Professor Lucy Johnston

Professor Lucy Johnston

Dean of Graduate Research

Graduate Research

Career Summary

Biography

Professor Johnston is currently the Dean of Graduate Research at the University of Newcastle. As part of this position, Professor Johnston plays a key leadership role in driving growth and improvements in research training across the University of Newcastle. 

Professor Johnston joined the University of Newcastle from the University of Canterbury, where she was Dean of Postgraduate Research and Professor of Psychology. She is a recognised experimental social psychologist, whose research is concerned with understanding, predicting and modifying the behaviour of individuals in social interactions, with two distinct foci of social perception and social information processing.

Professor Johnston completed her BA (Hons) in Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford, UK and PhD in Social Psychology at the University Bristol, UK and has more recently completed a MSc Sport and Exercise Psychology at the University of Staffordshire, UK. She lectured at the University of Cardiff before joining the University of Canterbury in 1994. Professor Johnston was a member of the inaugural management team of the New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour, leading the Language and Social Cognition theme and following the Christchurch earthquake in 2011, was appointed to the Psychosocial Recovery Advisory Group for the Joint Centre for Disaster Research. In 2004, she was a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Connecticut, US and has published extensively in the fields of social psychology, and learning and teaching.

Recognised for her engagement with postgraduate research, Professor Johnston was the Chair of the New Zealand Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies (NZ DDOGS) between 2012 and 2016 and was actively involved in the development of the Australian Best Practice Guidelines for Higher Degree Research. She was Convenor of the Universities New Zealand Scholarship Committee from 2011 to 2016 term and has been an invited participant to a number of Council of Graduate Schools Global Summits.

Lucy was awarded Oxford Blues and full colours at the University of Bristol for basketball and played for the British Universities. She rowed for her Oxford College and City of Bristol and played soccer for the University of Bristol. She recently retired from 10 seasons completing in road cycling and triathlons.


Qualifications

  • PhD (Social Psychology), University of Bristol
  • Bachelor of Arts (Hons) (Experimental Psychology), University of Oxford - UK
  • Master of Arts, University of Oxford - UK
  • Master of Science (Sport and Exercise Psychology), Staffordshire University, UK

Keywords

  • Adaptive person construal
  • Behavioural mimicry and interpersonal synchrony
  • Facial expressions of emotion
  • Nonverbal behaviour
  • Postgraduate thesis supervision
  • Social perception
  • Social psychology
  • Sport psychology
  • Stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
130303 Education Assessment and Evaluation 30
170113 Social and Community Psychology 35
170112 Sensory Processes, Perception and Performance 35

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Dean of Graduate Research University of Newcastle
Graduate Research
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/07/2010 - 24/01/2016 Dean of Postgraduate Research University of Canterbury
Vice Chancellor's Office
New Zealand
6/01/1994 - 22/01/2016 Lecturer to Professor of Psychology University of Canterbury
New Zealand
1/01/1992 - 31/12/1993 Lecturer University of Wales, Cardiff
School of Psychology
United Kingdom
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Beaven S, Wilson T, Johnston LC, Johnston D, Smith R, 'Learning from Earthquake Disasters', Encyclopaedia of Earthquake Engineering, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2015)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_353-1
2013 Johnston L, 'It's the Way You Walk: Kinematic Specification of Vulnerability to Attack', People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception (2013)

© Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved. This chapter considers whether human gait conveys information to observers about one's vulnerability to attack. Specific... [more]

© Oxford University Press 2013. All rights reserved. This chapter considers whether human gait conveys information to observers about one's vulnerability to attack. Specifically, it describes a program of research in which the "kinematic fingerprint" of physical vulnerability is assessed. Observers of point-lightdefined body motions form impressions of physical vulnerability that achieve a high level of consensus. Additionally, the authors examine factors that contribute to these perceptions (e.g., manner of dress) and that can mitigate these perceptions (e.g., changing gait).

DOI 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0013
Citations Scopus - 2
2010 Johnston L, Miles L, Macrae CN, 'Male or female? An investigation of factors that modulate the visual perception of another's sex', Social Psychology of Visual Perception 103-122 (2010)
DOI 10.4324/9780203848043
Citations Scopus - 3
2007 Zakharov K, Mitrovic A, Johnston LC, 'Pedagogic agents trying on a Caring Mentor Role', Artificial Intelligence in Education Building Technology Rich Learning Contexts that Work, IOS Press, Amsterdam 59-68 (2007)
2006 Miles L, Johnston LC, 'Not all smiles are created equal: An investigation of the implicit impact of posed and genuine smiles on the social perceiver', Cognition and Language Perspectives from New Zealand, Australian Academic Press, Samford Valley, Queensland 51-64 (2006)
2003 Johnston L, Miles L, 'Responding to the social world: Attributions and stereotype-based judgments', Social Judgements: Implicit and Explicit Processes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 364-386 (2003)
1990 Johnston L, Hewstone M, 'Intergroup contact: Social identity and social cognition', Social Identity Theory Constructive and Critical Advances, Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom 185-210 (1990)
Show 4 more chapters

Journal article (91 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 Groves SJ, Pitcher TL, Melzer TR, Jordan J, Carter JD, Malhi GS, et al., 'Brain activation during processing of genuine facial emotion in depression: Preliminary findings', Journal of Affective Disorders, 225 91-96 (2018) [C1]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Objective The current study aimed to examine the neural correlates of processing genuine compared with posed emotional expressions, in depressed and healthy ... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Objective The current study aimed to examine the neural correlates of processing genuine compared with posed emotional expressions, in depressed and healthy subjects using a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm Method During fMRI scanning, sixteen depressed patients and ten healthy controls performed an Emotion Categorisation Task, whereby participants were asked to distinguish between genuine and non-genuine (posed or neutral) facial displays of happiness and sadness. Results Compared to controls, the depressed group showed greater activation whilst processing genuine versus posed facial displays of sadness, in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex, caudate and putamen. The depressed group also showed greater activation whilst processing genuine facial displays of sadness relative to neutral displays, in the bilateral medial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsal anterior cingulate, bilateral posterior cingulate, right superior parietal lobe, left lingual gyrus and cuneus. No differences were found between the two groups for happy facial displays. Limitations Relatively small sample sizes and due to the exploratory nature of the study, no correction was made for multiple comparisons. Conclusion The findings of this exploratory study suggest that depressed individuals may show a different pattern of brain activation in response to genuine versus posed facial displays of sadness, compared to healthy individuals. This may have important implications for future studies that wish to examine the neural correlates of facial emotion processing in depression.

DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.049
2017 Beaven S, Wilson T, Johnston L, Johnston D, Smith R, 'Role of Boundary Organization after a Disaster: New Zealand's Natural Hazards Research Platform and the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence', Natural Hazards Review, 18 (2017)

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. The boundary organization concept has been used to establish that collaborative arrangements and outputs across science and policy dom... [more]

© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. The boundary organization concept has been used to establish that collaborative arrangements and outputs across science and policy domain boundaries need to be credible, relevant, and legitimate in order to be to be effective. Although widely accepted in other issue-driven fields, this concept does not have equivalent currency in the natural hazard and disaster risk reduction context. This paper uses the development of the New Zealand Natural Hazards Research Platform during a recent earthquake disaster to assess the utility of the concept in this topic area. Lessons are also identified concerning the use of larger consortium organizations to increase policy and other end-user involvement in the management and coordination of research funding, and the impact of a major disaster on this research-funding initiative. Mapping the Platform's collaborative arrangements in relation to boundary tensions over time makes it possible to distinguish disaster effects from preexisting and ongoing structural effects and incentive regimes. Largely based in the research domain, this organization was well placed to resist the negative pressure of postdisaster time compression on research quality. The lack of balancing policy input at all levels made it difficult to resist the effect of this pressure on the networking required to integrate disciplinary, organizational, and higher-level science/policy domains, and thus build the legitimacy of the larger collaboration. The utility of the boundary organization concept stemmed from the emphasis on balance across domains and scales. The focus on effects, trends, and patterns serves as a counterweight to the blame attribution common after high-profile disasters.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000202
2017 Collings D, Garrill A, Johnston L, 'Student application for special consideration for examination performance following a natural disaster', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 1-12 (2017)

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances be... [more]

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances beyond their control negatively affect performance in assessments. Typically, such situations affect only one student (e.g. medical emergencies) but we consider the impact of a natural disaster that led to all students being eligible for special consideration on a single assessment. Students did not have to get applications for special consideration endorsed by a qualified professional but were able to rate their own level of impairment. Our findings indicated that students were impaired in their performance and accordingly application for special consideration was warranted. Those few students who did not submit an application were disadvantaged relative to their peers. There was little relationship between the students¿ self-reported levels of impairment and their performance, but those who considered themselves seriously impaired were disproportionately unlikely to complete the assessment. Those with poorer grades leading into the final assessment were no more likely to request special consideration. Although our observations were with an unusual example, our overall findings support the need for a special consideration policy, and indicate that students can treat such a policy appropriately and not exploit the opportunity to obtain unmerited advantage.

DOI 10.1080/02602938.2017.1332755
2017 Schluter PJ, Johnston L, 'In the spirit of William Georgetti: scrutiny of a prestigious national scholarship selection process', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 42 316-328 (2017)

© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Postgraduate scholarship programmes are increasingly important for supporting gifted students from diverse backgrounds. Systems and processes in th... [more]

© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Postgraduate scholarship programmes are increasingly important for supporting gifted students from diverse backgrounds. Systems and processes in the application, determination and delivery of scholarships must be robust, transparent, accountable and equitable. However, they are rarely evaluated. One of the most prestigious scholarships in New Zealand ¿ the William Georgetti Scholarship ¿ is investigated here for the impact of student¿s grade point averages (GPAs) and sex on applicant¿s progression, the level of agreement between Scholarship Board member rankings, and whether applicants or members¿ sex is material to any outcomes. Data from 2007 to 2015 were extracted, and contained 301 applicants considered for shortlisting, 78 who were shortlisted and 60 successful recipients evaluated by 17 Scholarship Board members (5 female, 12 male). Mean GPAs significantly increased over time amongst applicants, those shortlisted, and those successful. While 60% of applicants were female, only 49% of those shortlisted were female; however, this was explained by GPA differences. Some 52% of successful applicants were female. Ranking discordance amongst members was relatively high, but no differential sex biases were noted. The empirical results suggest that current systems and processes are consistent with the scholarship¿s deed, although the difference in GPA scores between female and male applicants is of concern.

DOI 10.1080/02602938.2015.1108387
2017 Johnston L, Schluter PJ, 'And the winner is ¿ : inter-rater reliability among scholarship assessors', Studies in Higher Education, 42 1736-1749 (2017)

© 2015 Society for Research into Higher Education. With increasing competition for postgraduate research scholarships, awarding processes demand attention and scrutiny. We examin... [more]

© 2015 Society for Research into Higher Education. With increasing competition for postgraduate research scholarships, awarding processes demand attention and scrutiny. We examine inter-rater reliability for two prestigious New Zealand scholarships, the Shirtcliffe Fellowship and the Gordon Watson Scholarship. For each scholarship, five assessors (three academic; two non-academic) independently evaluate all applicants over three domains: Academic Merit, Quality of Study Plans and Character/Leadership. Data from years 2009 to 2014 were extracted, comprising 12 separate assessment rounds. Good to excellent agreement was observed for each scholarship in each year. Agreement was significantly higher for the Academic Merit domain compared to the other domains. Moreover, agreement among academics was higher and less variable than non-academics for this Academic Merit domain. No such differences were noted in the other domains. While resource efficiencies could be made, reductions in committee size resulted in poorer applicant selection performance. Applicants and donors alike can be confident that the awardee for these scholarships is a top applicant.

DOI 10.1080/03075079.2015.1124849
2016 Gruber J, King J, Hay J, Johnston L, 'The hands, head, and brow: A sociolinguistic study of Maori gesture', Gesture, 15 1-36 (2016)

© 2016 John Benjamins Publishing Company. This paper examines the speech-accompanying gesture and other kinesic behaviour of bilingual English-Maori and monolingual English speak... [more]

© 2016 John Benjamins Publishing Company. This paper examines the speech-accompanying gesture and other kinesic behaviour of bilingual English-Maori and monolingual English speakers in New Zealand. Physical expression has long been regarded a key component of Maori artistic and spoken performance, as well as in personal interactions. This study asks (1) if there are gestures more common to or exclusively employed by the Maori population of New Zealand and (2) if their frequency and form is influenced by speaking Maori? More generally, the study considers the effect of different languages on gesture within the same speaker. Four bilingual Maori and six monolingual New Zealanders of European ancestry were recorded providing similar narrations. We report three differences between the speaker groups: a prevalence among Maori speakers for flat-handed motion gestures, gestures of the head, and eyebrow flashes. The findings highlight the probabilistic nature of culturally-grounded variation in gesture and the appropriateness of sociolinguistic approaches to their study.

DOI 10.1075/gest.15.1.01gru
2016 Beaven S, Wilson T, Johnston L, Johnston D, Smith R, 'Research engagement after disasters: Research coordination before, during, and after the 2011-2012 canterbury Earthquake Sequence, New Zealand', Earthquake Spectra, 32 713-735 (2016)

© 2016, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. This article argues that active coordination of research engagement after disasters has the potential to maximize research oppo... [more]

© 2016, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. This article argues that active coordination of research engagement after disasters has the potential to maximize research opportunities, improve research quality, increase end-user engagement, and manage escalating research activity to mitigate the ethical risks posed to impacted populations. We focus on the coordination of research activity after the 22 February 2011 M w 6.2 Christchurch earthquake by the then newly formed national research consortium, the Natural Hazards Research Platform, which included a social science research moratorium during the declared state of national emergency. Decisions defining this organization's functional and structural parameters are analyzed to identify lessons concerning the need for systematic approaches to the management of post-disaster research, in collaboration with the response effort. Other lessons include the importance of involving an existing, broadly based research consortium, ensuring that this consortium's coordination role is fully integrated into emergency management structures, and ensuring that all aspects of decision-making processes are transparent and easily accessed.

DOI 10.1193/082714EQS134M
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Sampson KA, Johnston L, Comer K, Brogt E, 'Developing evidence for action on the postgraduate experience: an effective local instrument to move beyond benchmarking', Higher Education Research and Development, 35 337-351 (2016)

© 2015 HERDSA. Summative and benchmarking surveys to measure the postgraduate student research experience are well reported in the literature. While useful, we argue that local i... [more]

© 2015 HERDSA. Summative and benchmarking surveys to measure the postgraduate student research experience are well reported in the literature. While useful, we argue that local instruments that provide formative resources with an academic development focus are also required. If higher education institutions are to move beyond the identification of issues and benchmarking practices, the scope of survey results and their reporting need to enable and foster appropriate changes in disciplinary practices. Robust, locally developed instruments can provide detailed, programme-specific information and foster timely changes in practice with direct benefits for postgraduate respondents. Unlike benchmarked surveys, local tools can adapt to explore and examine specific concerns of students, supervisors and academic developers. Coupling high-response rates and follow-on engagement with participant feedback, well-designed local instruments provide clear and irrefutable indicators to programme and university administrators of specific disciplinary strengths and weaknesses in postgraduate pathways. In this paper, we discuss the development of a research student survey specifically designed to support academic development purposes in strengthening and enhancing the postgraduate experience.

DOI 10.1080/07294360.2015.1087469
2014 Beaven S, Johnston LC, Wilson T, Brogt E, Blythe J, Reugg C, et al., 'Risk and resilience factors reported by a New Zealand tertiary student population after the 4th September 2010 Darfield Earthquake', International journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 32 375-404 (2014)
2014 Malinen S, Willis GM, Johnston L, 'Might informative media reporting of sexual offending influence community members' attitudes towards sex offenders?', Psychology, Crime and Law, 20 535-552 (2014)

The media represents one of the main sources of public information about sexual offending. However, the media sensationalises sexual crimes through its focus on exceptional cases,... [more]

The media represents one of the main sources of public information about sexual offending. However, the media sensationalises sexual crimes through its focus on exceptional cases, contributing to an inaccurate representation of the population of individuals convicted of sexual offences. The resulting negative community attitudes towards released sex offenders may create barriers to community re-entry and promote ill-informed legislation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether informative reporting of sexual offending might result in less negative public attitudes towards released sex offenders. Eighty-seven participants were presented either with an informative media portrayal of a recently released sex offender, a fear-inducing, typical portrayal or no media portrayal (control condition). We measured three components of participants' attitudes (affect, cognitive beliefs and behavioural intensions) towards sex offenders, in addition to participants' non-conscious, implicit, attitudes. The results showed that the informative media portrayal significantly influenced the cognitive and behavioural components of attitudes; however, the affective component and implicit attitudes remained consistently negative. Our findings suggest that the media may play an influential role in influencing public opinion about sex offenders. The potential, and the challenges, for using media to influence public attitudes towards sex offenders are discussed. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

DOI 10.1080/1068316X.2013.793770
Citations Scopus - 6
2014 Johnston L, McLellan T, McKinlay A, '(Perceived) Size really does matter: Male dissatisfaction with penis size', Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 15 225-228 (2014)

One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (67 men; 43 women) responded to questions related to penis size and satisfaction. Men showed significant dissatisfaction with penile size,... [more]

One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (67 men; 43 women) responded to questions related to penis size and satisfaction. Men showed significant dissatisfaction with penile size, despite perceiving themselves to be of average size. Importantly, there were significant relationships between penile dissatisfaction and comfort with others seeing their penis, and with likelihood of seeking medical advice with regard to penile and/or sexual function. Given the negative consequences of low body satisfaction and the importance of early intervention in sexually related illnesses (e.g., testicular cancer), it is imperative that attention be paid to male body dissatisfaction. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

DOI 10.1037/a0033264
Citations Scopus - 5
2013 Malinen S, Johnston L, 'Workplace ageism: Discovering hidden bias', Experimental Aging Research, 39 445-465 (2013)

Background/Study Context: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negat... [more]

Background/Study Context: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. Methods: This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Results: Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. Conclusion: This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/0361073X.2013.808111
Citations Scopus - 9
2013 Latner JD, McLeod G, O'Brien KS, Johnston L, 'The role of self-efficacy, coping, and lapses in weight maintenance', Eating and Weight Disorders, 18 359-366 (2013)

Purpose: Successful weight maintenance after weight loss is exceedingly rare. The present study aimed to identify psychological predictors of lapses and weight maintenance. Method... [more]

Purpose: Successful weight maintenance after weight loss is exceedingly rare. The present study aimed to identify psychological predictors of lapses and weight maintenance. Methods: Self-efficacy, coping, and perceptions of lapses were examined as potential predictors of lapse frequency and weight maintenance (percentage weight loss maintained). Participants included 67 adults (85.3 % women) who had intentionally lost a mean of 16 % of their body weight and had stopped losing weight at least 6 months prior to data collection. Participants completed a 7-day lapse diary tracking the frequency and perceived severity of their dietary and activity lapses, along with questionnaires on self-efficacy, coping, and characteristics of their weight loss. Results: Participants had lost a mean of 13.9 kg, 20.4 months prior to data collection. More frequent lapsing was correlated with lower self-efficacy and greater perceived lapse severity. Lower percentage of weight loss maintained was correlated with lower self-efficacy, poorer coping, greater perceived lapse severity, and longer time since weight loss ended. "Regainers," who maintained < 90 % of their weight loss, had poorer self-efficacy, poorer coping, greater lapse frequency, and greater perceived lapse severity, than "maintainers," who maintained at least 90 % of their weight loss. Conclusions: The results suggest that self-efficacy, coping, and perceived lapse severity are significant predictors of weight maintenance, consistent with the relapse prevention model. The goals of improving self-efficacy and coping skills might be important additions to weight maintenance programs. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

DOI 10.1007/s40519-013-0068-1
Citations Scopus - 6
2013 Willis GM, Malinen S, Johnston L, 'Demographic Differences in Public Attitudes Towards Sex Offenders', Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 20 230-247 (2013)

Emotionally fueled public responses to news of released sex offenders have the potential to jeopardize the re-entry process, for example, hindering access to stable housing and em... [more]

Emotionally fueled public responses to news of released sex offenders have the potential to jeopardize the re-entry process, for example, hindering access to stable housing and employment opportunities. Influencing change in public attitudes towards sex offenders so that they are conducive to successful community re-entry is important in efforts to prevent recidivism. Maximizing the effectiveness of attempts to change public attitudes first requires identifying whether specific demographic groups are more prone to negative attitudes, so that attempts to change attitudes can be appropriately targeted. In the present study, 401 community members completed an online questionnaire designed to assess the affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions of attitudes towards sex offenders. Differences in attitudes towards sex offenders based on respondent sex, age, educational attainment, occupation, parental status and familiarity with victims and perpetrators of sexual assault were investigated. Females demonstrated more-negative attitudes on affective and behavioral measures compared with males, and respondents with low levels of educational attainment demonstrated more-negative attitudes than respondents with higher levels of educational attainment on cognitive and behavioral measures; however, all groups demonstrated negative attitudes towards sex offenders to some extent. Implications for community-level interventions that promote effective re-entry, and hence reduce the likelihood of sexual reoffending are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/13218719.2012.658206
Citations Scopus - 7
2012 Douglas KM, Porter RJ, Johnston L, 'Sensitivity to posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in severe depression', Psychiatry Research, 196 72-78 (2012)

The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the ability to distinguish genuine from non-genuine (neutral or posed) facial expressions of emotion (happiness, sadness, f... [more]

The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the ability to distinguish genuine from non-genuine (neutral or posed) facial expressions of emotion (happiness, sadness, fear and disgust) is impaired in depression, and whether improvement in this ability occurs with treatment response. Sixty-eight depressed inpatients and 50 matched healthy controls performed the Emotion Categorisation Task three times over 6 weeks. All participants showed some sensitivity to the meaningful differences between genuine and non-genuine expressions of emotion, with an increasing percentage of faces labelled as genuinely feeling the emotion from neutral to posed to genuine presentations. Depressed patients showed significantly less sensitivity in differentiating non-genuine from genuine expressions of sadness, compared with healthy controls. Performance on the Emotion Categorisation Task did not change over time in treatment responders compared with treatment non-responders. These findings have implications for understanding why depressed individuals may have difficulties in social interactions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.10.019
Citations Scopus - 8
2012 McLellan TL, Wilcke JC, Johnston L, Watts R, Miles LK, 'Sensitivity to posed and genuine displays of happiness and sadness: A fMRI study', Neuroscience Letters, 531 149-154 (2012)

The ability to distinguish posed from genuine facial displays of emotion and to act accordingly is a fundamental social skill. To investigate the neural correlates underpinning th... [more]

The ability to distinguish posed from genuine facial displays of emotion and to act accordingly is a fundamental social skill. To investigate the neural correlates underpinning this sensitivity, we compared changes in brain activity associated with judging posed and genuine facial displays of happiness and sadness using fMRI. Photographs of displays were presented to 7 right-handed females who judged whether the person was feeling the target emotion and made yes/no responses. Results showed activity increases during the observation of genuine compared to posed happy displays in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and the middle cingulate cortex bilaterally (BAs 24 and 31). The same comparison for sad displays showed increased activity in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 8), and in the right middle and triangular inferior frontal gyri (both BA 46). Participants who exhibited higher sensitivity to sad displays showed larger activity difference in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 8). The present study provides evidence of differential neural activity when judging posed versus genuine facial displays of emotions. Further research is required to elucidate how this might impact social affective neuroscience and in what ways genuine facial displays can enhance our understanding of emotion perception. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.10.039
Citations Scopus - 11
2012 Willis GM, Johnston L, 'Planning helps: The impact of release planning on subsequent re-entry experiences of child sex offenders', Journal of Sexual Aggression, 18 194-208 (2012)

Recent research has demonstrated that poor release planning is associated with sex offender recidivism; however, whether release planning correlates with actual re-entry experienc... [more]

Recent research has demonstrated that poor release planning is associated with sex offender recidivism; however, whether release planning correlates with actual re-entry experiences has not been investigated systematically. Accordingly, in the present study release planning was rated for 16 child sex offenders, and semi-structured interviews about re-entry experiences were conducted at one, three and six months following their release from prison. As expected, significant positive correlations were found between release planning and re-entry experiences across the follow-up period, indicating that higher-quality release planning is associated with more positive re-entry experiences. Accordingly, it can be assumed that re-entry experiences differ between recidivists and non-recidivists, and hence positive re-entry experiences contribute to a reduction in sex offender recidivism. The implications for the management of offender release, policy makers and society as a whole are discussed. © 2012 Copyright National Organisation for the Treatment of Abusers.

DOI 10.1080/13552600.2010.506576
Citations Scopus - 5
2011 Mooney MF, Paton D, de Terte I, Johal S, Karanci AN, Gardner D, et al., 'Psychosocial recovery from disasters: A framework informed by evidence', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 40 26-39 (2011)
Citations Scopus - 17
2011 Malinen S, Johnston L, 'Seeking a Better Work-Life Balance: Expectations and Perceptions of Work-Related Practices and Attitudes of Recent Immigrants to New Zealand', Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 20 233-252 (2011)
DOI 10.1177/011719681102000206
2011 Johnston L, Carter J, McLellan T, 'Don't dwell on it: The impact of rumination on emotional sensitivity', Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30 506-530 (2011)

The relationship between level of depressive symptoms, ruminative response style and sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion was investigated among female university students... [more]

The relationship between level of depressive symptoms, ruminative response style and sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion was investigated among female university students. Participants were able to distinguish between facial expressions (of happiness and sadness) that were and were not associated with experience of a corresponding affective state. for sadness, there was a negative relationship between rumination and emotion sensitivity, and a positive relationship between rumination and bias. results are discussed in terms of the influence of individual differences on sensitivity to the emotional state of interaction partners. © 2011 Guilford Publications, Inc.

DOI 10.1521/jscp.2011.30.5.506
Citations Scopus - 3
2011 Johal S, Chambers R, Collins S, de Terte I, Gardner D, Glavovic B, et al., 'Potential social and psychological consequences of the Rena incident: Lessons from an international perspective', New Zealand Medical Journal, 124 86-89 (2011)
2010 Johnston L, Miles L, Macrae CN, 'Why are you smiling at me? Social functions of enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles', British Journal of Social Psychology, 49 107-127 (2010)

In three experiments, we investigated the spontaneous attention of perceivers to the nature of targets&apos; facial expressions, specifically whether they were displaying an enjoy... [more]

In three experiments, we investigated the spontaneous attention of perceivers to the nature of targets' facial expressions, specifically whether they were displaying an enjoyment or a non-enjoyment smile. Further, we investigated the social functions of sensitivity to smile type and the consequences of such sensitivity for subsequent interactions. Results demonstrated that perceivers did indeed spontaneously attend to smile type, especially in situations where issues of trust or cooperation were made salient. Further, this sensitivity had an impact both on the evaluations of the target individuals and the cooperative behaviour of individuals towards those displaying enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Participants evaluated individuals displaying enjoyment smiles more positively than those displaying non-enjoyment smiles and had higher rates of cooperation with those displaying enjoyment smiles. These results are discussed in terms of the social functions of facial expressions. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

DOI 10.1348/014466609X412476
Citations Scopus - 51
2010 Blampied M, Johnston L, Miles L, Liberty K, 'Sensitivity to differences between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles in children with autism spectrum disorder', British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 483-489 (2010)

The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only c... [more]

The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only children without ASD could reliably differentiate between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Results are considered in terms of the social impairments of children with ASD. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

DOI 10.1348/026151009X467621
Citations Scopus - 4
2010 McLellan T, Johnston L, Dalrymple-Alford J, Porter R, 'Sensitivity to genuine versus posed emotion specified in facial displays', Cognition and Emotion, 24 1277-1292 (2010)

Two experiments were performed to investigate whether social perceivers were sensitive to the veracity of sad and fear facial displays as well as happiness. In Experiment 1, parti... [more]

Two experiments were performed to investigate whether social perceivers were sensitive to the veracity of sad and fear facial displays as well as happiness. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to consider in blocks whether targets were happy or not, sad or not, fearful or not. Triads of photographs (neutral, posed, genuine) were displayed and results showed participants were sensitive to whether each emotion was present and distinguished posed from genuine displays. This sensitivity was emotion specific. In Experiment 2, participants completed a priming task to eliminate instructions to judge target displays. Neutral, posed and genuine displays from a single target were used as primes in a word valance identification task. The results revealed faster responding to positive words following genuine than posed happiness and faster responding to negative words following genuine than posed fear. Together the two experiments demonstrated perceiver sensitivity to negative emotion in an explicit and implicit context. © 2009 Psychology Press.

DOI 10.1080/02699930903306181
Citations Scopus - 34
2010 Lopresti-Goodman S, Kallen RW, Richardson MJ, Marsh KL, Johnston L, 'The influence of heightened body-awareness on walking through apertures', Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 557-570 (2010)

The reported study measured the ratio between aperture-width and hip-width that marked the critical transition from frontal walking to body rotation for male and female participan... [more]

The reported study measured the ratio between aperture-width and hip-width that marked the critical transition from frontal walking to body rotation for male and female participants. Half of the participants of each sex wore form-fitting lycra clothes and half loose-fitting jogging suits. Participants wearing the form-fitting clothing reported heightened body awareness relative to those wearing the loose-fitting clothing. For male participants this difference was reflected in a smaller aperture-to-hip ratio in the form-fitting than loose-fitting clothing condition. That is, males walked frontally through smaller apertures when wearing form-fitting than when wearing loose-fitting clothing. For females there was no difference in walking action as a function of clothing style. Results are discussed in terms of the perception of action opportunities in the environment, the influence of body awareness on such perception and sex differences. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/acp.1568
Citations Scopus - 3
2010 Johnston L, Porter R, Mackenzie A, Miles B, 'Fluctuations in Testosterone Levels and Person Construal in Male Perceivers', Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 15 187-195 (2010)

Male perceivers completed two testing sessions 1 week apart. In each of two testing sessions held a week apart, male perceivers provided a saliva sample that was analyzed for test... [more]

Male perceivers completed two testing sessions 1 week apart. In each of two testing sessions held a week apart, male perceivers provided a saliva sample that was analyzed for testosterone level and completed a sex categorization task. Within-subjects analyses showed relative testosterone levels to influence response time to female but not to male targets. Males were significantly slower to identify females when their testosterone levels were relatively high. These findings are considered in terms of adaptive person construal. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI 10.1111/j.1751-9861.2011.00061.x
2010 Wallace B, Johnston L, Trenberth L, 'Bullying the Boss: The Prevalence of Upward Bullying Behaviours', The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Organisational Psychology, 3 66-71 (2010)
DOI 10.1375/ajop.3.1.66
2009 Marsh KL, Johnston L, Richardson MJ, Schmidt RC, 'Toward a radically embodied, embedded social psychology', European Journal of Social Psychology, 39 1217-1225 (2009)

A roadmap toward a more radically embodied social psychology is offered. The perspective embeds embodied minds in a niche: A physical and social environment with action possibilit... [more]

A roadmap toward a more radically embodied social psychology is offered. The perspective embeds embodied minds in a niche: A physical and social environment with action possibilities ("affordances") that humans are equipped to utilize. At the heart of this embedded perspective is the suggestion that the methods and conceptualizations of integrating the body into social psychology must be inherently more relational, approaching meaning as emerging from the relation of the individual to its environment, as instantiated in the affordance construct (Gibson, 1977, 1979). Moreover, a more radical embodiment also demands that scientists reexamine the environment, in a way that goes beyond the truism that the environment influences the individual, to understand how meaning's emergence from individual-environment interactions obeys universal dynamical principles. In addition, the perspective illustrates that embedding an individual within an emergent social unit of action, a dyadic relationship or a group, provides new possibilities for perceiving and acting that both constrain and extend an individual's way of interacting with the environment. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/ejsp.666
Citations Scopus - 47
2009 Marsh KL, Johnston L, Richardson MJ, Schmidt RC, 'Hop off the mirror neuron bandwagon and join ours, it's less crowded!', European Journal of Social Psychology, 39 1234-1235 (2009)
DOI 10.1002/ejsp.689
Citations Scopus - 3
2008 Johnston L, Miles L, McKinlay A, 'A critical review of the Eyes Test as a measure of social-cognitive impairment', Australian Journal of Psychology, 60 135-141 (2008)

Sensitivity to subtle cues regarding the emotions that others are experiencing is vital for effective interactions in social situations. The &quot;Eyes Test&quot; has been propose... [more]

Sensitivity to subtle cues regarding the emotions that others are experiencing is vital for effective interactions in social situations. The "Eyes Test" has been proposed, and utilized, as a measure of mild social impairment amongst adults. In this paper we consider the nature of this impairment and identify some limitations in the use of the Eyes Test as a measure of perceiver sensitivity to the psychological state of others. In addition, 25 participants completed the "Eyes Test" in the absence of the stimulus photograph. For over half of the items, participants selected the correct item. Implications for the Eyes Test and measurement of social impairment are considered. In summary, we advocate that future tests of social impairment use targets for which the affective state is known, use objective accuracy criterion, bear in mind the differentiation between genuine and posed expressions of emotion, and consider of the impact of contextual factors. © The Australian Psychological Society Ltd Published by Taylor & Francis.

DOI 10.1080/00049530701449521
Citations Scopus - 24
2008 Brinsmead-Stockham K, Johnston L, Miles L, Neil Macrae C, 'Female sexual orientation and menstrual influences on person perception', Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44 729-734 (2008)

Heterosexual women have previously been shown to display enhanced sensitivity to information that is both reproductively- and sexually-relevant (e.g., sexually mature male faces) ... [more]

Heterosexual women have previously been shown to display enhanced sensitivity to information that is both reproductively- and sexually-relevant (e.g., sexually mature male faces) during phases of high fertility. In the present study, homosexual women who maintained a regular menstrual cycle and did not use hormonal contraceptives completed a sex-categorization task at periods of high and low fertility within their menstrual cycle. For homosexual women there is a separation between reproductively-relevant (i.e., sexually mature males) and sexually-relevant (i.e., sexually mature females) targets. Our participants showed enhanced sensitivity to sexually-relevant information (i.e., female faces) at high fertility but showed no fluctuation in sensitivity to reproductively-relevant information (i.e., male faces) across testing sessions. These findings are considered in terms of adaptive person perception and the impact of sexual desire on mate preferences. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.jesp.2007.05.003
Citations Scopus - 10
2008 Zhang B, Johnston L, Kilic GB, 'Assessing the reliability of self- and peer rating in student group work', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33 329-340 (2008)

Peer and self-ratings have been strongly recommended as the means to adjust individual contributions to group work. To evaluate the quality of student ratings, previous research h... [more]

Peer and self-ratings have been strongly recommended as the means to adjust individual contributions to group work. To evaluate the quality of student ratings, previous research has primarily explored the validity of these ratings, as indicated by the degree of agreement between student and teacher ratings. This research describes a Generalizability Theory framework to evaluate the reliability of student ratings in terms of the degree of consistency among students themselves, as well as group and rater effects. Ratings from two group projects are analyzed to illustrate how this method can be applied. The reliability of student ratings differs for the two group projects considered in this research. While a strong group effect is present in both projects, the rater effect is different. Implications of this research for classroom assessment practice are discussed. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

DOI 10.1080/02602930701293181
Citations Scopus - 22
2008 Johnston L, Miles L, Macrae CN, 'Was that a man? Sex identification as a function of menstrual cycle and masculinity', Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22 1185-1194 (2008)

The accuracy of female perceivers on a face sex-categorization task was investigated as a function of perceivers&apos; menstrual cycle and target facial qualities. Regularly ovula... [more]

The accuracy of female perceivers on a face sex-categorization task was investigated as a function of perceivers' menstrual cycle and target facial qualities. Regularly ovulating female participants completed a sex-categorization task twice, once during ovulation (high fertility) and once during menstruation (low fertility). Perceivers made more errors in identifying male than female faces at both testing sessions. Fewer errors were made in identifying male targets rated high on masculinity, but only during periods of high fertility. For female targets accuracy was negatively associated with masculinity and positively associated with attractiveness ratings, at both high and low fertility testing sessions. Results are discussed in terms of adaptive person construal. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/acp.1436
Citations Scopus - 4
2008 McLellan T, Johnston L, Dalrymple-Alford J, Porter R, 'The recognition of facial expressions of emotion in Alzheimer's disease: A review of findings', Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 20 236-250 (2008)

Objective: To provide a selective review of the literature on the recognition of facial expressions of emotion in Alzheimer&apos;s disease (AD), to evaluate whether these patients... [more]

Objective: To provide a selective review of the literature on the recognition of facial expressions of emotion in Alzheimer's disease (AD), to evaluate whether these patients show variation in their ability to recognise different emotions and whether any such impairments are instead because of a general decline in cognition. Methods: A narrative review based on relevant articles identified from PubMed and PsycInfo searches from 1987 to 2007 using keywords 'Alzheimer's', 'facial expression recognition', 'dementia' and 'emotion processing'. Conclusion: Although the literature is as yet limited, with several methodological inconsistencies, AD patients show poorer recognition of facial expressions, with particular difficulty with sad expressions. It is unclear whether poorer performance reflects the general cognitive decline and/or verbal or spatial deficits associated with AD or whether the deficits reflect specific neuropathology. This under-represented field of study may help to extend our understanding of social functioning in AD. Future work requires more detailed analyses of ancillary cognitive measures, more ecologically valid facial displays of emotion and a reference situation that more closely approximates an actual social interaction. © 2008 The Authors.

DOI 10.1111/j.1601-5215.2008.00315.x
Citations Scopus - 24
2007 Johnston L, Peace V, 'Where did that car come from?: Crossing the road when the traffic comes from an unfamiliar direction', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39 886-893 (2007)

Using a virtual road crossing environment, the reported research investigated the road crossing behavior of 12 male pedestrians in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Environmen... [more]

Using a virtual road crossing environment, the reported research investigated the road crossing behavior of 12 male pedestrians in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Environment familiarity was manipulated using traffic direction. Seven of the participants were from a country where traffic flows from right to left and five were from countries were traffic flows from left to right. Each participant was asked to cross the road when traffic was coming from both the familiar and the unfamiliar direction for them. Results showed that pedestrians had lower safety ration, or a lower margin of error, in crossing the road when traffic was flowing in an unfamiliar direction, suggesting that pedestrians might be at greater risk of accident in such environments. Implications of these findings are discussed. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.aap.2006.12.010
Citations Scopus - 1
2007 Johnston L, Miles L, 'Attributions and stereotype moderation', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36 13-17 (2007)

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between attributions made for stereotype-relevant behaviours and stereotype-based beliefs. In Experiment 1 participa... [more]

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between attributions made for stereotype-relevant behaviours and stereotype-based beliefs. In Experiment 1 participants were presented with a scenario describing an individual from a target group performing a stereotype-consistent behaviour. After reading the scenario, participants completed attributional ratings for the behaviour and rated the target group on stereotype-relevant characteristics. In Experiment 2, participants read a scenario that described an individual performing either a stereotype-consistent or a stereotype-inconsistent behaviour. After reading the scenario, participants completed a sentence stem, which was subsequently coded for the presence of situational or dispositional attributions for the target behaviour. Participants also rated the target group on stereotype-based dimensions. In both experiments participants who made atypical attributions for the target behaviours (situational attributions for stereotype-consistent and dispositional attributions for -inconsistent behaviours) made less stereotype-based judgments of the target group than participants who made typical attributions (dispositional attributions for stereotype-consistent and situational attributions for -inconsistent behaviours). Results are discussed in terms of moderation of stereotypes.

2007 Malinen S, Johnston L, 'The influence of an equity statement on perceivers' implicit and explicit associations between males and science', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36 18-24 (2007)

The present study investigated how an Equal Educational Opportunity (EEdO) statement influenced students&apos; attitudes towards the association of males and females with science.... [more]

The present study investigated how an Equal Educational Opportunity (EEdO) statement influenced students' attitudes towards the association of males and females with science. After reading an advertisement for a student scholarship in physical science, including the equity statement or not, 109 participants completed both an implicit and an explicit measure of the relative association of males and females with physical sciences. As expected, physical science was more strongly associated with males than with females, on both the implicit and explicit measures. There was no impact of the presence or absence of the equity statement on explicit attitudes. However, there was an impact of the equity-statement for the implicit attitudes, though only for the female participants. Females showed a weaker relative association of sciences with males when an equity-statement was present. Male participants, in contrast, were not influenced by the presence or the absence of the statement. The results are discussed in terms the influence of equity statements on people's attitudes.

Citations Scopus - 1
2007 Miles L, Johnston L, 'Detecting happiness: Perceiver sensitivity to enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles', Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 31 259-275 (2007)

The physiognomic distinctions between spontaneous enjoyment smiles and deliberate non-enjoyment smiles provide the social perceiver with a functional, accessible source of informa... [more]

The physiognomic distinctions between spontaneous enjoyment smiles and deliberate non-enjoyment smiles provide the social perceiver with a functional, accessible source of information to help regulate social interaction. Two experiments were performed to investigate whether perceivers were sensitive to this information in a contextually meaningful manner. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether a target individual was happy or not. The results revealed that participants were indeed sensitive to the differences between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. In Experiment 2, participants performed a priming task without any specific instruction to judge emotional state. Neutral expressions, non-enjoyment smiles and enjoyment smiles were employed as primes in a word valence identification task. The results demonstrated a clear trend indicative of perceiver sensitivity. When compared to a the baseline condition of a neutral expression prime, enjoyment but not non-enjoyment smiles facilitated identification of positive words. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

DOI 10.1007/s10919-007-0036-4
Citations Scopus - 46
2006 Holloway R, Johnston L, 'Evaluating the evaluators: Perceptions of interviewers by rejected job applicants as a function of interviewer and applicant sex', Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 2635-2648 (2006)

Students who had recently had an unsuccessful job interview rated the competence of their interviewer and completed the Women As Managers Scale (WAMS; Terborg, Peters, Ilgen, &am... [more]

Students who had recently had an unsuccessful job interview rated the competence of their interviewer and completed the Women As Managers Scale (WAMS; Terborg, Peters, Ilgen, & Smith, 1977). The results showed an impact of the sex of interviewer on judgments of interviewer competence and WAMS scores, but only for male participants. Male participants gave lower ratings of interviewer competence to female than to male interviewers, and ratings for the female interviewers were also lower than those given by female participants. Scores on the WAMS were lower for male participants who were interviewed by a female interviewer than those interviewed by a male interviewer, and were lower for male than for female participants with a female interviewer. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

DOI 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00120.x
Citations Scopus - 3
2006 Aavik T, Abu-Hilal M, Ahmad FZ, Ahmed RA, Alarco B, Amponsah B, et al., 'A world of lies', Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37 60-74 (2006)

This article reports two worldwide studies of stereotypes about liars. These studies are carried out in 75 different countries and 43 different languages. In Study 1, participants... [more]

This article reports two worldwide studies of stereotypes about liars. These studies are carried out in 75 different countries and 43 different languages. In Study 1, participants respond to the open-ended question "How can you tell when people are lying?" In Study 2, participants complete a questionnaire about lying. These two studies reveal a dominant pan-cultural stereotype: that liars avert gaze. The authors identify other common beliefs and offer a social control interpretation. © 2006 Sage Publications.

DOI 10.1177/0022022105282295
Citations Scopus - 148
2006 Johnston L, 'Reducing stereotype-based judgments: The impact of habitual stereotype use', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35 14-20 (2006)

The reported experiment investigated whether an individual&apos;s habitual use of social stereotypes influenced the impact of the presentation of stereotype-disconfirming informat... [more]

The reported experiment investigated whether an individual's habitual use of social stereotypes influenced the impact of the presentation of stereotype-disconfirming information on stereotype-based beliefs. Participants were first categorized as either high or low users of stereotypes using a diary task. They were then presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about members of a specific target group and subsequently evaluated a member of the group about which disconfirming information had been presented and a member of each of two other stereotyped groups about which no information had been presented. Relative to control participants, low users of stereotypes made less stereotype-based judgments only for the member of the target group about which disconfirming information had been received whilst high users showed a generalized reduction in their use of stereotype-based judgments across all the targets. These differences were not due to differential processing of the presented information; neither reading time nor memory measures differentiated between high and low users. Results are discussed in terms of both the use of stereotypes and stereotype change in general.

Citations Scopus - 1
2006 Yabar Y, Johnston L, Miles L, Peace V, 'Implicit behavioral mimicry: Investigating the impact of group membership', Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 30 97-113 (2006)

Two experiments investigated the impact of group membership on non-conscious behavioral mimicry. Female participants viewed videotapes of female confederates who rubbed their face... [more]

Two experiments investigated the impact of group membership on non-conscious behavioral mimicry. Female participants viewed videotapes of female confederates who rubbed their faces whilst describing a picture. The extent to which the participant mimicked this face rubbing behavior was assessed from video footage taken using a hidden video-camera. Experiment 1 showed greater mimicry of a member of an in-group than of a member of an out-group. Experiment 2 showed both explicit and implicit liking of a target group to predict the extent of mimicry of a member of that group. There was a positive relationship between implicit liking and mimicry but a negative relationship between explicit liking and mimicry. Results are discussed in terms of processes underlying mimicry.

DOI 10.1007/s10919-006-0010-6
Citations Scopus - 79
2006 Peace V, Miles L, Johnston L, 'It doesn't matter what you wear: The impact of posed and genuine expressions of happiness on product evaluation', Social Cognition, 24 137-168 (2006)

Participants were presented with a series of images of a female model wearing a T-shirt and asked to evaluate each T-shirt on a number of dimensions. The T-shirts were identical e... [more]

Participants were presented with a series of images of a female model wearing a T-shirt and asked to evaluate each T-shirt on a number of dimensions. The T-shirts were identical except for color. The model was identical in all images except for her facial expression, which was either a neutral expression, a genuine smile or a posed smile. T-shirts paired with a genuine smile were evaluated more positively than those paired with either a posed smile or a neutral expression (Experiment 1). The impact of the facial expressions was not, however, seen with short exposure times (Experiment 2). The impact of facial expressions of emotion on product evaluation was seen even when participants viewed the items without an evaluation goal (Experiment 3). Results are discussed in terms of the differences between posed and genuine expressions of emotion.

DOI 10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.137
Citations Scopus - 20
2006 Blackburn S, Johnston L, Blampied N, Popp D, Kallen R, 'An application of escape theory to binge eating', European Eating Disorders Review, 14 23-31 (2006)

The application of Escape Theory (Heatherton &amp; Baumeister, 1991) to binge eating was studied in a non-clinical sample of 129 women. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showe... [more]

The application of Escape Theory (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991) to binge eating was studied in a non-clinical sample of 129 women. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed a good fit between the Escape Model and the data. Perfectionism strongly predicted aversive self-awareness which, in turn, predicted negative affect. Negative affect predicted levels of avoidant coping which strongly predicted levels of binge eating. Implications for understanding and treating binge eating are considered. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

DOI 10.1002/erv.675
Citations Scopus - 17
2006 Yabar Y, Johnston LC, Miles L, Peace V, 'Implicit Behavioural Mimicry of an In-group and an Out-group Member', JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR, 30 97-113 (2006)
2005 Johnstone A, Johnston L, 'The relationship between organizational climate, occupational type and workaholism', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 34 181-188 (2005)

Two dimensions of workaholism - Drive to work and Enjoyment of work - and four aspects of organizational climate - Work Pressure; Involvement; Supervisor Support; Co-worker Cohesi... [more]

Two dimensions of workaholism - Drive to work and Enjoyment of work - and four aspects of organizational climate - Work Pressure; Involvement; Supervisor Support; Co-worker Cohesion - were considered in the reported research. The relationship between these variables revealed that aspects of the workplace environment were related to levels of both Drive and Enjoyment. Work pressure, Involvement, Co-worker Cohesion and Supervisor Support were all related to work enjoyment, with Co-worker Cohesion and Supervisor Support the strongest predictors. Only Work Pressure was related to the drive to work. Further, comparisons between two occupational groups - Business Services (n=85); Social Services (n=66) - revealed differences in levels of the components of workaholism. Those in the Business Services had higher Drive and lower Enjoyment than those in the Social Services. Implications for understanding and reducing workaholism are discussed.

Citations Scopus - 38
2005 Richardson MJ, Johnston L, 'Person recognition from dynamic events: The kinematic specification of individual identity in walking style', Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29 25-44 (2005)

Three experiments used Johansson&apos;s [Perception and Psychophysics, 14, 201-211 (1973)] point-light technique to investigate, whether observers could correctly recognize others... [more]

Three experiments used Johansson's [Perception and Psychophysics, 14, 201-211 (1973)] point-light technique to investigate, whether observers could correctly recognize others from their natural and deceptive walking styles based solely on the kinematic pattern produced when walking. Participants watched pairs of video-clips of unknown young male actors and judged whether the video-clips in each pair were from the same actor or not. The pairs of video-clips consisted of one clip of an actor walking naturally across a room and one clip of an actor attempting to walk deceptively (attempting to make themselves appear considerably older than they actually were). The results from Experiments 1a and 1b demonstrated that participants were fairly accurate at recognizing when the actors in the two video-clips were the same and when they were different. In addition, an invariant of walking style (weight shift) was shown to be an important kinematic feature for the identification of walkers. Experiment 2 demonstrated that those walkers whose weight shift differed between their natural and their deceptive walk were more effective in deceiving observers about their true identity than those whose weight shift was the same in the two walks. The results are discussed in relation to the kinematic specification of identity, and the production and perception of deceptive intent. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

DOI 10.1007/s10919-004-0888-9
Citations Scopus - 24
2005 Johnston L, Miles L, Carter C, Macrae CN, 'Menstrual influences on person perception: Male sensitivity to fluctuating female fertility', Social Cognition, 23 279-290 (2005)

Successful reproduction may rely on rapid and accurate categorization of the sex of potential mates. In this regard, women have been shown to display enhanced sensitivity to repro... [more]

Successful reproduction may rely on rapid and accurate categorization of the sex of potential mates. In this regard, women have been shown to display enhanced sensitivity to reproductively-relevant stimuli (e.g., male faces) during phases of high conception risk. But what of male responses to potential female mates? Specifically, are men sensitive to cyclic fluctuations in female fertility? To investigate this issue, male participants completed a person-construal task in which they were required to categorize targets (men and women) by sex. The female targets comprised a group of normally ovulating women and a group of women taking the contraceptive pill. Photographs of each target were taken during phases of high-and low-fertility (or equivalent time points for woman on the pill). The results revealed that men were faster to categorize women at menstruation than at ovulation/mid-cycle. These findings are considered in terms of adaptive person perception and mate selection.

DOI 10.1521/soco.2005.23.3.279
Citations Scopus - 8
2005 Rudge AD, Chase JG, Shaw GM, Lee D, Wake GC, Hudson IL, Johnston L, 'Impact of control on agitation-sedation dynamics', CONTROL ENGINEERING PRACTICE, 13 1139-1149 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.conengprac.2004.10.010
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Irene Hudson
2004 Johnston L, Hudson SM, Richardson MJ, Gunns RE, Garner M, 'Changing kinematics as a means of reducing vulnerability to physical attack', Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 514-537 (2004)

Three experiments investigated whether women can change their walking style and hence reduce their vulnerability to physical attack. In Experiment 1, women were videotaped walking... [more]

Three experiments investigated whether women can change their walking style and hence reduce their vulnerability to physical attack. In Experiment 1, women were videotaped walking normally and when imagining themselves in a situation of low personal safety. Women were rated as harder to attack in the low safety condition. Differences in walking style accounted for differences in ease-of-attack ratings. Experiment 2 compared walking styles and vulnerability of women before and after completing a self-defense course. No differences were seen across sessions. Experiment 3 investigated walking styles and vulnerability of women before and after completing individualized walking training programs. Differences in vulnerability between sessions were revealed and could be accounted for by changes in walking-style features.

Citations Scopus - 21
2004 Johnston L, Miles L, 'Assessing contributions to group assignments', Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 29 751-768 (2004)

We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empiric... [more]

We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the self- and peer-assessment measures. Our analyses indicated that: (i) students took the peer-assessment process seriously, clearly differentiating between group members on the contributions questionnaires; (ii) students show a self-bias, rating their own contribution to the group task higher than that of other group members; (iii) for a large majority of students the contribution index resulted in very little moderation of the final assignment marks; (iv) there was a strong correlation between the contribution index and the overall assignment score. Implications for the assessment of group work are considered. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

DOI 10.1080/0260293042000227272
Citations Scopus - 69
2004 Dzendrowskyj P, Shaw G, Johnston L, 'Effects of nursing industrial action on relatives of Intensive Care Unit patients: A 16-month follow-up', New Zealand Medical Journal, 117 (2004)

Aims: In December 2001, nursing industrial action occurred at Christchurch Hospital. This study assesses the effect industrial action had on relatives of those Intensive Care Unit... [more]

Aims: In December 2001, nursing industrial action occurred at Christchurch Hospital. This study assesses the effect industrial action had on relatives of those Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients involved. Method: A written questionnaire was sent to the relatives of the 17 patients on Intensive Care around the time of the strike; 11 of these patients had needed to be transferred to out of region hospitals for continuing care, whilst the others remained in the intensive care unit. Comparisons were made with a control group of 26 next-of-kin. Results: Compared with relatives of patients not involved in the strike, relatives involved during the strike were significantly more angry (p < 0.007) and less trusting that the patients had received the best possible care (p < 0.05). Compared to the control group, they were also more negative in their continuing view of the healthcare system (p < 0.05). Those relatives involved in air transfers were more distressed (p < 0.05), angry (p < 0.001), and less trusting than those not involved in a transfer (p < 0.005). Conclusion: The study shows that industrial action caused measurable distress and anxiety to the relatives involved some 16 months after the strike, especially in patients who were transferred. A persistent negative perception of the healthcare system in New Zealand could be demonstrated in this group. © NZMA.

2004 Chase JG, Rudge AD, Shaw GM, Wake GC, Lee D, Hudson IL, Johnston L, 'Modeling and control of the agitation-sedation cycle for critical care patients', MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, 26 459-471 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.medengphy.2004.02.001
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Irene Hudson
2004 Miles L, Johnston LC, Owen DH, 'Knowing whom to trust: Evidence for a mediating role of posed and genuine smiles', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (2004)
2004 Johnston LC, Miles L, Macrae CN, Carter C, Arden K, Grace RC, 'Identifying a potential reproductive partner', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (2004)
2004 Miles L, Johnston LC, Owen DH, 'Not all smiles are created equal: An investigation of the implicit impact of genuine and posed smiles on the social perceiver', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (2004)
2004 Peace V, Yabar Y, Johnston LC, Miles L, 'Mimicking others: Is implicit behavioural mimicry moderated by stigmatization', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (2004)
2004 Yabar Y, Johnston LC, Miles L, Peace V, 'Friends or foes: Mimicry and stigmatization', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (2004)
2003 Simpson G, Johnston L, Richardson M, 'An investigation of road crossing in a virtual environment', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35 787-796 (2003)

The reported study employed a virtual reality (VR) system, using a head mounted display (HMD), to investigate road crossing behavior in children and young adults. Younger children... [more]

The reported study employed a virtual reality (VR) system, using a head mounted display (HMD), to investigate road crossing behavior in children and young adults. Younger children (aged 5-9 years) made the greatest number of unsafe road crossings and the oldest participants (aged > 19 years) the fewest. Overall performance was better (fewer unsafe road crossings) in uniform speed than uniform distance trials, consistent with previous research suggesting that pedestrians base road crossing decisions on inter-vehicle distance rather than vehicle speed. Results are discussed in terms of road crossing behavior and the use of VR simulations in the study of pedestrian behavior. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00081-7
Citations Scopus - 73
2003 Johnston L, Arden K, Macrae CN, Grace RC, 'The need for speed: The menstrual cycle and person construal', Social Cognition, 21 89-100 (2003)

Species survival relies on rapid and accurate categorization of the sex of potential mates. Macrae, Alnwick, Milne, and Schloerscheidt (2002) showed females to have enhanced sensi... [more]

Species survival relies on rapid and accurate categorization of the sex of potential mates. Macrae, Alnwick, Milne, and Schloerscheidt (2002) showed females to have enhanced sensitivity to reproductively relevant stimuli (male faces) but not to reproductively irrelevant stimuli (female faces) during periods of high fertility. Extending this research, the present study considered the efficiency of person construal in a series of additional comparison groups - specifically, men, pregnant women, and women on the contraceptive pill. Participants completed a person-categorization task twice, with a two week interval between testing sessions. For normally ovulating women, testing occurred during phases of high (i.e., ovulation) and low (i.e., menstruation) conception probability. The results confirmed that women with cyclical fluctuations in fertility were faster to categorize males, but not females, during periods of high than low conception probability. Women on the pill, however, were faster to categorize male than female faces at both testing sessions. Pregnant women and men displayed no reliable effects. The findings are considered in terms of adaptive person perception.

DOI 10.1521/soco.21.2.89.21319
Citations Scopus - 20
2002 McNab SM, Johnston L, 'The impact of equal employment opportunity statements in job advertisements on applicants' perceptions of organisations', Australian Journal of Psychology, 54 105-109 (2002)

An experiment conducted in New Zealand investigating the impact of the inclusion of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) statements in job advertisements is reported. Male and femal... [more]

An experiment conducted in New Zealand investigating the impact of the inclusion of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) statements in job advertisements is reported. Male and female participants were presented with one of three versions of a recruitment advertisement for a managerial position with a fictitious organisation. Participants then completed a measure of organisational attractiveness for the company. The three advertisements were identical except for the Equal Employment Opportunity policy statement they included. One version included no EEO statement, one a minimal statement and one an extensive statement. There was no overall difference in organisational attractiveness as a function of the EEO statement type. However, there was an interaction between statement type and sex of participants. For female participants ratings of organisational attractiveness were highest in the extensive EEO statement condition and for male participants in the minimal statement condition. In addition female participants rated the organisation more positively than did male participants in the extensive statement condition. Implications for recruitment advertising are discussed.

DOI 10.1080/00049530210001706573
Citations Scopus - 12
2002 Gunns RE, Johnston L, Hudson SM, 'Victim selection and kinematics: A point-light investigation of vulnerability to attack', Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 26 129-158 (2002)

Three experiments used a point-light methodology to investigate whether movement style specifies vulnerability to physical attack. Both female (Experiment 1) and male (Experiment ... [more]

Three experiments used a point-light methodology to investigate whether movement style specifies vulnerability to physical attack. Both female (Experiment 1) and male (Experiment 2) walkers could be differentiated according to ease-of-attack based solely on the kinematic information provided whilst walking. Specific walking style features predicted ease-of-attack and profiles of prototypically "easy to attack" and "difficult to attack" walkers were identified. Variations in walking style as a function of clothing and footwear style were also shown to predict differences in ease-of-attack ratings (Experiment 3). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are considered.

DOI 10.1023/A:1020744915533
Citations Scopus - 49
2002 Johnston L, 'Behavioral mimicry and stigmatization', Social Cognition, 20 18-35 (2002)

Two experiments investigated the moderation of behavioral mimicry effects as a function of the to-be-mimicked target. In each experiment participants completed an ice cream taste ... [more]

Two experiments investigated the moderation of behavioral mimicry effects as a function of the to-be-mimicked target. In each experiment participants completed an ice cream taste test in the presence of a confederate who was instructed to either eat a lot of ice cream (high consumption condition) or very little ice cream (low consumption condition). The extent to which participants mimicked the ice cream consumption of the confederate was recorded. In addition two confederates were employed; one of the confederates in each experiment had a visual stigma. In Experiment 1 the confederate was either obese or not. In Experiment 2 the confederate had, or did not have, a facial birthmark. Results showed mimicry of the confederate's ice cream consumption except for the obese confederate in Experiment 1. Stigmatization of the to-be-mimicked target does inhibit mimicry effects but only when the nature of the Stigmatization is linked to the critical task. Results are discussed in terms of non-conscious elicitation and inhibition of behavior. Implications for social interaction are also discussed.

DOI 10.1521/soco.20.1.18.20944
Citations Scopus - 74
2000 Johnston L, Bristow M, Love N, 'An investigation of the link between attributional judgments and stereotype-based judgments', European Journal of Social Psychology, 30 551-568 (2000)

Three experiments investigated the relationship between the attributions made for stereotype-relevant behavior and stereotype-based judgments. In Experiment 1 participants were pr... [more]

Three experiments investigated the relationship between the attributions made for stereotype-relevant behavior and stereotype-based judgments. In Experiment 1 participants were presented with a short scenario describing a single stereotypic behavior and were given either a situational or a dispositional explanation for the behavior, before evaluating both the target and the group as a whole on stereotype-based dimensions. As predicted, participants given a situational explanation for the stereotypic behavior described the target and the group in less stereotype-based terms than did baseline participants. In Experiments 2 and 3 participants were presented with a short scenario describing either a single stereotypic or counter-stereotypic behavior but were asked to provide an explanation for the behavior, rather than being given one. As predicted, stereotypic behavior was attributed more strongly to dispositional than situational factors and counter-stereotypic behavior more strongly to situational than dispositional factors. No overall moderation of group-based beliefs relative to baseline was seen in either experiment. Correlations between the attributions and stereotype-based judgments did, however, show a relationship between the strength of the attributions mde for the behaviors and stereotype-based judgments. Implications for the moderation of stereotype-based judgments are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Citations Scopus - 9
2000 Watkins LM, Johnston L, 'Screening Job Applicants: The Impact of Physical Attractiveness and Application Quality', International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8 76-84 (2000)

The present study investigated the impact of physical attractiveness and résumé quality on the evaluation of job applicants in the screening phase of the selection process. One ... [more]

The present study investigated the impact of physical attractiveness and résumé quality on the evaluation of job applicants in the screening phase of the selection process. One hundred and eighty participants were asked to imagine they were a recruiting officer and to screen an application for the position of graduate trainee manager. Participants read a job advertisement and one of two versions of a curriculum vitae, which differed in quality. Attached to the front page of each curriculum vitae was a passport-sized head-and-shoulders photograph of either an average or an attractive female. A control condition with no attached photograph was also included. Participants judged the likelihood with which they would offer an interview to the applicant, the quality of the application, and the likely starting salary they would offer the applicant. Results indicated that attractiveness had no impact when the quality of the application was high but that attractiveness was an advantage when the application was mediocre. When the résumé quality was average the attractive applicant was evaluated more positively than the control, no photograph, applicant; an attractive photograph boosted the evaluation of a mediocre application. Results are discussed in terms of discrimination and implications for the field of human resource management.

Citations Scopus - 62
1999 Johnston L, Bulik CM, Anstiss V, 'Suppressing thoughts about chocolate', International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26 21-27 (1999)

Objective: Thought suppression frequently results in subsequent hyperaccessibility of the suppressed thoughts. This study investigated whether this effect transfers to behavior. D... [more]

Objective: Thought suppression frequently results in subsequent hyperaccessibility of the suppressed thoughts. This study investigated whether this effect transfers to behavior. Does suppressing thoughts result in a subsequent increase in the performance of behaviors related to those thoughts? Method: Twenty chocolate cravers and 22 noncravers were instructed to suppress chocolate-related thoughts in an articulated thoughts task or they were given no specific instructions. Participants then completed a computer-based task which yielded chocolate rewards. Results: Both cravers and noncravers could suppress chocolate-related thoughts when instructed to do so. Both groups of participants showed greater performance, and hence earned more chocolate, in the suppression than control condition (p < .05). Discussion: Behavioral control may follow many of the same ironic pathways traced by mental control.

DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199907)26:1&amp;lt;21::AID-EAT3&amp;gt;3.0.CO;2-7
Citations Scopus - 46
1999 Johnston LC, 'Behavioral mimicry: It depends on who is being mimicked', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (1999)
1998 Harvie K, Marshall-McCaskey J, Johnston L, 'Gender-based biases in occupational hiring decisions', Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28 1698-1711 (1998)

Two studies which investigated gender-based decision making in an occupational setting are reported. Participants judged the suitability of a male or a female applicant with ident... [more]

Two studies which investigated gender-based decision making in an occupational setting are reported. Participants judged the suitability of a male or a female applicant with identical résumés for a male-dominated or a female-dominated position. In Study 1, where participants gave their own judgments of the suitability of the applicants for the positions, there was no evidence of gender-based biases. In Study 2, participants were required to take the perspective of the applicant in providing their judgments of suitability. In this experiment, gender-based biases were apparent, with a positive bias toward the male applicant. Results are discussed in terms of occupational stereotyping and subtle sexism.

Citations Scopus - 16
1998 Bruce J, Curtis H, Johnston L, 'Social identity in young New Zealand children', New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 27 21-27 (1998)

The present research compared the ethnic identity and preferences of young Maori children who attended either a bilingual unit within a state school or a state school without a bi... [more]

The present research compared the ethnic identity and preferences of young Maori children who attended either a bilingual unit within a state school or a state school without a bilingual unit. In addition, ingroup favouritism was investigated through the attribution of positive and negative behaviours to dark and light skinned targets. Results demonstrated stronger ingroup identity, but also stronger outgroup preference, amongst Maori children at the school without a bilingual unit than amongst Maori children at the bilingual unit. Outgroup favouritism in the attribution of positive behaviours was seen at both schools. Results are discussed in terms of social identity.

Citations Scopus - 3
1998 Macrae CN, Johnston L, 'Help, I need somebody: Automatic action and inaction', Social Cognition, 16 400-417 (1998)

The goal of behavioral control is of central importance in everyday life. When the production of an unwanted action can have deleterious consequences for perceivers, there is cons... [more]

The goal of behavioral control is of central importance in everyday life. When the production of an unwanted action can have deleterious consequences for perceivers, there is considerable virtue in the possession of a mental system that edits its behavioral products to meet the demands of a challenging world. Accordingly, in an attempt to extend existing work on this topic (e.g., Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996), in the present research we investigated the extent to which the automatic elicitation of action may be moderated by features of the task environment and perceivers' goal states. Our findings were unequivocal. When inhibitory cues were present in the environment (i.e., Experiment 1), or perceivers had a competing goal in mind (i.e., Experiment 2), automatic behavioral priming effects were eliminated. We consider the implications of our findings for recent treatments of behavioral priming and action control.

Citations Scopus - 161
1998 Johnston LC, 'Individual differences and stereotype change', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (1998)
1997 Johnston L, Locke V, Giles L, Rattray K, 'The good, the bad, and the ugly', Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 725-741 (1997)

The impact of the activation of positive and negative components of an ethnic stereotype on judgments of responsibility for both positive and negative stereotypic behaviors was co... [more]

The impact of the activation of positive and negative components of an ethnic stereotype on judgments of responsibility for both positive and negative stereotypic behaviors was considered. Overall, stereotype activation biased judgments in a stereotype-consistent manner, across both positive and negative scenarios. Generalization of these judgments to more global trait perceptions of the target was limited to the negative scenario. Results are discussed in terms of both the use of stereotypes as inferential shortcuts and in-group favoritism mechanisms.

Citations Scopus - 1
1997 Johnston L, Ward T, Hudson SM, 'Deviant sexual thoughts: Mental control and the treatment of sexual offenders', Journal of Sex Research, 34 121-130 (1997)

The clinical literature has long illustrated the paradoxical findings that deliberate attempts to suppress particular thoughts actually increase their occurrence. These unwanted, ... [more]

The clinical literature has long illustrated the paradoxical findings that deliberate attempts to suppress particular thoughts actually increase their occurrence. These unwanted, often intrusive, thoughts that are a major feature of obsessive disorders, depression, sleep disorders, and a range of other disturbances are of particular clinical concern. The exploration of psychological factors associated with cognitive control is, then, clinically relevant. In the current article we consider the role of mental control, especially thought suppression, in explaining the occurrence of unwanted thoughts, specifically in relation to deviant sexual thoughts. Many features of sexual offending, such as the effects of stress or strong affective states on offending, and the rapid escalation in severity and frequency of sexual offending, reported by both therapists and researchers, can be explained by the mental control literature. In addition, the role of suppression in therapy for sexual offenders and its implications for relapse are considered. We argue that the use of suppression techniques by therapists is not sufficient to prevent the occurrence of sexually deviant thoughts and the recurrence of sexual offenses. Therapists also must teach offenders to manage stress effectively and to develop appropriate beliefs about what is controllable. Making suppression techniques automatic and avoiding high-risk situations for offending are also important skills for the offender to learn in therapy.

Citations Scopus - 32
1997 Ward T, Hudson SM, Johnston L, Marshall WL, 'Cognitive distortions in sex offenders: An integrative review', Clinical Psychology Review, 17 479-507 (1997)

Clinicians and researchers have noted that maladaptive beliefs and distorted thinking play an important role in facilitating or justifying sexual offenses. There have been a numbe... [more]

Clinicians and researchers have noted that maladaptive beliefs and distorted thinking play an important role in facilitating or justifying sexual offenses. There have been a number of attempts to describe the nature of these beliefs and to develop ways of measuring them, but in the absence of any integrating theory. We suggest that an understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the initiation, maintenance, and justification of sexual offending is a vital prerequisite to the development of successful treatment programs. In this paper, we use a social cognition framework to review the literature on the role of cognition in sexual offending. Pertinent research in the sexual offending domain, specifically cognitive products, information processing, cognitive change, and the impact of affective and motivational factors on cognitive processes, is described and related to the social cognitive approach. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed in light of the major issues and problems highlighted in our review.

DOI 10.1016/S0272-7358(97)81034-3
Citations Scopus - 217
1997 Johnston L, Hudson SM, Ward T, 'The suppression of sexual thoughts by child molesters: A preliminary investigation', Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 9 303-319 (1997)

The cognitive and emotional demands of modern life mean that it has become increasingly important to learn how to manage effectively our mental processes and behavior. Central to ... [more]

The cognitive and emotional demands of modern life mean that it has become increasingly important to learn how to manage effectively our mental processes and behavior. Central to the achievement of mental control is the suppression, or inhibition, of unwanted or inappropriate thoughts or behaviors. Our recent work has considered the potential utility of instructing individuals to suppress sexually deviant thoughts as a therapy technique for sexual offenders. Of special concern was the subsequent hyperaccessibility, or "rebound," of the very thoughts which were previously suppressed. The present study is a preliminary experimental investigation of the ability of incarcerated child molesters to suppress unwanted sexual thoughts and the subsequent impact of this suppression on the accessibility of the suppressed thoughts. Participants completed an articulated thoughts task under instructions to suppress sex-related thoughts or under no specific instructions. Suppression instructions reduced the incidence of sex-related thoughts. In a subsequent color naming task (Stroop Task), the accessibility of the previously suppressed thoughts was tested. Both sex-related and child-related words were more accessible after prior suppression instructions for preferential child molesters than for either situational child molesters or nonsexual offenders. Implications for treatment of sexual offenders and for offender typology are discussed. © 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Citations Scopus - 13
1996 Johnston L, 'Resisting change: Information-seeking and stereotype change', European Journal of Social Psychology, 26 799-825 (1996)

Despite recent laboratory successes in demonstrating stereotype change in response to disconfirming information, stereotypes remain resistant to change or modification. The report... [more]

Despite recent laboratory successes in demonstrating stereotype change in response to disconfirming information, stereotypes remain resistant to change or modification. The reported research employed an information gathering methodology in which perceivers could control the amount and nature of the information they received about members of a stereotyped group prior to evaluating the group on a number of stereotype-relevant characteristics. Perceivers showed a stereotype-preservation bias in their information gathering (Experiments 1 and 2) and, consequently, showed no modification of existing stereotypic beliefs. Experiment 3 manipulated the salient processing goals under which perceivers gathered information and found that, under certain conditions, the stereotype preservation bias could be overcome and stereotypes moderated.

DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199609)26:5&amp;lt;799::AID-EJSP796&amp;gt;3.0.CO;2-O
Citations Scopus - 72
1996 Ward T, Bulik CM, Johnston L, 'Return of the suppressed: Mental control and bulimia nervosa', Behaviour Change, 13 79-90 (1996)

The clinical literature has long acknowledged the paradoxical findings that deliberate attempts to suppress particular thoughts actually increase their occurrence. The unwanted, i... [more]

The clinical literature has long acknowledged the paradoxical findings that deliberate attempts to suppress particular thoughts actually increase their occurrence. The unwanted, intrusive thoughts that are a major feature of obsessive disorders, depression, sleep disorders, and a range of other disturbances are of particular clinical concern. The exploration of psychological factors associated with cognitive control is, therefore, clinically relevant. The present paper considers the role of mental control and thought suppression in bulimia nervosa in explaining the occurrence of unwanted thoughts and feelings, specifically in relation to weight, shape, and food. Our fundamental argument is that suppression of thoughts of food, weight, and body shape can lead to the increased frequency of these thoughts. The increase in unwanted thoughts is likely to result in a loss of control over eating, and lead to the escalation and perpetuation of bulimia. Dietary restriction is likely to be associated with successful suppression, and binge-eating with failed suppression. Indeed, the initial success of suppression paradoxically causes its inevitable failure. We conclude that the suppression of thoughts of food and weight or shape in bulimia nervosa is maladaptive and counterproductive. In addition, the therapeutic implications of thought suppression are considered.

Citations Scopus - 14
1996 Johnston L, Ward T, 'Social cognition and sexual offending: A theoretical framework', Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 8 55-80 (1996)

Clinicians and researchers have noted the important rote of maladaptive beliefs and distorted thinking in facilitating or justifying sexual offenses. There have been a number of a... [more]

Clinicians and researchers have noted the important rote of maladaptive beliefs and distorted thinking in facilitating or justifying sexual offenses. There have been a number of attempts to describe the nature of these beliefs and to develop ways of measuring them but in the absence of any integrating theory. It is our belief that an understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the initiation, maintenance, and justification of sexual offending is a vital prerequisite to the development of successful treatment programs. The present paper proposes the use of a social cognition framework in considering cognitive processes that may be important contributing factors in the propensity of some men to commit sexual offenses. Pertinent research in the social cognition domain, covering information processing, mental control, and the impact of affective and motivational factors on cognitive processes, is described and related to the sexual offending literature. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are highlighted. © 1996 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Citations Scopus - 39
1996 Johnston LC, 'Resisting change: Information seeking and stereotype change', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (1996)
1995 Johnston L, Coolen P, 'A Dual Processing Approach to Stereotype Change', Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21 660-673 (1995)
DOI 10.1177/0146167295217001
1995 Johnston LC, Ward T, Hudson SM, 'Suppressing sex: Mental control and the treatment of sexual offenders', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, (1995)
1994 Johnston LC, Macrae CN, 'Changing social stereotypes: The case of the information seeker', European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 581-592 (1994)

Previous research has shown that stereotype-based judgements can be attenuated through the attribution of disconfirming information to individual group members. Typically in these... [more]

Previous research has shown that stereotype-based judgements can be attenuated through the attribution of disconfirming information to individual group members. Typically in these studies, subjects are forced to process all the available in formation, including disconfirming information, before providing their impressions of the group. In the reported research, in contrast, we attempted to create a more naturalistic paradigm by allowing subjects to control the amount and nature of information they received about individual group members. Under these conditions, we expected subjects to instigate a biased information-seeking strategy and display a preference for stereotype-matching rather than stereotype-mismatching information. Our results supported this prediction. When subjects could control the nature and amount of information they received about a target group they showed: (i) a preference for stereotype-matching information and (ii) no change in their stereotypic impressions of the group. When, however, subjects were forced to process all the available information, their stereotypic evaluation of the group diminished. These findings demonstrate the general resistance of stereotypes to change in naturalistic, information-seeking settings. Copyright © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2420240505
Citations Scopus - 46
1994 JOHNSTON L, HEWSTONE M, PENDRY L, FRANKISH C, 'COGNITIVE MODELS OF STEREOTYPE CHANGE .4. MOTIVATIONAL AND COGNITIVE INFLUENCES', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 24 237-265 (1994)
DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2420240203
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 33
Co-authors Miles Hewstone
1992 JOHNSTON L, HEWSTONE M, 'COGNITIVE MODELS OF STEREOTYPE CHANGE .3. SUBTYPING AND THE PERCEIVED TYPICALITY OF DISCONFIRMING GROUP MEMBERS', JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 28 360-386 (1992)
DOI 10.1016/0022-1031(92)90051-K
Citations Scopus - 154Web of Science - 122
Co-authors Miles Hewstone
1992 HEWSTONE M, JOHNSTON L, AIRD P, 'COGNITIVE MODELS OF STEREOTYPE CHANGE .2. PERCEPTIONS OF HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 22 235-249 (1992)
DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2420220304
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 51
Co-authors Miles Hewstone
1991 HEWSTONE M, HANTZI A, JOHNSTON L, 'SOCIAL CATEGORIZATION AND PERSON MEMORY - THE PERVASIVENESS OF RACE AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 21 517-528 (1991)
DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2420210606
Citations Scopus - 92Web of Science - 91
Co-authors Miles Hewstone
1990 JOHNSTON RJ, PATTIE CJ, JOHNSTON LC, 'GREAT BRITAIN'S CHANGING ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY: THE FLOW-OF-THE-VOTE AND SPATIAL POLARISATION', Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 81 189-206 (1990)
DOI 10.1111/j.1467-9663.1990.tb00770.x
Citations Scopus - 3
1990 Simon B, Mlicki P, Johnston L, Caetano A, Warowicki M, Van Knippenberg A, Deridder R, 'The effects of ingroup and outgroup homogeneity on ingroup favouritism, stereotyping and overestimation of relative ingroup size', European Journal of Social Psychology, 20 519-523 (1990)

An experiment (n = 61) investigated the effects of ingroup and outgroup homogeneity on ingroup favouritism, stereotyping and the overestimation of relative ingroup size. As predic... [more]

An experiment (n = 61) investigated the effects of ingroup and outgroup homogeneity on ingroup favouritism, stereotyping and the overestimation of relative ingroup size. As predicted, outgroup homogeneity was conducive to ingroup favouritism. Ingroup homogeneity, however, failed to influence ingroup favouritism. Also unexpectedly, asymmetry in group homogeneity ¿ irrespective of whether the ingroup or the outgroup was the more homogeneous group ¿ led to pronounced stereotyping of both groups and to the overestimation of relative ingroup size. Copyright © 1990 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2420200606
Citations Scopus - 10
1989 Johnston RJ, Pattie CJ, Johnston LC, 'The impact of constituency spending on the result of the 1987 British general election', Electoral Studies, 8 143-155 (1989)

Most analysts of British general elections believe that the constituency campaigns have very little impact on the outcome. Using campaign expenditure as a surrogate for constituen... [more]

Most analysts of British general elections believe that the constituency campaigns have very little impact on the outcome. Using campaign expenditure as a surrogate for constituency campaign activity, analyses of the 1987 general election indicate that it was significantly related to the outcome. © 1989.

DOI 10.1016/0261-3794(89)90031-0
Citations Scopus - 24
1988 Johnston RJ, Pattie CJ, Johnston LC, 'The role of ecological analysis in electoral geography: The changing pattern of labour voting in Great Britain 1983-1987', Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 70 307-324 (1988)
DOI 10.2307/490333
1986 Touyz SW, Beumont PJV, Johnstone LC, 'Neuropsychological correlates of dieting disorders', International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5 1025-1034 (1986)
DOI 10.1002/1098-108X(198609)5:6&lt;1025::AID-EAT2260050606&gt;3.0.CO;2-T
Show 88 more journal articles

Conference (3 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2008 Zakharov K, Mitrovic A, Johnston L, 'Towards emotionally-intelligent pedagogical agents', Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (2008)

Research shows that emotions play an important role in learning. Human tutors are capable of identifying and responding to the affective states of their students; therefore, for I... [more]

Research shows that emotions play an important role in learning. Human tutors are capable of identifying and responding to the affective states of their students; therefore, for ITSs to be truly affective, they should also be capable of tracking and appropriately responding to the emotional state of their users. We report on a project aimed at developing an affect-aware pedagogical agent persona for an ITS for teaching database design skills. We use the dimensional approach to affective modeling, and track the users' affective state along the valence dimension as identified from tracking the users' facial features. We describe the facial-feature tracking application we developed, as well as the set of rules that control the agent's behavior. The agent's response to the student's action depends on the student's cognitive state (as determined from the session history) as well as on the student's affective state. The experimental study of the agent shows the general preference towards the affective agent over the non-affective agent. © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-69132-7-7
Citations Scopus - 37
2007 Zakharov K, Mitrovic A, Johnston L, 'Intelligent Tutoring Systems respecting human nature', Proceedings of NZCSRSC 2007, the 5th New Zealand Computer Science Research Student Conference (2007)

The current level of development in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) ensures successful cognitive support. However, a number of studies suggest that learning outcomes are signif... [more]

The current level of development in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) ensures successful cognitive support. However, a number of studies suggest that learning outcomes are significantly influenced by a complex interaction between cognitive and affective states of learners. Little research has been done to investigate the effectiveness of learning with the help of affect-aware ITSs. Recently used approaches to affect recognition rely on facial feature tracking and physiological signal processing, but there is no clear winner among them because of the complexity and ambiguity associated with the task and the low-level data interpretation. The goal of our project is to develop a robust way of affect recognition for creating affect-aware pedagogical agents with the view to improve learners' engagement, motivation and learning outcomes.

Citations Scopus - 1
2003 Rudge AD, Chase JG, Shaw GM, Johnston LC, Wake GC, 'Modelling And Control Of The Agitation-Sedation Cycle' (2003)
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
New Zealand 71
United Kingdom 22
Australia 10
United States 10
Turkey 4
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Professor Lucy Johnston

Position

Dean of Graduate Research
UON Graduate Research
Graduate Research
Research and Innovation Division

Contact Details

Email lucy.johnston@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4985 4975

Office

Room NIERC G34
Building NIER
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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