Dr Krishna Feron

Dr Krishna Feron

Research Academic

School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

Career Summary

Biography

Carbon-based problems require carbon-based solutions. Dr Krishna Feron uses organic conducting and semiconducting materials to tackle sustainable electricity generation and develop next-generation medical devices.

Solar Energy

Dr Feron secured an ARENA fellowship to develop a mini-emulsion technique that enables control of the microstructure of organic semiconductors. Control of the microscopic properties of semiconducting films is crucial to improving the efficiency of solar cells. Moreover, the mini-emulsion approach allows for environmentally friendly processing of photovoltaic devices. His experience in optimising nanoparticles and optoelectronic properties enabled him to improve the photoconversion efficiency and thermal stability of solar paint.

Organic solar cells typically consist of two types of organic semiconductors, each absorbing in different parts of the solar spectrum. Imagine having three or more semiconductors in a single device, more light could be absorbed leading to a higher power conversion efficiency.

‘Two is better than one, three is a party!’

The interactions between three or more semiconductors in a single thin film are far more complex than a binary semiconductor system. Dr Feron uses a photoactive additive to improve light absorption and control the morphology on a nanoscopic scale. His ternary systems have already been shown to convert light into electricity more efficiently than equivalent binary systems.

Bioelectronics

More recently, Dr Feron has focussed his attention on bioelectronic devices. In particular, interfacing electronics with living tissue. The human body facilitates communication (e.g. from sensory neurons to the brain) through the exchange of ions, while standard electronic communication is solely mediated by the exchange of electrons. Since the biotic and abiotic worlds speak different languages, a translator is required. Organic electronic materials are uniquely capable of both ion and charge transport and is thus an ideal class of materials for interfacing with living tissue. Moreover, most organic semiconductors are biocompatible and have mechanical properties that resemble that of biotic tissue.

Neurostimulation plays a critical role in state-of-the-art bioelectronic devices designed to transmit information to and from the neural network of a living host. Such bioelectronic devices are integral to a wide range of current and future medical applications including: controlling electrical appliances by neuronal read-out, deep-brain stimulations to treat Parkinson disease, nerve guidance/regeneration and retinal prosthetic devices to cure blindness or vision loss. Dr Feron believes that neurostimulation with light holds the key to unlocking next-generation medical devices. ‘’. He was awarded an Early Career Researcher HDR grant, a faculty equipment grant and an Early Career Researcher Equipment Grant to neurostimulation with light and build novel neurostimulation devices that take advantage of the properties of semiconducting polymers. He currently leads the bioelectronics research efforts in the Centre for Organic Electronics.

A deep understanding of the molecular scale instructs future devices

Krishna’s journey in organic electronics began with an investigation of the fundamental charge and energy processes in organic electronic materials. Krishna gained a deep understanding of these process spanning the small molecular scale to the macroscopic device scale. He developed from scratch new kinetic Monte Carlo models that link the molecular material properties to device performance as measured in the lab. Krishna enjoyed using Australia’s best supercomputing facilities to run his models to tackle unresolved issues in organic electronics. He developed new design rules for ternary organic solar cells, explained anomalous current-voltage behaviour in photovoltaic devices, calculated how far we can push the efficiency limits of solar paint and explained a range of observations regarding charge generation and energy transport in organic electronic devices. Dr Feron is currently applying his mesoscopic models to bioelectronic devices and hopes to shed light on the neurostimulation mechanism at the bio-organic interface.

Krishna explains ‘A deep understanding of charge and energy transport in organic (semi)conductors provides the basis for the design of novel organic electronic devices. Without this fundamental knowledge we are simply stabbing in the dark.‘


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Newcastle
  • Bachelor of Science (Applied Physics), University of Twente

Keywords

  • Biological Science
  • Molecular modelling
  • Biophysics
  • Organic Electronics
  • Bioelectronics
  • Materials Science
  • Physics

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
100702 Molecular and Organic Electronics 50
091208 Organic Semiconductors 30
090301 Biomaterials 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Research Academic University of Newcastle
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Australia

Teaching

Code Course Role Duration
PHYS3345 Optical Fibre Technology
The University of Newcastle
Course Coordinator / Lecturer 1/02/2017 - 20/07/2018
PHYS1210 Advanced Physics
The University of Newcastle
Lecturer 1/02/2017 - 12/12/2018
PHYS1220 Advanced Physics II
The University of Newcastle
Lecturer 20/07/2015 - 30/12/2018
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (34 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2018 Al-Mudhaffer MF, Griffith MJ, Feron K, Nicolaidis NC, Cooling NA, Zhou X, et al., 'The origin of performance limitations in miniemulsion nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic devices', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 175 77-88 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2017.09.007
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors John Holdsworth, Paul Dastoor, Xiaojing Zhou, Warwick Belcher
2018 Almyahi F, Andersen TR, Cooling NA, Holmes NP, Griffith MJ, Feron K, et al., 'Optimisation of purification techniques for the preparation of large-volume aqueous solar nanoparticle inks for organic photovoltaics', BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, 9 649-659 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.3762/bjnano.9.60
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2018 Liu Q, Surendran A, Feron K, Manzhos S, Jiao X, McNeill CR, et al., 'Diketopyrrolopyrrole based organic semiconductors with different numbers of thiophene units: symmetry tuning effect on electronic devices', NEW JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, 42 4773-4773 (2018)
DOI 10.1039/c8nj90016g
2018 Yao Z, Jones TW, Grigore M, Duffy NW, Anderson KF, Dunbar RB, et al., 'Tunable Crystallization and Nucleation of Planar CH

© 2018 American Chemical Society. A smooth and compact light absorption perovskite layer is a highly desirable prerequisite for efficient planar perovskite solar cells. However, t... [more]

© 2018 American Chemical Society. A smooth and compact light absorption perovskite layer is a highly desirable prerequisite for efficient planar perovskite solar cells. However, the rapid reaction between CH3NH3I methylammonium iodide (MAI) and PbI2often leads to an inconsistent CH3NH3PbI3crystal nucleation and growth rate along the film depth during the two-step sequential deposition process. Herein, a facile solvent additive strategy is reported to retard the crystallization kinetics of perovskite formation and accelerate the MAI diffusion across the PbI2layer. It was found that the ultrasmooth perovskite thin film with narrow crystallite size variation can be achieved by introducing favorable solvent additives into the MAI solution. The effects of dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, ¿-butyrolactone, chlorobenzene, and diethyl ether additives on the morphological properties and cross-sectional crystallite size distribution were investigated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the light absorption and band structure of the as-prepared CH3NH3PbI3films were investigated and correlated with the photovoltaic performance of the equivalent solar cell devices. Details of perovskite nucleation and crystal growth processes are presented, which opens new avenues for the fabrication of more efficient planar solar cell devices with these ultrasmooth perovskite layers.

DOI 10.1021/acsami.8b00887
2018 Sesa E, Vaughan B, Feron K, Bilen C, Zhou X, Belcher W, Dastoor P, 'A building-block approach to the development of an equivalent circuit model for organic photovoltaic cells', Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications, 58 207-215 (2018) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.orgel.2018.04.019
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2018 Pham HD, Hayasake K, Kim J, Do TT, Matsui H, Manzhos S, et al., 'One step facile synthesis of a novel anthanthrone dye-based, dopant-free hole transporting material for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells', Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6 3699-3708 (2018) [C1]

© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Perovskite solar cell (PSCs) technology has made a tremendous impact in the solar cell community due to the exceptional performance of PSCs ... [more]

© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Perovskite solar cell (PSCs) technology has made a tremendous impact in the solar cell community due to the exceptional performance of PSCs as the power conversion efficiency (PCE) surged to a world record of 22% within the last few years. Despite this high efficiency value, the commercialization of PSCs for large area applications at affordable prices is still pending due to the low stability of the devices under ambient atmospheric conditions and the very high cost of the hole transporting materials (HTMs) used as the charge transporting layer in these devices. To cope with these challenges, the use of cheap HTMs can play a dual role in terms of lowering the overall cost of perovskite technology as well as protecting the perovskite layer to achieve a higher stability. To achieve these goals, various new organic hole transporting materials (HTMs) have been proposed. In this study, we used a unique and novel anthanthrone (ANT) dye as a conjugated core building block and an affordable moiety to synthesize a new HTM. The commercially available dye was functionalized with an extended diphenylamine (DPA) end capping group. The newly developed HTM, named DPA-ANT-DPA, was synthesized in a single step and used successfully in mesoporous perovskite solar cell devices, achieving a PCE of 11.5% under 1 Sun condition with impressive stability. The obtained device efficiency is amongst the highest as compared to that of other D-A-D molecular design and low band gap devices. This kind of low cost HTM based on an inexpensive starting precursor, anthanthrone dye, paves the way for the economical and large-scale production of stable perovskite solar cells.

DOI 10.1039/c7tc05238c
Citations Scopus - 1
2018 Pham HD, Do TT, Kim J, Charbonneau C, Manzhos S, Feron K, et al., 'Molecular Engineering Using an Anthanthrone Dye for Low-Cost Hole Transport Materials: A Strategy for Dopant-Free, High-Efficiency, and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells', Advanced Energy Materials, 8 (2018)

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim In this report, highly efficient and humidity-resistant perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using two new small molecule hole tra... [more]

© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim In this report, highly efficient and humidity-resistant perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using two new small molecule hole transporting materials (HTM) made from a cost-effective precursor anthanthrone (ANT) dye, namely, 4,10-bis(1,2-dihydroacenaphthylen-5-yl)-6,12-bis(octyloxy)-6,12-dihydronaphtho[7,8,1,2,3-nopqr]tetraphene (ACE-ANT-ACE) and 4,4'-(6,12-bis(octyloxy)-6,12-dihydronaphtho[7,8,1,2,3-nopqr]tetraphene-4,10-diyl)bis(N,N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)aniline) (TPA-ANT-TPA) are presented. The newly developed HTMs are systematically compared with the conventional 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirbiuorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). ACE-ANT-ACE and TPA-ANT-TPA are used as a dopant-free HTM in mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/HTM solid-state PSCs, and the performance as well as stability are compared with Spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs. After extensive optimization of the metal oxide scaffold and device processing conditions, dopant-free novel TPA-ANT-TPA HTM-based PSC devices achieve a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.5% with negligible hysteresis. An impressive current of 21 mA cm-2is also confirmed from photocurrent density with a higher fill factor of 0.79. The obtained PCE of 17.5% utilizing TPA-ANT-TPA is higher performance than the devices prepared using doped Spiro-OMeTAD (16.8%) as hole transport layer at 1 sun condition. It is found that doping of LiTFSI salt increases hygroscopic characteristics in Spiro-OMeTAD; this leads to the fast degradation of solar cells. While, solar cells prepared using undoped TPA-ANT-TPA show dewetting and improved stability. Additionally, the new HTMs form a fully homogeneous and completely covering thin film on the surface of the active light absorbing perovskite layers that acts as a protective coating for underlying perovskite films. This breakthrough paves the way for development of new inexpensive, more stable, and highly efficient ANT core based lower cost HTMs for cost-effective, conventional, and printable PSCs.

DOI 10.1002/aenm.201703007
2018 Liu Q, Surendran A, Feron K, Manzhos S, Jiao X, McNeill CR, et al., 'Diketopyrrolopyrrole based organic semiconductors with different numbers of thiophene units: Symmetry tuning effect on electronic devices', New Journal of Chemistry, 42 4017-4028 (2018) [C1]

© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) has been drawing considerable attention for constructing sem... [more]

© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) has been drawing considerable attention for constructing semiconducting materials used in organic optoelectronic applications, mainly for organic field effect transistor (OFET) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In the present work, we study the effects of varying the number of thiophene units (from four to six) attached to DPP on the physical, chemical, and optoelectronic properties by designing and synthesizing a series of small molecule organic semiconductors. The thermal and optical properties, and electronic energy levels of these molecular semiconductors are studied, and their performance in organic field effect transistor devices (OFETs) compared. These small molecules exhibit promising charge carrier mobility and behave as p-type semiconductors. Hole mobility increases with conjugation length and degree of symmetry of the backbone. By adjusting the number of thiophene units on each side of DPP, the hole mobility is enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, from 1.18 × 10-4to 1.11 × 10-3cm2V-1s-1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that increasing the number of homo-coupled thiophene results in a relatively planar configuration, while the terminal alkoxyl benzene unit causes significant torsional rotation which could hamper electron and hole transport in active layer.

DOI 10.1039/c7nj03505e
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 2
2017 Valsange NG, Wong FL, Shinde D, Lee CS, Roy VAL, Manzhos S, et al., 'A new pyrene cored small organic molecule with a flexible alkyl spacer: A potential solution processable blue emitter with bright photoluminescence', New Journal of Chemistry, 41 11383-11390 (2017)

© The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2017. A new pyrene cored small organic molecule viz. 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(4-((5-(9H-carbazol-9-yl... [more]

© The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2017. A new pyrene cored small organic molecule viz. 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(4-((5-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pentyl)oxy)phenyl)pyrene (PY-II) was designed and synthesized. The carbazole moiety with an alkyl spacer was introduced at 1, 3, 6 and 8 positions of the pyrene core to improve the charge transport properties and solution processability. PY-II exhibited excellent solubility in common organic solvents and high thermal stability up to 345 °C. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of PY-II in solution was found to be 0.9 with bright blue emission near 450 nm which is just appropriate for the human eye. The solution processed non-doped OLED device fabricated using PY-II as an emissive layer afforded a pure blue emission with CIE coordinates of 0.16 and 0.16, a power efficiency of 0.17 lm W-1, a maximum current efficiency of 0.41 cd A-1and a maximum brightness of 202 cd m-2.

DOI 10.1039/c7nj01921a
2017 Chen H, Lyu M, Zhang M, Feron K, Searles DJ, Dargusch M, et al., 'Switched Photocurrent on Tin Sulfide-Based Nanoplate Photoelectrodes', CHEMSUSCHEM, 10 670-674 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/cssc.201601603
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2017 Feron K, Thameel MN, Al-Mudhaffer MF, Zhou X, Belcher WJ, Fell CJ, Dastoor PC, 'Energy level engineering in ternary organic solar cells: Evaluating exciton dissociation at organic semiconductor interfaces', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 110 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.4979181
Co-authors Warwick Belcher, Paul Dastoor, Xiaojing Zhou
2017 Do TT, Rundel K, Gu Q, Gann E, Manzhos S, Feron K, et al., '9-Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone potential fused aromatic building blocks to synthesize electron acceptors for organic solar cells', New Journal of Chemistry, 41 2899-2909 (2017)

© The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. In this work, for the first time we used two novel fused aromatic conjugated electron withdr... [more]

© The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. In this work, for the first time we used two novel fused aromatic conjugated electron withdrawing moieties 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone, respectively, to design two non-fullerene acceptors and evaluated their viability in solution-processable organic solar cells (OSCs). 9-Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were used as core electron withdrawing blocks in combination with another common strong electron accepting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) end-capping group. The compounds 6,6'-(5,5'-(9-oxo-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-bis(2-butyloctyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione) (DPP-FN-DPP) and 6,6'-(5,5'-(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2,6-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-bis(2-butyloctyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione) (DPP-ANQ-DPP) were synthesized via a Suzuki coupling reaction and characterized completely. The new acceptors exhibit good solubility in common organic solvents and good thermal stability with 5% weight loss above 360 °C. DPP-FN-DPP and DPP-ANQ-DPP possess a broad absorption band at 300-700 nm with optical band-gaps of 1.75 and 1.71 eV, respectively. The use of different core acceptor building blocks resulted in a difference in LUMO and HOMO energy levels. Inverted OSC devices employing P3HT as the donor polymer and DPP-FN-DPP and DPP-ANQ-DPP as acceptors yielded quite high open-circuit voltages (VOC) of 0.85-0.98 V, benefiting from the relatively low-lying LUMO energy levels of the two acceptors. Among both, OSC devices based on DPP-FN-DPP as acceptor exhibits the highest performance with a VOCof 0.97 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 3.2 mA cm-2, a fill factor (FF) of 37%, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2%.

DOI 10.1039/c6nj03938c
Citations Scopus - 5
2017 Hong DP, Wu Z, Ono LK, Manzhos S, Feron K, Motta N, et al., 'Low-Cost Alternative High-Performance Hole-Transport Material for Perovskite Solar Cells and Its Comparative Study with Conventional SPIRO-OMeTAD', ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 3 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/aelm.201700139
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2017 Pham HD, Hu H, Feron K, Manzhos S, Wang H, Lam YM, Sonar P, 'Thienylvinylenethienyl and Naphthalene Core Substituted with Triphenylamines-Highly Efficient Hole Transporting Materials and Their Comparative Study for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells', SOLAR RRL, 1 (2017) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/solr.201700105
Citations Web of Science - 5
2016 Andersen TR, Cooling NA, Almyahi F, Hart AS, Nicolaidis NC, Feron K, et al., 'Fully roll-to-roll prepared organic solar cells in normal geometry with a sputter-coated aluminium top-electrode', Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 149 103-109 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We demonstrate a pathway for fully roll-to-roll (R2R) prepared organic solar cells in a normal geometry with a R2R sputtered aluminium to... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We demonstrate a pathway for fully roll-to-roll (R2R) prepared organic solar cells in a normal geometry with a R2R sputtered aluminium top electrode. Initial attempts utilizing a stack geometry without an electron transport layer (ETL) failed to obtain working devices. By applying aluminium zinc oxide (AZO) as an ETL, and optimizing the AZO thickness, working printed OPV devices with an efficiency of 0.58% were obtained. Further optimization of the donor:acceptor ratio in the active layer increased the efficiency to 0.90%. This work demonstrates that normal geometry organic solar cells using a metal top contact can be produced using large scale production techniques.

DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.01.012
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Warwick Belcher, Paul Dastoor
2016 Holmes NP, Marks M, Kumar P, Kroon R, Barr MG, Nicolaidis N, et al., 'Nano-pathways: Bridging the divide between water-processable nanoparticulate and bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics', Nano Energy, 19 495-510 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Here we report the application of a conjugated copolymer based on thiophene and quinoxaline units, namely poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Here we report the application of a conjugated copolymer based on thiophene and quinoxaline units, namely poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), to nanoparticle organic photovoltaics (NP-OPVs). TQ1 exhibits more desirable material properties for NP-OPV fabrication and operation, particularly a high glass transition temperature (Tg) and amorphous nature, compared to the commonly applied semicrystalline polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This study reports the optimisation of TQ1:PC71BM (phenyl C71butyric acid methyl ester) NP-OPV device performance by the application of mild thermal annealing treatments in the range of the Tg(sub-Tgand post-Tg), both in the active layer drying stage and post-cathode deposition annealing stage of device fabrication, and an in-depth study of the effect of these treatments on nanoparticle film morphology. In addition, we report a type of morphological evolution in nanoparticle films for OPV active layers that has not previously been observed, that of PC71BM nano-pathway formation between dispersed PC71BM-rich nanoparticle cores, which have the benefit of making the bulk film more conducive to charge percolation and extraction.

DOI 10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.11.021
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 21
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2016 Lyu M, Zhang M, Cooling NA, Jiao Y, Wang Q, Yun J-H, et al., 'Highly compact and uniform CH3NH3Sn0.5Pb0.5I3 films for efficient panchromatic planar perovskite solar cells', SCIENCE BULLETIN, 61 1558-1562 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s11434-016-1147-2
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Paul Dastoor
2016 Sulaiman K, Ali AY, Elkington D, Feron K, Anderson KF, Belcher W, et al., 'Matrix assisted low temperature growth of graphene', Carbon, 107 325-331 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Single layer graphene has been successfully grown via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at low temperature by using chlorobenzene trapped ... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Single layer graphene has been successfully grown via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at low temperature by using chlorobenzene trapped in a PMMA polymer matrix as the carbon source. By varying the carbon source temperature, we are able to vary the dominant carbon source from just chlorobenzene to PMMA. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to characterize the as-grown graphene layer, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to characterize film quality and growth dynamics. Lower source temperatures (corresponding to a chlorobenzene carbon source) result in high quality single layer graphene whereas higher source temperatures (PMMA carbon source) produce disordered multilayered graphene films. SEM imaging reveals that a preferential surface mediated edge growth mechanism for single layer graphene is observed as a function of growth time. This development offers a new methodology for graphene synthesis at low temperatures with implications for the development of printed graphene structures.

DOI 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.071
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2016 Feron K, Cave JM, Thameel MN, O'Sullivan C, Kroon R, Andersson MR, et al., 'Utilizing Energy Transfer in Binary and Ternary Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 8 20928-20937 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/acsami.6b05474
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Warwick Belcher, Paul Dastoor, Xiaojing Zhou
2016 Cooling NA, Barnes EF, Almyahi F, Feron K, Al-Mudhaffer MF, Al-Ahmad A, et al., 'A low-cost mixed fullerene acceptor blend for printed electronics', Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4 10274-10281 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The synthesis and performance of a cost-effective mixed fullerene at the 100+ g scale with a reaction yield of 85% is demonstrated. The cost... [more]

© 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The synthesis and performance of a cost-effective mixed fullerene at the 100+ g scale with a reaction yield of 85% is demonstrated. The cost to convert a fullerene such as C60into the mixed acceptor blend is less than $1 g-1. The photovoltaic performance of the mixed acceptor is demonstrated in both small scale and roll-to-roll printed devices.

DOI 10.1039/c6ta04191d
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2016 Andersen TR, Almyahi F, Cooling NA, Elkington D, Wiggins L, Fahy A, et al., 'Comparison of inorganic electron transport layers in fully roll-to-roll coated/printed organic photovoltaics in normal geometry', Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4 15986-15996 (2016) [C1]

© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. We investigate the suitability of four different inorganic materials (chromium oxide (CrOX), titanium oxide (TiOX), aluminium doped zinc oxi... [more]

© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. We investigate the suitability of four different inorganic materials (chromium oxide (CrOX), titanium oxide (TiOX), aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) and zinc oxide (ZnO)) as electrode transport layers in fully roll-to-roll (R2R) fabricated P3HT:ICxA organic solar cells. CrOX and TiOX were found to be unsuitable, as the CrOX devices did not exhibit rectifying behaviour while the TiOX devices did not withstand the annealing conditions. Of the last two ETLs, ZnO showed by far the most promise with devices demonstrating an average efficiency of 2.2%, which is the highest reported value for R2R devices in normal geometry, and a significantly extended lifetime compared with AZO devices under ISOS-L-2 conditions.

DOI 10.1039/c6ta06746h
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2016 Salunke JK, Wong FL, Feron K, Manzhos S, Lo MF, Shinde D, et al., 'Phenothiazine and carbazole substituted pyrene based electroluminescent organic semiconductors for OLED devices', JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, 4 1009-1018 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1039/c5tc03690a
Citations Scopus - 26Web of Science - 24
2015 Holmes NP, Nicolaidis N, Feron K, Barr M, Burke KB, Al-Mudhaffer M, et al., 'Probing the origin of photocurrent in nanoparticulate organic photovoltaics', SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, 140 412-421 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.04.044
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Kumar P, Bilen C, Feron K, Nicolaidis NC, Gong BB, Zhou X, et al., 'Comparative Degradation and Regeneration of Polymer Solar Cells with Different Cathodes', ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 6 5281-5289 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1021/am500637n
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Feron K, Ulum S, Sesa E, Gong BB, Belcher WJ, Zhou X, et al., 'The effect of calcium-induced fullerene migration on the performance of thermally stable nanoparticle organic solar cells', Journal of Applied Physics, 116 (2014) [C1]

© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The impact of a calcium interface layer in combination with a thermal annealing treatment on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phen... [more]

© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The impact of a calcium interface layer in combination with a thermal annealing treatment on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-buteric acid methylester (PCBM) nanoparticle photovoltaic devices is investigated. Annealing is found to disrupt the microstructure of the nanoparticle active layer leading to a reduction in fill factor. However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the calcium interface layer causes PCBM to preferentially migrate to the cathode interface upon annealing, resulting in better charge extraction from the PCBM moiety, an increase in the built-in voltage, open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the annealing trends could be completely explained by the observed PCBM migration. Unlike P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction devices, the P3HT:PCBM nanoparticle devices showed a remarkable thermal stability up to 120°C. As such, OPVs fabricated from aqueous nanoparticle inks provide an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvent based bulk heterojunction devices.

DOI 10.1063/1.4896249
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Kumar P, Bilen C, Feron K, Zhou X, Belcher WJ, Dastoor PC, 'Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 104 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.4878408
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Nicolaidis N, Vaughan B, Mulligan CJ, Bryant G, Zillger T, Trnovec B, et al., 'Solution processable interface materials for nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic devices', Applied Physics Letters, 104 (2014) [C1]

Nanoparticulate zinc oxide can be prepared at low temperatures from solution processable zinc acetylacetonate. The use of this material as a cathode interfacial layer in nanoparti... [more]

Nanoparticulate zinc oxide can be prepared at low temperatures from solution processable zinc acetylacetonate. The use of this material as a cathode interfacial layer in nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic devices results in comparable performances to those based on reactive calcium layers. Importantly, the enhanced degradation stability and full solution processability make zinc oxide a more desirable material for the fabrication of large area printed devices. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

DOI 10.1063/1.4863216
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Feron K, Zhou X, Belcher WJ, Fell CJ, Dastoor PC, 'A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells', Journal of Applied Physics, 116 (2014) [C1]

© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a subst... [more]

© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects.

DOI 10.1063/1.4903530
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher, Xiaojing Zhou
2014 Jones TW, Feron K, Anderson KF, Duck BC, Wilson GJ, 'An applied light-beam induced current study of dye-sensitised solar cells: Photocurrent uniformity mapping and true photoactive area evaluation', JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 116 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.4890935
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 6
2013 Feron K, Ulum S, Holmes NP, Kilcoyne ALD, Belcher WJ, Zhou X, et al., 'Modelling transport in nanoparticle organic solar cells using Monte Carlo methods', APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 103 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.4829152
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2013 Feron K, Nagle TJ, Rozanski LJ, Gong BB, Fell CJ, 'Spatially resolved photocurrent measurements of organic solar cells: Tracking water ingress at edges and pinholes', Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 109 169-177 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.solmat.2012.10.027
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 31
2012 Feron K, Fell CJ, Rozanski LJ, Gong BB, Nicolaidis NC, Belcher WJ, et al., 'Towards the development of a virtual organic solar cell: An experimental and dynamic Monte Carlo study of the role of charge blocking layers and active layer thickness', Applied Physics Letters, 101 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.4767291
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Warwick Belcher, Paul Dastoor, Bruce King
2012 Feron K, Zhou X, Belcher WJ, Dastoor PC, 'Exciton transport in organic semiconductors: Forster resonance energy transfer compared with a simple random walk', Journal of Applied Physics, 111 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1063/1.3687373
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 14
Co-authors Xiaojing Zhou, Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
2012 Feron K, Belcher WJ, Fell CJ, Dastoor PC, 'Organic solar cells: Understanding the role of Forster resonance energy transfer', International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13 17019-17047 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 50
Co-authors Paul Dastoor, Warwick Belcher
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 6
Total funding $926,894

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20181 grants / $93,387

Early Career Researcher HDR Scholarship$93,387

Funding body: The University of Newcastle - Research and Innovation Division

Funding body The University of Newcastle - Research and Innovation Division
Project Team

Dr Krishna Feron

Scheme Early Career Researcher HDR Candidate Scholarship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2018
Funding Finish 2022
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20162 grants / $80,000

Faculty Equipment Grant$60,000

Funding body: Faculty of Science | University of Newcastle | Australia

Funding body Faculty of Science | University of Newcastle | Australia
Project Team

Dr Krishna Feron

Scheme Faculty Equipment Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

Early Career Researcher Equipment Grant$20,000

Funding body: The University of Newcastle - Research and Innovation Division

Funding body The University of Newcastle - Research and Innovation Division
Project Team

Dr Krishna Feron

Scheme Research Advantage Funding
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2017
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON N

20151 grants / $3,000

Travel Grant$3,000

Funding body: The University of Newcastle

Funding body The University of Newcastle
Project Team

Dr Krishna Feron

Scheme Internal Funding
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON N

20131 grants / $749,507

Harnessing Energy Losses in Organic Solar Cells$749,507

Funding body: Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA)

Funding body Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA)
Project Team

Dr Krishna Feron

Scheme Post Doctoral Research Scholarships (ASI)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON N

20121 grants / $1,000

Travel Award$1,000

Funding body: Australian Nanotechnology Network

Funding body Australian Nanotechnology Network
Project Team

Krishna Feron

Scheme Travel Award
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current2

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.7

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2018 PhD Photo-Stimulation of Neurons Using Organobioelectronics PhD (Anatomy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2014 PhD Development of Novel Binary and Ternary Blend OPVs from Solar Paint PhD (Physics), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
Australia 34
Iraq 9
Singapore 9
India 6
United Kingdom 3
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Dr Krishna Feron

Position

Research Academic
Centre for Organic Electronics
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Faculty of Science

Contact Details

Email krishna.feron@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4985 4378

Office

Room P.125
Building Physics Building
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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