Dr Penny Buykx

Dr Penny Buykx

Associate Professor

School of Humanities and Social Science

Career Summary

Biography

I am a behavioural scientist with particular interest in alcohol and other substance use policy, access to treatment systems, hard to reach populations and rural health. In my recent position at the University of Sheffield, UK (2014-2018) I undertook research investigating how alcohol treatment services are commissioned for local authorities in England, an evaluation of the impact of the introduction of a new alcohol pricing policy in Scotland on people entering treatment for alcohol use, and a study of public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer. I was also Acting Director of a Wellcome Trust funded interdisciplinary Doctoral Training Centre. Prior to this I worked for Monash University School of Rural Health (Bendigo) on projects concerning access to health services for rural and remote populations; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre (Melbourne) on projects concerning alcohol use, drug and medication overdose, suicidality, blood borne virus transmission risk, and diversion from the criminal justice system; and the National Drug Research Institute (Curtin University, Perth) on cannabis regulation. I have been awarded approximately $8.5 million in research funding, have published over 60 peer-review articles and numerous other reports, and regularly review for national and international journals. I particularly enjoy working with early career scientists and students to develop their research skills.

Qualifications

  • Doctorate, Curtin University of Technology
  • Graduate Diploma, Swinburne University of Technology

Keywords

  • access to treatment
  • alcohol and substance use
  • public health policy
  • rural health

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified 100

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Associate Professor University of Newcastle
School of Humanities and Social Science
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/07/2014 - 30/11/2018 Senior Research Fellow

While in this role I worked with the University of Sheffield Alcohol Research Group research investigating how alcohol treatment services are commissioned for local authorities in England, an evaluation of the impact of the introduction of a new alcohol pricing policy in Scotland on people entering treatment for alcohol use, and a study of public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer. I was also Acting Director of a Wellcome Trust funded interdisciplinary Doctoral Training Centre

The University of Sheffield
School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR)
United Kingdom
1/01/2008 - 30/06/2014 Research Fellow/Senior Research Fellow

As a member of the Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Rural and Remote Primary Health Care my projects primarily concerned access to health services for rural and remote populations. I also collaborated on projects regarding the use of simulation to prepare nursing staff in managing patient deterioration and co-authored a Cochrane review of consultation liaison in primary care for mental health disorders.

Monash University
School of Rural Health
Australia

Teaching

Code Course Role Duration
99999 MPH
The University of Sheffield
I taught alcohol policy, research methods and foundational statistics to Masters of Public Health and undergraduate medical students
Lecturer and tutor 1/07/2014 - 30/12/2018
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (62 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2019 Brennan A, Hill-McManus D, Stone T, Buykx P, Ally A, Pryce RE, et al., 'Modeling the Potential Impact of Changing Access Rates to Specialist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence for Local Authorities in England: The Specialist Treatment for Alcohol Model (STreAM)', Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs. Supplement, 96-109 (2019)

OBJECTIVE: We modeled the impact of changing Specialist Treatment Access Rates to different treatment pathways on the future prevalence of alcohol dependence, treatment outcomes, ... [more]

OBJECTIVE: We modeled the impact of changing Specialist Treatment Access Rates to different treatment pathways on the future prevalence of alcohol dependence, treatment outcomes, service capacity, costs, and mortality. METHOD: Local Authority numbers and the prevalence of people "potentially in need of assessment for and treatment in specialist services for alcohol dependence" (PINASTFAD) are estimated by mild, moderate, severe, and complex needs. Administrative data were used to estimate the Specialist Treatment Access Rate per PINASTFAD person and classify 22 different treatment pathways. Other model inputs include natural remission, relapse after treatment, service costs, and mortality rates. "What-if" analyses assess changes to Specialist Treatment Access Rates and treatment pathways. Model outputs include the numbers and prevalence of people who are PINASTFAD, numbers treated by 22 pathways, outcomes (successful completion with abstinence, successfully moderated nonproblematic drinking, re-treatment within 6 months, dropout, transfer, custody), mortality rates, capacity requirements (numbers in contact with community services or staying in residential or inpatient places), total treatment costs, and general health care savings. Five scenarios illustrate functionality: (a) no change, (b) achieve access rates at the 70th percentile nationally, (c) increase access by 25%, (d) increase access to Scotland rate, and (e) reduce access by 25%. RESULTS: At baseline, 14,581 people are PINASTFAD (2.43% of adults) and the Specialist Treatment Access Rate is 10.84%. The 5-year impact of scenarios on PINASTFAD numbers (vs. no change) are (B) reduced by 191 (-1.3%), (C) reduced by 477 (-3.3%), (D) reduced by almost 2,800 (-19.2%), and (E) increased by 533 (+3.6%). The relative impact is similar for other outputs. CONCLUSIONS: Decision makers can estimate the potential impact of changing Specialist Treatment Access Rates for alcohol dependence.

Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Stevely AK, Buykx P, Brown J, Beard E, Michie S, Meier PS, Holmes J, 'Exposure to revised drinking guidelines and 'COM-B' determinants of behaviour change: Descriptive analysis of a monthly cross-sectional survey in England', BMC Public Health, 18 (2018)

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: January 2016 saw the publication of proposed revisions to the UK's lower risk drinking guidelines but no sustained promotional activity. Thi... [more]

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: January 2016 saw the publication of proposed revisions to the UK's lower risk drinking guidelines but no sustained promotional activity. This paper aims to explore the impact of publishing guidelines without sustained promotional activity on reported guideline exposure and determinants of behaviour (capability, opportunity and motivation) proposed by the COM-B model. Methods: Data were collected by a monthly repeat cross-sectional survey of adults (18+) resident in England over 15 months between November 2015 and January 2017 from a total of 16,779 drinkers, as part of the Alcohol Toolkit Study. Trends and associated 95% confidence intervals were described in the proportion of reported exposure to guidelines in the past month and measures of the capability, opportunity and motivation to consume alcohol within drinking guidelines. Results: There was a rise in reported exposure to drinking guidelines in January 2016 (57.6-80.6%) which did not reoccur in January 2017. Following the increase in January 2016, reported exposure reduced slowly but remained significantly higher than in December 2015. In February 2016, there was an increase in measures of capability (31.1% reported tracking units of alcohol consumption and 87.8% considered it easier to drink safely) and opportunity (84.0% perceived their lifestyle as conducive to drinking within guidelines). This change was not maintained in subsequent months. Other measures showed marginal changes between January and February 2016 with no evidence of change in subsequent months. Conclusions: Following the publication of revised drinking guideline in January 2016, there was a transient increase in exposure to guidelines, and capability and opportunity to drink within the guidelines that diminished over time. The transience and size of the changes indicate that behaviour change is unlikely. Well-designed, theory-based promotional campaigns may be required for drinking guidelines to be an effective public health intervention.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-018-5129-y
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Bates S, Holmes J, Gavens L, De Matos EG, Li J, Ward B, et al., 'Awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer is associated with public support for alcohol policies', BMC Public Health, 18 (2018)

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Globally, alcohol is causally related to 2.5 million deaths per year and 12.5% of these are due to cancer. Previous research has indicated that p... [more]

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Globally, alcohol is causally related to 2.5 million deaths per year and 12.5% of these are due to cancer. Previous research has indicated that public awareness of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer is low and this may contribute to a lack of public support for alcohol policies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between awareness of the alcohol-cancer link and support for a range of alcohol policies in an English sample and policy context. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2100 adult residents in England was conducted in which respondents answered questions regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer and support for 21 policy proposals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the 21 policy proposals down to a set of underlying factors. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relationship between awareness of the alcohol-cancer link and each of these policy factors. Results: Thirteen per cent of the sample were aware of the alcohol-cancer link unprompted, a further 34% were aware when prompted and 53% were not aware of the link. PCA reduced the policy items to four policy factors, which were named price and availability, marketing and information, harm reduction and drink driving. Awareness of the alcohol-cancer link unprompted was associated with increased support for each of four underlying policy factors: price and availability (Beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.10), marketing and information (Beta: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09), harm reduction (Beta: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.14), and drink driving (Beta: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.20). Conclusions: Support for alcohol policies is greater among individuals who are aware of the link between alcohol and cancer. At the same time, a large proportion of people are unaware of the alcohol-cancer link and so increasing awareness may be an effective approach to increasing support for alcohol policies.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-018-5581-8
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Ward BM, O'Sullivan B, Buykx P, 'Evaluation of a local government "shelter and van" intervention to improve safety and reduce alcohol-related harm', BMC Public Health, 18 (2018)

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: The entertainment precincts of cities, while contributing to local economies, need to be carefully managed to mitigate harms. Individual behaviou... [more]

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: The entertainment precincts of cities, while contributing to local economies, need to be carefully managed to mitigate harms. Individual behaviours and government regulation have typically been the foci of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Little is known about how changes to the built environment might influence alcohol-related harms in these settings. The aim of this study was to explore how a public shelter and a volunteer-funded and staffed mobile van in a regional city influenced perceptions of safety and reduction in alcohol-related harm. Methods: An intrinsic case-study approach was used. Document reviews, qualitative interviews with 16 key informants (volunteers, licensees, police, local business owners, patrons, community members and security guards), observation, and secondary data analysis were conducted in 2016. A conceptual framework of the causative pathways linking the drivers of alcohol consumption with social and health outcomes was used to inform the analysis. Results: The shelter and van were frequently utilised but there was no significant association with a reduction in the proportion of alcohol-related hospital emergency department presentations or police incident reports. Occupational health and safety risks were identified for the volunteers which had no management plan. Conclusions: The findings highlight the challenge faced by local governments/authorities wanting to provide community-based interventions to complement other evidence-based approaches to reduce alcohol-related harm. Local governments/authorities with restricted regulatory oversight need to collaborate with key agencies for targeted upstream and evidence-based alcohol prevention and management interventions before investing resources. Such approaches are critical for improving community safety as well as health and social outcomes in communities at greatest risk of alcohol-related harm.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-018-6245-4
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Forster AS, Buykx P, Martin N, Sadler S, Southgate B, Rockliffe L, Walker I, 'Using affective judgement to increase physical activity in British adults', Health promotion international, 33 648-656 (2018)

Mobile phone apps have been shown to increase physical activity (PA), but existing apps fail to target the emotional aspects of PA, which influence whether individuals are active.... [more]

Mobile phone apps have been shown to increase physical activity (PA), but existing apps fail to target the emotional aspects of PA, which influence whether individuals are active. We developed an app that encourages individuals to focus on the emotional aspects of PA. We aimed to assess the acceptability of this app, and conduct a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. The app was developed in collaboration with users through focus groups. Seven users tested the app over 4 months and provided feedback on acceptability, aesthetics and functionality in a follow-up focus group. Results were summarized descriptively. Before testing the app, participants completed a questionnaire assessing their current PA and psychological antecedents of PA. A second questionnaire was completed at the follow-up focus group. Change scores are reported for each participant and overall.The social and reminder aspects facilitated motivation to be active and many found it easy to integrate into their lives. Most suggested modifications. Small improvements in number of minutes spent walking per week were observed (overall mean change¿+25¿min) and some psychological antecedents of PA (overall mean change for social support for PA¿+0.14, self-efficacy for PA¿+0.17, outcome expectations about PA¿+0.20; all five-point scales), but reductions were seen in other domains. The app was acceptable to users, although developments are required. Testing with a small number of individuals, offering preliminary evidence of efficacy of this app, provides justification for further evaluation on a larger scale.

DOI 10.1093/heapro/dax004
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Rosenberg G, Bauld L, Hooper L, Buykx P, Holmes J, Vohra J, 'New national alcohol guidelines in the UK: Public awareness, understanding and behavioural intentions', Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom), 40 549-556 (2018)

© The Author 2017. Background Alcohol consumption places a significant burden on the NHS and is an important risk factor for cancer, associated with 12 800 UK cases/year. New alco... [more]

© The Author 2017. Background Alcohol consumption places a significant burden on the NHS and is an important risk factor for cancer, associated with 12 800 UK cases/year. New alcohol guidelines were published in 2016, taking into account the increasing evidence of the health harms of alcohol. Methods A survey of the UK drinker population (n = 972) was conducted 1 week before and 1 month after the release of the guidelines to capture drinking habits, guideline awareness and intended behaviour change. Results Overall, 71% were aware of the new alcohol guidelines, however, just 8% knew what the recommended limits were. Higher socioeconomic groups were more likely to know these limits (ABC1 = 9% versus C2DE = 4%, P = 0.009). Participants who recognized the message that alcohol causes cancer were more likely to correctly identify the new guidelines (message recognition = 12% versus no recognition = 6%, P = 0.004); and were more likely to self-report an intention to reduce their alcohol consumption (message recognition = 10% versus no recognition = 6%, P = 0.01). Conclusion The majority of the population knew the guidelines had been updated, however, communication of the new limits needs to be improved. Raising awareness of the links between alcohol and cancer may improve understanding of alcohol guidelines and could prompt behaviour change for those motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption.

DOI 10.1093/pubmed/fdx126
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Martin N, Buykx P, Shevills C, Sullivan C, Clark L, Newbury-Birch D, 'Population Level Effects of a Mass Media Alcohol and Breast Cancer Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Evaluation', ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM, 53 31-38 (2018)
DOI 10.1093/alcalc/agx071
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Buykx P, Li J, Gavens L, Hooper L, De Matos EG, Holmes J, 'Self-reported knowledge, correct knowledge and use of UK drinking guidelines among a representative sample of the English population', Alcohol and Alcoholism, 53 453-460 (2018)

© The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. Aims: Promotion of lower risk drinking guidelines is a commonly used public health intervention with ... [more]

© The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. Aims: Promotion of lower risk drinking guidelines is a commonly used public health intervention with various purposes, including communicating alcohol consumption risks, informing drinkers' decision-making and, potentially, changing behaviour. UK drinking guidelines were revised in 2016. To inform potential promotion of the new guidelines, we aimed to examine public knowledge and use of the previous drinking guidelines, including by population subgroup. Methods: A demographically representative, cross-sectional online survey of 2100 adults living in England in July 2015 (i.e. two decades after adoption of previous guidelines and prior to introduction of new guidelines). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between demographic variables, alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), smoking, and knowledge of health conditions and self-reported knowledge and use of drinking guidelines. Multinomial logistic regression examined the same set of variables in relation to accurate knowledge of drinking guidelines (underestimation, accurate-estimation, overestimation). Results: In total, 37.8% of drinkers self-reported knowing their own-gender drinking guideline, of whom 66.2% gave an accurate estimate. Compared to accurate estimation, underestimation was associated with male gender, lower education and AUDIT-C score, while overestimation was associated with smoking. Few (20.8%) reported using guidelines to monitor drinking at least sometimes. Drinking guideline use was associated with higher education, overestimating guidelines and lower AUDIT-C. Correctly endorsing a greater number of health conditions as alcohol-related was associated with self-reported knowledge of guidelines, but was not consistently associated with accurate estimation or use to monitor drinking. Conclusions: Two decades after their introduction, previous UK drinking guidelines were not well known or used by current drinkers. Those who reported using them tended to overestimate recommended daily limits. SHORT SUMMARY: We examined public knowledge and use of UK drinking guidelines just before new guidelines were released (2016). Despite previous guidelines being in place for two decades, only one in four drinkers accurately estimated these, with even fewer using guidelines to monitor drinking. Approximately 8% of drinkers overestimated maximum daily limits.

DOI 10.1093/alcalc/agx127
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Dunne J, Kimergård A, Brown J, Beard E, Buykx P, Michie S, Drummond C, 'Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey', Addiction, 113 1430-1438 (2018)

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Aims: To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) ... [more]

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Aims: To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score¿=¿20] with those with other drinking patterns (categorized by AUDIT scores) in terms of motivation to reduce drinking and use of alcohol support resources. Design: A combination of random probability and simple quota sampling to conduct monthly cross-sectional household computer-assisted interviews between March 2014 and August 2017. Setting: The general population in all nine regions of England. Participants: Participants in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS), a monthly household survey of alcohol consumption among people aged 16¿years and over in England (n¿=¿69 826). The mean age was 47¿years [standard deviation (SD)¿=¿18.78; 95% confidence interval (CI)¿=¿46.8¿47] and 51% (n¿=¿35 560) were female. Measurements: ¿2 tests were used to investigate associations with demographic variables, motivation to quit drinking, attempts to quit drinking, general practitioner (GP) engagement and types of support accessed in the last 12¿months across AUDIT risk zones. Findings: A total of 0.6% were classified as people with probable alcohol dependence (95% CI¿=¿0.5¿0.7). Motivation to quit (¿2¿=¿1692.27, P¿<¿0.001), current attempts (¿2¿=¿473.94, P¿<¿0.001) and past-year attempts (¿2¿=¿593.67, P¿<¿0.001) differed by AUDIT risk zone. People with probable dependence were more likely than other ATS participants to have a past-year attempt to cut down or quit (51.8%) and have received a specialist referral from their GP about drinking (13.7%), and less likely to report no motivation to reduce their drinking (26.2%). Those with probable dependence had higher use of self-help books and mobile applications (apps) than other ATS participants; however, 27.7% did not access any resources during their most recent attempt to cut down. Conclusions: Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of both specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with those in other Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test zones, but most do not access treatment resources to support their attempts.

DOI 10.1111/add.14221
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2018 Holmes J, Angus C, Meier PS, Buykx P, Brennan A, 'How should we set consumption thresholds for low risk drinking guidelines? Achieving objectivity and transparency using evidence, expert judgement and pragmatism', Addiction, (2018)

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Most high-income nations issue guidelines on low-risk drinking to inform individuals¿ decisions about alcohol consumption. However, leadi... [more]

© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction Most high-income nations issue guidelines on low-risk drinking to inform individuals¿ decisions about alcohol consumption. However, leading scientists have criticized the processes for setting the consumption thresholds within these guidelines for a lack of objectivity and transparency. This paper examines how guideline developers should respond to such criticisms and focuses particularly on the balance between epidemiological evidence, expert judgement and pragmatic considerations. Although concerned primarily with alcohol, our discussion is also relevant to those developing guidelines for other health-related behaviours. We make eight recommendations across three areas. First, recommendations on the use of epidemiological evidence: (1) guideline developers should assess whether the available epidemiological evidence is communicated most appropriately as population-level messages (e.g. suggesting reduced drinking benefits populations rather than individuals); (2) research funders should prioritize commissioning studies on the acceptability of different alcohol-related risks (e.g. mortality, morbidity, harms to others) to the public and other stakeholders; and (3) guideline developers should request and consider statistical analyses of epidemiological uncertainty. Secondly, recommendations to improve objectivity and transparency when translating epidemiological evidence into guidelines: (4) guideline developers should specify and publish their analytical framework to promote clear, consistent and coherent judgements; and (5) guideline developers¿ decision-making should be supported by numerical and visual techniques which also increase the transparency of judgements to stakeholders. Thirdly, recommendations relating to the diverse use of guidelines: (6) guideline developers and their commissioners should give meaningful attention to how guidelines are used in settings such as advocacy, health promotion, clinical practice and wider health debates, as well as in risk communication; (7) guideline developers should make evidence-based judgements that balance epidemiological and pragmatic concerns to maximize the communicability, credibility and general effectiveness of guidelines; and (8) as with scientific judgements, pragmatic judgements should be reported transparently.

DOI 10.1111/add.14381
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2017 Kippen R, James E, Ward B, Buykx P, Shamsullah A, Watson W, Chapman K, 'Identification of cancer risk and associated behaviour: Implications for social marketing campaigns for cancer prevention', BMC Cancer, 17 (2017) [C1]

© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, whil... [more]

© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, while those initiating social marketing campaigns must decide whether to target the general population or to tailor messages for different audiences. This paper investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, identification of selected cancer risk factors, and associated protective behaviours, to inform audience segmentation for cancer prevention social marketing. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study (n = 3301) are derived from Cancer Council New South Wales' 2013 Cancer Prevention Survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between respondent demographic characteristics and identification of each of seven cancer risk factors; demographic characteristics and practice of the seven 'protective' behaviours associated with the seven cancer risk factors; and identification of cancer risk factors and practising the associated protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. Results: More than 90% of respondents across demographic groups identified sun exposure and smoking cigarettes as moderate or large cancer risk factors. Around 80% identified passive smoking as a moderate/large risk factor, and 40-60% identified being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not eating enough vegetables and not eating enough fruit. Women and older respondents were more likely to identify most cancer risk factors as moderate/large, and to practise associated protective behaviours. Education was correlated with identification of smoking as a moderate/large cancer risk factor, and with four of the seven protective behaviours. Location (metropolitan/regional) and country of birth (Australia/other) were weak predictors of identification and of protective behaviours. Identification of a cancer risk factor as moderate/large was a significant predictor for five out of seven associated cancer-protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: These findings suggest a role for both audience segmentation and whole-of-population approaches in cancer-prevention social marketing campaigns. Targeted campaigns can address beliefs of younger people and men about cancer risk factors. Traditional population campaigns can enhance awareness of being overweight, alcohol consumption, and poor vegetable and fruit intake as cancer risk factors.

DOI 10.1186/s12885-017-3540-x
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Penny Buykx, Erica James
2017 Ward BM, Kippen R, Munro G, Buykx P, McBride N, Wiggers J, Clark M, 'Liquor licences issued to Australian schools', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 18 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4613-0
Co-authors Penny Buykx, John Wiggers
2017 Gilligan C, Ward B, Kippen R, Buykx P, Chapman K, 'Acceptability of alcohol supply to children - associations with adults' own age of initiation and social norms', Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 28 151-155 (2017) [C1]

Issue addressed The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adults&apos; perceived acceptability of introducing alcohol to children less than 18 years of age. Methods A... [more]

Issue addressed The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adults' perceived acceptability of introducing alcohol to children less than 18 years of age. Methods An online survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, and social norms and adults' own age of initiation. Results Alcohol consumption, age of initiation and perception of the acceptability of drunkenness were all correlated with the acceptability of introducing children to alcohol. The strongest predictor was adults' own age of initiation. Conclusions Adults who began drinking before the age of 18, and those who drink more heavily, are more likely to perceive the provision of alcohol to children as acceptable. So what? Policy and research should continue to focus on and monitor efforts to delay adolescent alcohol initiation and reduce consumption levels among adults. A shift in awareness and perceptions about alcohol use among adults has the potential to influence initiation and heavy drinking among adolescents.

DOI 10.1071/HE16013
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx, Conor Gilligan
2017 Manning V, Garfield JBB, Best D, Berends L, Room R, Mugavin J, et al., 'Substance use outcomes following treatment: Findings from the Australian Patient Pathways Study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51 177-189 (2017)

© The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Background and Aims: Our understanding of patient pathways through specialist Alcohol and Other Drug treatment and... [more]

© The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Background and Aims: Our understanding of patient pathways through specialist Alcohol and Other Drug treatment and broader health/welfare systems in Australia remains limited. This study examines how treatment outcomes are influenced by continuity in specialist Alcohol and Other Drug treatment, engagement with community services and mutual aid, and explores differences between clients who present with a primary alcohol problem relative to those presenting with a primary drug issue. Method: In a prospective, multi-site treatment outcome study, 796 clients from 21 Alcohol and Other Drug services in Victoria and Western Australia completed a baseline interview between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 555 (70%) completed a follow-up assessment of subsequent service use and Alcohol and Other Drug use outcomes 12-months later. Results: Just over half of the participants (52.0%) showed reliable reductions in use of, or abstinence from, their primary drug of concern. This was highest among clients with meth/amphetamine (66%) as their primary drug of concern and lowest among clients with alcohol as their primary drug of concern (47%), with 31% achieving abstinence from all drugs of concern. Continuity of specialist Alcohol and Other Drug care was associated with higher rates of abstinence than fragmented Alcohol and Other Drug care. Different predictors of treatment success emerged for clients with a primary drug problem as compared to those with a primary alcohol problem; mutual aid attendance (odds ratio = 2.5) and community service engagement (odds ratio = 2.0) for clients with alcohol as the primary drug of concern, and completion of the index treatment (odds ratio = 2.8) and continuity in Alcohol and Other Drug care (odds ratio = 1.8) when drugs were the primary drugs of concern. Conclusion: This is the first multi-site Australian study to include treatment outcomes for alcohol and cannabis users, who represent 70% of treatment seekers in Alcohol and Other Drug services. Results suggest a substantial proportion of clients respond positively to treatment, but that clients with alcohol as their primary drug problem may require different treatment pathways, compared to those with illicit drug issues, to maximise outcomes.

DOI 10.1177/0004867415625815
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Ward BM, Kippen R, Buykx P, Munro G, McBride N, Wiggers J, 'Principals' reports of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools Health behavior, health promotion and society', BMC Public Health, 16 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Ward et al. Background: Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Sch... [more]

© 2016 Ward et al. Background: Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. Methods: This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values < 0.05 considered significant. Results: A total of 241 (43 %) schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57 % of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78 % were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18 % were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. Conclusions: There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that prohibit or restrict the use of alcohol, are significant predictors of adults' alcohol use at school events when children are present.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-2877-4
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx, John Wiggers
2016 Ward BM, Buykx P, Munro G, Wiggers J, 'Are schools and alcohol a good mix? A qualitative study of school principals' experiences of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools', BMJ Open, 6 (2016) [C1]

© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.Objective Parents, schools and the broader community influence children&apos;s socialisation to alcohol. In Australia, the UK and t... [more]

© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.Objective Parents, schools and the broader community influence children's socialisation to alcohol. In Australia, the UK and the USA, there have been media reports of adults consuming alcohol at family-focused school events such as fairs and graduations. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe school principals' experiences of adults' use of alcohol at school events, when children are present. Design/setting/participants A qualitative study was undertaken. Publicly available lists were used to invite 60 principals from government and Catholic secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically and reported using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Results 14 principals (5 female, 9 male) participated. Most (10) of the participating principals reported adults' use of alcohol at events when students were present. Regarding these events, most principals reported concerns regarding potential harms and responsibility for decision-making about alcohol availability in schools. Some (4) principals believed alcohol should not be present at such events and this was their practice. Half of the participating schools had recently made changes to reduce the availability or management of alcohol at school functions. Conclusions The findings confirm the common use of alcohol by adults at school events, the challenges this poses for school principals and suggests consideration needs to be given to identifying strategies for supporting schools and school principals in decision-making regarding the conduct of such events.

DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010904
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx, John Wiggers
2016 Berends L, Garfield JBB, Manning V, Buykx P, Lam T, Mugavin J, et al., 'Social disadvantage and past treatment among clients entering public alcohol and drug services in two Australian states', International Journal of Drug Policy, 29 88-90 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.018
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Buykx P, 'Commentary on Chalmers et al. (2016): A thoughtful integration of routine data sources and primary research findings', Addiction, 111 2050-2051 (2016)
DOI 10.1111/add.13548
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Egan M, Brennan A, Buykx P, De Vocht F, Gavens L, Grace D, et al., 'Local policies to tackle a national problem: Comparative qualitative case studies of an English local authority alcohol availability intervention', Health and Place, 41 11-18 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlet... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlets and high rates of alcohol related harms. CIPs have been advocated as a means of protecting health by controlling or limiting alcohol availability. We use a comparative qualitative case study approach (n=5 English local government authorities, 48 participants) to assess how CIPs vary across different localities, what they are intended to achieve, and the implications for local-level alcohol availability. We found that the case study CIPs varied greatly in terms of aims, health focus and scale of implementation. However, they shared some common functions around influencing the types and managerial practices of alcohol outlets in specific neighbourhoods without reducing outlet density. The assumption that this will lead to alcohol harm-reduction needs to be quantitatively tested.

DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2016.06.007
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Gavens L, Holmes J, Buykx P, de Vocht F, Egan M, Grace D, et al., 'Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?', Health and Place, (2016)

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Background and aims: Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be impl... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Background and aims: Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Methods: Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Results: Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Conclusions: Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of what is supported by 'robust' research evidence by paying greater attention to how policy making is carried out in practice and the multiple methods by which policies diffuse across jurisdictions.

DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.05.016
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Gillies D, Buykx P, Parker AG, Hetrick SE, 'Consultation liaison in primary care for people with mental disorders', BJ Psych Advances, 22 74 (2016)
DOI 10.1192/apt.22.2.74
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Lubman DI, Garfield JBB, Manning V, Berends L, Best D, Mugavin JM, et al., 'Characteristics of individuals presenting to treatment for primary alcohol problems versus other drug problems in the Australian patient pathways study', BMC Psychiatry, 16 (2016)

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: People seeking treatment for substance use disorders often have additional health and social issues. Although individuals presenting with alcohol... [more]

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: People seeking treatment for substance use disorders often have additional health and social issues. Although individuals presenting with alcohol as the primary drug of concern (PDOC) account for nearly half of all treatment episodes to the Australian alcohol and other drug (AOD) service system, previous treatment cohort studies have focused only on the profile of Australian heroin or methamphetamine users. While studies overseas indicate that clients seeking treatment primarily for their drinking are less likely to experience social and economic marginalisation than those seeking treatment primarily for illicit or pharmaceutical drug use, very little research has directly compared individuals presenting with alcohol as the PDOC to those primarily presenting with other drugs as their PDOC. Methods: Seven hundred and ninety-six participants were recruited at entry to specialist AOD treatment in Victoria and Western Australia, and completed measures of demographic and social factors, substance use, quality of life, service use, and criminal justice involvement. We compared those with alcohol as their PDOC to those with other drugs as their PDOC using Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Rates of social disadvantage, poor quality of life, high severity of substance dependence, and past-year AOD, mental health, acute health, and social service use were high in all groups. However, participants with alcohol as the PDOC were older; more likely to have an educational qualification; less likely to report criminal justice involvement, housing/homelessness service use, tobacco smoking, or problems with multiple substances; and reported better environmental quality of life; but were more likely to have used ambulance services, than those with other drugs as their PDOC. Conclusions: While those seeking treatment primarily for alcohol problems appear less likely to suffer some forms of social and economic disadvantage or to use multiple substances than those with a primary drug problem, they experience similarly high levels of substance dependence severity and mental health and AOD service use. These findings reinforce the need for AOD services to integrate or coordinate care with programs that address the many complexities clients frequently present with, while also acknowledging differences between those seeking treatment for alcohol versus other drug problems.

DOI 10.1186/s12888-016-0956-9
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Buykx P, Li J, Gavens L, Hooper L, Lovatt M, Gomes De Matos E, et al., 'Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer in England in 2015: A population-based survey', BMC Public Health, 16 (2016)

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regardi... [more]

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Public knowledge of the association between alcohol and cancer is reported to be low. We aimed to provide up-to-date evidence for England regarding awareness of the link between alcohol and different cancers and to determine whether awareness differs by demographic characteristics, alcohol use, and geographic region. Methods: A representative sample of 2100 adults completed an online survey in July 2015. Respondents were asked to identify which health outcomes, including specific cancers, may be caused by alcohol consumption. Logistic regressions explored whether demographic, alcohol use, and geographic characteristics predicted correctly identifying alcohol-related cancer risk. Results: Unprompted, 12.9% of respondents identified cancer as a potential health outcome of alcohol consumption. This rose to 47% when prompted (compared to 95% for liver disease and 73% for heart disease). Knowledge of the link between alcohol and specific cancers varied between 18% (breast) and 80% (liver). Respondents identified the following cancers as alcohol-related where no such evidence exists: bladder (54%), brain (32%), ovarian (17%). Significant predictors of awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer were being female, more highly educated, and living in North-East England. Conclusion: There is generally low awareness of the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer, particularly breast cancer. Greater awareness of the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer in North-East England, where a mass media campaign highlighted this relationship, suggests that population awareness can be influenced by social marketing.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3855-6
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Holmes J, Brown J, Meier P, Beard E, Michie S, Buykx P, 'Short-term effects of announcing revised lower risk national drinking guidelines on related awareness and knowledge: A trend analysis of monthly survey data in England', BMJ Open, 6 (2016)

© 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Objectives To evaluate short-term effects of publishing revised lower risk national drinking guidelines on related awareness ... [more]

© 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Objectives To evaluate short-term effects of publishing revised lower risk national drinking guidelines on related awareness and knowledge. To examine where drinkers heard about guidelines over the same period. Design Trend analysis of the Alcohol Toolkit Study, a monthly repeat cross-sectional national survey. Setting England, November 2015 to May 2016. Participants A total of 11 845 adults (18+) living in private households in England. Intervention Publication of revised national drinking guidelines in January 2016 which reduced the male guideline by approximately one-third to 14 units per week. Measurements Whether drinkers (1) had heard of drinking guidelines (awareness), (2) stated the guideline was above, exactly or below 14 units (knowledge) and (3) reported seeing the stated guideline number of units in the last month in each of 11 locations (exposure). Sociodemographics: sex, age (18-34, 35-64, 65+), social grade (AB, C1C2, DE). Alcohol consumption derived from graduated frequency questions: low risk (<14 units/week), increasing/high risk (14+ units/week). Results Following publication of the guidelines, the proportion of drinkers aware of guidelines did not increase from its baseline level of 85.1% (CI 82.7% to 87.1%). However, the proportion of male drinkers saying the guideline was 14 units or less increased from 22.6% (CI 18.9% to 26.7%) in December to 43.3% (CI 38.9% to 47.8%) in January and was at 35.6% (CI 31.6% to 39.9%) in May. Last month exposure to the guidelines was below 25% in all locations except television/radio where exposure increased from 33% (CI 28.8% to 36.2%) in December to 65% (CI 61.2% to 68.3%) in January. Awareness and knowledge of guidelines was lowest in social grade DE and this gap remained after publication. Conclusions Publication of new or revised lower risk drinking guidelines can improve drinkers' knowledge of these guidelines within all sociodemographic groups; however, in the absence of sustained promotional activity, positive effects may not be maintained and social inequalities in awareness and knowledge of guidelines are likely to persist.

DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013804
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2015 Ward B, Kippen R, Buykx P, Gilligan C, Chapman K, 'Parents' level of support for adults' purchase and consumption of alcohol at primary school events when children are present', Drug and Alcohol Review, 34 202-206 (2015) [C1]

© 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs. Environmental and societal factors are significant determinants of children&apos;s initiation to and use of al... [more]

© 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs. Environmental and societal factors are significant determinants of children's initiation to and use of alcohol. Schools are important settings for promoting well-being and substantial resources have been devoted to curriculum-based alcohol programs, but the effects of these in reducing the misuse of alcohol have been modest. Adults can and do consume alcohol at school events when students are present, but there is a dearth of evidence about parents' level of support for the practice. The aim of this study was to examine parents' level of support for the purchase and consumption of alcohol at primary school fundraising events when children are present. Methods: Four hundred seventy-nine Australian parents of children aged 0-12 years participated in an online survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of parent characteristics on the level of agreement with parental purchase and consumption of alcohol at school fundraising events when children are present. Results: The majority of parents (60%) disagreed/strongly disagreed with the practice of adults being able to purchase and consume alcohol at school fundraising events when children were present. The 21% of parents who supported the practice were more likely to be daily smokers and/or have higher (>6) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-alcohol consumption scores. Conclusions: Despite the fact that the majority of parents disagree with this practice, published reports suggest that adults' use of alcohol at primary school events is an emerging issue. It is important that school decision-makers are mindful of the financial and educational value of fundraising activities.

DOI 10.1111/dar.12231
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Penny Buykx, Conor Gilligan
2015 Gillies D, Buykx P, Parker AG, Hetrick SE, 'Consultation liaison in primary care for people with mental disorders', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015 (2015)

© 2015 The Cochrane Collaboration. Background: Approximately 25% of people will be affected by a mental disorder at some stage in their life. Despite the prevalence and negative i... [more]

© 2015 The Cochrane Collaboration. Background: Approximately 25% of people will be affected by a mental disorder at some stage in their life. Despite the prevalence and negative impacts of mental disorders, many people are not diagnosed or do not receive adequate treatment. Therefore primary health care has been identified as essential to improving the delivery of mental health care. Consultation liaison is a model of mental health care where the primary care provider maintains the central role in the delivery of mental health care with a mental health specialist providing consultative support. Consultation liaison has the potential to enhance the delivery of mental health care in the primary care setting and in turn improve outcomes for people with a mental disorder. Objectives: To identify whether consultation liaison can have beneficial effects for people with a mental disorder by improving the ability of primary care providers to provide mental health care. Search methods: We searched the EPOC Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, in March 2014. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews to identify any potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared consultation liaison to standard care or other service models of mental health care in the primary setting. Included participants were people attending primary care practices who required mental health care or had a mental disorder, and primary care providers who had direct contact with people in need of mental health care. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified studies against the inclusion criteria and extracted details including the study design, participants and setting, intervention, outcomes and any risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements by discussion or referral to a third author. We contacted trial authors to obtain any missing information. We collected and analysed data for all follow-up periods: up to and including three months following the start of treatment; between three and 12 months; and more than 12 months following the start of therapy. We used a random-effects model to calculate the risk difference (RD) for binary data and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB), if differences between groups were significant. The mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) was calculated for continuous data. Main results: There were 8203 citations identified from database searches and reference lists. We included 12 trials with 2605 consumer participants and more than 905 primary care practitioner participants. Eleven trials compared consultation liaison to standard care and one compared consultation liaison to collaborative care, with a case manager co-ordinating mental health care. People with depression were included in eight trials; and one trial each included people with a variety of disorders: depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders; medically unexplained symptoms; and drinking problems. None of the included trials reported separate data for children or older people. There was some evidence that consultation liaison improved mental health up to three months following the start of treatment (two trials, n = 445, NNTB 8, 95% CI 5 to 25) but there was no evidence of its effectiveness between three and 12 months. Consultation liaison also appeared to improve consumer satisfaction (up to three months: one trial, n = 228, NNTB 3, 95% CI 3 to 5; 3 to 12 months: two trials, n = 445, NNTB 8, 95% CI 5 to 17) and adherence (3 to 12 months: seven trials, n = 1251, NNTB 6, 95% CI 4 to 13) up to 12 months. There was also an improvement in the primary care provider outcomes of providing adequate treatment between three to 12 months (three trials, n = 797, NNTB 7, 95...

DOI 10.1002/14651858.CD007193.pub2
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2015 Buykx P, Gilligan C, Ward B, Kippen R, Chapman K, 'Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DRUG POLICY, 26 371-379 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.08.006
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Conor Gilligan, Penny Buykx
2014 Ward BM, Buykx P, Munro G, Hausdorf K, Wiggers J, 'Review of policies and guidelines concerning adults' alcohol consumption and promotion in Australian government schools', Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 25 125-128 (2014) [C3]

© Australian Health Promotion Association 2014. Issue addressed: Schools are recognised as important settings for promoting student and community wellbeing through education, poli... [more]

© Australian Health Promotion Association 2014. Issue addressed: Schools are recognised as important settings for promoting student and community wellbeing through education, policies and the modelling of behaviour. Recently, there has been controversy regarding the promotion and use of alcohol by adults at school events. The aim of this study was to examine the policy approach of all Australian jurisdictions to the possession and use of alcohol, by adults, at government school events when students are present. Methods: A desktop review of Australian governments' alcohol in schools policy/guidelines documents was undertaken. Results: Eighteen documents across eight jurisdictions were retrieved. There were inconsistencies between jurisdictions and lack of policy clarity regarding the promotion and/or use of alcohol by adults at events organised by schools for recreation, celebration and fundraising purposes. Discussion and conclusions: Clarity is needed about the role of alcohol in Australian schools, particularly in relation to its use of alcohol when there is a duty of care to children. The possession and/or use of alcohol by adults at school events may contribute to the pervasive role of drinking in Australian social life. So what?: Clear and evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform school policies across all jurisdictions as to whether, when and under which circumstances it is appropriate for schools to promote and/or supply alcohol. This would also strengthen the ability of school principals and communities to make appropriate evidence-based decisions that focus on the interests of children.

DOI 10.1071/HE14011
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors John Wiggers, Penny Buykx
2014 Munro G, Buykx P, Ward B, Rae J, Wiggers J, 'Adult drinking in Australian schools', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 38 205-208 (2014) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/1753-6405.12178
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors John Wiggers, Penny Buykx
2014 Tham R, Buykx P, Kinsman L, Ward B, Humphreys JS, Asaid A, et al., 'Staff perceptions of primary healthcare service change: influences on staff satisfaction', AUSTRALIAN HEALTH REVIEW, 38 580-583 (2014)
DOI 10.1071/AH14015
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2014 Ward BM, Buykx PF, Tham R, Kinsman L, Humphreys JS, 'Investing in longitudinal studies of primary healthcare: what can we learn about service performance, sustainability and quality?', RURAL AND REMOTE HEALTH, 14 (2014)
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2013 Russell DJ, Humphreys JS, Ward B, Chisholm M, Buykx P, McGrail M, Wakerman J, 'Helping policy-makers address rural health access problems', Australian Journal of Rural Health, 21 61-71 (2013)

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the key dimensions of access and their significance for the provision of primary health care and a framework that assists policy-make... [more]

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the key dimensions of access and their significance for the provision of primary health care and a framework that assists policy-makers to evaluate how well policy targets the dimensions of access. Access to health care can be conceptualised as the potential ease with which consumers can obtain health care at times of need. Disaggregation of the concept of access into the dimensions of availability, geography, affordability, accommodation, timeliness, acceptability and awareness allows policy-makers to identify key questions which must be addressed to ensure reasonable primary health care access for rural and remote Australians. Evaluating how well national primary health care policies target these dimensions of access helps identify policy gaps and potential inequities in ensuring access to primary health care. Effective policies must incorporate the multiple dimensions of access if they are to comprehensively and effectively address unacceptable inequities in health status and access to basic health services experienced by rural and remote Australians. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

DOI 10.1111/ajr.12023
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 36
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2013 Carey TA, Wakerman J, Humphreys JS, Buykx P, Lindeman M, 'What primary health care services should residents of rural and remote Australia be able to access? A systematic review of "core" primary health care services', BMC Health Services Research, 13 (2013)

Background: There are significant health status inequalities in Australia between those people living in rural and remote locations and people living in metropolitan centres. Sinc... [more]

Background: There are significant health status inequalities in Australia between those people living in rural and remote locations and people living in metropolitan centres. Since almost ninety percent of the population use some form of primary health care service annually, a logical initial step in reducing the disparity in health status is to improve access to health care by specifying those primary health care services that should be considered as "core" and therefore readily available to all Australians regardless of where they live. A systematic review was undertaken to define these "core" services. Using the question "What primary health care services should residents of rural and remote Australia be able to access?", the objective of this paper is to delineate those primary health care core services that should be readily available to all regardless of geography. Method. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from established databases was undertaken. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Key informants were accessed to identify other relevant reference material. All papers were assessed by at least two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria. Results: Data were extracted from 19 papers (7 papers from the peer-reviewed database search and 12 from other grey sources) which met the inclusion criteria. The 19 papers demonstrated substantial variability in both the number and nature of core services. Given this variation, the specification or synthesis of a universal set of core services proved to be a complex and arguably contentious task. Nonetheless, the different primary health care dimensions that should be met through the provision of core services were developed. In addition, the process of identifying core services provided important insights about the need to deliver these services in ways that are "fit-for-purpose" in widely differing geographic contexts. Conclusions: Defining a suite of core primary health care services is a difficult process. Such a suite should be fit-for-purpose, relevant to the context, and its development should be methodologically clear, appropriate, and evidence-based. The value of identifying core PHC services to both consumers and providers for service planning and monitoring and consequent health outcomes is paramount. © 2013 Carey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

DOI 10.1186/1472-6963-13-178
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Buykx P, Ritter A, Loxley W, Dietze P, 'Patients Who Attend the Emergency Department Following Medication Overdose: Self-reported Mental Health History and Intended Outcomes of Overdose', International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10 501-511 (2012)

Medication overdose is a common method of non-fatal self-harm. Previous studies have established which mental health disorders are commonly associated with the behaviour (affectiv... [more]

Medication overdose is a common method of non-fatal self-harm. Previous studies have established which mental health disorders are commonly associated with the behaviour (affective, substance use, anxiety and personality disorders) and which medications are most frequently implicated (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and non-opioid analgesics). However, few studies have explored patient experiences of medication overdose. We address this gap by examining patient stories of a recent medication overdose event, including severity of depression, intended outcomes and patient experiences of emergency medical care, in part to determine the unmet needs of this group of patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 patients attending an urban Emergency Department (ED) in Melbourne, Australia, following a medication overdose regarding their mental health history, state of mind at the time of the overdose, circumstances of the overdose, and experiences of emergency medical care. Participants were heterogeneous regarding the severity of depressive symptomatology at the time of overdose. Participant ratings of how accidental or deliberate the overdose was and how strongly they intended to die were also diverse. Stories relating to the overdose usually covered the themes of precipitating events, negative feeling states, and intended outcomes (ambivalent or contradictory). Few problems were identified in relation to the care received in relation to the current overdose. However, histories of extensive mental health problems were commonly reported, along with unsuccessful treatment for these. While mental health problems are common among patients attending the ED following a medication overdose, there is considerable diversity in current levels of distress and intended outcomes, indicating a thorough suicide risk assessment is always warranted. Presentation to the ED for medication overdose should also trigger a mental health treatment review. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

DOI 10.1007/s11469-011-9338-1
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Buykx P, Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Perkins D, Lyle D, McGrail M, Kinsman L, 'Making evidence count': A framework to monitor the impact of health services research', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, 20 51-58 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2012.01256.x
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 17
Co-authors Penny Buykx, David Perkins
2012 Kinsman LD, Rotter T, Willis J, Snow PC, Buykx P, Humphreys JS, 'Do clinical pathways enhance access to evidence-based acute myocardial infarction treatment in rural emergency departments?', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, 20 59-66 (2012)
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2012.01262.x
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Kinsman L, Buykx P, Cant R, Champion R, Cooper S, Endacott R, et al., 'The FIRST2ACT simulation program improves nursing practice in a rural Australian hospital', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, 20 270-274 (2012)
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2012.01296.x
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Buykx P, Missen K, Cooper S, Porter J, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R, et al., 'Emergency training boosts confidence.', Australian nursing journal (July 1993), 19 43 (2012)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Buykx P, Cooper S, Kinsman L, Endacott R, Scholes J, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R, 'Patient deterioration simulation experiences: Impact on teaching and learning', COLLEGIAN, 19 125-129 (2012)
DOI 10.1016/j.colegn.2012.03.011
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Scholes J, Endacott R, Biro M, Bulle B, Cooper S, Miles M, et al., 'Clinical decision-making: midwifery students' recognition of, and response to, post partum haemorrhage in the simulation environment', BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH, 12 (2012)
DOI 10.1186/1471-2393-12-19
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 21
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Buykx P, Humphreys JS, Tham R, Kinsman L, Wakerman J, Asaid A, Tuohey K, 'How do small rural primary health care services sustain themselves in a constantly changing health system environment?', BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, 12 (2012)
DOI 10.1186/1472-6963-12-81
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2012 Cooper S, Bulle B, Biro MA, Jones J, Miles M, Gilmour C, et al., 'Managing women with acute physiological deterioration: Student midwives performance in a simulated setting', WOMEN AND BIRTH, 25 E27-E36 (2012)
DOI 10.1016/j.wombi.2011.08.009
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2011 Buykx P, 'Dummy run.', Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), 26 64 (2011)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2011 Buykx P, Kinsman L, Cooper S, McConnell-Henry T, Cant R, Endacott R, Scholes J, 'FIRST(2)ACT: Educating nurses to identify patient deterioration - A theory-based model for best practice simulation education', NURSE EDUCATION TODAY, 31 687-693 (2011)
DOI 10.1016/j.nedt.2011.03.006
Citations Scopus - 51Web of Science - 42
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2011 Cooper S, Buykx P, McConnell-Henry T, Kinsman L, McDermott S, 'Simulation: can it eliminate failure to rescue?', Nursing times, 107 18-20 (2011)

Evidence shows the management of deteriorating patients needs to be improved, particularly in midwifery care. In a series of three simulation-based studies in Australia we examine... [more]

Evidence shows the management of deteriorating patients needs to be improved, particularly in midwifery care. In a series of three simulation-based studies in Australia we examined qualified nurses', student nurses' and midwives' ability to manage patient deterioration. Nurses' knowledge levels were acceptable but their skill performance was low and there was a gap between the theory and practice they had experienced. In these high-pressure situations, demographic factors (including educational level) had no impact on their performance, which suggests they need repetitive "high-stakes" simulation, improved feedback mechanisms and enhanced educational processes.

Citations Scopus - 12
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2011 Tham R, Humphreys JS, Kinsman L, Buykx P, Asaid A, Tuohey K, 'Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health', BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, 11 (2011)
DOI 10.1186/1472-6963-11-52
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Hutton J, Dent A, Buykx P, Burgess S, Flander L, Dietze P, 'The characteristics of acute non-fatal medication-related events attended by ambulance services in the Melbourne Metropolitan Area 1998-2002', Drug and Alcohol Review, 29 53-58 (2010)

Introduction and Aims: To describe the characteristics of non-fatal medication-related ambulance attendances in Melbourne. Design and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 16 705 p... [more]

Introduction and Aims: To describe the characteristics of non-fatal medication-related ambulance attendances in Melbourne. Design and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 16 705 patient care records completed by ambulance paramedics in Melbourne where medications had a causal role in the attendance. Results. A single medication only was implicated in 11 765 cases (70% of the total). Of these, 85% involved one of six types of medication: benzodiazepines (52%), paracetamol (15%), selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (6.5%), combination paracetamol and opioids (4%), phenothiazines (3.4%) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (3.7%). Cases involving benzodiazepines were significantly (P < 0.001) older (Average = 37 years) than those involving paracetamol (Average = 30 years). Thirty-four per cent of cases involved concurrent alcohol use, and this varied according to drug type (paracetamol 26%, benzodiazepines 40%, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors 35%, paracetamol and opioids 35%). An abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale score was found in 19% of cases, again varying according to drug type (paracetamol 10%, TCA 39%, benzodiazepines 21%, paracetamol and opioids 17%, phenothiazines 15%). Ten per cent of cases were not transported to hospital ranging from 3% for TCA to 13% for benzodiazepines. Discussion and Conclusions. The majority of non-fatal medication events attended by ambulance paramedics involve one of six substances. Benzodiazepines were most commonly implicated and, as management may require only simple supportive treatment, significant numbers are not transported to hospital. The unique clinical population is identified in this study and the ongoing medical and psychiatric treatment of these patients not transported to hospital in the study period needs to be considered. © 2009 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

DOI 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00086.x
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Buykx P, Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Pashen D, 'Systematic review of effective retention incentives for health workers in rural and remote areas: Towards evidence-based policy', Australian Journal of Rural Health, 18 102-109 (2010)

Poor retention of health workers is a significant problem in rural and remote areas, with negative consequences for both health services and patient care.Objective: This review ai... [more]

Poor retention of health workers is a significant problem in rural and remote areas, with negative consequences for both health services and patient care.Objective: This review aimed to synthesise the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of retention strategies for health workers in rural and remote areas, with a focus on those studies relevant to Australia.Design: A systematic review method was adopted. Six program evaluation articles, eight review articles and one grey literature report were identified that met study inclusion/exclusion criteria.Results: While a wide range of retention strategies have been introduced in various settings to reduce unnecessary staff turnover and increase length of stay, few have been rigorously evaluated. Little evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of any specific strategy is currently available, with the possible exception of health worker obligation. Multiple factors influence length of employment, indicating that a flexible, multifaceted response to improving workforce retention is required.Conclusions: This paper proposes a comprehensive rural and remote health workforce retention framework to address factors known to contribute to avoidable turnover. The six components of the framework relate to staffing, infrastructure, remuneration, workplace organisation, professional environment, and social, family and community support. In order to ensure their effectiveness, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate pre- and post-intervention comparisons.© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2010.01139.x
Citations Scopus - 117Web of Science - 132
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Buykx P, Loxley W, Dietze P, Ritter A, 'Medications used in overdose and how they are acquired - An investigation of cases attending an inner Melbourne emergency department', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34 401-404 (2010)

Objective: This study aimed to investigate which categories of medication are most commonly implicated in overdose, to compare this information with prescription data and to explo... [more]

Objective: This study aimed to investigate which categories of medication are most commonly implicated in overdose, to compare this information with prescription data and to explore how the medications used in overdoses are typically acquired. Methods:A 12-month audit (11/2003- 10/2004) of all medication overdose presentations to an inner-Melbourne ED was conducted and the medications compared to published population- based prescription data. Interviews were conducted with 31 patients who attended the ED following a medication overdose and typical stories regarding the acquisition of medications reported. Results:The same broad categories of medications identified in earlier studies were found to contribute to the majority of overdoses in this study, namely benzodiazepines, antidepressants, analgesics and antipsychotics. Two benzodiazepine medications, diazepam and alprazolam, appeared to be over- represented in the overdose data relative to their population rates of prescription. Patient interviews revealed three main reasons for the original acquisition of the medications used in overdose: treatment purposes (77%); recreational use (16%); and overdose (7%).The most common source of medications (68%) used in overdose was prescription by the patient's usual doctor. Conclusion:The high representation of benzodiazepines among medications used in overdose is of ongoing concern. Implications:The time of medication prescription and dispensing may be an ideal opportunity for overdose prevention, through judicious prescribing, consideration of treatment alternatives, patient education and encouraging the safe disposal of unused medications. © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

DOI 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00573.x
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Buykx P, Dietze P, Ritter A, Loxley W, 'Characteristics of medication overdose presentations to the ED: How do they differ from illicit drug overdose and self-harm cases?', Emergency Medicine Journal, 27 499-503 (2010)

Background: Medication overdose accounts for &gt;80% of hospital presentations for self-harm. Previous research has identified typical characteristics of medication overdose cases... [more]

Background: Medication overdose accounts for >80% of hospital presentations for self-harm. Previous research has identified typical characteristics of medication overdose cases; however, these cases have not been well differentiated from other similar presentations, namely (1) illicit drug overdose and (2) self-harm by means other than overdose. Method: A 12-month audit of medication overdose cases (both intentional and unintentional) attending the emergency department (ED) of a major metropolitan public hospital in Melbourne, Australia was conducted. Comparison was made with patients attending for illicit drug overdose or for self-harm by means other than overdose. Results: Medication overdose cases (n=453) showed a broadly comparable profile with those found in earlier studies (predominantly female gender, aged in their 30s and referred for psychosocial assessment). A similar though not identical profile was noted for self-harm cases (n=545). In contrast, patients attending for illicit drug overdose (n=409) could be characterised as male, in their 20s and not referred for psychosocial assessment. Illicit drug overdose cases were more likely than either the medication overdose or self-harm cases to be triaged in the most urgent category (19.3, 3.8 and 3.9% respectively), suggesting a high level of acuity in this group. However, the illicit drug overdose group on average spent less time in the ED than medication overdose patients, and were less likely to require hospital admission. Conclusion: On both demographic and treatment variables, patients attending the ED following a medication overdose more closely resemble those attending for self-harm by means other than overdose than those attending for illicit drug overdose.

DOI 10.1136/emj.2009.075549
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 11
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Endacott R, Scholes J, Buykx P, Cooper S, Kinsman L, McConnell-Henry T, 'Final-year nursing students' ability to assess, detect and act on clinical cues of deterioration in a simulated environment', JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, 66 2722-2731 (2010)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05417.x
Citations Scopus - 41Web of Science - 38
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Cooper S, Kinsman L, Buykx P, McConnell-Henry T, Endacott R, Scholes J, 'Managing the deteriorating patient in a simulated environment: nursing students' knowledge, skill and situation awareness', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, 19 2309-2318 (2010)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.03164.x
Citations Scopus - 85Web of Science - 80
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2010 Tham R, Humphreys J, Kinsman L, Buykx P, Asaid A, Tuohey K, Riley K, 'Evaluating the impact of sustainable comprehensive primary health care on rural health', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, 18 166-172 (2010)
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2010.01145.x
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2009 Kinsman LD, Buykx P, Humphreys JS, Snow PC, Willis J, 'A cluster randomised trial to assess the impact of clinical pathways on AMI management in rural Australian emergency departments', BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, 9 (2009)
DOI 10.1186/1472-6963-9-83
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2008 Munir VL, Hutton JE, Harney JP, Buykx P, Weiland TJ, Dent AW, 'Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: A 30 month emergency department review', EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia, 20 521-530 (2008)

Objectives: To describe epidemiology, symptomatology, resource use and complications in patients attending the ED following gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) ingestion. Methods: Retrosp... [more]

Objectives: To describe epidemiology, symptomatology, resource use and complications in patients attending the ED following gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) ingestion. Methods: Retrospective chart review of GHB-related emergency attendances over 30 months. Results: One hundred and seventy emergency attendances attributed to GHB ingestion occurred. Monthly attendance rate doubled during the study, and was highest on public holidays and weekends between 04.00 and 08.00 hours. The majority (63%, 95% CI 55.7-70.3) were young men (median 22 years). GHB was ingested alone in 62 cases (36%, 95% CI 29.6-43.9). Poly-substance ingestion was common (108 cases; 64%; 95% CI 56.1-70.4). The commonest presenting symptom was altered conscious state (89%, 95% CI 84.1-93.5) with 54% (95% CI 46.6-61.6) having low Glasgow Coma Score (GCS 3-8) on arrival at the ED. Eight per cent (95% CI 3.6-11.6) were intubated. Eighty-seven per cent (95% CI 79.8-93.8) with low GCS were not intubated. There were no serious adverse outcomes or fatalities. Recovery time from ED arrival to high GCS (9-15) was rapid (median 76 min, interquartile range 80). Overall median length of stay was 199 min (interquartile range 162). Conclusions: This is the largest GHB-related case series to date. Attendance rate doubled during the study, and peaked at times of lowest staffing. Poly-substance ingestion is common. Attendances are of high acuity with decreased conscious state and airway threat. With close conservative management, most recover quickly without adverse sequelae. © 2008 The Authors.

DOI 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2008.01140.x
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 25
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2003 Heale P, Dietze P, Fry C, 'Intentional Overdose among Heroin Overdose Survivors', Journal of Urban Health, 80 230-237 (2003)

Previous studies have reported varying rates of intentional overdose among heroin overdose survivors. This article reports on the prevalence of intentional heroin overdose among a... [more]

Previous studies have reported varying rates of intentional overdose among heroin overdose survivors. This article reports on the prevalence of intentional heroin overdose among a sample of overdose survivors in Melbourne, Australia. This is part of a larger study examining the risk factors associated with nonfatal overdose. The study involved interviews with 256 heroin overdose survivors successfully resuscitated by Melbourne Ambulance Service paramedics. A substantial minority (17%) of the sample indicated that they had ever had an intentional overdose, and 67% had one within the last 6 months (11% of the total sample). Of those who had ever intentionally overdosed, 21% did so at the overdose for which they were recruited into the study (4% of total sample). Self-reported reasons for intentional heroin overdose fell into two categories: precipitating events and emotional states prior to use. Intentional overdose appears to comprise a relatively low proportion of overall heroin overdoses. However, given the complexity of suicidal thought and behavior, it is possible that some heroin overdose survivors who report their overdose to be unintentional were in fact experiencing some degree of suicidal thinking at the time of the overdose. Future research could address the potentially ambiguous nature of some intentional heroin overdoses.

DOI 10.1093/jurban/jtg026
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2002 Stockwell TR, Heale P, Chikritzhs TN, Dietze P, Catalano P, 'How much alcohol is drunk in Australian in excess of the new Australian alcohol guidelines?', Medical Journal of Australia, 176 91-92 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2002 Heale P, Chikritzhs T, Jonas H, Stockwell T, Dietze P, 'Estimated alcohol-caused deaths in australia, 1990-97', Drug and Alcohol Review, 21 121-129 (2002)

The purpose of the study was to provide updated estimates of alcohol-caused mortality rates in Australia between 1990 and 1997, making adjustments for changes in the prevalence of... [more]

The purpose of the study was to provide updated estimates of alcohol-caused mortality rates in Australia between 1990 and 1997, making adjustments for changes in the prevalence of high-risk alcohol use estimated on the basis of per capita alcohol consumption (PCAC). Deaths wholly and partially attributable to high-risk alcohol consumption were extracted from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Mortality Datafile (1990-1997) and multiplied by specific aetiological fractions, which in turn were adjusted by changes in the prevalence of high-risk alcohol use estimated on the basis of annual changes in PCAC. The yearly trends in age-standardized rates of estimated alcohol-caused deaths were compared with those using (i) aetiological fractions unadjusted for changes in PCAC, and (ii) wholly alcohol-caused conditions only (thus requiring no application of aetiological fractions). The age-standardized rates of all alcohol-caused deaths among males aged 15 + years declined from 1990 (4.01/10000) to 1993 (3.19/10000) and decreased far more slowly up to 1997 (3.15/10000)-16% overall. For females, these rates declined steadily from 1990 (1.75/10000) to 1997 (1.33/10000)-19% overall. Similar patterns in time trends were noted for estimated alcohol-caused death rates calculated as in (i) and (ii). However, the proportional decreases in rates (21.6% for males; 24.0% for females) would have been underestimated by 16% (males) and 19% (females) if the alcohol aetiological fractions had not been adjusted to take account of the estimated annual changes in the prevalence of high-risk drinking. The declines in estimated alcohol-caused death rates were more pronounced than the 9% decline in PCAC, and were due mainly to decreasing death rates for stroke (men and women), alcoholic liver cirrhosis and road injuries (men only). When aetiological fractions are used to measure temporal trends in estimated alcohol-caused death rates from official mortality statistics, they should account for annual changes in the prevalence of high-risk drinking. Such changes in prevalence can be deduced from yearly fluctuations in PCAC.

DOI 10.1080/09595230220139019
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2001 Chikritzhs TN, Jonas HA, Stockwell TR, Heale PF, Dietze PM, 'Mortality and life-years lost due to alcohol: A comparison of acute and chronic causes', Medical Journal of Australia, 174 281-284 (2001)

Objectives: (i) To estimate the numbers of deaths and person-years of life lost (PYLL) due to high-risk alcohol consumption in Australia during 1997, using current estimates of co... [more]

Objectives: (i) To estimate the numbers of deaths and person-years of life lost (PYLL) due to high-risk alcohol consumption in Australia during 1997, using current estimates of consumption. (ii) To compare the number of deaths and PYLL due to acute conditions associated with bouts of intoxication and chronic conditions associated with long-term misuse of alcohol. Methods: All Australian deaths during 1997 related to conditions considered to be partially or wholly caused by high-risk alcohol consumption were extracted from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Mortality Datafile and adjusted by alcohol aetiologic fractions calculated for Australian in 1997. A life-table method was used to estimate the PYLL for deaths from alcohol-caused conditions. Main outcome measures: Numbers of all deaths and PYLL due to chronic and acute alcohol-related conditions. Results: Of the 3290 estimated alcohol-caused deaths in 1997, chronic conditions (eg, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and alcohol dependence) accounted for 42%, acute conditions (eg, alcohol-related road injuries and assaults) for 28% and mixed (chronic and acute) for 30%. Of the 62 914 estimated potential life years lost, acute conditions were responsible for 46%, chronic for 33% and mixed for 21%. The average number of years of life lost through deaths from acute conditions was more than twice that from chronic conditions, because the former mostly involved younger people. Conclusions: In view of the societal burdens imposed by premature deaths, more effective public health strategies are needed to reduce the harm associated with occasional high-risk drinking (as well as sustained high-risk drinking), especially among young people.

Citations Scopus - 57Web of Science - 46
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2001 Heale P, Lang E, 'A process evaluation of the CREDIT (court referral and evaluation for drug intervention and treatment) pilot programme', Drug and Alcohol Review, 20 223-230 (2001)

The Court Referral and Evaluation for Drug Intervention and Treatment programme (CREDIT) was developed by a small group of magistrates at the Melbourne Magistrates&apos; Court who... [more]

The Court Referral and Evaluation for Drug Intervention and Treatment programme (CREDIT) was developed by a small group of magistrates at the Melbourne Magistrates' Court who wished to address the high rate of re-offending while on bail noted among illicit drug using offenders. An evaluation was conducted of the first 9 months' operation of the programme. The evaluation involved an analysis of key performance indicators (client uptake of CREDIT, retention in and satisfactory completion of treatment, the extent of re-offending while on bail) and interviews with 30 key informants and six programme participants. Despite a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the efficacy of the programme according to the identified key performance indicators, key informant interviews revealed a high level of support for the continuation of the programme.

Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2000 Heale P, Hawks D, Lenton S, 'Public awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding the CEN system in South Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 19 271-280 (2000)

A sample of 605 South Australian residents was surveyed in 1997 regarding the Cannabis Expiation Notice (CEN) System. Thirty-nine per cent had ever used cannabis and 14.5% used ca... [more]

A sample of 605 South Australian residents was surveyed in 1997 regarding the Cannabis Expiation Notice (CEN) System. Thirty-nine per cent had ever used cannabis and 14.5% used cannabis at least once a year. While only 17% knew of the CEN scheme, 76% were familiar with the 'on-the-spot fine' scheme. There was confusion about the legal status of two expiable offences; 24% thought possession of less than 100g of cannabis was legal and 53% thought growing three plants was legal. Only 40% knew that the two expiable offences involved some legal sanction. Regarding attitudes to cannabis law, the majority thought that growing 15 plants, selling 25g for profit, possession of less than 100g by a juvenile and driving while affected by cannabis should remain illegal. Eighty per cent thought medical use of cannabis should be legal. Half of the sample thought that growing three plants and possession of less than 100g of cannabis should be legal and most of those who thought the two offences should be illegal said a fine was the appropriate penally. Most people (57%) thought the cannabis laws should either remain as they are or become less strict, indicating general support for expiation.

DOI 10.1080/713659377
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2000 Lenton S, Humeniuk R, Heale P, Christie P, 'Infringement versus conviction: The social impact of a minor cannabis offence in South Australia and Western Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, 19 257-264 (2000)

Quantitative data is reported from a study of 68 South Australians who had received an infringement notice or &apos;cannabis expiation notice&apos; (CEN) and 68 West Australians w... [more]

Quantitative data is reported from a study of 68 South Australians who had received an infringement notice or 'cannabis expiation notice' (CEN) and 68 West Australians who received a criminal conviction for a minor cannabis offence not more than 10 years ago to compare impact of the infringement notice and the conviction on their lives. The majority of both groups saw themselves as largely law-abiding, had respect for the law in general and had positive views regarding cannabis. However, more of the convicted group, compared to the infringement notice group, reported negative employment consequences (32% vs. 2%), further problems with the law (32% vs. 0%), negative relationship consequences (20% vs. 5%) and accommodation consequences (16% vs. 0%) as a result of their apprehension. While neither conviction nor infringement deterred subsequent cannabis use for the vast majority, the negative social impacts of conviction were far greater than those resulting from an infringement notice. The findings have implications for the legislative options for regulation of cannabis possesssion and use.

DOI 10.1080/713659365
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Penny Buykx
Show 59 more journal articles

Report (4 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Brennan A, Buykx P, Pryce R, Jones A, Hill-McManus D, Stone T, et al., 'An Evidence-Based Model for Estimating Requirements for Specialist Alcohol Treatment Capacity in England - The Specialist Treatment for Alcohol Model (STreAM) Version 1.0.', NIHR (2017)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Buykx P, Li J, Gavens L, Lovatt M, Gomes de Matos E, Holmes J, et al., 'An examination of public attitudes towards alcohol policies', Cancer Research UK (2016)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Buykx P, Li J, Gavens L, Lovatt M, Gomes de Matos E, Holmes J, et al., 'An investigation of public knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer.', Cancer Research UK (2016)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
2016 Holmes J, Angus C, Buykx P, Ally A, Stone T, Meier P, 'Mortality and morbidity risks from alcohol consumption in the UK: Analyses using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model (v.2.7) to inform the UK Chief Medical Officers' review of the UK lower risk drinking guidelines.', Public Health England (2016)
Co-authors Penny Buykx
Show 1 more report
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 30
Total funding $9,031,852

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20191 grants / $2,000

KBS Annual Meeting, 3-7 June 2019, The Netherlands$2,000

Funding body: Faculty of Education and Arts, University of Newcastle

Funding body Faculty of Education and Arts, University of Newcastle
Scheme FEDUA Conference Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2019
Funding Finish 2019
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20185 grants / $2,611,394

Integrated evidence synthesis for joint appraisal of tobacco and alcohol tax interventions for harm reduction in England (SYNTAX)$1,335,639

Funding body: National Institute for Health Research

Funding body National Institute for Health Research
Project Team

Brennan A, Gillespie D, Angus C, Hatchard J, Pryce R, Hiscock R, Meier P, Buykx P, Holmes J.

Scheme Investigator led
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Take home Naloxone administered in emergency settings: feasibility study for cluster randomised trial$1,034,821

Funding body: National Institute for Health Research

Funding body National Institute for Health Research
Project Team

Snooks H, Goodacre S, Benger J, Fuller G, Moore C, Black S, Dixon S, Buykx P, Evans B, Oretti R, Jones M, John A, Edwards A, Parry E, Hoskins R, Lawrence B, Watkins A, Lloyd K, Jones C, Rees N.

Scheme Health Technology Assessment
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2020
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Prevalence estimates of alcohol dependency$164,457

Funding body: Public Health England

Funding body Public Health England
Project Team

Pryce R, Brennan A & Buykx P.

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Safeguarding children affected by parental substance misuse: developing parenting interventions to support non-using parents$39,693

Funding body: School of Public Health Research (NIHR)

Funding body School of Public Health Research (NIHR)
Project Team

McGovern R, Kaner E, Araujo-Soares V, Brown J, Buykx P, Edmonson-Jones P, Evans V, Fleming K, Hickman M, Macleod J, Meier P.

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2019
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Generation of a novel school-based digital intervention to prevent harmful alcohol use among young people$36,784

Funding body: School of Public Health Research (NIHR)

Funding body School of Public Health Research (NIHR)
Project Team

MacArthur G, Campbell R, Hickman M, Kaner E, Coulthard J, Garnett C, Buykx P.

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2019
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

20174 grants / $1,955,975

Evaluating the impact of minimum unit pricing in Scotland on harmful drinkers$1,117,427

Funding body: Health Scotland

Funding body Health Scotland
Project Team

Holmes J, Buykx P, Angus C, Meier P, Brennan A & Figure 8 Consultancy

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2021
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Appraising the effect of local Minimum Unit Pricing implementation under the Safe Communities Act on alcohol consumption and health in the North West of England$527,510

Funding body: National Institute for Health Research

Funding body National Institute for Health Research
Project Team

Brennan A, Buykx P, Angus C, Holmes J, Meier P, Gillespie D, Pryce R.

Scheme Commissioned round - Local Alcohol Interventions
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2018
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Methodological research to improve the analysis of natural experiments in public health: feasibility study and proof-of- principle with a special focus on alcohol licensing.$207,983

Funding body: School of Public Health Research (NIHR)

Funding body School of Public Health Research (NIHR)
Project Team

de Vocht F, Hickman M, Jago R, Brennan A, Angus C, Buykx P, Egan M, Cummings S.

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2018
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Changes to the alcohol treatment commissioning landscape: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives.$103,055

Funding body: Alcohol Research UK

Funding body Alcohol Research UK
Project Team

Buykx P, Gaens L, Irving I

Scheme Investogator grants
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2018
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON N

20162 grants / $134,990

Estimates of parental alcohol dependence$107,588

Funding body: Public Health England

Funding body Public Health England
Project Team

Pryce P, Brennan A & Buykx P

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Dependent drinkers and children$27,401

Funding body: Public Health England

Funding body Public Health England
Project Team

Brennan A, Pryce R & Buykx P

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

20154 grants / $1,225,744

The effectiveness of promotional campaigns associated with revised UK drinking guidelines: A prospective evaluation$1,112,211

Funding body: National Institute for Health Research

Funding body National Institute for Health Research
Project Team

Holmes J, Buykx P, Meier P, Brennan A, Angus C, Ally A, Michie S, Brown J, West R, Beard E & Lewis S.

Scheme Investigator led
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2019
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

Proposal to (i) investigate public knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer and (ii) to examine public attitudes towards alcohol policy$42,871

Funding body: Cancer Research UK

Funding body Cancer Research UK
Project Team

Buykx P, Gell L, Holmes J & Meier

Scheme Commissioned
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding C3212 - International Not for profit
Category 3212
UON N

Developing and testing the feasibility and acceptability of a novel mobile phone app to increase habit strength for physical activity: the bank of good times$36,672

Funding body: Cancer Research UK

Funding body Cancer Research UK
Project Team

Foster A, Southgate B, Sadler S, Walker I & Buykx P

Scheme Innovation Sandpit
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding C3212 - International Not for profit
Category 3212
UON N

The UPPP Project: assessing politician's Understanding, cancer risk Perceptions and Policy Positions on alcohol$33,990

Funding body: Cancer Research UK

Funding body Cancer Research UK
Project Team

Fitzgerald N, Buykx P et al

Scheme Innovation Sandpit
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding C3212 - International Not for profit
Category 3212
UON N

20144 grants / $177,496

Public Health England Alcohol Guidance Review$91,496

Funding body: Public Health England

Funding body Public Health England
Project Team

Holmes J, Brennan A, Meier P, Buykx P, Angus C.

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding C3232 - International Govt - Other
Category 3232
UON N

The Use and Promotion of Alcohol in Victorian Secondary Schools $40,000

Funding body: VicHealth via Australian Drug Foundation

Funding body VicHealth via Australian Drug Foundation
Project Team

Ward B, Buykx P, Munro G, Wiggers J & Hausdorf

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2014
GNo
Type Of Funding C3112 - Aust Not for profit
Category 3112
UON N

The Use and Promotion of Alcohol in Australia Secondary Schools$30,000

Funding body: Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education

Funding body Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education
Project Team

Ward B, Buykx P, Munro G & Wiggers J.

Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2014
GNo
Type Of Funding C3112 - Aust Not for profit
Category 3112
UON N

Evaluation of Chill Out and Safe Transport Space$16,000

Funding body: City of Greater Bendigo

Funding body City of Greater Bendigo
Project Team

Ward B, Buykx P, Miller P.

Scheme Commissioned
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2014
GNo
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Local
Category 2OPL
UON N

20132 grants / $42,000

Access to alcohol and drug treatment services in rural and remote areas$30,000

Funding body: Department of Health and Ageing via University of New South Wales

Funding body Department of Health and Ageing via University of New South Wales
Project Team

Buykx P & Ward B.

Scheme Commissioned
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2014
GNo
Type Of Funding C2120 - Aust Commonwealth - Other
Category 2120
UON N

Advancing Women’s Research Success Grant$12,000

Funding body: Monash University

Funding body Monash University
Project Team

Buykx P

Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20121 grants / $33,610

Patient pathways national project$33,610

Funding body: Department of Health & Ageing via Turning Point

Funding body Department of Health & Ageing via Turning Point
Project Team

Buykx P, Berends L, Allsop S, Butt J, David T, Flanagan B, Alan C.

Scheme Consultancy
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding C2120 - Aust Commonwealth - Other
Category 2120
UON N

20113 grants / $2,616,674

The Centre of Research Excellence for accessible and equitable primary health service provision in rural and remote Australia$2,500,000

Funding body: Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute

Funding body Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute
Project Team

Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Perkins D, Lyle D, McGrail M, Lindeman M, Carey T, Kinsman L, Jones M, Pong R, Buykx P

Scheme Centres of Excellence
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2014
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON N

The Elmore Primary Health Service Evaluation Study$98,313

Funding body: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing

Funding body Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing
Project Team

Humphreys J, Tham R, Kinsman K, Buykx P

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2013
GNo
Type Of Funding C2120 - Aust Commonwealth - Other
Category 2120
UON N

Managing patient deterioration: rural hospital skills$18,361

Funding body: West Gippsland Healthcare group

Funding body West Gippsland Healthcare group
Project Team

Cooper S, Kinsman, L, McConnell-Henry T, Porter J, Missen K, Cant R, Buykx P, Endacott R, Champion R, Scholes J.

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Local
Category 2OPL
UON N

20101 grants / $38,502

Making a difference - The impact of an innovative primary health service on rural community$38,502

Funding body: Australian Rotary Health Research Fund

Funding body Australian Rotary Health Research Fund
Project Team

Humphreys J, Asaid A, Riley K, Tham R, Kinsman L, Smith K, Buykx P

Scheme Research
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2010
Funding Finish 2010
GNo
Type Of Funding C3120 - Aust Philanthropy
Category 3120
UON N

20091 grants / $44,468

A proposal to investigate what incentives and innovative measures are used internationally for attracting, supporting and retaining the workforce in rural and remote areas with particular focus on GPs$44,468

Funding body: Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute

Funding body Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute
Project Team

Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Pashen D, Buykx P

Scheme Stream Funding
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo
Type Of Funding C2120 - Aust Commonwealth - Other
Category 2120
UON N

20041 grants / $49,000

Treatment for depression: A qualitative exploration of the experiences of alcohol and drug users$49,000

Funding body: beyondblue

Funding body beyondblue
Project Team

Heale P, Holt T, Ritter A, Berends L

Scheme Competitive
Role Lead
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2005
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON N

20021 grants / $100,000

Exploring Melbourne's hidden epidemic: Medication overdose, depression and their management by ambulance paramedics$100,000

Funding body: beyondblue

Funding body beyondblue
Project Team

Dietze P, Heale P, Ritter R, Gifford S, Burgess S, Dent A.

Scheme Competitive
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2002
Funding Finish 2003
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed5
Current2

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2017 PhD School Environment, Haven or Anguish: Why Has Gender-Based Violence Persisted in Schools Amid Policies and Laws to Abolish It? PhD (Social Work), Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Women’s drinking patterns: changes associated with life transitions Health, The University of Sheffield Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2019 Masters Novel psychoactive substance use and subsequent impacts on services in North East Lincolnshire Public Health, The University of Sheffield Principal Supervisor
2018 Masters Understanding the influence of Health Maintenance Organisations (HMO's) on uptake of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria: Stakeholder's perspectives Public Health, The University of Sheffield Sole Supervisor
2017 Masters The impact of an abstinence-based drug and alcohol community recovery service Public Health, The University of Sheffield Sole Supervisor
2017 PhD Access to dementia care and support services in rural Victorian communities Health, Monash University Co-Supervisor
2015 Masters Factors contributing to the sustainability of Humanity First (HF) Gift of Sight project in Burkina Faso Public Health, The University of Sheffield Sole Supervisor
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
Australia 48
United Kingdom 32
Canada 4
United States 3
Germany 2
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Dr Penny Buykx

Position

Associate Professor
Healthy Communities and Social Futures Cluster
School of Humanities and Social Science
Faculty of Education and Arts

Contact Details

Email penelope.buykx@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 7786
Links Twitter
Research Networks

Office

Room W220
Building Behavioural Sciences Building
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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