Mr Md Nuruzzaman Khan

Mr Md Nuruzzaman Khan

Research student

Career Summary

Biography

Md Nuruzzaman Khan is a PhD student at the Research Centre for Generational Health and Aging, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Australia. Before commencing his PhD, he had been lecturing in the Department of Population Sciences at the Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh and currently on study leave. Mr Khan completed his Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) and Master of Science (M.Sc) in Population Science and Human Resource Development from the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. He has been actively engaged in public health research since 2014 and develop a significant record of accomplishment in understanding the complex health and social outcomes for the women and child. Mr Khan has a particular interest in women health, including problems associated with reproductive health, and healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle income countries.   


Keywords

  • Burden of nutrition
  • Maternal and child health
  • Non-communicable diseases
  • Population modelling
  • Universal health coverage

Languages

  • Bengali (Mother)
  • English (Fluent)

Professional Experience

Teaching appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
14/6/2017 -  PhD Student Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle
School of Medicine and Public Health
Australia

Teaching

Code Course Role Duration
PS101, PS103 Population Health, Demography
Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University
Lecturer 5/2/2017 - 7/7/2019
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (59 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2021 Bakebillah M, Billah MA, Wubishet BL, Khan MN, 'Community's misconception about COVID-19 and its associated factors in Satkhira, Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.', PLoS One, 16 e0257410 (2021)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0257410
2021 Rana J, Islam RM, Khan MN, Aliani R, Oulhote Y, 'Association between household air pollution and child mortality in Myanmar using a multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression with robust variance', Scientific Reports, 11 (2021) [C1]

Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use (SFU) for cooking is a major public health threat for women and children in low and middle-income countries. This study investiga... [more]

Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use (SFU) for cooking is a major public health threat for women and children in low and middle-income countries. This study investigated the associations between HAP and neonatal, infant, and under-five child mortality in Myanmar. The study consisted of¿3249 sample of under-five children in the households from the¿first Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Fuel types and levels of exposure to SFU (no, moderate and high) were proxies for HAP. We estimated covariate-adjusted relative risks¿(aRR) of neonatal, infant, and under-five child mortality with 95% confidence intervals, accounting for the survey design. The prevalence of SFU was 79.0%. The neonatal, infant, and under-five child mortality rates were 26, 45, and 49 per 1000 live births, respectively. The risks of infant (aRR 2.02; 95% CI 1.01¿4.05; p-value = 0.048) and under-five mortality (aRR 2.16; 95% CI 1.07¿4.36; p-value = 0.031), but not neonatal mortality, were higher among children from households with SFU compared to children from households using clean fuel. Likewise, children highly exposed to HAP had higher risks of mortality than unexposed children. HAP increases the risks of infant and under-five child mortality in Myanmar, which could be reduced by increasing access to¿clean cookstoves and fuels.

DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-92193-0
2021 Khan MN, Islam MM, Rahman MM, Rahman MM, 'Access to female contraceptives by rohingya refugees, Bangladesh', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 99 201-208 (2021)

Objective To determine the prevalence of the use of contraceptives among female Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and its associated factors. Methods We conducted our cross-sectiona... [more]

Objective To determine the prevalence of the use of contraceptives among female Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and its associated factors. Methods We conducted our cross-sectional survey at the Kutupalong refugee facility located in Cox¿s Bazar in November 2019. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to determine the association between the use of contraceptives and our various predictor variables, including women¿s age, age at first marriage, education level and employment status. We also considered factors such as whether previous pregnancies were planned or unplanned, and the occurrence of non-consensual sex with husbands. Findings We found that 50.91% (251/493) of the survey participants used contraceptives, and that injection (169/251; 67.33%) and oral contraceptives (75/251; 29.88%) were the predominant modes. Of the women who did not use contraceptives, the main reasons were reported as disapproval by husbands (118/242; 48.76%), actively seeking a pregnancy (42/242; 17.36%) and religious beliefs (37/242; 15.29%). An increased likelihood of using contraceptives was found to be positively associated with women¿s employment outside their households (odds ratio, OR: 3.11; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.69¿6.11) and the presence of a health-care centre in the camp (OR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.01¿7.67). Women who reported an unplanned pregnancy during the previous 2 years were less likely to use contraceptives (OR: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01¿0.05). Conclusion To increase the acceptance and use of contraceptives, we recommend programmes targeted at women of reproductive age and their husbands, religious and community leaders, and providers of family planning and child and maternal health-care services.

DOI 10.2471/BLT.20.269779
2021 Islam MM, Khan MN, Rahman MM, 'Intimate Partner Abuse Among Rohingya Women and Its Relationship With Their Abilities to Reject Husbands Advances to Unwanted Sex', Journal of Interpersonal Violence, (2021)

Currently, around a million Rohingya refugees live in Cox¿s Bazar, Bangladesh. Displacement from homelands and restrictions on movement in the refugee camps may exacerbate intimat... [more]

Currently, around a million Rohingya refugees live in Cox¿s Bazar, Bangladesh. Displacement from homelands and restrictions on movement in the refugee camps may exacerbate intimate partner abuse (IPA) against refugee women and their abilities to reject husbands¿ advances to unwanted sex. This study examines Rohingya refugee women¿s attitudes toward and experience of intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their impact on the abilities to reject husbands¿ advances to unwanted sex. A survey was conducted among Rohingya refugee women in Cox¿s Bazar, Bangladesh. Women¿s attitudes toward IPA, and experience of IPA were the exposure variables. Women¿s abilities to say ¿no¿ to husbands¿ advances to unwanted sexual intercourse was the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships. Participants¿ median age was 22 years (range: 13-41). Most women perceived hitting/beatings by their husbands in certain situations as justifiable, 72% had experienced such abuse and 56.5% had to engage in unwanted sexual intercourse with their husbands. Women with increasing leniency towards hitting/beatings and those who had experienced such abuse were less likely to be able to say ¿no¿ to husbands¿ advances to unwanted sexual intercourse. Rohingya women¿s attitudes toward and experience of IPA are associated with their abilities to say ¿no¿ to husbands¿ advances to unwanted sex. Intervention is needed to denormalize the current practice of IPA, create awareness against IPA, and ensure formal education for girls.

DOI 10.1177/0886260521991299
Citations Scopus - 1
2021 Khan MN, Rahman MM, Rahman MM, Islam MM, 'HIV transmission knowledge among Rohingya refugee women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional survey.', BMJ Open, 11 e047516 (2021)
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047516
2021 Sartorius B, Van der Heide J, Yang M, Goosmann E, Hon J, Haeuser E, et al., 'Subnational mapping of HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15-49 years in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-18: a modelling study', LANCET HIV, 8 E363-E375 (2021)
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 1
2021 Islam MM, Khan MN, Rahman MM, 'Attitudes to and experiences of intimate partner violence among Rohingya women who married before eighteen years of age.', Glob Health Action, 14 1943852 (2021)
DOI 10.1080/16549716.2021.1943852
2021 Islam MM, Khan MN, Rahman MM, 'Factors affecting child marriage and contraceptive use among Rohingya girls in refugee camps', The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific, 12 (2021)

Background: Rohingya girls living in the refugee camps in Bangladesh are disproportionately vulnerable to child marriages and teenage pregnancies. This study examines the factors ... [more]

Background: Rohingya girls living in the refugee camps in Bangladesh are disproportionately vulnerable to child marriages and teenage pregnancies. This study examines the factors affecting child marriage and contraceptive use among Rohingya girls who have experienced child marriages. Methods: We collected and analysed quantitative and qualitative data from adolescent Rohingya girls (age 10-19 years) who experienced child marriages. The quantitative data (n=96) came from a cross-sectional survey, and the qualitative data (n=18) from in-depth interviews conducted in the world's largest refugee camp located in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. We also interviewed service providers (n=9) of reproductive healthcare services to gain their perspectives regarding contraceptive use among these young girls. We used descriptive statistics to characterise the girls¿ demographic profiles, ages at their first marriages, and contraceptive use. Thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data to identify key factors influencing child marriage and contraceptive use among these girls. Findings: On average, the adolescent female participants had been 15.7 years old when they were first married. Over 80% had given birth during the two years before the survey or were pregnant during time of the data collection. The main factors that influenced child marriage were found to be perceptions regarding the physical and mental maturity for marriage, social norms, insecurity, family honour, preferences for younger brides and the relaxed enforcement of the minimum legal age for marriage. A third (34%) of the girls said they were using contraceptives on the week when the study was conducted. The desire for children, religious beliefs, misapprehension about contraception and long waiting periods in facility-based health services and current service provision were the main factors influencing contraceptive use. Depo Provera injections and pills were the dominant methods of contraception. Contraceptive use during the period between marriage and the first childbirth is rare. Interpretation: Girl child marriage is common in Rohingya camps. Contraceptive use is rare among newly married girls before they give birth for the first time. The involvement of female and male Rohingya volunteers for outreach services can be catalytic in promoting contraceptive use. Funding: La Trobe Asia, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Bengali translation of the abstract in Appendix 1

DOI 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100175
2021 Cork MA, Henry NJ, Watson S, Croneberger AJ, Baumann M, Letourneau ID, et al., 'Mapping subnational HIV mortality in six Latin American countries with incomplete vital registration systems', BMC Medicine, 19 (2021)

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a public health priority in Latin America. While the burden of HIV is historically concentrated in urban areas and high-risk... [more]

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a public health priority in Latin America. While the burden of HIV is historically concentrated in urban areas and high-risk groups, subnational estimates that cover multiple countries and years are missing. This paucity is partially due to incomplete vital registration (VR) systems and statistical challenges related to estimating mortality rates in areas with low numbers of HIV deaths. In this analysis, we address this gap and provide novel estimates of the HIV mortality rate and the number of HIV deaths by age group, sex, and municipality in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico. Methods: We performed an ecological study using VR data ranging from 2000 to 2017, dependent on individual country data availability. We modeled HIV mortality using a Bayesian spatially explicit mixed-effects regression model that incorporates prior information on VR completeness. We calibrated our results to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Results: All countries displayed over a 40-fold difference in HIV mortality between municipalities with the highest and lowest age-standardized HIV mortality rate in the last year of study for men, and over a 20-fold difference for women. Despite decreases in national HIV mortality in all countries¿apart from Ecuador¿across the period of study, we found broad variation in relative changes in HIV mortality at the municipality level and increasing relative inequality over time in all countries. In all six countries included in this analysis, 50% or more HIV deaths were concentrated in fewer than 10% of municipalities in the latest year of study. In addition, national age patterns reflected shifts in mortality to older age groups¿the median age group among decedents ranged from 30 to 45 years of age at the municipality level in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico in 2017. Conclusions: Our subnational estimates of HIV mortality revealed significant spatial variation and diverging local trends in HIV mortality over time and by age. This analysis provides a framework for incorporating data and uncertainty from incomplete VR systems and can help guide more geographically precise public health intervention to support HIV-related care and reduce HIV-related deaths.

DOI 10.1186/s12916-020-01876-4
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 12
2021 Cromwell EA, Osborne JCP, Unnasch TR, Basáñez M-G, Gass KM, Barbre KA, et al., 'Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.', PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 15 e0008824 (2021)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008824
2021 Khan MA, Khan N, Rahman O, Mustagir G, Hossain K, Islam R, Khan HTA, 'Trends and projections of under-5 mortality in Bangladesh including the effects of maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services', PLoS ONE, 16 (2021) [C1]

Objective This study examines trends and puts forward projections of under-5 mortality (U5M) in Bangladesh and identifies the effects of maternal high-risk fertility behaviours an... [more]

Objective This study examines trends and puts forward projections of under-5 mortality (U5M) in Bangladesh and identifies the effects of maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services. Methods Data from seven waves of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1994 2014) were analyzed for trends and projections of U5M and a Chi-square (x2) test was used to identify if there was any association with maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and use of healthcare services. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the effects of fertility behaviors and healthcare usage on the occurrence of U5M adjusting with confounders. Results U5M declined from 82.5 to 41.0 per 1000 livebirths during 1994 2014 and is projected to further reduce to 17.6 per 1000 livebirths by 2030. The study identified a noticeable regional variation in U5M with maternal high-risk fertility behaviours including age at birth <18 years (aOR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.23 2.76) and birth interval <24 months (aOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02 2.37) found to be significant determinants. There was a 39 53% decline in this rate of mortality among women that had used antenatal care services at least four times (aOR, 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 0.97), delivery care (aOR, 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24 0.95), and had received postnatal care (aOR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41 0.91) in their last birth. Cesarean section was found to be associated with a 51% reduction in U5M (aOR, 0.49, 95% CI: 0.29 0.82) compared to its non-use. Conclusion The Sustainable Development Goals require a U5M rate of 25 per 1000 livebirths to be achieved by 2030. This study suggests that with the current trend of reduction, Bangladesh will achieve this target before the deadline. This study also found that maternal high-risk fertility behaviours and non-use of maternal healthcare services are very prevalent in some regions of Bangladesh and have increased the occurrence of U5M in those areas. This suggests therefore, that policies and programmes designed to reduce the pregnancy rates of women that are at risk and to encourage an increase in the use of maternal healthcare services are needed.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0246210
2021 Khan MN, Oldroyd JC, Chowdhury EK, Hossain MB, Rana J, Renzetti S, Islam RM, 'Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Bangladesh: Findings from National Demographic and Health Survey, 2017 2018', Journal of Clinical Hypertension, (2021)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the age-standardised prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and to identify their risk factors in Bangladeshi adul... [more]

The purpose of this study was to estimate the age-standardised prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and to identify their risk factors in Bangladeshi adults. Data from 12 904 adults aged 18¿95 years, available from the most recent nationally representative 2017¿2018 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used. Hypertension was defined as having systolic blood pressure =140¿mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure =90¿mmHg, and/or taking anti-hypertensive drugs to control blood pressure. Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and management were estimated with direct standardisation. A multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression model with a robust variance was used to identify risk factors associated with hypertension and its awareness, treatment, and control. The overall age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 26.2% (95% CI, 25.5-26.9); (men: 23.5%, women: 28.9%). Among those with hypertension (n¿=¿3531), 36.7% were aware that they had the condition, and only 31.1% received anti-hypertensive medication. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was 12.7% among those with hypertension and 43.6% among those treated for hypertension (n¿=¿1306). Factors independently associated with hypertension were increasing age, higher body mass index, being women, having diabetes, and residing in selected administrative divisions. A declining trend of hypertension control was observed with increasing age and low education. Hypertension is highly prevalent (one in four) in Bangladeshi adults, while awareness, treatment, and control are low. Irrespective of the risks associated with hypertension and its management, programs to increase its awareness, treatment, and control should be given high priority in reducing hypertension prevalence and improving hypertension control in Bangladesh.

DOI 10.1111/jch.14363
2020 Billah MA, Miah MM, Khan MN, 'Reproductive number of coronavirus: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on global level evidence', PLOS ONE, 15 (2020)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0242128
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 31
2020 Roth GA, Mensah GA, Johnson CO, Addolorato G, Ammirati E, Baddour LM, et al., 'Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990-2019 Update From the GBD 2019 Study', JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, 76 2982-3021 (2020)
DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.11.010
Citations Scopus - 217Web of Science - 180
2020 Sbarra AN, Rolfe S, Nguyen JQ, Earl L, Galles NC, Marks A, et al., 'Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries', NATURE, 589 415-+ (2020)
DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-03043-4
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
2020 Kinyoki DK, Ross JM, Lazzar-Atwood A, Munro SB, Schaeffer LE, Abbasalizad-Farhangi M, et al., 'Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017', Nature Medicine, 26 750-759 (2020) [C1]

A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of over... [more]

A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant administrative units. Wasting decreased overall across LMICs between 2000 and 2017, from 8.4% (62.3 (55.1¿70.8) million) to 6.4% (58.3 (47.6¿70.7) million), but is predicted to remain above the World Health Organization¿s Global Nutrition Target of <5% in over half of LMICs by 2025. Prevalence of overweight increased from 5.2% (30 (22.8¿38.5) million) in 2000 to 6.0% (55.5 (44.8¿67.9) million) children aged under 5 years in 2017. Areas most affected by double burden of malnutrition were located in Indonesia, Thailand, southeastern China, Botswana, Cameroon and central Nigeria. Our estimates provide a new perspective to researchers, policy makers and public health agencies in their efforts to address this global childhood syndemic.

DOI 10.1038/s41591-020-0807-6
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15
2020 Khan MN, Harris M, Loxton D, 'Modern contraceptive use following an unplanned birth in Bangladesh: An analysis of national survey data', International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 46 77-87 (2020) [C1]

CONTEXT: Ineffective use or nonuse of contraceptives following an unplanned birth can contribute to the risk of a subsequent unintended pregnancy; however, the literature on the r... [more]

CONTEXT: Ineffective use or nonuse of contraceptives following an unplanned birth can contribute to the risk of a subsequent unintended pregnancy; however, the literature on the relationship between unintended pregnancy and postpartum contraceptive use is sparse, especially in low-and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data on 4,493 women from the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed; the subjects of the analysis had had a live birth in the three years prior to the survey and were currently at risk of pregnancy. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the intendedness of a woman¿s last pregnancy resulting in a live birth and her current modern contraceptive use adjusting for individual, household and community-level variables. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of women reported that their last pregnancy resulting in a live birth had been unintended (15% mistimed and 11% unwanted); 61% reported current use of a modern contraceptive method. Compared with women who reported the pregnancy as having been wanted, those who reported the pregnancy as mistimed had greater odds of current modern contraceptive use (odds ratio, 1.6); no association was found between having had an unwanted pregnancy and subsequent modern contraceptive use. Other important correlates of modern contraceptive use included women¿s autonomy and desire for children, time since last birth and community-level poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Bangladeshi women who experience an unwanted pregnancy may have an elevated risk of subsequent unintended pregnancy. Broader coverage of family planning services, and integration of family planning with maternal health care, may increase modern contraceptive use following an unplanned birth.

DOI 10.1363/46e8820
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Melissa Harris, Deborah Loxton
2020 Khan MN, Harris ML, Loxton D, 'Does unintended pregnancy have an impact on skilled delivery care use in Bangladesh? A nationally representative cross-sectional study using Demography and Health Survey data', Journal of Biosocial Science, (2020)

Skilled delivery care has been targeted in the Sustainable Development Goals to reduce preventable maternal and newborn deaths, which mostly occur because of birthing complication... [more]

Skilled delivery care has been targeted in the Sustainable Development Goals to reduce preventable maternal and newborn deaths, which mostly occur because of birthing complications. Birthing complications are more frequent in women with unintended than intended pregnancies, and around 43% of total pregnancies in low-A nd middle-income countries are unintended. This study quantified the impact of unintended pregnancy on skilled birth attendance and delivery in health care facilities in Bangladesh. Data from 4493 women participating in the cross-sectional 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess the association of unintended pregnancy with skilled birth attendance and delivery in a health care facility through skilled providers while adjusting for individual-, household-A nd community-level factors identified using a directed acyclic graph. Around 26% of women reported that their last pregnancy (occurring within the previous 3 years) that ended with a live birth was unintended at conception. Only 42% reported having a skilled birth attendant present at their last birth and 38% gave birth in a health care facility. Significant differences were found across pregnancy intention. Lower odds of skilled birth attendance (OR, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.52-0.93) and delivery in a health care facility through skilled providers (OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.48-0.89) were found among women who had an unwanted pregnancy relative to women who had a wanted pregnancy. However, a mistimed pregnancy was not found to be associated with skilled birth attendance or delivery in health care facility through skilled providers. Increased availability of health care facilities at the community level is required in Bangladesh to ensure skilled delivery care for women with an unwanted pregnancy. Policies are also required to integrate women with an unwanted pregnancy into mainstream health care services through earlier detection and increased awareness in order to reduce the adverse maternal and fetal outcomes associated with lack of quality birthing care.

DOI 10.1017/S0021932020000528
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Deborah Loxton, Melissa Harris
2020 Khan MMA, Khan MN, 'Effects of psychosocial and socio-environmental factors on anxiety disorder among adolescents in Bangladesh', Brain and Behavior, 10 (2020) [C1]

Background: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder among adolescents in developing countries. This study aimed to examine the risk factors of anxiety disorder and the adverse co... [more]

Background: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder among adolescents in developing countries. This study aimed to examine the risk factors of anxiety disorder and the adverse consequences of anxiety disorder among adolescents in Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 2,989 adolescent data of the 2014 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), Bangladesh, was analyzed WHO. The prevalence of anxiety disorder across psychosocial and socio-environmental factors was calculated as descriptive statistics, whereas their effects on occurring anxiety disorder were determined using the unadjusted and adjusted multivariable binary logistic regression model. The consequences of anxiety disorder were also determined using the multivariable binary logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder was 4.7%, which was found higher among female than their male counterparts. The psychosocial factors were found associated with the anxiety disorder are loneliness (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.08¿4.72), being bullied (AOR: 6.00, 95% CI: 3.14¿11.47), and physical abuse (AOR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07¿4.21). Moreover, poor understandings with parents (AOR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.02¿3.01) and lack of peer support (AOR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.18¿4.23) were the socio-environmental factors that found associated with the anxiety disorder. Subgroup analysis across gender found these associations were consistent for adolescent male and female. Moreover, the likelihood increased with the increasing number of the adverse psychosocial, or socio-environmental factors. Conclusions: Around 5% of school-going adolescents in Bangladesh reported anxiety associated with the exposure of single or multiple adverse psychosocial and socio-environmental factors including bullying and physical abuse. Early screening and interventions are essential, targeted to adolescent at risk, which could reduce the rate of anxiety disorder among adolescent in Bangladesh.

DOI 10.1002/brb3.1899
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2020 Khan MN, Harris ML, Oldmeadow C, Loxton D, 'Effect of unintended pregnancy on skilled antenatal care uptake in Bangladesh: analysis of national survey data', Archives of Public Health, 78 81-94 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s13690-020-00468-1
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Christopher Oldmeadow, Melissa Harris, Deborah Loxton
2020 Wiens KE, Lindstedt PA, Blacker BF, Johnson KB, Baumann MM, Schaeffer LE, et al., 'Mapping geographical inequalities in oral rehydration therapy coverage in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000 17', The Lancet Global Health, 8 e1038-e1060 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30230-8
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2020 Khan MN, Harris ML, Loxton D, 'Assessing the effect of pregnancy intention at conception on the continuum of care in maternal healthcare services use in Bangladesh: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey', PLoS ONE, 15 1-20 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0242729
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Melissa Harris, Deborah Loxton
2020 Rahman MA, Khan MN, Akter S, Rahman A, Alam MM, Khan MA, Rahman MM, 'Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practice in Bangladesh: Evidence from nationally representative survey data', PLOS ONE, 15 (2020)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0236080
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Shahinoor Akter Uon
2020 Khan MMA, Khan MN, Mustagir G, Rana J, Islam MS, Kabir MI, 'Effects of underlying morbidities on the occurrence of deaths in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Journal of Global Health, 10 1-14 (2020)

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most hectic pandemic of the era, is increasing exponentially and taking thousands of lives worldwide. This study aimed to asses... [more]

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the most hectic pandemic of the era, is increasing exponentially and taking thousands of lives worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of pre-existing comorbidities among COVID-19 patients and their mortality risks with each category of pre-existing comorbidity. Methods To conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched using pre-specified search strategies. Further searches were conducted using the reference list of the selected studies, renowned preprint servers (eg, medRxiv, bioRxiv, SSRN), and relevant journals¿ websites. Studies written in the English language included if those were conducted among COVID-19 patients with and without comorbidities and presented survivor vs non-survivor counts or hazard/odds of deaths or survivors with types of pre-existing comorbidities. Comorbidities reported in the selected studies were grouped into eight categories. The pooled likelihoods of deaths in each category were estimated using a fixed or random-effect model, based on the heterogeneity assessment. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot asymmetry and Egger¿s regression test. Trim and Fill method was used if there any publication bias was found. Results A total of 41 studies included in this study comprised of 27 670 samples. The most common pre-existing comorbidities in COVID-19 patients were hypertension (39.5%), cardiovascular disease (12.4%), and diabetes (25.2%). The higher likelihood of deaths was found among COVID-19 patients who had pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.86-4.09), immune and metabolic disorders (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 2.03-2.85), respiratory diseases (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.72-2.19), cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 3.04-5.58), any types of cancers (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.63-3.03), renal (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 2.60-3.51), and liver diseases (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.50-3.69). Conclusions This study provides evidence that COVID-19 patients with pre-existing comorbidities had a higher likelihood of death. These findings could potentially help health care providers to sort out the most susceptible COVID-19 patients by comorbidities, take precautionary measures during hospitalization, assess susceptibility to death, and prioritize their treatment, which could potentially reduce the number of fatalities in COVID-19.

DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.020503
Citations Scopus - 18
2020 Rai A, Khan MN, Thapa S, 'Trends and determinants of anaemia in women of Nepal: a multilevel analysis', Maternal and Child Nutrition, 16 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/mcn.13044
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2020 Reiner RC, Wiens KE, Deshpande A, Baumann MM, Lindstedt PA, Blacker BF, et al., 'Department of Error: Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000 17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (The Lancet (2020) 395(10239) (1779 1801), (S0140673620301148), (10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30114-8))', The Lancet, 395 1762 (2020)

Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000¿17: analysis for the Global... [more]

Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI. Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000¿17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2020; 395: 1779¿801¿In this Article, the author byline has been amended to Local Burden of Disease Diarrhoea Collaborators. This correction has been made to the online version as of June 4, 2020, and the printed version is correct.

DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31248-4
2020 Troeger CE, Khalil IA, Blacker BF, Biehl MH, Albertson SB, Zimsen SRM, et al., 'Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of diarrhoea among children younger than 5 years: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20 37-59 (2020) [C1]

Background: Many countries have shown marked declines in diarrhoeal disease mortality among children younger than 5 years. With this analysis, we provide updated results on diarrh... [more]

Background: Many countries have shown marked declines in diarrhoeal disease mortality among children younger than 5 years. With this analysis, we provide updated results on diarrhoeal disease mortality among children younger than 5 years from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) and use the study's comparative risk assessment to quantify trends and effects of risk factors, interventions, and broader sociodemographic development on mortality changes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Methods: This analysis for GBD 2017 had three main components. Diarrhoea mortality was modelled using vital registration data, demographic surveillance data, and verbal autopsy data in a predictive, Bayesian, ensemble modelling tool; and the attribution of risk factors and interventions for diarrhoea were modelled in a counterfactual framework that combines modelled population-level prevalence of the exposure to each risk or intervention with the relative risk of diarrhoea given exposure to that factor. We assessed the relative and absolute change in diarrhoea mortality rate between 1990 and 2017, and used the change in risk factor exposure and sociodemographic status to explain differences in the trends of diarrhoea mortality among children younger than 5 years. Findings: Diarrhoea was responsible for an estimated 533 768 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 477 162¿593 145) among children younger than 5 years globally in 2017, a rate of 78·4 deaths (70·1¿87·1) per 100 000 children. The diarrhoea mortality rate ranged between countries by over 685 deaths per 100 000 children. Diarrhoea mortality per 100 000 globally decreased by 69·6% (63·1¿74·6) between 1990 and 2017. Among the risk factors considered in this study, those responsible for the largest declines in the diarrhoea mortality rate were reduction in exposure to unsafe sanitation (13·3% decrease, 11·2¿15·5), childhood wasting (9·9% decrease, 9·6¿10·2), and low use of oral rehydration solution (6·9% decrease, 4·8¿8·4). Interpretation: Diarrhoea mortality has declined substantially since 1990, although there are variations by country. Improvements in sociodemographic indicators might explain some of these trends, but changes in exposure to risk factors¿particularly unsafe sanitation, childhood growth failure, and low use of oral rehydration solution¿appear to be related to the relative and absolute rates of decline in diarrhoea mortality. Although the most effective interventions might vary by country or region, identifying and scaling up the interventions aimed at preventing and protecting against diarrhoea that have already reduced diarrhoea mortality could further avert many thousands of deaths due to this illness. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30401-3
Citations Scopus - 24
2020 Troeger CE, Khalil IA, Blacker BF, Biehl MH, Albertson SB, Zimsen SRM, et al., 'Quantifying risks and interventions that have affected the burden of lower respiratory infections among children younger than 5 years: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20 60-79 (2020) [C1]

Background: Despite large reductions in under-5 lower respiratory infection (LRI) mortality in many locations, the pace of progress for LRIs has generally lagged behind that of ot... [more]

Background: Despite large reductions in under-5 lower respiratory infection (LRI) mortality in many locations, the pace of progress for LRIs has generally lagged behind that of other childhood infectious diseases. To better inform programmes and policies focused on preventing and treating LRIs, we assessed the contributions and patterns of risk factor attribution, intervention coverage, and sociodemographic development in 195 countries and territories by drawing from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) LRI estimates. Methods: We used four strategies to model LRI burden: the mortality due to LRIs was modelled using vital registration data, demographic surveillance data, and verbal autopsy data in a predictive ensemble modelling tool; the incidence of LRIs was modelled using population representative surveys, health-care utilisation data, and scientific literature in a compartmental meta-regression tool; the attribution of risk factors for LRI mortality was modelled in a counterfactual framework; and trends in LRI mortality were analysed applying changes in exposure to risk factors over time. In GBD, infectious disease mortality, including that due to LRI, is among HIV-negative individuals. We categorised locations based on their burden in 1990 to make comparisons in the changing burden between 1990 and 2017 and evaluate the relative percent change in mortality rate, incidence, and risk factor exposure to explain differences in the health loss associated with LRIs among children younger than 5 years. Findings: In 2017, LRIs caused 808 920 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 747 286¿873 591) in children younger than 5 years. Since 1990, there has been a substantial decrease in the number of deaths (from 2 337 538 to 808 920 deaths; 65·4% decrease, 61·5¿68·5) and in mortality rate (from 362·7 deaths [330·1¿392·0] per 100 000 children to 118·9 deaths [109·8¿128·3] per 100 000 children; 67·2% decrease, 63·5¿70·1). LRI incidence declined globally (32·4% decrease, 27·2¿37·5). The percent change in under-5 mortality rate and incidence has varied across locations. Among the risk factors assessed in this study, those responsible for the greatest decrease in under-5 LRI mortality between 1990 and 2017 were increased coverage of vaccination against Haemophilus influenza type b (11·4% decrease, 0·0¿24·5), increased pneumococcal vaccine coverage (6·3% decrease, 6·1¿6·3), and reductions in household air pollution (8·4%, 6·8¿9·2). Interpretation: Our findings show that there have been substantial but uneven declines in LRI mortality among countries between 1990 and 2017. Although improvements in indicators of sociodemographic development could explain some of these trends, changes in exposure to modifiable risk factors are related to the rates of decline in LRI mortality. No single intervention would universally accelerate reductions in health loss associated with LRIs in all settings, but emphasising the most dominant risk factors, particularly in countries with high case fatality, can contribute to the reduction of preventable deaths. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30410-4
Citations Scopus - 31
2020 Ali Khan MM, Khan MN, Mustagir MG, Rana J, Haque MR, Rahman MM, 'COVID-19 infection during pregnancy: a systematic review to summarize possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes (2020)
DOI 10.1101/2020.03.31.20049304
2020 Deshpande A, Miller-Petrie MK, Lindstedt PA, Baumann MM, Johnson KB, Blacker BF, et al., 'Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17', The Lancet Global Health, 8 e1162-e1185 (2020) [C1]

Background: Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventin... [more]

Background: Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods: We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings: Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40·0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 39·4¿40·7) to 50·3% (50·0¿50·5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46·3% (95% UI 46·1¿46·5) in 2017, compared with 28·7% (28·5¿29·0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88·6% (95% UI 87·2¿89·7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664¿711) of the 1830 (1797¿1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76·1% (95% UI 71·6¿80·7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53·9% (50·6¿59·6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation: Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

DOI 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30278-3
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 13
2020 Reiner RC, Hay SI, Wiens KE, Deshpande A, Baumann MM, Lindstedt PA, et al., 'Mapping geographical inequalities in childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000 17: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017', The Lancet, (2020) [C1]

© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license Background: Across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), one ... [more]

© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license Background: Across low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), one in ten deaths in children younger than 5 years is attributable to diarrhoea. The substantial between-country variation in both diarrhoea incidence and mortality is attributable to interventions that protect children, prevent infection, and treat disease. Identifying subnational regions with the highest burden and mapping associated risk factors can aid in reducing preventable childhood diarrhoea. Methods: We used Bayesian model-based geostatistics and a geolocated dataset comprising 15 072 746 children younger than 5 years from 466 surveys in 94 LMICs, in combination with findings of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, to estimate posterior distributions of diarrhoea prevalence, incidence, and mortality from 2000 to 2017. From these data, we estimated the burden of diarrhoea at varying subnational levels (termed units) by spatially aggregating draws, and we investigated the drivers of subnational patterns by creating aggregated risk factor estimates. Findings: The greatest declines in diarrhoeal mortality were seen in south and southeast Asia and South America, where 54·0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 38·1¿65·8), 17·4% (7·7¿28·4), and 59·5% (34·2¿86·9) of units, respectively, recorded decreases in deaths from diarrhoea greater than 10%. Although children in much of Africa remain at high risk of death due to diarrhoea, regions with the most deaths were outside Africa, with the highest mortality units located in Pakistan. Indonesia showed the greatest within-country geographical inequality; some regions had mortality rates nearly four times the average country rate. Reductions in mortality were correlated to improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) or reductions in child growth failure (CGF). Similarly, most high-risk areas had poor WASH, high CGF, or low oral rehydration therapy coverage. Interpretation: By co-analysing geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden and its key risk factors, we could assess candidate drivers of subnational death reduction. Further, by doing a counterfactual analysis of the remaining disease burden using key risk factors, we identified potential intervention strategies for vulnerable populations. In view of the demands for limited resources in LMICs, accurately quantifying the burden of diarrhoea and its drivers is important for precision public health. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30114-8
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 16
2020 Khan MN, Islam MM, Rahman MM, 'Risks of COVID19 outbreaks in Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh', Public Health in Practice, 1 (2020)

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have started spreading in Bangladesh since March 2020. Since then the new infections grew exponentially and now the rate is highest in Asia ... [more]

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have started spreading in Bangladesh since March 2020. Since then the new infections grew exponentially and now the rate is highest in Asia along with wider community-level transmission. In Bangladesh, the preventive measures have been found challenging to implement due to a lack of general awareness of COVID-19 and the absence of a social safety net. In this situation, there is a concern about the heightened risk of infection and its aftermath in Rohingya refugee camps in the southwest part of Bangladesh, where the world's largest refugee population resides. If COVID-19 starts spreading in the camps, there will have a devastating consequence given that almost one million people live in precarious and unhygienic conditions in an area of only five square kilometres. In this paper, the risk for the Rohingya refugee population of getting COVID-19 disease and the preparedness to diagnose new cases and their management by the facilities of government and international organizations are discussed. Several suggestions are also offered to protect the Rohingya refugee population from deadly COVID-19 disease.

DOI 10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100018
Citations Scopus - 3
2020 Rahman MA, Khan MN, Rahman MM, 'Maternal anaemia and risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes in South Asian countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Public Health in Practice, 1 (2020)

Background: The occurrence of maternal anaemia is common in South Asian countries which increase the risk of adverse maternal obstetric and birth outcomes. This may adversely affe... [more]

Background: The occurrence of maternal anaemia is common in South Asian countries which increase the risk of adverse maternal obstetric and birth outcomes. This may adversely affect the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals¿ (SDG) targets of reducing maternal and under-five deaths by 2030. Objectives: To summarize the evidence on the association of maternal anaemia with adverse birth and maternal obstetric outcomes. Methods: We adopted the PRISMA consensus statement. PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science databases were searched on February 20, 2020. A total of 38 studies was included, of which 25 articles were included in the quantitative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Maternal anaemia was associated with a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06-2.60, p ¿< ¿0.05), preterm birth (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.20-2.41, p ¿< ¿0.05) and perinatal mortality (OR, 2.90; 1.97-3.78, p ¿< ¿0.05). Non-significant associations were seen with neonatal mortality (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.90-27.77, p ¿= ¿0.7), miscarriage (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.48-3.20, p ¿= ¿0.08), preeclampsia (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 0.61-11.52, p ¿= ¿0.6) and caesarean delivery (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.36-2.80, p ¿= ¿0.07). Conclusion: Maternal anaemia increases the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and perinatal mortality. Improving maternal nutritional status and iron supplementation during pregnancy are important for reducing these adverse outcomes.

DOI 10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100021
Citations Scopus - 2
2020 Khan MN, Kumar P, Rahman MM, Mondal MNI, Islam MM, 'Inequalities in Utilization of Maternal Reproductive Health Care Services in Urban Bangladesh: A Population-Based Study', SAGE OPEN, 10 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1177/2158244020914394
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Mdmijanur Rahman Uon
2020 Khan MN, Harris ML, Loxton D, 'Low utilisation of postnatal care among women with unwanted pregnancy: A challenge for Bangladesh to achieve Sustainable Development Goal targets to reduce maternal and newborn deaths', HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, (2020)
DOI 10.1111/hsc.13237
Co-authors Deborah Loxton, Melissa Harris
2020 Khan A, Fahad TM, Manik MIN, Ali H, Ashiquazzaman M, Mollah MI, et al., 'Barriers in access to healthcare services for individuals with disorders of sex differentiation in Bangladesh: An analysis of regional representative cross-sectional data', BMC Public Health, 20 (2020)

Background: Worldwide people in disorder of sex development (DSD) faces multiple barriers while seeking their social rights, particularly healthcare services. We aimed to explore ... [more]

Background: Worldwide people in disorder of sex development (DSD) faces multiple barriers while seeking their social rights, particularly healthcare services. We aimed to explore the healthcare opportunities available to them, using patterns of healthcare utilization and difficulties faced by DSD population in accessing healthcare services in Bangladesh. Methods: Data from a total of 945 DSD population and 71 medical staff were analyzed, collected from three major divisions (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Rajshahi) in Bangladesh during the period of January to December of 2017. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data via face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistic was used to determine the frequencies of the visit by the DSD population in healthcare facilities as well as to analyze difficulties experienced by the DSD population in getting healthcare services. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the association between perceived barriers in getting healthcare services and failures of the DSD population to receive the healthcare services. Results: Present data revealed that around 80% of DSD population sought healthcare services from government healthcare facilities, where the overall success rate in getting healthcare services was less than 50%. The DSD population reported a number of reasons for failures in getting healthcare services, including non-friendly interaction by non-clinical hospital's staff, non-friendly interaction by physicians, public fright as general people do not want to mingle with a DSD person, undesirable excess public interest in DSD individuals, and limitation of the treatment opportunities of hospitals to merely male or female patients. Among the stated reasons, the most frequently reported reason was non-friendly interaction by physicians (50.27%), followed by undesirable excess public interest in DSD individuals (50.16%). Conclusion: DSD population in Bangladesh have limited access to healthcare facilities and facing multiple barriers to get healthcare services. Initiatives from the government and social organizations are important to ensure their access to healthcare services.

DOI 10.1186/s12889-020-09284-2
2020 Kinyoki DK, Ross JM, Lazzar-Atwood A, Munro SB, Schaeffer LE, Abbasalizad-Farhangi M, et al., 'Author Correction: Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 (Nature Medicine, (2020), 26, 5, (750-759), 10.1038/s41591-020-0807-6)', Nature Medicine, 26 1308 (2020)

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.... [more]

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

DOI 10.1038/s41591-020-0972-7
2020 James SL, Lucchesi LR, Bisignano C, Castle CD, Dingels ZV, Fox JT, et al., 'Morbidity and mortality from road injuries: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.', Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 26 i46-i56 (2020) [C1]
DOI 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043302
Citations Scopus - 29
2019 Stanaway JD, Afshin A, Gakidou E, Lim SS, Abate D, Abate KH, et al., 'Erratum: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990 2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (The Lancet (2018) 392(10159) (1923 1994), (S0140673618322256), (10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6))', The Lancet, 393 e44 (2019)

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification t... [more]

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk¿outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk¿outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk¿outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk¿outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. Findings In 2017, 34·1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·3¿35·0) deaths and 1·21 billion (1·14¿1·28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61·0% (59·6¿62·4) of deaths and 48·3% (46·3¿50·2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10·4 million (9·39¿11·5) deaths and 218 million (198¿237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7·10 million [6·83¿7·37] deaths and 182 million [173¿193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6·53 million [5·23¿8·23] deaths and 171 million [144¿201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4·72 million [2·99¿6·70] deaths and 148 million [98·6¿202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1·43 million [1·36¿1·51] deaths and 139 million [131¿147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4·9% (3·3¿6·5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23·5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18·6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Lev...

DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31429-1
Citations Scopus - 3
2019 Oni HT, Khan MN, Abdel-Latif M, Buultjens M, Islam MM, 'Short-term health outcomes of newborn infants of substance-using mothers in Australia and New Zealand: A systematic review', Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 45 1783-1795 (2019) [C1]

Aim: Substance use is not unusual among women of childbearing age. Pregnant women who use a substance and the consequent impacts on a newborn vary across studies and settings. We ... [more]

Aim: Substance use is not unusual among women of childbearing age. Pregnant women who use a substance and the consequent impacts on a newborn vary across studies and settings. We reviewed New Zealand and Australian literature to examine the short-term health outcomes of newborn of substance-using mothers and their demographic characteristics. Methods: Five medical/nursing databases and google scholar were searched in April 2017. Studies were considered eligible if they described outcomes of newborn of substance-using mothers. Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used for quality assessment of candidate studies. Relevant data were extracted and analyzed using narrative synthesis. Based on data availability, a subset of studies was included in meta-analysis. Results: Although findings of individual studies vary, there are some evidence that the infants born to substance-using mothers were likely to have preterm birth, low birthweight, small-for-gestational age, low Apgar score, and admission to neo-natal intensive care unit. The likelihood of adverse health outcomes was much higher for newborns of polysubstance-using mothers, than newborns of mothers using a single substance. Pregnant women who use illicit substance are predominantly socially disadvantaged, in their twenties and or of Aboriginal descent. Conclusion: Infants of substance-using mothers suffer a range of adverse health outcomes. Multidisciplinary and integrated approach of services that ensure supportive social determinants of health may result in a better outcome for newborn and positive behavioral change among mothers.

DOI 10.1111/jog.14051
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2019 Anik AI, Mosfequr Rahman M, Mostafizur Rahman M, Ismail Tareque M, Nuruzzaman Khan M, Mahmudul Alam M, 'Double burden of malnutrition at household level: A comparative study among Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Myanmar', PLoS ONE, 14 (2019)

Background The coexistence of overweight mother and stunted child at the same household is a type of Double Burden of Malnutrition at Household Level (DBMHL). This particular publ... [more]

Background The coexistence of overweight mother and stunted child at the same household is a type of Double Burden of Malnutrition at Household Level (DBMHL). This particular public health concern is now emerging at an alarming rate among most of the South Asian and its neighboring lower-and-middle income countries which are going through nutritional transition. This study has examined the prevalence rate and the risk factors of DBMHL along with the socio-economic inequality in DBMHL among Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Myanmar. Methods Latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets were used in this study. To identify the significant association of DBMHL with socio-demographic characteristics, a multivariate technique named as logistic regression model, and for measuring socio-economic inequalities in DBMHL prevalence, relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII) were used. Results The prevalence rates of DBMHL were 4.10% (urban: 5.57%, rural: 3.51%), 1.54% (urban: 1.63%, rural: 1.42%), 3.93% (urban: 5.62%, rural: 3.20%), and 5.54% (urban: 6.16%, rural: 5.33%) respectively in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Myanmar. The risk ratios (RR) obtained from RII for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Myanmar were 1.25, 1.25, 1.14, and 1.09, respectively, and ß coefficient from SII were 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.006 unit respectively. In addition to not breastfeeding [Bangladesh (AOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.11¿2.15), Myanmar (AOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.02¿2.95)], respondent¿s older age (in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Myanmar), child¿s older age (in Pakistan and Myanmar), and middle and rich groups of wealth-index (in Bangladesh and Pakistan) were strong risk factors for DBMHL. On the other hand, female child [Nepal (AOR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26¿0.95), Pakistan (AOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.41¿0.84)], higher education [in Pakistan], respondent not participated in decision making [in Bangladesh and Nepal] and media access [Nepal (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20¿0.98)] had negative association with DBMHL. Conclusion The DBMHL persists in all selected countries, with a higher prevalence in urban areas than in rural areas. In order to control the higher prevalence of DBMHL in urban areas, respective countries need urgent implementation of multisectoral actions through effective policies and empowering local communities.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0221274
Citations Scopus - 10
2019 Reiner RC, Olsen HE, Ikeda CT, Echko MM, Ballestreros KE, Manguerra H, et al., 'Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in Child and Adolescent Health, 1990 to 2017 Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2017 Study', JAMA PEDIATRICS, 173 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0337
Citations Scopus - 59Web of Science - 52
2019 Islam MM, Khan MN, Mondal MNI, 'Does parental migration have any impact on nutritional disorders among left-behind children in Bangladesh?', Public Health Nutrition, 22 95-103 (2019)

Objective Rates of migration have increased substantially in recent years and so has the number of left-behind children (LBC). We investigated the impact of parental migration on ... [more]

Objective Rates of migration have increased substantially in recent years and so has the number of left-behind children (LBC). We investigated the impact of parental migration on nutritional disorders of LBC in Bangladesh.Design We analysed data from the nationally representative cross-sectional Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012-2013. Child stunting, wasting and underweight were used as measures of nutritional disorders. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of the respondents and to compare nutritional outcomes based on status of parental migration. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between parental migration and child nutritional disorders.Setting Bangladesh.Participants Data of 23 402 children (aged <5 years), their parents and households.Results In the unadjusted models, parental migration was found significantly protective for stunting, wasting and underweight - both separately and jointly. After potential confounders were controlled for, no difference was found between LBC and non-LBC in any of these three nutritional outcome measures. Household wealth status and maternal educational status were found to significantly influence the nutritional development of the children.Conclusions At the population level there is no negative impact of parental migration on stunting, wasting and underweight of LBC in Bangladesh. Remittance from parental migration might enhance affordability of better foods, health care and supplies for a cleaner environment. This affordability is crucial for the poorest section of the society.

DOI 10.1017/S1368980018002963
Citations Scopus - 3
2019 Troeger CE, Blacker BF, Khalil IA, Zimsen SRM, Albertson SB, Abate D, et al., 'Mortality, morbidity, and hospitalisations due to influenza lower respiratory tract infections, 2017: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017', The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7 69-89 (2019) [C1]

Background: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower... [more]

Background: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza. Methods: We modelled the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality attributable to influenza for every country and selected subnational locations by age and year from 1990 to 2017 as part of GBD 2017. We used a counterfactual approach that first estimated the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality and then attributed a fraction of those outcomes to influenza. Findings: Influenza LRTI was responsible for an estimated 145 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99 000¿200 000) deaths among all ages in 2017. The influenza LRTI mortality rate was highest among adults older than 70 years (16·4 deaths per 100 000 [95% UI 11·6¿21·9]), and the highest rate among all ages was in eastern Europe (5·2 per 100 000 population [95% UI 3·5¿7·2]). We estimated that influenza LRTIs accounted for 9 459 000 (95% UI 3 709 000¿22 935 000) hospitalisations due to LRTIs and 81 536 000 hospital days (24 330 000¿259 851 000). We estimated that 11·5% (95% UI 10·0¿12·9) of LRTI episodes were attributable to influenza, corresponding to 54 481 000 (38 465 000¿73 864 000) episodes and 8 172 000 severe episodes (5 000 000¿13 296 000). Interpretation: This comprehensive assessment of the burden of influenza LRTIs shows the substantial annual effect of influenza on global health. Although preparedness planning will be important for potential pandemics, health loss due to seasonal influenza LRTIs should not be overlooked, and vaccine use should be considered. Efforts to improve influenza prevention measures are needed. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30496-X
Citations Scopus - 124
2019 Khan MN, Harris ML, Shifti DM, Laar AS, Loxton D, 'Effects of unintended pregnancy on maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis', International Journal of Public Health, 64 743-754 (2019) [C1]

Objectives: To examine the association between unintended pregnancy and maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods: A systematic l... [more]

Objectives: To examine the association between unintended pregnancy and maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods: A systematic literature search of Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Popline, Maternity and Infant Care, and Scopus databases published since the beginning of the Millennium Development Goals (i.e. January 2000) to June 2018 was performed. We estimated the pooled odds ratios using random effect models and performed subgroup analysis by participants and study characteristics. Results: A total of 38 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our study found the occurrence of unintended pregnancy was associated with a 25¿39% reduction in the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal healthcare services. Stratified analysis found the differences of healthcare services utilization across types of pregnancy unintendedness (e.g. mistimed, unwanted). Conclusions: Integrating family planning and maternal healthcare services should be considered to encourage women with unintended pregnancies to access maternal healthcare services.

DOI 10.1007/s00038-019-01238-9
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Deborah Loxton, Melissa Harris
2019 Chang AY, Cowling K, Micah AE, Chapin A, Chen CS, Ikilezi G, et al., 'Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050', LANCET, 393 2233-2260 (2019) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30841-4
Citations Scopus - 120Web of Science - 109
2018 Khan MN, Islam MM, Rahman MM, 'Inequality in utilization of cesarean delivery in Bangladesh: a decomposition analysis using nationally representative data', Public Health, 157 111-120 (2018) [C1]

Objective: This study examined the inequality in cesarean section (CS) utilization and its socio-economic contributors. Study design: Retrospective two-stage stratified sample des... [more]

Objective: This study examined the inequality in cesarean section (CS) utilization and its socio-economic contributors. Study design: Retrospective two-stage stratified sample design. Methods: Data were extracted from two rounds of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2004 and 2014. Concentration Index of CS utilization was calculated using the wealth quintile. Regression-based decomposition method was applied to assess the socio-economic contributors of inequality in CS utilization. Results: The rate of CS utilization increased from 4.98% in 2004 to 24.21% in 2014. The utilization of CS was highly concentrated among the women of higher socio-economic status (SES) in both rounds of the survey. Results of the decomposition models revealed wealth quintile, higher education, higher number of antenatal visits, and being overweight or obese as the critical factors contributing to the inequalities of CS utilization. Conclusion: Bangladesh is now observing a rapid rise in CS utilization and women with higher SES are the main client group of this life saving procedure. There may have inadequate access for those who are relatively less advantaged, even when CS is necessary. Strong initiative from the government is necessary to ensure proper access to this service regardless of women's SES.

DOI 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.015
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 11
Co-authors Mdmijanur Rahman Uon
2018 Troeger C, Blacker BF, Khalil IA, Rao PC, Cao S, Zimsen SRM, et al., 'Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016', LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 18 1191-1210 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30310-4
Citations Scopus - 351Web of Science - 323
2018 Fullman N, Yearwood J, Abay SM, Abbafati C, Abd-Allah F, Abdela J, et al., 'Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016', The Lancet, 391 2236-2271 (2018) [C1]

Background A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progr... [more]

Background A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016. Methods Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita. Findings In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8-98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9-97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5-97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1-24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3-23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2-26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1-93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4-53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6-68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3-38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. None...

DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2
Citations Scopus - 313Web of Science - 305
Co-authors Dimity Pond
2018 Khan MN, Islam MM, 'Women's attitude towards wife-beating and its relationship with reproductive healthcare seeking behavior: A countrywide population survey in Bangladesh', PLOS ONE, 13 (2018)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0198833
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 27
2018 Griswold MG, Fullman N, Hawley C, Arian N, Zimsen SRM, Tymeson HD, et al., 'Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016', LANCET, 392 1015-1035 (2018)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31310-2
Citations Scopus - 887Web of Science - 2367
Co-authors Addisushunu Beyene Uon
2017 Khan MN, B Nurs CZ, Islam MM, Islam MR, Rahman MM, 'Household air pollution from cooking and risk of adverse health and birth outcomes in Bangladesh: a nationwide population-based study', Environmental Health, 16 (2017)
DOI 10.1186/s12940-017-0272-y
Citations Scopus - 43Web of Science - 40
2017 Khan MN, Islam MM, 'Effect of exclusive breastfeeding on selected adverse health and nutritional outcomes: a nationally representative study', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 17 (2017)
DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4913-4
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 20
2017 Khan MN, Islam MM, Shariff AA, Alam MM, Rahman MM, 'Socio-demographic predictors and average annual rates of caesarean section in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2014', PLOS ONE, 12 (2017)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0177579
Citations Scopus - 36Web of Science - 40
2017 Khan M, Rahman MM, Shariff AA, Rahman MM, Rahman MS, Rahman MA, 'Maternal undernutrition and excessive body weight and risk of birth and health outcomes', Archives of Public Health, 75 (2017)
DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0181-0
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 24
2015 Khan M, Mondal MNI, Islam MR, Al-Mamun MA, Shitan M, 'Trends in Body Mass Index and Its Determinants Among Ever-married Non-pregnant Women in Bangladesh', Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 21 191-205 (2015)
Billah MA, Miah MM, Khan MN, 'Reproductive number of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on global level evidence
DOI 10.1101/2020.05.23.20111021
Hossain MB, Khan MN, Oldroyd JC, Rana J, Magliago DJ, Chowdhury EK, et al., 'Prevalence of, and risk factors for, diabetes and prediabetes in Bangladesh: Evidence from the national survey using a multilevel Poisson regression model with a robust variance
DOI 10.1101/2021.01.26.21250519
Khan MMA, Khan MN, Mustagir MG, Rana J, Islam MS, Kabir MI, 'Effects of underlying morbidities on the occurrence of deaths in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
DOI 10.1101/2020.05.08.20095968
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Other (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
Khan MN, Oldroyd JC, Chowdhury EK, Hossain MB, Rana J, Renzetti S, Islam RM, 'Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Bangladesh: Findings from National Demographic and Health Survey, 2017-18', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.04.09.21255237
Bakebillah M, Billah MA, Wubishet BL, Khan MN, 'Community s misconception about COVID-19 and its associated factors: Evidence from a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.04.12.21254829
Rana J, Khan MN, Islam RM, Aliani R, Oulhote Y, 'Association Between Household Air Pollution and Infant and Child Mortality in Myanmar: Evidence From The First Demographic and Health Survey', Research Square Platform LLC [O1]
DOI 10.21203/rs.3.rs-152520/v1
Khan MN, Islam MM, Akter S, 'Availability and readiness of healthcare facilities and their effects on long-acting modern contraception use in Bangladesh: Analysis of linked data', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.09.27.21264197
Co-authors Shahinoor Akter Uon
Khan MN, Kabir MA, Shariff AA, Rahman MM, 'Too many yet too few caesarean section deliveries in Bangladesh: an ongoing public health challenge to improve maternal and child health', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.08.28.21262769
Islam MZ, Islam MM, Rahman MM, Khan MN, 'Prevalence and risk factors of short birth interval in Bangladesh: Evidence from the linked data of population and health facility survey', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.07.05.21259952
Khan MN, Oldroyd JC, Hossain MB, Islam RM, 'Awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017/18', Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory [O1]
DOI 10.1101/2021.07.09.21260274
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Mr Md Nuruzzaman Khan

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