Associate Professor Michael Sing

Associate Professor Michael Sing

Associate Professor

School of Architecture and Built Environment

Career Summary

Biography

After graduating with a Double Degree (BSc in Building Surveying & MEng in Building Engineering) from the City University of Hong Kong, Dr Michael Sing joined the Hong Kong government and was appointed as a project officer for eight years. He became full-time academics in 2012 and took the position of the Senior Lecturer (Teaching and Research) at the Curtin University, Assistant Professor at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. In July 2019, Michael was appointed as an Associate Professor at the University of Newcastle, Australia.

Research

Michael's primary research interest focuses on managing and delivering the infrastructure projects effectively and risk-free throughout their lifecycle using a variety of research methods and modelling techniques. He has experienced, first-hand, the fundamental problems that confront the management of construction and engineering projects while practising as a surveyor in Hong Kong. His research has focused on developing mathematical models and applying simulation techniques to examine cost, time, quality, safety and environment issues that impact the management and performance of infrastructure projects. Fundamentally, his research has attempted to simulate "what if" scenario in order to provide multiple perspectives to address critical issues that impact a project's delivery. 


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Curtin University
  • Bachelor of Science (Honours) (Building Surveying), City University of Hong Kong - China
  • Master of Engineering (Building Engineering), City University of Hong Kong - China

Keywords

  • Building Rehabilitation and Conservation
  • Infrastructure Management
  • Project Management and Planning
  • Risk Management

Languages

  • Cantonese (Mother)
  • English (Working)

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
120201 Building Construction Management and Project Planning 40
090505 Infrastructure Engineering and Asset Management 40
120299 Building not elsewhere classified 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Associate Professor University of Newcastle
School of Architecture and Built Environment
Australia

Membership

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/3/2014 -  Professional Member Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors
United Kingdom

Teaching

Code Course Role Duration
ARBE6408 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE RESEARCH
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment - The University of Newcastle (Australia)
Lecture & Course Coordinator 1/9/2019 - 21/12/2019
ARBE3301 Construction Project Planning
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment - The University of Newcastle (Australia)
Lecturer and Course Coordinator 1/8/2019 - 30/11/2019
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 LEUNG AYT, SING MCP, CHAN KHC, Mandatory Building Inspection An Independent Study on Aged Private Buildings and Professional Workforce in Hong Kong, City University of HK Press, 240 (2015)

Journal article (51 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2020 Wu J, Liu HJ, Sing MCP, Humphrey R, Zhao J, 'Public-private partnerships: implications from policy changes for practice in managing risks', ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT, (2020)
DOI 10.1108/ECAM-09-2018-0400
2019 Sing MCP, Love PED, Liu HJ, 'Rehabilitation of existing building stock: A system dynamics model to support policy development', CITIES, 87 142-152 (2019)
DOI 10.1016/j.cities.2018.09.018
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2019 Love PED, Sing MCP, Ika LA, Newton S, 'The cost performance of transportation projects: The fallacy of the Planning Fallacy account', TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART A-POLICY AND PRACTICE, 122 1-20 (2019)
DOI 10.1016/j.tra.2019.02.004
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2019 Edwards D, Parn EA, Sing MCP, Thwala WD, 'Risk of excavators overturning Determining horizontal centrifugal force when slewing freely suspended loads', ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURAL MANAGEMENT, 26 479-498 (2019)
DOI 10.1108/ECAM-03-2018-0125
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2019 Liu HJ, Love PED, Sing MCP, Niu B, Zhao J, 'Conceptual framework of life-cycle performance measurement: Ensuring the resilience of transport infrastructure assets', Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 77 615-626 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.trd.2019.10.002
Citations Scopus - 1
2019 Ma M, Tam VW, Huang Z, Sing MC, Shen L, 'Evaluation of workplace safety performance in the Chinese petroleum industry', Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal, 11 1904-1910 (2019)
DOI 10.2478/otmcj-2018-0013
2019 Liu HJ, Love PED, Sing MCP, Smith J, 'Ex Post Evaluation of Economic Infrastructure Assets: Significance of Regional Heterogeneities in Australia', JOURNAL OF INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS, 25 (2019)
DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000485
2019 Love PED, Ika LA, Ahiaga-Dagbui DD, Locatelli G, Sing MCP, 'Make-or-break during production: shedding light on change-orders, rework and contractors margin in construction', PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL, 30 285-298 (2019)
DOI 10.1080/09537287.2018.1535675
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2019 Love PED, Ika LA, P Sing MC, 'Does the Planning Fallacy Prevail in Social Infrastructure Projects? Empirical Evidence and Competing Explanations', IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 1-15 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1109/tem.2019.2944161
2018 Pärn EA, Edwards DJ, Sing MCP, 'Origins and probabilities of MEP and structural design clashes within a federated BIM model', Automation in Construction, 85 209-219 (2018)

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. ¿Design clashes¿ encountered during the development of a large multi-storey educational building, awarded under a Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) Design and Bu... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. ¿Design clashes¿ encountered during the development of a large multi-storey educational building, awarded under a Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) Design and Build contract, are reported upon. The building was developed in Birmingham, UK and the contract value was circa £36 million (UK Sterling, 2015). Members of the project management team (PMT) produced designs that were subsequently integrated by the main contractor into a federated building information modelling (BIM) model; at this stage 404 error clashes were evident between the positions of the mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) designer's and structural designer's building compartments. The contractor deemed that these particular clashes were ¿mission critical¿ as previous experience suggested that project costs could spiral uncontrollably if left unabated. Participatory action research was employed to acquire a deeper understanding and knowledge of the clash incidents. Clash data accrued (in mm) was subsequently quantitatively modelled using the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF). Two models produced were the Log Logistic Three Parameter (3P) (using all data including outliers) and Generalized Gamma distribution (excluding outliers). Both models satisfied Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit tests at a 0.01 and 0.02 levels of significance. Model parameters could be used to forecast similar clashes occurring on future projects and will prove invaluable to PMT members when accurately estimating the time and resource needed to integrate BIM designs. The predictive modelling revealed that 92.98% of clashes reside within the 30¿299 mm range while the most probable occurrence of a clash overlap resides in a discrete category of 100¿199 mm. Further qualitative investigation is also conducted to understand why these clashes occurred and propagate ideas about how such may be mitigated. The research concludes on two important points, namely: i) BIM is not a panacea to design related construction project rework and that innovative 21st century digital technologies are hampered by 20th century management practices; and ii) improvements in clash and error mitigation reside in a better understanding of tolerances specified to alleviate the erroneous task of resolving unnecessary clashes. Future research is proposed that seeks to: automate the clash detection management, analysis and resolution process; conduct further investigative analysis of the organizational and human resource management influences impacting upon design clash propagation; and devise and validate new procedural methods to mitigate clash occurrence using a real-life project.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2017.09.010
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 13
2018 Liu HJ, Love PED, Smith J, Irani Z, Hajli N, Sing MCP, 'From design to operations: a process management life-cycle performance measurement system for Public-Private Partnerships', PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL, 29 68-83 (2018)
DOI 10.1080/09537287.2017.1382740
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2018 Love PED, Ahiaga-Dagbui DD, Smith SD, Sing MCP, Tokede O, 'Cost profiling of water infrastructure projects', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 24 (2018)

© 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers. The expected final budgeted costs of infrastructure assets are often exceeded during project delivery. Being able to determine the like... [more]

© 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers. The expected final budgeted costs of infrastructure assets are often exceeded during project delivery. Being able to determine the likelihood of changes to the final budget can enable clients to implement strategies to manage and control costs during construction. To understand the changing nature of costs, this paper examines the cost profiles of 1,093 water infrastructure projects that were delivered by a water utility company. Cost overruns were experienced in 656 projects. Only 1 project was delivered on budget; the remaining 436 were completed under final budget approval. A mean cost overrun and underrun of + 19.97 and -32%, are found, respectively. The best-fit distribution for cost overruns and underruns for determining their probability of occurrence is calculated. The research moves beyond examining the cost performance of heterogeneous data sets that have dominated previous studies to the use of a homogeneous sample, which enables more-reliable contingency forecasts to be determined.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000441
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 3
2018 Liu HJ, Love PED, Smith J, Sing MCP, Matthews J, 'Evaluation of public private partnerships: A life-cycle Performance Prism for ensuring value for money', ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING C-POLITICS AND SPACE, 36 1133-1153 (2018)
DOI 10.1177/2399654417750879
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 4
2017 Pärn EA, Edwards DJ, Sing MCP, 'The building information modelling trajectory in facilities management: A review', Automation in Construction, 75 45-55 (2017)

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. There is a paucity of literature that examines building information modelling (BIM) for asset management within the architecture, engineering, construction an... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. There is a paucity of literature that examines building information modelling (BIM) for asset management within the architecture, engineering, construction and owner-operated (AECO) sector. This paper therefore presents a thorough review of published literature on the latest research and standards development that impact upon BIM and its application in facilities management (FM) during the operations and maintenance (O&M) phase of building usage. The purpose is to generate new ideas and provide polemic clarity geared to intellectually challenge readers from across a range of academic and industrial disciplines. The findings reveal that significant challenges facing the FM sector include the need for: greater consideration of long-term strategic aspirations; amelioration of data integration/interoperability issues; augmented knowledge management; enhanced performance measurement; and enriched training and competence development for facilities managers to better deal with the amorphous range of services covered by FM. Future work is also proposed in several key areas and includes: case studies to observe and report upon current practice and development; and supplementary research related to concepts of knowledge capture in relation to FM and the growing use of BIM for asset management.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2016.12.003
Citations Scopus - 95Web of Science - 88
2017 Love PED, Zhou J, Matthews J, Sing MCP, Edwards DJ, 'System information modelling in practice: Analysis of tender documentation quality in a mining mega-project', Automation in Construction, 84 176-183 (2017)

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The quality of information contained in tender documentation produced using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and provided in a hard-copy format to an electrical en... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The quality of information contained in tender documentation produced using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and provided in a hard-copy format to an electrical engineering contractor for a port expansion facility, which formed an integral part of an Iron Ore mega-project is analyzed. A System Information Model (SIM), which is an object oriented approach, was retrospectively constructed from the documentation provided to assist the contractor with their tender bid preparation. During the creation of the SIM, a total of 426 errors and omissions were found to be contained within the 77 tender ¿drawing¿ documents supplied to the contractor by an Engineering, Construction, Procurement and Management (EPCM). Surprisingly, 70 drawings referenced in the tender documentation, and the Input/Output lists and Cause/Effect drawings were not provided. Yet, the electrical contractor was required by the EPCM organization to provide a lump sum bid and also guarantee the proposed schedule would be met; the financial risks were too high and as a result the contractor decided not to submit a bid. It is suggested that if the original tender documentation had been prepared using a SIM rather than CAD, the quality of information presented to the contractor would have enabled them to submit a competitive bid for the works. The research concludes that the economic performance and productivity of mining projects can be significantly improved by using a SIM to engineer and document electrical instrumentation and control (EIC) systems.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2017.08.034
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2017 Love PED, Zhou J, Edwards DJ, Irani Z, Sing CP, 'Off the rails: The cost performance of infrastructure rail projects', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 99 14-29 (2017)

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Governments in Australia place great emphasis on the development and expansion of their rail networks to improve productivity and service the increasing needs ... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Governments in Australia place great emphasis on the development and expansion of their rail networks to improve productivity and service the increasing needs and demands from businesses and commuters. A case study approach is used to analyze the cost performance of 16 rail projects constructed by a contractor between 2011 and 2014, which ranged from AU$3.4 to AU$353 million. Findings indicate that scope changes during construction were the key contributors that lead to the amendment of each project's original contractual value. As a result, there is a need for public and private sector asset owners to establish a cost contingency using a probabilistic rather than a deterministic approach to accommodate the potential for scope changes during construction. To improve cost certainty during the construction of rail projects, it is suggested that use of collaborative forms of procurement juxtaposed with the use of Building Information Modelling and Systems Information Modelling are implemented. The utilization of such technological and process innovations can provide public and private sector asset owners charged with delivering and maintaining their rail networks with confidence projects can be delivered within budget and are resilient to unexpected events and adaptable to changing needs, uses or capacities.

DOI 10.1016/j.tra.2017.02.008
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 14
2017 Liu J, Love PED, Sing MCP, Smith J, Matthews J, 'PPP social infrastructure procurement: Examining the feasibility of a lifecycle performance measurement framework', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 23 (2017)

© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been extensively used to deliver an array of infrastructure projects in Australia; they have be... [more]

© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been extensively used to deliver an array of infrastructure projects in Australia; they have become an integral part of several state governments' procurement strategies. Over the last decade, however, several major PPP projects have incurred significant cost and schedule overruns, which have marred their use as a mechanism for delivering much-needed infrastructure. The paucity of performance measurement frameworks has contributed to the difficulty of proactively managing the effective and efficient delivery of PPPs, particularly during operations and maintenance. With this in mind, a lifecycle and stakeholder-oriented performance measurement framework (PMF) is conceptualized within the context of social infrastructure PPPs. The opinions of 160 practitioners about the proposed measures and their core indicators were solicited using a questionnaire survey. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the significance of proposed measures and their relevant core indicators (CIs) for measuring the performance of PPP projects throughout their lifecycle. The analysis reveals that the proposed PMF is a reliable and robust tool that can be used to assist with ensuring that social infrastructure PPPs can be delivered successfully throughout each phase of their lifecycle. The developed PMF provides governments and private consortiums with a robust and practical tool to measure and control the performance of their future projects.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000347
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 5
2017 Heard I, Love PED, Sing MCP, Goerke V, 'Learning to build relationships for a better Australia Indigenous reconciliation in action in the construction and resource sectors', Construction Innovation, 17 4-24 (2017)

© Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose - Research examining the role of construction and involvement of resource organisations with indigenous reconciliation has been very limited ... [more]

© Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose - Research examining the role of construction and involvement of resource organisations with indigenous reconciliation has been very limited in Australia. This paper aims to examine how a sample of organisations from Western Australia (WA) are engaging with indigenous reconciliation. Design/methodology/approach - Aquestionnaire survey juxtaposed with in-depth interviews are used to explore how construction and resource companies (mining and energy) operating in WA have been planning to build better relationships with the indigenous community as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme. Findings - The majority of construction and resource companies sampled embraced reconciliation as part of a contractual and legal requirement rather than part of their CSR. It was acknowledged that to effectively address the issues associated with reconciliation and indigenous engagement, there is a requirement for flexibility and adaption of existing protocols and processes to better suit the cultural differences that arise with interactions between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Research limitations/implications - The questionnaire survey was cross-sectional, and a limited number of in-depth interviews were undertaken. Respondents' opinions were sought about their organisations' reconciliation action plans, which have only been recently embraced by firms, and thus, views that were solicited should not be treated as being definitive. Originality/value - Research examining the role of construction and involvement of resource organisations with indigenous reconciliation in the construction and resource sector has been limited. The findings of this study can provide a platform for examining and comparing how construction and resource organisations in different countries are embracing the process of reconciliation with their indigenous peoples.

DOI 10.1108/CI-06-2015-0032
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2017 Sing MCP, Tam VWY, Fung IWH, Liu HJ, 'Critical analysis of construction workforce sustainability in a developed economy Case study in Hong Kong', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability, 171 342-350 (2017)

© 2018 ICE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. The construction industry in developed economies is suffering from a shortage of workers, triggering project cost escalations and proje... [more]

© 2018 ICE Publishing. All Rights Reserved. The construction industry in developed economies is suffering from a shortage of workers, triggering project cost escalations and project delays and suppressing the whole economy. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of the general public and construction workers towards workforce shortages in the Hong Kong construction industry and identifies the critical factors affecting their intention to join the industry. The triangulation approach was adopted in this study and a street survey was conducted in grass-roots areas in Hong Kong. The questionnaire was formatted using a five-point Likert scale and semi-structured interviews with ten experienced workers were used to validate and interpret the results from the street survey results. The triangulation approach found that ¿harsh working conditions¿, ¿job instability¿ and ¿lack of career prospects¿ are the primary barriers dissuading the public to join the construction industry. This paper provides insights into the critical factors affecting the construction workforce supply and identifies possible solutions for maintaining a sufficient workforce.

DOI 10.1680/jensu.17.00007
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 2
2017 Tsang YT, Fung IWH, Tam VWY, Sing CP, Lu CT, 'Development of an accident modelling in the Hong Kong construction industry', International Journal of Construction Management, 17 124-131 (2017)

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Safety is always an important issue in the construction industry. An increasing number of construction projects... [more]

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Safety is always an important issue in the construction industry. An increasing number of construction projects are carried out in the recent decades to meet the ever increasing demand from population increase. To grasp the growth rate of construction accidents, safety measures and planning are necessary. Indeed, it is essential to forecast the accident rates based on relative factors to support an efficient planning and propose suitable safety measures for lowering the accident numbers. This paper aims to examine the potential accident-related factors and investigate their relationship with accident rates by developing a forecasting model. Three types of accident-related factors including working conditions, environmental factors and management actions are selected for investigating their relationship with the construction accident rates. The result indicates the forecasting model with efficiency up to 56.7%. It is also showed the accident rate highly depends on the number of vacancies, the number of days with lightening and tropical cyclones.

DOI 10.1080/15623599.2016.1222664
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2016 Wu J, Liu J, Jin X, Sing MCP, 'Government accountability within infrastructure public private partnerships', International Journal of Project Management, 34 1471-1478 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Association for Project Management and the International Project Management Association Public¿private partnerships (PPPs) have been widely used to deliver... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Association for Project Management and the International Project Management Association Public¿private partnerships (PPPs) have been widely used to deliver infrastructure projects. However, PPPs are being plagued with controversy as some of them were subjected to project overruns and/or poor operations. An underlying issue contributing to unsatisfactory performance of PPPs was a result of an ambiguous accountability of the government. Despite this, limited empirical research has been undertaken to identify the government's accountability within PPPs. Thus, a conceptual framework of the accountability of the government of PPPs is developed in this paper and then examined by conducting a case study of a Chinese PPP project. The findings indicate that the government's accountability in PPPs should shift to enhance the effectiveness of quality services and the efficiency of use of public resources for asset end-users and general population. This paper provides the governments embarking on PPPs with an insight into their accountability, ensuring Value for Money is delivered.

DOI 10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.08.003
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 12
2016 Love PED, Zhou J, Matthews J, Sing CP, Olatunji O, Carey B, 'Discussion of "state of Practice of Building Information Modeling in the Electrical Construction Industry" by Awad S. Hanna, Michael Yeutter, and Diane G. Aoun', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142 (2016)

Awad S. Hanna, Michael Yeutter, and Diane G. Aoun discuss state of practice of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the electrical construction industry. The discussers not only... [more]

Awad S. Hanna, Michael Yeutter, and Diane G. Aoun discuss state of practice of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the electrical construction industry. The discussers not only complement their scholarly works, but also provide a needed contextual backdrop that will enable an ameliorated understanding of electrical systems in the construction industry. They note that the authors' study did not present an operational definition of BIM, and this renders their results as superficial and lacking context. It also means that the work eschews providing directions for future research in this fertile area.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001069
Citations Scopus - 2
2016 Liu J, Love PED, Smith J, Matthews J, Sing CP, 'Praxis of performance measurement in public-private partnerships: Moving beyond the iron triangle', Journal of Management in Engineering, 32 (2016)

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. An effective and efficient performance measurement is deemed to be pivotal for ensuring owners' and stakeholders' needs are b... [more]

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. An effective and efficient performance measurement is deemed to be pivotal for ensuring owners' and stakeholders' needs are being met throughout a project's lifecycle. To determine the nature of performance measurement in Australian public-private partnerships (PPPs), an interpretivist approach that utilized semistructured interviews was undertaken in the State of Western Australia. A total of 25 interviews were conducted with key stakeholders and it was revealed that there was a proclivity for performance measurements during design and construction to focus on traditional ex ante and ex post evaluations that were aligned to the conventional iron triangle: time, cost, and quality (TCQ). However, there was widespread consensus among the interviewees that the traditional TCQ approach was too simplistic to capture the inherent complexities associated with social infrastructure PPPs. In addressing this issue the analysis indicates that process-based lifecycle performance measurement that strategically places an emphasis on value for money (VfM) should be introduced into PPPs to replace traditional ex ante and ex post evaluations. It is suggested that this type of measurement can be integrated with a broader VfM assessment and a series of key performance indicators to enable the public and private sectors to improve their performance throughout a project's lifecycle. The empirical analysis provides the foundations for developing a performance measurement that can ensure assets are future proofed over their lifecycles.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000433
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 22
2016 Sing MCP, Love PED, Edwards DJ, Liu J, 'Dynamic Modeling of Workforce Planning for Infrastructure Projects', Journal of Management in Engineering, 32 (2016)

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Workforce planning (WP) for infrastructure projects provides a readily available pool of skilled labor that can deliver a nation's... [more]

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Workforce planning (WP) for infrastructure projects provides a readily available pool of skilled labor that can deliver a nation's societal needs. However, achieving a robust and reliable workforce prediction is a constant challenge, as a variety of variables and factors must be considered. Despite various forecasting techniques and approaches being developed, government's worldwide continue to produce inaccurate forecasts and consequently fail to maintain the balanced workforce required to deliver infrastructure projects. To address this problem, a system dynamics (SD) model for the construction and civil engineering industry is developed, as traditional WP modeling approaches are static and unable to accommodate the changing complex dynamics that influence workforce supply and demand. The SD model is tested and used to formulate training policies that ensure workforce equilibrium and in turn, nurture sustainable infrastructure development.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000463
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 7
2016 Sing CP, Chan HC, Love PED, Leung AYT, 'Building Maintenance and Repair: Determining the Workforce Demand and Supply for a Mandatory Building-Inspection Scheme', Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 30 (2016)

© 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. To deal with the existing building dilapidation problem in Hong Kong, a mandatory building inspection scheme (MBIS) has been introduced... [more]

© 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. To deal with the existing building dilapidation problem in Hong Kong, a mandatory building inspection scheme (MBIS) has been introduced. The effectiveness of the scheme is reliant on an adequate supply of registered inspectors (RIs) to inspect and supervise repair works. To ensure that there is an adequate supply and demand of RIs to enable the implementation of the MBIS, a robust workforce planning model is proposed. The database of private buildings from the Hong Kong Home Affairs Department and a web-based survey were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data, from practitioners and professional bodies, to determine the demand and supply of labor. A quantitative modeling approach, which utilizes a labor multiplier method, revealed that there will be a shortage of RIs to meet future professional workforce demand under the MBIS. The qualitative aspect of the research reported in this paper, which addressed the perception of eligible RIs, revealed that the majority of respondents were disinterested with becoming an RI as their responsibility and liability had not been clearly defined under the current MBIS scheme. The findings provide the local government authority with the ability to visualize the workforce demand under the MBIS and articulate future workforce strategy to ensure an adequate supply of the professional workforce. As a result, the condition of buildings and the living environment of the general public will be improved with the implementation of MBIS to safeguard public safety.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000755
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Love PED, Zhou J, Matthews J, Sing MCP, 'Retrospective future proofing of a copper mine: Quantification of errors and omissions in As-built documentation', Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 43 414-423 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The electrical instrumentation control systems (EICS) ¿As-built¿ documentations of a copper mine were found to possess a significant errors and omissions, whic... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The electrical instrumentation control systems (EICS) ¿As-built¿ documentations of a copper mine were found to possess a significant errors and omissions, which hindered the asset owner's ability to undertake effective and efficient operations and maintenance. A Systems Information Model (SIM) was used to retrospectively create a connected system to ensure all physical equipment and the associated connections that were constructed are modelled in an object-orientated database. In creating the SIM, the existing errors and omissions in the ¿As-built¿ documentation were quantified, and cost savings that could be achieved for a future planned copper mine, with a similar design, were identified. The limitations of using conventional computer-aided-design (CAD) to design and document EICS are discussed. It is recommended that retrospectively creating a SIM can provide owners and operators with significant productivity benefits as well as ensure the asset's integrity. The case study presented provides asset owners and operators with the empirical evidence to challenge conventional thinking surrounding the design, engineering and documentation of EICS using CAD and alternatively consider the use of SIM.

DOI 10.1016/j.jlp.2016.06.011
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2016 Tam VWY, Fung IWH, Sing MCP, 'Adaptive reuse in sustainable development: An empirical study of a Lui Seng Chun building in Hong Kong', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65 635-642 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Balancing a conflict between cultural heritage and development is an important topic for our society around the world. In many countries, historic buildings ar... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Balancing a conflict between cultural heritage and development is an important topic for our society around the world. In many countries, historic buildings are well-preserved for economically viable uses. Lui Seng Chun is a Grade 1 historic building in Hong Kong. It is not only has collective memory for local residents, but also requires particular expertise and care. To encourage cultural tourism and ensure a good adaptive reuse of Lui Seng Chun project, the government has invited non-profit making organizations with charitable status and relevant experience to operate the building through applying the ¿Revitalizing historic buildings through partnership scheme¿. This historic building can be allocated for cultural or commercial uses. Therefore, this paper explores public opinions on governmental measures and the introduction of conservation and revitalization of historic buildings as well as their comments on the reuse plan of the Lui Seng Chun project by conducting a questionnaire survey. Learning from the Lui Seng Chun project, the government should makes effort for protecting our heritage assets and considering public wants, a balance between development and heritage conservation can be achieved as a win-win situation.

DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.014
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 9
2016 Fung IWH, Tam VWY, Sing CP, Tang KKW, Ogunlana SO, 'Psychological climate in occupational safety and health: the safety awareness of construction workers in South China', International Journal of Construction Management, 16 315-325 (2016)

© 2016 Taylor & Francis. The number of accidents on construction sites has been depressingly high in the last 10¿years. A broad variety of safety measures have been implemen... [more]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis. The number of accidents on construction sites has been depressingly high in the last 10¿years. A broad variety of safety measures have been implemented on sites, such as encouraging workers to put on personal protective equipment and launching regular safety toolboxes. This has tended to strengthen safety awareness and improved compliance with safety regulations. The study of discrepancies in psychological climate among workers and how psychological climate interacts with external factors thus plays a prime role in understanding safety. This paper examines external factors with psychological climate that the workers possess on their safety awareness. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the construction industry in South China (Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau). A research hypothesis model is thus developed for understanding the interrelationship among parameters with respect to workers' psychological conditions. It emerged that two external factors ¿ physical working environment and social influence ¿ affect psychological conditions, whereas negative affectivity, risk-taking tendency and perceived utility of safety measures affect the safety awareness of the workers. Of these, the physical working environment has the strongest influence on negative affectivity and the perceived usefulness of safety measures has the strongest influence on safety awareness.

DOI 10.1080/15623599.2016.1146114
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2015 Liu J, Love PED, Sing MCP, Carey B, Matthews J, 'Modeling Australia's construction workforce demand: Empirical study with a global economic perspective', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 141 (2015)

© 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Workforce planning is vital for implementing strategic human resource planning. A causal model that incorporates a global economic pers... [more]

© 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Workforce planning is vital for implementing strategic human resource planning. A causal model that incorporates a global economic perspective is derived in this paper by undertaking a detailed review of the normative literature and empirically estimated by a vector error correction (VEC) model. The reliability of the developed VEC model is validated by using several tests (e.g., Lagrange multiplier test, White's test, and Jarque-Bera test), all of which indicate that the proposed models are able to forecast construction workforce demand in the context of global economic turbulence. This paper contributes to the literature by systematically developing advanced models that not only model construction workforce demand, but also examine the impact of the global economic climate on the labor market. It provides policy makers with a practical tool and insight into future workforce demand, which serves to assist to launch an effective human resources strategy in the construction industry.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000953
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2015 Sing MCP, Edwards DJ, Liu HJX, Love PED, 'Forecasting Private-Sector Construction Works: VAR Model Using Economic Indicators', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 141 (2015)

© 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Accurately modeling and forecasting construction works completed by main contractors is pivotal for policymakers, who require reliable ... [more]

© 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Accurately modeling and forecasting construction works completed by main contractors is pivotal for policymakers, who require reliable market intelligence to adjust or develop optimal labor and housing policies. Yet, despite its importance, limited research has been conducted to systematically develop approaches to investigating future trends of works completed in the private construction sector. Against this backdrop, this paper provides a study of the annual financial value of construction work in the private residential market. A vector auto-regression (VAR) model developed utilizes economic indicators (used by private financiers when making investment decisions) to estimate the value of annual construction work carried out by main contractors. Using data from the Hong Kong private residential market and constructing an accumulated impulse function, the developed model suggests that construction work completions in private residential markets can be explained by changes in economic indicators such as gross domestic product and the property price index. These economic indicators have been identified as having a large and direct effect on forthcoming construction works. The developed model also provides a high degree of accuracy (producing an adjusted R2 value of 0.72) when simulating or forecasting future changes in the value of construction works over a short-term 5-year forecast. The output of this study contributes to the literature by systematically developing a reliable approach using economic indicators that is useful for forecasting private-sector construction completions. Such knowledge is of paramount importance when estimating the industry's future workload and supply of residential buildings.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001016
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2015 Love PED, Teo P, Carey B, Sing CP, Ackermann F, 'The symbiotic nature of safety and quality in construction: Incidents and rework non-conformances', Safety Science, 79 55-62 (2015)

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Safety and quality performance share a symbiotic relationship. Despite the extensive amount of research that has provided quantitative assessments of the fina... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Safety and quality performance share a symbiotic relationship. Despite the extensive amount of research that has provided quantitative assessments of the financial impact of rework, there have been limited studies that have examined the relationship between safety performance (i.e. in terms of the number of incidents arising) and rework that occurs from the issue of non-conformances (NCRs). Using an exploratory case study approach, the statistical characteristics of incidents (n= 16,885) and NCRs (n= 2885) requiring rework experienced by a tier one Australian contractor over a 31. month period are analyzed and their relationship determined. A significant association between incidents and rework NCRs was revealed (p<. 0.05). The skewness and kurtosis values of monthly incidents and NCRs are computed to determine if the empirical distribution of the data follows a Normal distribution. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Squared non-parametric tests are used to determine the 'Goodness of Fit' of the selected probability distributions. An Inverse Gaussian probability function is found to be the best overall distribution fit for the monthly incidents and used to calculate the probability of their occurrence. A Lognormal probability function was found to be the best overall distribution fit for the NCRs and also used to calculate their likelihood of occurring. Ascertaining the best fit probability distribution from an empirical distribution can produce realistic probabilities of incidents and NCRs, which should then be incorporated into a contractor's risk management and continuous improvement strategy.

DOI 10.1016/j.ssci.2015.05.009
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 25
2015 Zhou J, Love PED, Matthews J, Carey B, Sing CP, 'Object-oriented model for life cycle management of electrical instrumentation control projects', Automation in Construction, 49 142-151 (2015)

© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Electrical instrumentation and control (EIC) systems can account for as much as 60% of maintainable items as well as being critical to sa... [more]

© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Electrical instrumentation and control (EIC) systems can account for as much as 60% of maintainable items as well as being critical to safe and efficient operations. Thus, it is imperative that as-built documentation is error-free and reflects precisely what has been installed. Yet EIC as-built drawings that are produced often contain errors and omissions. If EIC systems are ineffectively and inefficiently designed and documented, then asset owners' plant, equipment and facilities may fail to operate, which can result in considerable economic loss and jeopardize system safety. In order to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of documentation production, it has been suggested that engineers should switch from using computer-aided design (CAD) to an object-oriented model, which takes the form of a systems information model. Such a model provides the ability for electrical engineers to effectively integrate their work with a building information model. This paper builds upon the authors' previous research, which examined the need for a SIM by presenting and describing how an object-oriented model for EIC can be used through a project's life cycle. Examples are used to demonstrate the functionality and robustness of the SIM. The adoption of a SIM will not only lead to productivity throughout a project's life but also reduce the costs associated with managing and maintaining information.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2014.10.008
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 12
2015 Love PED, Liu J, Matthews J, Sing CP, Smith J, 'Future proofing PPPs: Life-cycle performance measurement and Building Information Modelling', Automation in Construction, 56 26-35 (2015)

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are widely used to procure public infrastructure assets and are an effective mechanism fo... [more]

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are widely used to procure public infrastructure assets and are an effective mechanism for ensuring value for money. However, many PPPs in Australia have been plagued with controversy as they have experienced significant cost and schedule overruns during construction. Critical to the successful delivery of PPP projects is effective performance measurement/evaluation. Yet, conventional ex-post evaluation that solely focuses on meeting budget and a predetermined schedule are invariably applied to measure PPPs in practice. This paper reviews the performance measurement literature used to evaluate PPP projects and proposes that a life-cycle approach to their evaluation is needed to 'future proof' their performance and ensure value for money that is delivered to the public sector. As the primary focus of PPPs is to maximise profitability, there is a need to ameliorate the coordination and integration between the Special Purpose Vehicle, end-users and the public sector. This can be enabled through the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as it not only provides digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of an asset, but also provides key decision makers with the ability to make informed decisions across a project's life-cycle. When aligned with a series of core indicators that are used for performance measurement, it is suggested that BIM can act as a catalyst for 'future proofing' PPPs and enable the successful management of an asset throughout its life-cycle.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2015.04.008
Citations Scopus - 56Web of Science - 50
2015 Tam VWY, Fung IWH, Sing MCP, Ogunlana SO, 'Best practice of prefabrication implementation in the Hong Kong public and private sectors', Journal of Cleaner Production, 109 216-231 (2015)

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Prefabrication has been developed since the 1970s. The technologies have been further developed and improved for the past thirty years. T... [more]

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Prefabrication has been developed since the 1970s. The technologies have been further developed and improved for the past thirty years. The successful implementation of quality control and construction efficiency has been addressed with support from the public sector. The technologies however did not receive attention from the private sector since prefabrication requires dimensional coordination and standardization in the designs. This situation has changed from 2002 as the Hong Kong government promotes incentives schemes, i.e. gross floor area concessions for private developers to encourage them to adopt prefabrication techniques. This paper discusses and evaluates the best practice of prefabrication implementation in the Hong Kong public and private sectors using two leading case studies. Their adoption of prefabrication, construction methods and cost effectiveness are investigated. Discussions on effective implementation for the sectors have also been explored. The findings provide ameliorated understanding on the best practice of the implementation of prefabrication and provide courage for further improvement and implementation for the industry.

DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.045
Citations Scopus - 60Web of Science - 48
2015 Love PED, Sing CP, Carey B, Kim JT, 'Estimating construction contingency: Accommodating the potential for cost overruns in road construction projects', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 21 (2015)

© 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. The determination of a project&apos;s cost contingency is a pervasive problem as the amount that is incorporated into an estimate is in... [more]

© 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. The determination of a project's cost contingency is a pervasive problem as the amount that is incorporated into an estimate is invariably insufficient to accommodate a project's actual cost overrun. The cost overruns experienced in 49 road construction projects procured using traditional lump contracts are analyzed. The theoretical probability distributions are fitted to cost overrun data derived from the sampled projects whose contract values ranged from AU $0.5 and AU $97 million. Goodness of fit tests are used in conjunction with probability-probability (P-P) plots to compare the sample distribution from the known theoretical distribution. A log logistic probability density function (PDF) was found to best describe the behavior of cost overruns. The cumulative distribution function is then used to determine a realistic probability of a cost overrun being experienced from the point at which a contract is awarded. This is required so that public sector clients can determine an appropriate contingency at contract award, which takes into account the nuances that contribute to increasing project costs. The research findings and methodology adopted to determine the best fit probability distribution provides a more robust approach for governing a construction contingency for road construction projects so that they can be procured successfully.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000221
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 10
2015 Sing CP, Love PED, Fung WH, He YZ, 'Systematic analysis of affordable housing development and pricing structure in shenzhen, china', International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 19 58-65 (2015)

© 2015 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press. As a result of urban housing reform in China, it has become increasingly difficult for low and middle income families t... [more]

© 2015 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press. As a result of urban housing reform in China, it has become increasingly difficult for low and middle income families to purchase a house. In response to the growing demand for affordable housing, the Chinese Government has developed a specific housing policy to enable families to purchase properties from the private sector. The pricing mechanism of such housing is completely based on the family affordability and the profit margin of developers. To ensure the provision of housing for low and middle-income families, the future trend of affordable housing prices has become a concern for developers, consumers and may adversely influence the implementation of the current national housing policy. In this paper a systematic analysis of affordable housing development and its pricing structure is undertaken for the city of Shenzhen. As information pertaining to the factors influencing house prices is imperfect, a Grey model, which requires a limited amount of data to reflect unknown behavior, is constructed to provide a forecast for affordable house pricing. The analysis indicates that the government should adjust their current affordable housing policy to accommodate the forecasted upward trend in house prices.

DOI 10.3846/1648715X.2015.1004564
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2015 Zhou J, Love PED, Matthews J, Carey B, Sing CP, Edwards DJ, 'Toward productivity improvement in electrical engineering documentation', International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 64 1024-1040 (2015)

© 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to determine the unproductive time and additional cost to re-engineer a safety control system for ... [more]

© 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to determine the unproductive time and additional cost to re-engineer a safety control system for a Floating Production Storage Offloading vessel that was originally engineered and documented in computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach ¿ The ¿As-Built¿ drawings contained numerous errors and omissions, which resulted in a ¿requests for information¿ being raised and productivity rates reduced ¿ these costs and productivity losses are quantified. The use of CAD to originally engineer and document the safety control system was found to be inefficient as a 1:n relationship existed. Systems Information Models (SIMs) presents an alternative method to produce engineering documentation for the safety control system; where a 1:1 relationship is created between the model and the real objects. By constructing a 1:1 model, information redundancy can be eliminated, which reduces the propensity for errors and omissions to be made by engineers. Findings ¿ The use of a SIM to re-engineer and document the new safety control system resulted in significant productivity benefits being achieved. Consequently, it is proffered that a paradigm shift from a 1:n to 1:1 perspective is required for engineering electrical and instrumentation systems so as to ameliorate the quality of documentation produced and productivity. Originality/value ¿ The paper concludes by suggesting that future research is required to examine how processes and procedures can be re-designed to accommodate the use of a SIM.

DOI 10.1108/IJPPM-10-2014-0151
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2015 Love PED, Zhou J, Matthews J, Sing CP, Carey B, 'A systems information model for managing electrical, control, and instrumentation assets', Built Environment Project and Asset Management, 5 278-289 (2015)

©Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2044-124X Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to present a systems information model (SIM) that is akin to a building information model (BIM) ... [more]

©Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2044-124X Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to present a systems information model (SIM) that is akin to a building information model (BIM) and can be used by asset managers and staff to make more informed and quicker decisions about maintenance. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The problems associated with managing assets are examined alongside recent international efforts to standardize methods of data collection for meeting the objectives of owners. A case study in the domain of electrical, control and instrumentation (ECI) documentation is examined in detail, with particular reference to the amelioration of errors and omissions in ¿as built¿ drawings in order to provide the underlying foundation to support effective asset management (AM). Findings ¿ The findings show that object oriented data models such as SIM provide a robust structure for effective and efficient AM and associated leverage of benefits throughout the entire facility lifecycle of a project. In particular object oriented data enables appropriate and reliable information to be created as a project progresses through its lifecycle, at little cost to the creators. Originality/value ¿ The above special approach to enabling data collection at the point of creation is in alignment with recent Government initiatives such as Construction Operations Building Information Exchange, which are beginning to gather traction within the industry. While the potential benefits for AM of such systems are espoused throughout the industry, there are few successful examples in existence with measurable realization of benefits.

DOI 10.1108/BEPAM-03-2014-0019
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 6
2014 Sing CP, Love P, Davis PR, 'Experimental study on condition assessment of RC Structure using a dynamics response approach', Structural Survey, 32 89-101 (2014) [C1]
Co-authors Peter Davis
2014 Sing CP, Love PED, Fung IWH, Edwards DJ, 'Personality and occupational accidents: Bar benders in Guangdong Province, Shenzhen, China', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 140 (2014)

Limited research has been undertaken to explore how Chinese construction workers&apos; personality affects their safety behavior. Inappropriate behavior on-site can instigate seri... [more]

Limited research has been undertaken to explore how Chinese construction workers' personality affects their safety behavior. Inappropriate behavior on-site can instigate serious accidents, injuries, or fatality as well as incur significant costs and loss of corporate reputation. To address this dearth within the extant literature, this paper uses Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to examine the complex relationship between the personality of Chinese construction workers (especially, bar benders) and occupational accidents. A significant relationship between personality, unsafe behaviors, and the extent of injury was identified. Using the results generated, a series of practical recommendations are proffered to reinforce behavioral safety training (and reduce accidents on-site), including suggestions for conducting training programs that can be tailored to construction workers with different personality traits. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000858
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 5
2014 Sing CP, Love PED, Tam CM, 'Forecasting the demand and supply of technicians in the construction industry', Journal of Management in Engineering, 30 (2014)

Workforce forecasting is a strategic managerial practice that construction organizations should implement to ensure a balanced workplace. The workforce forecasting systems that ha... [more]

Workforce forecasting is a strategic managerial practice that construction organizations should implement to ensure a balanced workplace. The workforce forecasting systems that have been developed are either qualitative or quantitative in nature. This paper develops a sustainable workforce model that utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to improve the accuracy of workforce demand and supply forecasts. Using empirically derived data for off-site construction technicians in Hong Kong, the developed workforce forecasting system is used as a strategic managerial tool to predict and monitor workforce conditions. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000227
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2014 Love PED, Zhou J, Sing CP, Kim JT, 'Assessing the impact of RFIs in electrical and instrumentation engineering contracts', Journal of Engineering Design, 25 177-193 (2014)

© 2014, © 2014 Taylor &amp; Francis. Using a case study, errors, omissions and information redundancy contained in the electrical and instrumentation (E&amp;I) ¿As-built¿ drawin... [more]

© 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Using a case study, errors, omissions and information redundancy contained in the electrical and instrumentation (E&I) ¿As-built¿ drawings for a Stacker Conveyor were examined. A total of 449 errors and omissions were identified within 42 documents. In addition, 231 cables and components appeared once among the 42 documents; 86 cables and components appeared twice and 12 cables and components appeared thrice. As a result of the errors, omissions and redundancy, requests for information (RFIs) were required. Retrospective analysis indicates that the indirect cost of raising the RFIs to the contractor was estimated to be approximately 9% of the cost of the E&I contract. To address the problems of errors, omissions and redundancy, it is suggested that there is a need to adopt an object orientated system information model (SIM) for E&I engineering design and documentation. It is demonstrated in the case study that the use of a SIM could bring significant improvements in productivity and reduce the cost of engineering design.

DOI 10.1080/09544828.2014.935305
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 11
2014 Love PED, Sing CP, Wang X, Irani Z, Thwala DW, 'Overruns in transportation infrastructure projects', Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 10 141-159 (2014)

Transportation infrastructure projects are prone to cost and schedule overruns. At the time of contract award, a construction contingency budget is often used to accommodate for u... [more]

Transportation infrastructure projects are prone to cost and schedule overruns. At the time of contract award, a construction contingency budget is often used to accommodate for unplanned events such as scope changes. Recent empirical research has shown that rework during construction as a result of design changes, errors and omission are the major contributors of overruns in projects. The statistical characteristics of rework, and cost and schedule overruns that are experienced from a project's contract award for 58 Australian transportation infrastructure projects are analysed. Theoretical probability distributions are fitted to the rework, cost and schedule overrun data. Goodness of fit tests are used in conjunction with probability-probability (P-P) plots to compare the sample distribution from the known theoretical distribution. A Generalised Logistic probability density function is found to describe the behaviour of cost-overruns and provides the best overall distribution fit. The best fitting distribution for schedule overruns and rework data were the Four Parameter Burr and a Johnson SB distribution, respectively. The distributions are used to calculate the probability of rework, cost and schedule overruns being experienced. A case illustration is presented and discussed to demonstrate how the derived probabilities may be utilised in practice. © 2012 © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

DOI 10.1080/15732479.2012.715173
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 30
2013 Love PED, Sing CP, Wang X, Edwards DJ, Odeyinka H, 'Probability distribution fitting of schedule overruns in construction projects', Journal of the Operational Research Society, 64 1231-1247 (2013)

The probability of schedule overruns for construction and engineering projects can be ascertained using a &apos;best fit&apos; probability distribution from an empirical distribut... [more]

The probability of schedule overruns for construction and engineering projects can be ascertained using a 'best fit' probability distribution from an empirical distribution. The statistical characteristics of schedule overruns occurring in 276 Australian construction and engineering projects were analysed. Skewness and kurtosis values revealed that schedule overruns are non-Gaussian. Theoretical probability distributions were then fitted to the schedule overrun data; including the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Squared non-parametric tests to determine the 'Goodness of Fit'. A Four Parameter Burr probability function best described the behaviour of schedule overruns, provided the best overall distribution fit and was used to calculate the probability of a schedule overrun being experienced. The statistical characteristics of contract size and schedule overruns were also analysed, and the Wakeby (<AU$1 m and AU$11-50 m), Three Parameter Log-logistic (AU$1-A$10 m) and Beta (AU$51-A$100 m and >AU$101 m) models provided the best distribution fits and were used to calculate schedule overrun probabilities by contract size. © 2013 Operational Research Society Ltd.

DOI 10.1057/jors.2013.29
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 17
2013 Love PED, Wang X, Sing CP, Tiong RLK, 'Determining the probability of project cost overruns', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139 321-330 (2013)

The statistical characteristics of cost overruns experienced from contract award in 276 Australian construction and engineering projects were analyzed. The skewness and kurtosis v... [more]

The statistical characteristics of cost overruns experienced from contract award in 276 Australian construction and engineering projects were analyzed. The skewness and kurtosis values of the cost overruns are computed to determine if the empirical distribution of the data follows a normal distribution. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and chi-squared nonparametric tests are used to determine the goodness of fit of the selected probability distributions. A three-parameter Frechet probability function is found to describe the behavior of cost overruns and provide the best overall distribution fit. The Frechet distribution is then used to calculate the probability of a cost overrun being experienced. The statistical characteristics of contract size and cost overruns were also analyzed. The Cauchy (<A$1 million), Wakeby (A$1 to 10 million, <A$101 million) and four-parameter Burr (A$11 to 50 million) tests were found to provide the best distribution fits and used to calculate cost overrun probabilities by contract size. Ascertaining the best fit probability distribution from an empirical distribution at contract award can produce realistic probabilities of cost overruns, which should then be incorporated into a construction cost contingency. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000575
Citations Scopus - 59Web of Science - 51
2013 Wang X, Love PED, Kim MJ, Park CS, Sing CP, Hou L, 'A conceptual framework for integrating building information modeling with augmented reality', Automation in Construction, 34 37-44 (2013)

During the last two decades, designers have been embracing building information modeling (BIM) to improve the quality of the documentation that is produced as well as constructabi... [more]

During the last two decades, designers have been embracing building information modeling (BIM) to improve the quality of the documentation that is produced as well as constructability. While BIM has become an innate feature of the design process within the construction industry, there have been limited investigations that have examined how it can be integrated into real-time communication on-site. In addressing this gap, this paper proposes a conceptual framework that integrates BIM with augmented reality (AR) so as to enable the physical context of each construction activity or task to be visualized in real-time. To be effective, it is suggested that AR should be ubiquitous (including context awareness) and thus operate in conjunction with tracking and sensing technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), laser pointing, sensors and motion tracking. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2012.10.012
Citations Scopus - 101Web of Science - 72
2013 Love PED, Zhou J, Sing CP, Kim JT, 'Documentation errors in instrumentation and electrical systems: Toward productivity improvement using System Information Modeling', Automation in Construction, 35 448-459 (2013)

Documentation errors have been identified as a significant problem within the construction and engineering industry. Errors contained with contract documents can contribute to los... [more]

Documentation errors have been identified as a significant problem within the construction and engineering industry. Errors contained with contract documents can contribute to loss of profit, reduced productivity, and cost and time overruns as well as contractual disputes. Research has identified that as much as 60% of variations in construction and engineering projects are a result of errors and omissions contained within poor quality documentation. Considering this alarming statistic and the impact that poor quality documentation can have on productivity, the research presented in this paper classifies and quantifies errors in 106 drawings and the cable schedule used to document for the electrical package for an Iron Ore Stacker Conveyor. The research reveals that Computer Aided Design (CAD) used to produce the electrical drawings was ineffective, inefficient and costly to produce as they contained an array of errors. In addressing the need to eliminate documentation errors and improve productivity, the cable schedule is used to create a Systems Information Management to develop a 1:1 object orientated model using the software Dynamic Asset Documentation. As a result, of using this approach it is estimated that a 94% cost saving and a substantial improvement in productivity could have been attained in this particular case. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.autcon.2013.05.028
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 24
2013 Love PED, Sing CP, 'Determining the probability distribution of rework costs in construction and engineering projects', Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 9 1136-1148 (2013)

Rework arises due to design errors, changes and omissions during design and has been found to contribute to 52% of a project&apos;s cost overrun. The statistical characteristics o... [more]

Rework arises due to design errors, changes and omissions during design and has been found to contribute to 52% of a project's cost overrun. The statistical characteristics of rework costs experienced from contract award in 276 construction and engineering projects were analysed. The skewness and kurtosis values of rework costs are computed to determine if the empirical distribution of the data follows a normal distribution. The empirical distributions for rework costs are found to be non-Gaussian. Theoretical probability distributions are fitted to the rework data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling non-parametric tests are used to determine the 'Goodness of Fit' of the selected probability distributions. A Generalised Pareto probability function is found to provide the best overall distribution fit for rework costs. The Generalised Pareto distribution is used to calculate the probability of rework being experienced for the selected sample. Projects with a contract value <A$1million had higher rework probabilities than that of >A$101 million. Larger projects may be better managed and longer completion times provide an opportunity to make adjustments to facilitate cost control. The anticipation that rework will occur using the probabilities that are derived can enable a quantitative risk assessment to be undertaken prior to the commencement of construction. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/15732479.2012.667420
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 16
2012 Sing CP, Love PED, Tam CM, 'Stock-flow model for forecasting labor supply', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138 707-715 (2012)

Forecasting the supply of labor in the construction industry is pivotal to long-term economic growth. A labor supply model using a stock-flow approach was developed in this resear... [more]

Forecasting the supply of labor in the construction industry is pivotal to long-term economic growth. A labor supply model using a stock-flow approach was developed in this research for use in the construction industry. The model was tested using Hong Kong census statistics and data derived from interviews with 3,000 randomly selected construction workers. The findings were determined using a stock-flow model, which enabled the determination of future aging distribution trends and workforce supply for specific trade types. The developed stock-flow model can be effectively used in countries in which registration schemes for construction workers are in use. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000485
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 12
2012 Sing CP, Love PED, Tarn CM, 'Multiplier model for forecasting manpower demand', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138 1161-1168 (2012)

To better manage and forecast the demand for labor in the construction industry, a mathematical model is developed using a distributed lag model and labor multiplier approach. The... [more]

To better manage and forecast the demand for labor in the construction industry, a mathematical model is developed using a distributed lag model and labor multiplier approach. The model is tested using economic statistics and manpower data derived from Hong Kong construction projects. The model can be used by public and private sectors to forecast future labor demand so that an optimal workforce can be attained. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000529
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 11
2004 Yiu CY, Kitipornchai S, Sing CP, 'Review of the status of unauthorized building works in Hong Kong', Journal of Building Surveying, 28-34 (2004)
Show 48 more journal articles

Conference (6 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2020 Sing CP, Mak M, Yi LY, 'The Impact of the Nano Flats Development in Developed Cities: the Evidence from Hong Kong', Canberra (2020)
Co-authors Michael Mak
2019 Zhao J, Liu HJ, Sing MCP, Jin X, Humphrey R, 'VfM assessment of transport PPPs: Implications for future improvement', 43rd AUBEA. Australian Universities Building Education Association Conference. Conference Proceedings, Noosa, Australia (2019) [E1]
2016 Liu J, Love PED, Smith J, Sing CP, 'Testing a PPP performance evaluation framework', Transforming the Future of Infrastructure through Smarter Information - Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Infrastructure and Construction, ICSIC 2016 (2016)

© The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2016. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have-become an integral part of infrastructure procurement strategy in many governm... [more]

© The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2016. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have-become an integral part of infrastructure procurement strategy in many governments across the world. However, the use of PPPs has been being plagued with controversy, especially in the UK and Australia, as some procured PPP projects have experienced significant time and cost overruns and poor or less than optimal operational performance. A perspective that has been raised is that the unsatisfactory delivery of PPPs over the past decadc has resulted from the absence of an ineffective and incomplete performance evaluation. Typically evaluation has focused been ex-post measuring construction deliverables and thus has ignored the projects' inception phses. With this in mind, an innovative evaluation framework is presented and empirically tested using a case study and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to evaluate the outputs of the early formative stages of PPPs (i.e., initiation, planning and procurement). The developed evaluation framework can provide governments with a reliable tool for measuring and managing their PPP projects.

DOI 10.1680/tfitsi.61279.681
Citations Scopus - 2
2015 Sing CP, Loveridge RA, Matthews J, Lopez R, Carey B, 'Modeling the Dynamics of Design Error in Australia Mining and Resources Projects', INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCES IN MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (AMEIT 2015), Bangkok, THAILAND (2015)
Citations Web of Science - 2
2014 Love PED, Zhou J, Matthews J, Carey B, Sing C-P, 'Moving Beyond CAD: A Systems Information Model for Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering Design', FUSION: DATA INTEGRATION AT ITS BEST, VOL 2, Northumbria Univ, Fac Engn & Environm, Dept Architecture & Built Environm, Newcastle upon Tyne, ENGLAND (2014)
2012 Sing CP, Love PED, Tam CM, 'Review and exploration of river sand substitutes for concrete production in Asian countries', Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials - Selected Peer Reviewed Papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering and Building Materials, CEBM 2012 (2012)

Concrete is a stone like material obtained by carefully proportioned mixture of cement, fine sand, aggregate and water, hardened in the forms of shape and dimensions of the desire... [more]

Concrete is a stone like material obtained by carefully proportioned mixture of cement, fine sand, aggregate and water, hardened in the forms of shape and dimensions of the desired structure. High quality concrete mixture can only be produced with a proper choice of fine sand with requisite fineness module. The natural river sand is the cheapest option due to the ease of acquisition and in a well-grade nature. However, excessive excavation of river sand creates a serious environmental problem in Asian countries such as China, Thailand and India. Thus, natural river sand substitutes have to be explored urgently. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Citations Scopus - 2
Show 3 more conferences
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current1

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2018 PhD Integration of Resilience Engineering For Advancing Occupational Health and Safety in Construction Industry PhD (Building), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
Australia 49
Hong Kong 34
United Kingdom 22
China 5
Korea, Republic of 4
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Associate Professor Michael Sing

Position

Associate Professor
School of Architecture and Built Environment
School of Architecture and Built Environment
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Contact Details

Email michael.sing@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 6716
Fax (02) 4921 6913

Office

Room Architecture AG06
Building Architecture
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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