of the APF. The first edition consisted almost entirely of formulae (81% of the total number of pages) and this percentage decreased considerably to 3% to 5% in APFs published since 2002. The greatest number of formulae (n = 496) were included in 1934 (APF6), the edition which also had the greatest number of new formulae (n = 307). Most new formulae appeared for the first time between 1930 and 1964 (APF 5 to 9). A total of 47 different dosage forms were identified and the top 5 in descending order were mixtures (17%), solutions (8%), ointments (7%), eye drops (6%) and creams (5%). Most of the formulae contained in APF22 originated from APF9. Conclusion: The number of formulae has decreased in the APF over time, with recent deletions based on lack of safety and efficacy data or due to the availability of commercial products. There have been comparatively few alterations to the formulary section in the last decade.

Citations Scopus - 1
2012 Doggrell SA, Kairuz T, 'Medicines management by the older-aged living independently in different types of retirement villages', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 42 208-212 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/j.2055-2335.2012.tb00172.x
Citations Scopus - 5
2012 Emmerton LM, Mampallil L, Kairuz T, Mckauge LM, Bush RA, 'Exploring health literacy competencies in community pharmacy', Health Expectations, 15 12-22 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2010.00649.x
Citations Scopus - 14
2011 Hasan SS, Yong CS, Babar MG, Naing CM, Hameed A, Baig MR, et al., 'Understanding, perceptions and self-use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Malaysian pharmacy students', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1472-6882-11-95
Citations Scopus - 15
2010 Kairuz T, Noble C, Shaw J, 'Preceptors, Interns, and Newly Registered Pharmacists' Perceptions of New Zealand Pharmacy Graduates' Preparedness to Practice', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION, 74 (2010)
Citations Web of Science - 7
2010 Kairuz T, Noble C, Shaw J, 'Preceptors, interns, and newly registered pharmacists' perceptions of New Zealand pharmacy graduates' preparedness to practice', American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74 1-11 (2010)

Objective. To determine the perceptions of pharmacy interns and newly registered pharmacists and preceptors regarding the preparedness of graduates to enter professional practice.... [more]

Objective. To determine the perceptions of pharmacy interns and newly registered pharmacists and preceptors regarding the preparedness of graduates to enter professional practice. Methods. A questionnaire was developed from the New Zealand Competence Standards for the Pharmacy Profession (pharmacist level), with additional questions on communication skills included. The instrument contained 16 items and was mailed to preceptors (n=141), interns (n=72), and newlyregistered pharmacists (n=101). Microsoft Excel (pivot tables) was used to analyse the quantitative responses. The final question asked respondents to provide free-text comments about the questionnaire, graduates and the program and responses were analyzed quantitatively and thematically. Results. The response rates were 54.6% (n = 77) for preceptors, 100% (n = 72) for interns and 45.5% (n = 46), for newly registered pharmacists. The majority of responses (87.6%; n=2,562) were in agreement that the degree had prepared graduates for practice. Overall, preceptor perceptions of graduates' preparedness for practice were less favorable than graduates' self-perceptions of their preparedness. Four themes were identified from the free-text comments: the need for improved skills, more professional attitudes, better English communication, and additional training in extemporaneous compounding. Conclusion. Feedback elicited from graduates and preceptors was helpful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of a new bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) program and proved useful in both the accreditation and curriculum revision processes.

Citations Scopus - 9
2009 Kairuz T, Emmerton L, Bush R, McKauge L, Ostini R, 'Pilot studies on burden of health illiteracy', Australian Journal of Pharmacy, 90 (2009)
2009 Garg S, Svirskis D, Al-Kabban M, Farhan S, Komeshi M, Lee J, et al., 'Chemical stability of extemporaneously compounded omeprazole formulations: A comparison of two methods of compounding', International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, 13 250-253 (2009)

Liquid preparations of omeprazole are compounded extemporaneously for patients who cannot tolerate or have difficulty with tablets or capsules, such as those with a nasogastric tu... [more]

Liquid preparations of omeprazole are compounded extemporaneously for patients who cannot tolerate or have difficulty with tablets or capsules, such as those with a nasogastric tube or jejunal or feeding tube, those with a swallowing disorder, and young children and the elderly. Recommendations for preparation of a liquid from the enteric-coated pellets of omeprazole capsules are available in the literature. The pellets are dissolved in a sodium bicarbonate solution; shaking is recommended to aid dissolution. Apparently some pharmacists crush the pellets to speed up the compounding process. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical stability of omeprazole in extemporaneously compounded liquids prepared by the grinding and shaking methods. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for evaluation of chemical stability. Samples were stored at 2°C (refrigerated conditions) or 25°C/60% relative humidity and assayed for drug concentration at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The method of preparation affected the chemical stability of omeprazole when stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity; it was stable for 4 weeks if prepared by the shaking method, but for only 1 week if prepared by the grinding method. For both methods, the suspension was stable for 8 weeks if stored under refrigerated conditions. It is recommended that the shaking method be employed for extemporaneously compounded omeprazole suspensions, and that the prepared suspension be stored in the refrigerator.

Citations Scopus - 2
2009 Kairuz T, Jensen M, 'Prescription interventions in community pharmacy in New Zealand', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 39 162-163 (2009)
2009 Boschmans SA, Kairuz T, 'Undergraduate pharmacy education in two countries in the southern hemisphere', Pharmacy Education, 9 44-49 (2009)

The aim of this article is to present information related to pharmacy practice and education in two countries, South Africa and New Zealand, where there is currently a small migra... [more]

The aim of this article is to present information related to pharmacy practice and education in two countries, South Africa and New Zealand, where there is currently a small migration of pharmacists from the former to the latter. The pharmacy profession in both countries is under the statutory regulation of a pharmacy council, and a society is responsible for professional aspects. The councils also play an important role in undergraduate pharmacy education, and tertiary institutions are responsible for the curricula. Externships and indigenous health programmes are important elements of education at both institutions cited in this article (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University and The University of Auckland). Compulsory community service for pharmacists has been introduced in South Africa, while New Zealand is pioneering Continued Professional Development linked to competency and annual pharmacist registration. The information presented in this article may stimulate discussion and collaboration between members of the pharmacy profession across geographical borders. © 2009 FIP.

2008 Kairuz T, Bye L, Birdsall R, Deng T, Man L, Ross A, et al., 'Identifying compliance issues with prescription medicines among older people - A pilot study', DRUGS & AGING, 25 153-162 (2008)
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 22
2008 Garg S, Svirskis D, Myftiu J, Behayaa M, Shahin D, Thrimawithana T, et al., 'Properties of a formulated paediatric phenobarbitone oral liquid', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 38 28-31 (2008)

Aim: To formulate a stable and palatable paediatric phenobarbitone 10 mg/mL oral liquid and compare its physicochemical stability to the existing formulation compounded in some Ne... [more]

Aim: To formulate a stable and palatable paediatric phenobarbitone 10 mg/mL oral liquid and compare its physicochemical stability to the existing formulation compounded in some New Zealand hospitals. Method: Formulations were compounded from pharmaceutical standard ingredients according to good manufacturing practices and stored in glass bottles at different storage conditions. The physical stability of the formulations was determined by pH, appearance, viscosity and microbial studies; chemical stability was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The new formulation and the existing hospital formulation remained physically stable for 28 days in terms of pH, appearance, viscosity and microbial stability. The phenobarbitone sodium concentration remained within an acceptable range (above 95% of the original concentration) after 28 days of storage at different conditions. The viscosity of the new formulation facilitated in masking phenobarbitone sodium's bitter taste, thus improving palatability. The palatability of the new formulation was superior to the hospital formulation. Conclusion: A palatable paediatric phenobarbitone oral liquid formulation with improved rheological properties was developed.

2007 Kairuz T, Crump K, O'Brien A, 'An overview of qualitative research', Pharmaceutical Journal, 278 312-314 (2007)

The reader has been introduced to the concept of qualitative research and its role in pharmacy practice research. Guidelines contributing to conducting quality research have been ... [more]

The reader has been introduced to the concept of qualitative research and its role in pharmacy practice research. Guidelines contributing to conducting quality research have been presented, including the need for an ethical approach to a study. In part 2, "Useful tools for data collection and analysis", the use of focus groups and face-to-face interviews will be discussed as examples of data collection methods and suggestions on how to analyse data will be presented.

Citations Scopus - 8
2007 Kairuz T, Crump K, O'Brien A, 'Tools for data collection and analysis', Pharmaceutical Journal, 278 (2007)
Citations Scopus - 10
2007 Wheeler A, Kairuz T, Sheridan J, McPhee E, 'Sedative-hypnotic treatment in an acute psychiatric setting: comparison with best practice guidance', PHARMACY WORLD & SCIENCE, 29 603-610 (2007)
DOI 10.1007/s11096-007-9096-0
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 9
2007 Kairuz T, Svirskis D, Sheridan J, 'Children's prescription medicines: Parents' perceptions on dosing intervals, dosing devices and prescription advice', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 15 11-15 (2007)

Objective: To gather information on devices used to administer liquid medicines, dosing intervals for antibiotic administration, and parents&apos; perceptions of the advice receiv... [more]

Objective: To gather information on devices used to administer liquid medicines, dosing intervals for antibiotic administration, and parents' perceptions of the advice received from pharmacists about prescription medicines, for children up to the age of six years. Setting: Six schools from different socio-economic areas were selected within the Auckland area of New Zealand. To facilitate distribution and collection of questionnaires, the headmaster or a teacher was known to the researchers. Method: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to year 1 and 2 students (aged five and six years) to take home for completion by a parent or primary caregiver. Respondents were asked to refer to their youngest child and/or to the last time they had given medicines or received a prescription for a child. Key findings: A total of 299 completed questionnaires were received (48.2%); 60 questionnaires had not been distributed by school teachers in error, and the overall return rate was thus adjusted to 53.4%. The device used most frequently to administer medicines to younger children up to the age of three years was an oral medicine syringe, while nearly one-third of children aged three to six years received medicine in a 'teaspoon'. Almost half the respondents (48.8%) indicated they would be most likely to forget the midday dose of antibiotics, and dosing deviated from recommended intervals. Most respondents had received advice from a pharmacist on how to take the medicine, and had understood instructions and had the opportunity to ask questions. Conclusion: This study highlights areas that pharmacists can include when advising parents and guardians about children's medicines, such as ideal dosing intervals of antibiotics and the use of accurate dosing devices. © 2007 The Authors.

DOI 10.1211/ijpp.15.1.0003
Citations Scopus - 5
2007 Kairuz T, Myftiu J, Svirskis D, Hasan F, Lal A, Patel R, et al., 'Extemporaneous compounding in New Zealand hospitals', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 15 129-131 (2007)

Objective: The skill to compound non-sterile products is one of the seven competencies required of entry-level pharmacists for registration with the New Zealand Pharmacy Council. ... [more]

Objective: The skill to compound non-sterile products is one of the seven competencies required of entry-level pharmacists for registration with the New Zealand Pharmacy Council. The need for extemporaneous compounding skills has been questioned in other countries, as it is argued that the skill is not often required in modern pharmacy settings. The aim of the current study was to determine the scope and frequency of extemporaneous compounding in New Zealand hospitals Method: Retrospective data were collected from eight large hospitals where extemporaneous compounded is regularly undertaken, for the period June 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. Data were retrieved from compounding logbooks and batch sheets in hospital dispensaries. Data were collected from the north and south islands of the country. There are 32 hospitals of various sizes in New Zealand but extemporaneous compounding is not undertaken at all of them due to staff shortages or lack of demand. Key findings: There were 2015 products compounded over the seven-month period, with an average of 251.9 per month. Suspensions were the most frequently compounded oral dosage form. Omeprazole suspension was the most frequently compounded extemporaneous product. Nearly one-third of the compounded products were for beta-blockers. Creams, ointments and non-oral solutions were the most common topical compounded products. Conclusion: Pharmacists perform a broad range of extemporaneous compounding, and the skill of compounding is thus an essential competency for all hospital pharmacists. © 2007 The Authors.

DOI 10.1211/ijpp.15.2.0008
Citations Scopus - 1
2007 Kairuz T, Svirskis D, Myftiu J, Behayaa M, Shahin D, Thrimawithana T, et al., 'Quality assurance in extemporaneously compounded formulations: A titration method for ursodeoxycholic acid', Hospital Pharmacist, 14 304-306 (2007)

OBJECTIVE - To validate an acid-base titration method, adopted from the British Pharmacopoeia, for analysis of ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) in extemporaneously compounded formulation... [more]

OBJECTIVE - To validate an acid-base titration method, adopted from the British Pharmacopoeia, for analysis of ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) in extemporaneously compounded formulations. METHODS - Two different extemporaneously compounded formulations containing UA 15mg/ml, prepared from both pure drug and Actigall capsules were compared. A series of titrations was carried out to validate the titration method, as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The titration method was used to analyse the stability of the UA suspensions stored for six weeks under ICH accelerated stability conditions. RESULTS - The titration method was found to be specific and accurate. Differences between the initial drug concentration of the two suspensions and the concentration after six weeks at accelerated stability conditions were statistically insignificant, indicating stability of the formulations. CONCLUSION - A simple acid-base titration method adopted from the British Pharmacopoeia has been validated to determine UA content in extemporaneously compounded suspensions, and can be recommended for quality assurance testing in hospital pharmacy.

2007 Sheridan J, Kairuz T, Butler R, 'Reporting purchasers of pseudoephedrine products to police: New Zealand community pharmacists' experiences', Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 37 19-21 (2007)

Background: Pseudoephedrine is the precursor of choice for the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine, much of which is obtained through purchases of pseudoephedrine products from... [more]

Background: Pseudoephedrine is the precursor of choice for the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine, much of which is obtained through purchases of pseudoephedrine products from community pharmacies. Aim: To investigate issues surrounding data collection by community pharmacists in New Zealand on purchasers of pseudoephedrine products and its provision to police. Method: Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 50% of community pharmacies in New Zealand, with a second mailing to non-responders. Results: There was a response rate of 63%. 95% of pharmacists limited the quantity of pseudoephedrine products sold on each occasion. 45% asked for identification from all purchasers. Requesting/collecting identification resulted in various problems such as dealing with aggressive customers, and requiring time to attend court cases as a result of data provided to police. A major issue identified was the lack of feedback from police on information that had been provided. Nonetheless, there was support amongst pharmacists to continue to collect this information. Conclusion: Although there were a number of problems encountered by pharmacists, many of these can be overcome.

2007 Kairuz T, Case S, Shaw J, 'Perceptions of graduates and preceptors regarding a new pharmacy programme', Pharmacy Education, 7 151-157 (2007)

Objective: To explore perceptions of pharmacy graduates and preceptors regarding a new undergraduate pharmacy degree. Method: Data from focus groups and interviews with pharmacy g... [more]

Objective: To explore perceptions of pharmacy graduates and preceptors regarding a new undergraduate pharmacy degree. Method: Data from focus groups and interviews with pharmacy graduates and preceptors were qualitatively analysed by thematic coding. Results: Participants identified strengths such as clinical knowledge and research skills; areas needing improvement were communications and calculations. Other areas identified by both graduates and preceptors included organization and management skills, longer externship experiential learning and extemporaneous compounding. It was suggested that extending the duration of the externship experience would facilitate the shift into the workplace and consolidate undergraduate learning. The internship programme was considered essential for personal development and for putting theory into practice. Conclusion: Both preceptors and graduates were satisfied with the undergraduate program. The knowledge, skills and attitudes displayed by graduates were considered to be adequate, providing a firm foundation for future practice.

DOI 10.1080/15602210701275864
Citations Scopus - 6
2007 Kairuz T, Chhim S, Hasan F, Kumar K, Lal A, Patel R, et al., 'Extemporaneous compounding in a sample of New Zealand hospitals: A retrospective survey', New Zealand Medical Journal, 120 (2007)

Aim: To determine the extent and nature of extemporaneous compounding of liquid preparations in a sample of New Zealand hospitals. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from ... [more]

Aim: To determine the extent and nature of extemporaneous compounding of liquid preparations in a sample of New Zealand hospitals. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from eight hospitals known to provide compounding services during the period 1 June 2004 to 31 December 2004; including dosage form, volume, and quantity prepared. Data were collected on site from compounding logbooks and batch sheets. Demographic patient data was limited to age and was only collected from pharmacy departments where this information was readily available. Off-label use was analysed where appropriate data were available. Results: 2015 products were compounded over the 7-month period; an average of 251.9 per month. More oral dosage forms, were compounded (n=152) compared to topical dosage forms (n=100); 74 drugs required extemporaneous preparation for oral use. There were 16 drugs used in an off-label manner on 144 occasions for paediatric patients. Most off-label drugs were reformulated as suspensions; omeprazole suspension was compounded at all of the hospitals. Off-label use of four drugs (sotalol, labetalol, diazoxide, and clonidine) was analysed for different paediatric age groups. Conclusions: Suspensions are the most frequently compounded dosage form and omeprazole is the drug that is most frequently reformulated. Off-label medicines form a small but integral role in the supply of medicinal products. © NZMA.

Citations Scopus - 6
2007 Kairuz TE, Truter I, 'A descriptive study of anxiolytic and hypnotic prescribing according to age and sex', International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 15 301-306 (2007)

Objective: Benzodiazepines are primarily indicated for the treatment of anxiety states and as hypnotics. Their inappropriate use often relates to duration and manner of use. Few s... [more]

Objective: Benzodiazepines are primarily indicated for the treatment of anxiety states and as hypnotics. Their inappropriate use often relates to duration and manner of use. Few studies have attempted to assess the prevalence of benzodiazepine prescribing in South Africa. The primary aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of sedative/hypnotic prescribing according to patient age and sex in a primary care setting. Setting: South African private healthcare patients. Method: An exposure cohort drug utilisation study was conducted. Prescription data were obtained from a South African private medical aid administrator. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. Key findings: Prescription records (n = 27 080) of 8084 patients in 2004 who were prescribed one or more benzodiazepines were retrospectively analysed. The average age of patients receiving benzodiazepines was 43.17 years (standard deviation (SD) 14.42 years). Benzodiazepine prescribing was more common in females (55.64% of patients were female). There was an increase in prescriptions per patient with increasing age, peaking at an older age among females. Diazepam (13.36%), zopiclone (13.19%) and oxazepam (12.03%) were the most frequently prescribed active ingredients. The majority of benzodiazepine hypnotics were prescribed in quantities of up to 14 units (tablets or capsules), while the benzodiazepine-related drugs zolpidem and zopiclone were prescribed in quantities of up to 30 units. Anxiolytics were often prescribed in quantities of 20 to 30 units. Conclusion: Anxiolytics were prescribed in greater quantities than hypnotics. An increase in anxiolytic/hypnotic prescriptions and quantities of tablets/capsules occurred with increasing age. The trends and differences that were detected in the prescribing of benzodiazepines warrant further investigation in larger patient populations, especially with respect to the choice of agent, duration of treatment and patient age. © 2007 The Authors.

DOI 10.1211/ijpp.15.4.0008
Citations Scopus - 1
2007 Kairuz TE, Gargiulo D, Bunt C, Garg S, 'Quality, safety and efficacy in the 'off-label' use of medicines', Current Drug Safety, 2 89-95 (2007)

Suitable dosage forms are not always available for specific patient populations and must be extemporaneously compounded. Extemporaneous preparation is the manipulation of drugs an... [more]

Suitable dosage forms are not always available for specific patient populations and must be extemporaneously compounded. Extemporaneous preparation is the manipulation of drugs and excipients for a particular patient using traditional compounding techniques; these are referred to as 'off-label' and 'unlicensed' medicines. Off-label use can include altered doses, dosage forms or indications for use. Registered medicines are produced to internationally recognized standards of Good Manufacturing Practices. Within the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, quality, safety and efficacy are enforced by regulatory legislations. In contrast, the responsibility for acceptable standards for the compounding of 'off-label' medicines falls on the prescriber, pharmacist or hospital nurse. Studies have been conducted by researchers from Australia and throughout Europe, highlighting the frequency of off-label use for paediatrics, with one study reporting that most extemporaneous preparations (29.6%) were for drugs required to treat metabolic diseases. Risks include compounding errors, adverse reactions to ingredients and excipients, and non-validated stability of the product. Sterile compounded products, including products for ophthalmic and palliative care, carry additional risks in these vulnerable patients. This paper provides an overview of off-label medicines highlighting biopharmaceutical, quality, safety and efficacy issues important to medical and allied health professionals. © 2007 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

DOI 10.2174/157488607779315471
Citations Scopus - 45
2006 Kairuz TE, Ball PA, Pinnock REK, 'Variations in small-volume doses of a liquid antibiotic using two paediatric administration devices', PHARMACY WORLD & SCIENCE, 28 96-100 (2006)
DOI 10.1007/s11096-006-9012-z
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2006 Gargiulo D, Kairuz TE, 'Aseptic compounding in New Zealand and the use of still air boxes', International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, 10 293-295 (2006)

Toward the end of the 1980s, the care of terminally ill patients in New Zealand moved from state-owned hospitals into community hospice settings. As a result, responsibility for t... [more]

Toward the end of the 1980s, the care of terminally ill patients in New Zealand moved from state-owned hospitals into community hospice settings. As a result, responsibility for the management of medicines for patients receiving palliative care also transferred to the community hospice environment. To meet the requirements of palliative care patients and to facilitate the compounding of sterile preparations, community pharmacists began to compound certain aseptic preparations with a Still Air Box, a unique apparatus that is an alternative to the more expensive and bulky laminar airflow cabinets.

Citations Scopus - 1
2005 Kairuz T, Zolezzi M, Fernando A, 'Clinical considerations of antidepressant prescribing for older patients', New Zealand Medical Journal, 118 (2005)

Depression may affect up to 50% of people in older age groups. The increasing numbers of patients over 65 years of age may lead to higher prevalence rates of this debilitating con... [more]

Depression may affect up to 50% of people in older age groups. The increasing numbers of patients over 65 years of age may lead to higher prevalence rates of this debilitating condition. The diagnosis of depression in older patients is complex because symptoms may present as somatic concerns or anxiety. Comorbid conditions need to be investigated, evaluated and, if necessary, treated. Prescribing antidepressants to older patients requires consideration of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the medications used in this population, as these affect drug selection, duration of treatment, and suitability when comorbidity is present. This paper provides a review of current literature and makes recommendations for the pharmacological management of depression in older patients within the New Zealand context. © NZMA.

Citations Scopus - 4
2005 Kairuz T, Shaw J, 'Undergraduate inter-professional learning involving pharmacy, nursing and medical students: The Maori health week initiative', Pharmacy Education, 5 255-259 (2005)

Preparing health professionals in New Zealand requires an understanding of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (signed in 1840) and of the cultural needs and common illnesses... [more]

Preparing health professionals in New Zealand requires an understanding of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (signed in 1840) and of the cultural needs and common illnesses of the Maori people. Inter-professional learning between pharmacy, nursing and medical students was incorporated into the undergraduate curricula at second-year level at the University of Auckland in 2002. Learning about Maori health is achieved through group work, with each mixed-discipline group of 12 students researching one health issue that is prevalent among the Maori, such as diabetes. Maori cultural advisors play a key role in conducting sessions of Te Reo, where they teach simple conversational Maori greetings and traditional songs and introduce cultural concepts. On the final day of the programme, each group presents a poster with their findings and recommendations to fellow students and assessors. Nursing students gave more positive feedback than pharmacy or medical students, and evaluation of the inter-professional programme was overwhelmingly favourable. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

DOI 10.1080/15602210500376376
Citations Scopus - 4
2004 Kairuz TE, Jordaan I, 'Children's preferences for medicines - A pilot study in the Eastern Province region of South Africa', Journal of Applied Therapeutic Research, 5 38-42 (2004)

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine children&apos;s preferences for colour, flavour and dosage form design of medicines. Method: Semi-structured interviews were cond... [more]

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine children's preferences for colour, flavour and dosage form design of medicines. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 preschool children aged between 5 and 6 years. A teddy bear was used as the 'patient', and each child was given the opportunity of 'administering' medicine to the teddy bear. Questionnaires were sent to the parents to determine the colour and flavour of the over-the-counter medicine most frequently administered to the child. Setting: The study was conducted at pre-school facilities in the Eastern Province region of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Key findings: Children selected red as the most popular medicine colour and bubblegum as the favourite flavour. Most children preferred a liquid dosage form rather than a chewable tablet or jelly sweet. Conclusion: Children have definite preferences for colours and flavours of medicines, and children of different cultures exhibited different preferences for different dosage forms.

Citations Scopus - 1
2004 Kairuz TE, Truter I, Foxcroft CD, 'Factors affecting compliance with antidepressant treatment among younger patients', Journal of Applied Therapeutic Research, 5 23-30 (2004)

Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in adolescence and modern demands upon young people contribute to the cycle of tiredness, an inability to cope, stress and ultim... [more]

Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in adolescence and modern demands upon young people contribute to the cycle of tiredness, an inability to cope, stress and ultimately, depression. The aim of this study was to elicit perceptions regarding the use of antidepressant medication among a sample of adolescents and young adults so that medical practitioners and pharmacists can understand some of the issues surrounding antidepressant use, and assist patients to adhere to treatment. The interview method was selected as most suited to the purposes of this study, and nine in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim. Coding and condensation of emerging themes was conducted, and verified by a second analyst. Themes relating to antidepressant medication included aids and barriers to compliance, and recognising the need for medication. The role of health professionals was explored, and the support of family, partners and friends was considered important. This study gives the reader valuable insight into the use of antidepressant medication.

2003 Kairuz T, Truter I, Hugo J, Foxcroft C, 'Prescribing patterns of tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants among a sample of adolescents and young adults', PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY, 12 379-382 (2003)
DOI 10.1002/pds.854
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
1998 Kairuz T, 'Continuing education in pharmacy - A South African perspective', Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15 125-127 (1998)
Show 60 more journal articles
Edit

Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 5
Total funding $38,129

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20171 grants / $15,600

Health Literacy project$15,600

Funding body: James Cook University

Funding body James Cook University
Project Team Doctor Therese Kairuz
Scheme Research Project
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1700004
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

20161 grants / $3,103

Investigating potential misuse of (i) codeine-containing products and (ii) proton pump inhibitors using de-identified dispensing data from pharmacies$3,103

The aim of this study was to investigate the use and potential misuse of codeine-containing medicines.

Funding body: Rsearch Infrastructure Block Grant

Funding body Rsearch Infrastructure Block Grant
Project Team

T.Kairuz; A.Pudmenzky; LRossato

Scheme Research Infrastructure Block Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON N

20151 grants / $4,625

Developing a drug utilisation dataset in North Queensland – investigating PBS and non-PBS medicines with potential for misuse$4,625

Develop a dataset in North Queensland

Funding body: Research Infrastructure Block Grant

Funding body Research Infrastructure Block Grant
Project Team

T.Kairuz; A.Pudmenzky; L.Rossato

Scheme Research Infrastructure Block Grant (RIBG)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON N

20121 grants / $14,800

Factors affecting appropriate use of antibiotics: a pilot study in a community pharmacy$14,800

Investigated consumer knowledge about antibiotics.

Funding body: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia

Funding body Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
Project Team

I.Fredericks; T.Kairuz

Scheme External
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20111 grants / $1

Health Literacy$1

Funding body: Pharmacy Guild of Australia

Funding body Pharmacy Guild of Australia
Project Team

G Duncan, L Emmerton, B Chaar, J Hughes, B Suen, K McNamara, S Hussainy, K Stewart, P Darzins, K Wiliams, T Kairuz, R Ostini R Bush, F Boyle, M Jiwa, K Hoti

Scheme Health Literacy -Pharmacy Guild
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON N
Edit

Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current1

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.6

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2017 PhD Improving the Role of Pharmacists in Primary Care of IBD Patients PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
Edit

Dr Therese Kairuz

Position

Associate Professor
Quality Use of Medicines
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Email therese.kairuz@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 5691
Fax (02) 4921 2022

Office

Room MS109
Building Medical Sciences
Edit