Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk

Conjoint Professor

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy (Anatomy)

Career Summary

Biography

I commenced research into spinal pain, in 1972, when essentially nothing was known about the problem. There being no established groups or departments working on this problem, I forged my own career, using borrowed resources. I commenced in a Department of Anatomy, where I pursued the innervation of the vertebral column, as a fundamental element in understanding the sources and mechanisms of spinal pain. Professor Jim Lance fostered this interest, and accommodated my PhD studies. In his department I continued my Anatomy studies but was able also to commence clinical applications. I developed and tested new diagnostic and surgical procedures for back pain and for neck pain. While in Professor Lance's Department I participated in laboratory studies of the mechanisms of migraine. At the University of Queensland I continued to develop and apply the diagnostic and surgical techniques that I started at the University of NSW, serving as an honorary medical officer at the Pain Clinic of Princess Alexandra Hospital. Meanwhile I supervised science and medicine postgraduate students who undertook basic science studies into the biomechaincs of the back and neck. At the University of Newcastle, I had established a reputation sufficient to attract a grant from the Motor Accidents Authority of NSW to investigate the cause and treatment of neck pain after whiplash. The grant supported three PhD students over a six year period. They performed studies that validated the diagnostic procedures and which tested the surgical procedures in a placebo-controlled double-blind randomised trial. Having established an international standing in the development and testing of treatments for spinal pain, I participated in the design and analysis of controlled trials conducted elsewhere in Australia and in the USA. These tested the efficacy of: lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy for back pain, intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for back pain, prolotherapy for back pain, exercises for neck pain. I am now a consultant for the International Spine Intervention Society for various studies of spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures. Most recently we completed a placebo-controlled trial that validated the efficacy of transforaminal injections of steroids for sciatica. Between 1997 and 2002 I conducted the National Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative which developed and tested evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, knee pain, and pain in the foot, wrist, and elbow. My work has been awarded the Volvo Award for Back Pain Research, the Research Prize of the Cervical Spine Research Society, the Award for Outstanding Research of the North American Spine Society, and three times the Research Prize of the Spine Society of Australia. My students have been awarded research prizes by the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Australian Rheumatology Association, and the Australian New Zealand college of Anaesthetists. I have never had a funded Department to which to attract investigators and academics. I have relied on scholarships for students, and the goodwill of private practitioners who wished to contribute to clinical research. I am currently involved in studies of the long-term effectiveness of sugery for back pain and sciatica. Otherwise my time is now occupied: serving the editorial board of Pain Medicine and two guidelines groups for the treatment of spinal pain and the management of musculoskeletal pain.

Research Expertise

I have pursued the problem of spinal pain and headache across several disciplines, starting in an era where essentially nothing ws known about the cause and treatment of these problems. I undertook anatomy studies to determine how the vertebral column was innervated. I devised anaesthetic techniques whereby nerves that might be mediating a patient's pain might be blocked, as a diagnostic test. I devised surgical procedures whereby spinal pain and headache could be stopped. I undertook clinical trials to validate the diagnostic techniques and the therapeutic techniques. Parenthetically I conducted studies on the normal and abnormal biomechanics of the spine, which have now become pertinent to the evaluation of arthroplastic surgery of the spine. Other anatomy studies estalbished the basis for causes of spinal pain. I performed Anatomy studies and clinical trials to disprove myths in medical practice.

Teaching Expertise
I have taught at all academic levels, from tutor to professor, in classical and problem based learning systems. I have taught undergraduates in all health disciplines. I have taught postgraduate surgeons. I have regularly been a keynote speaker at health profession conferences internationally. From the Univeristy of Newcaslte, I hold an award for Excellence in Teaching, and an award for Postgraduate Supervisor of the Year.

Administrative Expertise
I have served on the Academic Boards or Senates of three universities. I have been an Assistant Dean in the Faculty of Medicine. I have served on the Vice Chancellor's Committee for University Development and Assessment, as the member elected by the Professors of the University of Newcastle. I am presently Acting Medical Superintendent of the Royal Newcastle Centre, and Director of Clinical Research in the Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute. 

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Medicine, University of New South Wales
  • Doctor of Science, University of Sydney
  • PhD, University of New South Wales
  • Bachelor of Science (Medicine), University of Sydney
  • Bachelor of Medicine & Surgery, University of Sydney

Keywords

  • Anatomy
  • Clinical Biomechanics
  • Clinical Trials
  • Evidence Based Medicine
  • Musculoskeletal Medicine
  • Pain Medicine

Languages

  • French (Fluent)
  • Russian (Fluent)

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
110399 Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified 75
110999 Neurosciences not elsewhere classified 10
111599 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences not elsewhere classified 15

Professional Experience

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/01/2011 -  Editorial Board - Cephalalgia, Journal of the International Headache Society Cephalalgia, Journal of the International Headache Society
Australia
1/01/2011 -  Editor - Pain Medicine, Official Journal of American Academy of Pain Medicine Pain Medicine, Official Journal of American Academy of Pain Medicine
Australia
1/01/1997 -  Director of Clinical Research Hunter New England Health
Pain Medicine
Australia
1/01/1991 - 1/12/1996 Professor of Anatomy The University of New South Wales
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/01/1989 - 1/12/1990 Associate Professor

Anatomy

University of Newcastle
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/07/1987 - 1/12/1989 Senior Lecturer

Anatomy

University of Newcastle
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/01/1987 - 1/06/1987 Reader The University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia
1/01/1983 - 1/12/1986 Senior Lecturer The University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia
1/02/1981 - 1/12/1982 Lecturer The University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia

Membership

Dates Title Organisation / Department
Member Research Committee - International Association for the Study of Pain IASP International Association for the Study of Pain
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2008 Bogduk N, Yotsui kotsuban Ryoiki no Rinsho Kaibogaku: Yotsui no Hyoka Chiryo no Kagakuteki Konkyo, Elsevier, Japan, 253 (2008) [A2]
2006 Bogduk N, McGuirk B, Management of acute and chronic neck pain : an evidence-based approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 188 (2006) [A1]
2005 Bogduk N, Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum, Elsevier / Churchill Livingstone, New York, 250 (2005) [A3]
2002 Adams M, Bogduk N, Burton K, Dolan P, The Biomechanics of Back Pain, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 238 (2002) [A2]
2002 Bogduk N, McGuirk B, Medical Management of Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain. An Evidence-Based Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 224 (2002) [A2]
1999 Bogduk N, Govind J, Medical Management of Acute Lumbar Radicular Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach, Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute, Newcastle, Australia, 108 (1999) [A1]
1999 Bogduk N, Medical Management of Acute Cervical Radicular Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach, Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute, Newcastle, Australia., 106 (1999) [A1]
Show 4 more books

Chapter (52 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Bogduk N, 'Functional anatomy of the spine', Neuroimaging Part II, Elsevier, Amsterdam 675-688 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-444-53486-6.00032-6
2013 Carrino JA, Bogduk N, 'Spinal Injections for Low Back Pain: Evidence-Based Treatment', Evidence-Based Neuroimaging Diagnosis and Treatment: Improving the Quality of Neuroimaging in Patient Care, Springer, New York 499-510 (2013) [B1]
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-3320-0_30
2012 Bogduk N, 'Lumbar Medial Branch Neurotomy', Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain 351-363 (2012)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-323-07293-9.00026-X
Citations Scopus - 1
2012 Bogduk N, 'Pain management', The Cervical Spine: Fifth Edition 237-247 (2012)
2012 Bogduk N, 'Complications associated with transforaminal injections', Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: Second Edition (2012)
2009 Bogduk N, 'Schleudertrauma under Schmerzen in den Wirbelbogengelenken', Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaule 'HWS-Schleudertrauma', Verlag Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden, Germany 210-215 (2009) [B1]
DOI 10.1007/978-3-7985-1838-4_25
2008 Bogduk N, Bartsch T, 'Cervicogenic headache', Wolff's Headache and Other Head Pain, Oxford University Press, Oxford 551-570 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of the spine', Rheumatology, Mosby, Maryland Heights, Missouri 45-62 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Neck pain and whiplash', Clinical Pain Management, Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom 484-500 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic procedures in chronic pain', Clinical Pain Management, Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom 145-168 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Principles of diagnostic blocks', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 187-191 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Placebo', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 203-205 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Pathophysiologic evidence of injury', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 589-592 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Rachis lombaire, sacrum et coccyx. Anatomie', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 365-376 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Rachis lombaire, sacrum et coccyx. Physiologie et biom?canique', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 376-383 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Rachis cervical. Anatomie', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 176-192 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Rachis cervical. Physiologie et biomecanique', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 192-201 (2008) [B1]
2008 Bogduk N, 'Why I pursue discogenic pain', LBP: Controversies in Clinical Practice and Research: 8th Physiatric Summer School, ORTON Rehabilitation, Helsinki, Finland 49-71 (2008) [B1]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Complications Associated with Transforaminal Injections', Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Elsevier, Amsterdam 259-265 (2007) [B1]
Citations Scopus - 8
2007 Bogduk N, 'Lumbar facet syndrome', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 769-776 (2007) [B1]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 800-809 (2007) [B1]
2007 McGuirk B, Bogduk N, 'Occupational back pain', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 777-790 (2007) [B1]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Evidence-based treatment of back pain', Low Back Syndromes: Integrated Clinical Management, McGraw-Hill, New York 821-840 (2006) [B2]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Cervical zygapophysical joint pain', Decision Making in Pain Management, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, PA 152-153 (2006) [B2]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Chronic Low Back Pain', Pain: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, Amsterdam 779-790 (2006) [B1]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Whiplash Injury', Pain: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, Amsterdam 792-801 (2006) [B1]
2005 Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic blocks', The Cervical Spine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 255-260 (2005) [B1]
2005 Wilson PR, Bogduk N, 'Retrospection , Science and Epidemiology of CRPS', CRPS: Current Diagnosis and Therapy, IASP Press, Seattle 19-41 (2005) [B1]
2005 Bogduk N, Bartsch T, 'Headaches of cervical origin: Focus on anatomy and physiology', Chronic Daily Headache for Clinicians, BC Decker, Hamilton 129-143 (2005) [B1]
2004 Bogduk N, Mercer S, Elkins M, Moseley A, Sherrington C, Herbert R, Maher CG, 'Selection of treatment for musculoskeletal conditions', Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy: Clinical Science and Evidence-Based Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, Philadelphia 245-275 (2004) [B1]
2003 Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of the spine', Rheumatology, Elsevier Science, Madrid 545-564 (2003) [B2]
2003 Bogduk N, 'Functional Anatomy of the Disc and Lumbar Spine', The Artifical Disc, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York 19-32 (2003) [B2]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Innervation and Pain Patterns of the Cervical Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Innervation and Pain Patterns of the Thoracic Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Cervical Pain', Diseases of the Nervous System, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 2192 (2002) [B2]
2001 Bogduk N, 'Mechanisms and pain patterns of the upper cervical spine', The Cranio-Cervical Syndrome Mechanisms, Assessment and Treatment, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford UK 110-116 (2001) [B2]
2000 Bogduk N, 'An Overview of Pain', Integrated Basic Surgical Sciences, Arnold [Hodder Headline Group], London UK 3-12 (2000) [B1]
2000 Bogduk N, 'An Overview of Whiplash', Frontiers in Whiplash Trauma. Clinical and Biomechanical, IOS Press, Amsterdam Netherlands 3-9 (2000) [B1]
2000 Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic Headache', Drug Treatment of Migraine and Other Headaches, Karger, Basel 357-362 (2000) [B1]
1999 Bogduk N, Barnsley L, 'An Evidence-Based Update', Pain 1999 - An Updated Review. Refresher Course Syllabus., IASP Press, Seattle, U.S.A. 371-377 (1999) [B1]
1999 Bogduk N, 'The patient with neck pain and headache', Advanced Therapy of Headache., B.C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 277-282 (1999) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Introduction', Whiplash Injuries. Current Concepts in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Cervical Whiplash Syndrome., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 17-18 (1998) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain and Percutaneous Neurotomy: An Update to the Quebec Task Force Report on Whiplash-Associated Disorders', Whiplash Injuries: Current Concepts in Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Cervical Whiplash Syndrome., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 211-219 (1998) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Spine', Rheumatology, Second Edition. (2 Volumes), Mosby International, London, U.K. 4.2.1-4.2.20 (1998) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Work-related low back pain', Rheumatology, Second Edition. (2 Volumes), Mosby International, London, U.K. 4.6.5-4.6.5 (1998) [B1]
1998 Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'The Pathophysiology of Whiplash', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 209-242 (1998) [B1]
1998 Gibson T, Bogduk N, 'Automotive Design and Whiplash Injury', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 243-256 (1998) [B1]
1998 Lord S, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Cervical Zygapophyseal Joint Pain in Whiplash Injuries', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 301-322 (1998) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Treatment of Whiplash Injuries', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 469-483 (1998) [B1]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Patho-Anatomical Assessment of Whiplash', Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 299-307 (1998) [B1]
1998 Gibson G, Bogduk N, Ryan G, Sparke L, 'Neck Injury Research Needs: An Australian Perspective', Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 730-738 (1998) [B1]
Show 49 more chapters

Journal article (384 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Endres S, Shufelt A, Bogduk N, 'The Risks of Continuing or Discontinuing Anticoagulants for Patients Undergoing Common Interventional Pain Procedures', PAIN MEDICINE, 18 403-409 (2017)
DOI 10.1093/pm/pnw108
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2017 Endres S, Bogduk N, 'Regarding the Safety of Interventional Pain Procedures in the Setting of Anticoagulation Response', PAIN MEDICINE, 18 820-821 (2017)
DOI 10.1093/pm/pnw254
2017 Bogduk N, 'Point of View', SPINE, 42 547-547 (2017)
DOI 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002099
Citations Scopus - 2
2017 Bogduk N, 'Point of View', Spine, 42 547 (2017)
DOI 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002099
2016 Bogduk N, 'Transparent Data on a Treatment for Discogenic Pain', PAIN MEDICINE, 17 625-625 (2016)
DOI 10.1093/pm/pnv057
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Nakayama A, Major G, Holliday E, Attia J, Bogduk N, 'Evidence of effectiveness of a fracture liaison service to reduce the re-fracture rate', Osteoporosis International, 27 873-879 (2016) [C1]

© 2015, The Author(s). Summary: We assessed the ability of a fracture liaison service (FLS) to directly reduce re-fracture risk. Having a FLS is associated with a ~40¿% reductio... [more]

© 2015, The Author(s). Summary: We assessed the ability of a fracture liaison service (FLS) to directly reduce re-fracture risk. Having a FLS is associated with a ~40¿% reduction in the 3-year risk of major bone and ~30¿% of any bone re-fracture. The number needed to treat to prevent a re-fracture is 20. Introduction: FLS have been promoted as the most effective interventions for secondary fracture prevention, and while there is evidence of increased rate of investigation and treatment at institutions with a FLS, only a few studies have considered fracture outcomes directly. We therefore sought to evaluate the ability of our FLS to reduce re-fracture risk. Methods: Historical cohort study of all patients =50¿years presenting over a 6-month period with¿a minimal trauma fracture (MTF) to the emergency departments of a tertiary hospital with a FLS, and one without a FLS. Baseline characteristics, mortality and MTFs over a 3-year follow-up were recorded. Results: Five hundred fifteen patients at the FLS hospital and 416 patients at the non-FLS hospital were studied. Over 3¿years, 63/515 (12¿%) patients at the FLS hospital and 70/416 (17¿%) at the non-FLS hospital had a MTF. All patients were analysed in an intention-to-treat analysis regardless of whether they were seen in the FLS follow-up clinic. Statistical analysis using Cox proportional hazard models in the presence of a competing risk of death from any cause was used. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, there was a ~30¿% reduction in rate of any re-fracture at the FLS hospital (hazard ratio (HR) 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.95, p value 0.025) and a ~40¿% reduction in major re-fractures (hip, spine, femur, pelvis or humerus) (HR 0.59, CI 0.39-0.90, p value 0.013). Conclusions: We found a ~30¿% reduction in any re-fractures and a ~40¿% reduction in major re-fractures at the FLS hospital compared with a similar non-FLS hospital. The number of patients needed to treat to prevent one new fracture over 3¿years is 20.

DOI 10.1007/s00198-015-3443-0
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 13
Co-authors John Attia, Liz Holliday
2016 Engel AJ, Bogduk N, 'Mathematical Validation and Credibility of Diagnostic Blocks for Spinal Pain', PAIN MEDICINE, 17 1821-1828 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/pm/pnw020
Citations Scopus - 1
2015 Bogduk N, 'Commentary on King W, Ahmed S, Baisden J, Patel N, MacVicar J, Kennedy DJ. Diagnosis of Posterior Sacroiliac Complex Pain: A Systematic Review with Comprehensive Analysis of the Published Data', PAIN MEDICINE, 16 222-224 (2015) [C2]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12615
2015 Stojanovic MP, Higgins DM, Popescu A, Bogduk N, 'COMBI: A Convenient Tool for Clinical Outcome Assessment in Conventional Practice', PAIN MEDICINE, 16 513-519 (2015) [C2]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12581
2015 Bogduk N, 'Ganglion Impar Blocks for Coccydynia: A Case Series Prerequisite for Efficacy Trial', PAIN MEDICINE, 16 1245-1245 (2015) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12838
2015 Rathmell JP, Benzon HT, Dreyfuss P, Huntoon M, Wallace M, Baker R, et al., 'Safeguards to Prevent Neurologic Complications after Epidural Steroid Injections Consensus Opinions from a Multidisciplinary Working Group and National Organizations', ANESTHESIOLOGY, 122 974-984 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000614
Citations Scopus - 54Web of Science - 50
2014 Bogduk N, 'The Neck and Headaches', NEUROLOGIC CLINICS, 32 471-+ (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ncl.2013.11.005
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 4
2014 Bogduk N, 'Editor's Response: Group vs Categorical Data in Epidural Studies', PAIN MEDICINE, 15 1812-1813 (2014) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12562
Citations Web of Science - 2
2014 Haskins R, Henderson JM, Bogduk N, 'Health professional consultation and use of conservative management strategies in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis awaiting orthopaedic consultation', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH, 20 305-310 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/PY13064
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2014 Engel A, Macvicar J, Bogduk N, 'A philosophical foundation for diagnostic blocks, with criteria for their validation', Pain Medicine (United States), 15 998-1006 (2014) [C1]

Background: In the absence of a suitable reference standard, diagnostic local anesthetic blocks cannot be validated in the manner conventionally used for diagnostic tests. Consequ... [more]

Background: In the absence of a suitable reference standard, diagnostic local anesthetic blocks cannot be validated in the manner conventionally used for diagnostic tests. Consequently, diagnostic blocks are vulnerable to criticism for lacking validity, or being "not proven." Study Design: Philosophical essay. Methods: Inspired by the "viewpoints" proposed by Bradford Hill for testing cause and effect in epidemiology, a set of axiomatic criteria was developed with which the validity of diagnostic blocks could be assessed. Results: Eight criteria were established: plausibility, experiment, target-specificity, effect, duration, consistency, control, and replication. Applying weighted scores to these criteria produces a metric by which the validity of a particular diagnostic block can be quantified. Conclusion: The eight criteria provide an axiomatic, philosophical basis for diagnostic blocks in general, and serve to show what empirical evidence needs to be gathered in order to validate a particular block. The associated metric allows the scientific evidence for different blocks to be quantified and compared. © 2014 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

DOI 10.1111/pme.12436
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2014 Engel AJ, Kennedy DJ, MacVicar J, Bogduk N, 'Not all injections are the same', Anesthesiology, 120 1282-1283 (2014)
DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000197
Citations Scopus - 2
2013 Bogduk N, Aprill C, Derby R, 'Lumbar discogenic pain: State-of-the-art review', Pain Medicine (United States), 14 813-836 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To test the null hypotheses that: lumbar intervertebral discs cannot be a source of pain; discs are not a source of pain; painful lumbar discs cannot be diagnosed; and ... [more]

Objective: To test the null hypotheses that: lumbar intervertebral discs cannot be a source of pain; discs are not a source of pain; painful lumbar discs cannot be diagnosed; and there is no pathology that causes discogenic pain. Methods: Philosophical essay and discourse with reference to the literature. Results: Anatomic and physiologic evidence denies the proposition that disc cannot be a source of pain. In patients with back pain, discs can be source of pain. No studies have refuted the ability of disc stimulation to diagnose discogenic pain. Studies warn only that disc stimulation may have a false-positive rate of 10% or less. Internal disc disruption is the leading cause of discogenic pain. Discogenic pain correlates with altered morphology on computerized tomography scan, with changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and with internal biophysical features of the disc. The morphological and biophysical features of discogenic pain have been produced in biomechanics studies and in laboratory animals. Conclusions: All of the null hypotheses that have been raised against the concept of discogenic pain and its diagnosis have each been refuted by one or more studies. Although studies have raised concerns, none has sustained any null hypothesis. Discogenic pain can occur and can be diagnosed if strict operational criteria are used to reduce the likelihood of false-positive results. © 2013.

DOI 10.1111/pme.12082
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 26
2013 Bogduk N, 'Time to reconsider steroid injections in the spine?', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 199 752-752 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.5694/mja13.11077
Citations Web of Science - 1
2013 Cheung NK, Ferch RD, Ghahreman A, Bogduk N, 'Long-term Follow-up of Minimal-Access and Open Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Spondylolisthesis', NEUROSURGERY, 72 443-450 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827fce96
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 6
2013 Khong P, Bogduk N, Ghahreman A, Davies M, 'Cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 20 1411-1416 (2013) [C1]

The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have b... [more]

The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5 year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48 months, range, 10-76 months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p < 0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p < 0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.12.013
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2013 Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Rickards L, Turner R, Bogduk N, 'The reliability of a quality appraisal tool for studies of diagnostic reliability (QAREL)', BMC MEDICAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2288-13-111
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15
2013 MacVicar J, King W, Landers MH, Bogduk N, 'The Effectiveness of Lumbar Transforaminal Injection of Steroids: A Comprehensive Review with Systematic Analysis of the Published Data', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 14-28 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01508.x
Citations Scopus - 66Web of Science - 71
2013 Bogduk N, 'Not a Placebo, but Is It Effective?', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 315-316 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12052
2013 MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N, 'Lumbar Medial Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy in New Zealand', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 639-645 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/pme.12000
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 11
2013 Bui J, Bogduk N, 'A systematic review of the effectiveness of CT-guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids', Pain Medicine (United States), 14 1860-1865 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of computerized tomography (CT) guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids in the treatment of radicular pain. Design... [more]

Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of computerized tomography (CT) guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids in the treatment of radicular pain. Design: Systematic review of published literature. Interventions: Two reviewers independently assessed 19 publications on the effectiveness and safety of CT-guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids. Outcome Measures: For effectiveness, the primary outcome was the success rate for relief of pain. For safety, the radiation exposure involved and the nature of complications were determined. Results: Much of the literature fails to provide evidence. Two studies reported decreases in mean or median pain scores but no other data. Two studies reported success rates of between 34% and 62% for achieving 50% relief of pain at between 1 and 6 months after treatment. CT-guided injections may involve greater radiation exposure than does fluoroscopy-guided injections and do not avoid catastrophic spinal cord injury. Conclusion: The evidence-base for CT-guided lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids is meagre. This intervention is not more effective than fluoroscopy-guided injections and is not demonstrably safer. © 2013.

DOI 10.1111/pme.12243
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 6
2012 Bogduk N, 'Degenerative joint disease of the spine', Radiologic Clinics of North America, 50 613-628 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2012.04.012
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 18
2012 Landers MH, Dreyfuss P, Bogduk N, 'On the Geometry of Fluoroscopy Views for Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 58-65 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01291.x
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 22
2012 Bogduk N, 'No more excuses: Fracture liaison services work and are cost-effective', Medical Journal of Australia, 197 147 (2012) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2012 Desmoulin GT, Szostek JS, Khan AH, Al-Ameri OS, Hunter CJ, Bogduk N, 'Spinal intervention efficacy on correcting cervical vertebral axes of rotation and the resulting improvements in pain, disability and psychsocial measures', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 20 31-40 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2012 MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N, 'Cervical Medial Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy in New Zealand', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 647-654 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01351.x
Citations Scopus - 33Web of Science - 27
2012 Bogduk N, MacVicar J, 'Translating Procedural Spine Science into Cross-Cultural Clinical Practice: Methodological Questions and Answers', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 655-657 (2012) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01393.x
2012 Landers MH, Bogduk N, 'Geometry and Technique of Cervical Epidural Interlaminar Access: Response to Letter by Dr. Perper', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 1522-1523 (2012) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01506.x
2012 Bogduk N, 'Power and meaninglessness', Pain Medicine, 13 148-149 (2012) [C3]
2011 Bogduk N, 'Re: response to letter: The pain of vertebral compression fractures can arise in the posterior elements', Pain Medicine, 12 989 (2011) [C3]
2011 Bogduk N, 'When data are not proof', Pain Medicine, 12 1297-1298 (2011) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01216.x
2011 Bogduk N, 'Re: Response to Letter. The pain of vertebral compression fractures can arise in the posterior elements', Pain Medicine, 12 989 (2011) [C3]
2011 Lucas N, Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic reliability in osteopathic medicine', International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 14 43-47 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2011 Bogduk N, 'Response to Dr. Yellowlees' letter', Pain, 152 952-958 (2011) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.010
2011 Jull GA, Soderlund A, Stemper BD, Kenardy J, Gross AR, Cote P, et al., 'Toward Optimal Early Management After Whiplash Injury to Lessen the Rate of Transition to Chronicity Discussion Paper 5', SPINE, 36 S335-S342 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182388449
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 10
2011 Bogduk N, 'On cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash', Spine, 36 S194-S199 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/brs.0b013e3182387f1d
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 21
2011 Curatolo M, Bogduk N, Ivancic PC, McLean SA, Siegmund GP, Winkelstein BA, 'The role of tissue damage in whiplash-associated disorders', Spine, 36 S309-S315 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/brs.0b013e318238842a
Citations Scopus - 44Web of Science - 34
2011 Ghahreman A, Bogduk N, 'Predictors of a favorable response to transforaminal injection of steroids in patients with lumbar radicular pain due to disc herniation', Pain Medicine, 12 871-879 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 35
2011 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 22 367-382 (2011) [C2]
DOI 10.1016/j.pmr.2011.03.008
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 25
2011 Govind J, Bogduk N, Lau P, 'Headaches and the cervical zygapophysial joints', Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine, 16 21-32 (2011) [C2]
2010 Bogduk N, Fraifeld EM, 'Proof or Consequences: Who Shall Pay for the Evidence in Pain Medicine?', PAIN MEDICINE, 11 1-2 (2010) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2010 Bogduk N, MacVicar J, Borowczyk J, 'The Pain of Vertebral Compression Fractures Can Arise in the Posterior Elements', PAIN MEDICINE, 11 1666-1673 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2010 Weisz GM, Houang M, Bogduk N, 'Complex regional pain syndrome associated with cervical disc protrusion and foraminotomy', Pain Medicine, 11 1348-1351 (2010) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2010 Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Henning T, 'Response to 'Branch Blockade of the Dorsal Sacral Rami'', Pain Medicine, 11 283 (2010) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00779.x
2010 Ghahreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N, 'The efficacy of transforaminal injection of steroids for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain', Pain Medicine, 11 1149-1168 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00908.x
Citations Scopus - 138Web of Science - 119
2010 Bogduk N, 'On diagnostic blocks for lumbar zygapophysial joint pain', F1000 Medicine Reports, 2 57-59 (2010) [C2]
DOI 10.3410/M2-57
Citations Scopus - 18
2010 Ghahreman A, Ferch RD, Rao PJ, Bogduk N, 'Minimal Access Versus Open Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Spondylolisthesis', NEUROSURGERY, 66 296-304 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000363600.24074.D0
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 16
2010 Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic blocks for chronic pain', Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 1 186-192 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.sjpain.2010.07.001
Citations Scopus - 5
2010 Schliessbach J, Siegenthaler A, Heini P, Bogduk N, Curatolo M, 'Blockade of the Sinuvertebral Nerve for the Diagnosis of Lumbar Diskogenic Pain: An Exploratory Study', ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111 204-206 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e19d03
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2010 Bogduk N, 'A cure for back pain?', Pain, 149 7-8 (2010) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2009.05.022
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 9
2010 Lucas NP, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Bogduk N, 'The development of a quality appraisal tool for studies of diagnostic reliability (QAREL)', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 63 854-861 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.10.002
Citations Scopus - 105Web of Science - 96
2009 Bogduk N, Govind J, 'Cervicogenic headache: An assessment of the evidence on clinical diagnosis, invasive tests, and treatment', The Lancet Neurology, 8 959-968 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70209-1
Citations Scopus - 88Web of Science - 72
2009 Dreyfuss P, Henning T, Malladi N, Goldstein B, Bogduk N, 'The ability of multi-site, multi-depth sacral lateral branch blocks to anesthetize the sacroiliac joint complex', Pain Medicine, 10 679-688 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00631.x
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 46
2009 Yin W, Bogduk N, 'Retrograde filling of a thoracic spinal artery during transforaminal injection', Pain Medicine, 10 689-692 (2009) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00629.x
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
2009 Bogduk N, 'Jayantilal Govind MB, ChB, DPH, MMed (Pain Med), FAFOM, FAFMM [in memoriam]', Pain Medicine, 10 1159-1160 (2009) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00695.x
2009 Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Govind J, 'A narrative review of lumbar medial branch neurotomy for the treatment of back pain', Pain Medicine, 10 1035-1045 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00692.x
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 35
2009 Kennedy DJ, Dreyfuss P, Aprill CN, Bogduk N, 'Paraplegia following image-guided transforaminal lumbar spine epidural steroid injection: Two case reports', Pain Medicine, 10 1389-1394 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00728.x
Citations Scopus - 124Web of Science - 110
2009 Indahl A, Holm SH, Bogduk N, 'Sensory motor control of the spine - A key to low-back pain?', European Musculoskeletal Review, 4 44-47 (2009) [C2]
2009 Dreyfuss P, Cohen S, Chen AS, Bohart Z, Bogduk N, 'Is immediate pain relief after a spinal injection procedure enhanced by intravenous sedation?', PM and R, 1 60-63 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.pmrj.2008.10.006
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2009 Dreyfuss P, Stout A, Aprill C, Pollei S, Johnson B, Bogduk N, 'The significance of multifidus atrophy after successful radiofrequency neurotomy for low back pain', PM and R, 1 719-722 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.05.014
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
2009 Cohen S, Bogduk N, Dragovich A, Buckenmaier C, Griffith S, Kurihara C, et al., 'Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response, and preclinical safety study of transforaminal epidural etanercept for the treatment of sciatica', Anesthesiology, 110 1116-1126 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181a05aa0
Citations Scopus - 93Web of Science - 80
2009 Bogduk N, 'On the definitions and physiology of back pain, referred pain, and radicular pain', Pain, 147 17-19 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2009.08.020
Citations Scopus - 63Web of Science - 58
2009 Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Bogduk N, 'Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: A systematic review of the literature', Clinical Journal of Pain, 25 80-89 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31817e13b6
Citations Scopus - 119Web of Science - 103
2009 Bogduk N, 'On the rational use of diagnostic blocks for spinal pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly, 19 88-100 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/WNQ.0b013e3181a32e8b
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 12
2008 Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Yin W, Landers M, Hammer M, Aprill C, 'Complications of spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures', Pain Medicine, 9 S11-S34 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00437.x
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 27
2008 Yin W, Bogduk N, 'The nature of neck pain in a private pain clinic in the United States', Pain Medicine, 9 196-203 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00369.x
Citations Scopus - 63Web of Science - 57
2008 Yin W, Willard F, Dixon T, Bogduk N, 'Ventral innervation of the lateral C1-C2 Joint: An anatomical study', Pain Medicine, 9 1022-1029 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00493.x
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2008 Dreyfuss P, Snyder BD, Park K, Willard F, Carreiro J, Bogduk N, 'The ability of single site, single depth sacral lateral branch blocks to anesthetize the sacroiliac joint complex', Pain Medicine, 9 844-850 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00517.x
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2008 Bogduk N, 'Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with facet injections and radiofrequency neurotomy', Spine Journal, 8 56-64 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.010
Citations Scopus - 63Web of Science - 49
2008 Hadjipavlou AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Bogduk N, Zindrick MR, 'The pathophysiology of disc degeneration: A critical review', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume, 90 1261-1270 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1302/0301-620x.90b10.20910
Citations Scopus - 171Web of Science - 141
2008 Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 33 1298 (2008) [C3]
DOI 10.1097/brs.0b013e3181732a0d
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 7
2008 Phillips S, Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 222 151-159 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1243/09544119jeim266
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 16
2007 Stewart MJ, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Randomized controlled trial of exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders', Pain, 128 59-68 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2006.08.030
Citations Scopus - 98Web of Science - 84
2007 Stewart M, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Responsiveness of pain and disability measures for chronic whiplash', Spine, 32 580-585 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.brs.0000256380.71056.6d
Citations Scopus - 58Web of Science - 56
2007 Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, Spindler MF, McAuley JH, Laslett M, Bogduk N, 'Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain', European Spine Journal, 16 1539-1550 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00586-007-0391-1
Citations Scopus - 161Web of Science - 130
2007 Mercer SR, Bogduk N, 'Intra-articular inclusions of the elbow joint complex', Clinical Anatomy, 20 668-676 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/ca.20467
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2007 McGuirk BE, Bogduk N, 'Evidence-based care for low back pain in workers eligible for compensation', Occupational Medicine, 57 36-42 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/occmed/kql102
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 25
2007 Bogduk N, 'Back pain help [3]', Australian Doctor, 25 (2007)
2007 Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P, 'Chronic Whiplash and Whiplash-associated disorders: An evidence-based approach', Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 15 596-606 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 17
2007 Bogduk N, 'Pulsed radiofrequency - Reply', PAIN MEDICINE, 8 390-391 (2007)
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Citations Web of Science - 1
2007 Bogduk N, 'In reply to pulsed radiofrequency (Letter)', Pain Medicine, 8 390-391 (2007) [C3]
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2007 Bogduk N, 'AAPM and ISIS', Pain Medicine, 8 3 (2007) [C3]
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Citations Web of Science - 1
2007 Cooper G, Bailey BJ, Bogduk N, 'Cervical zygapophysial joint pain maps', Pain Medicine, 8 344-353 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00201.x
Citations Scopus - 59Web of Science - 53
2007 King WM, Lau P, Lees R, Bogduk N, 'The validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain', Spine Journal, 7 22-26 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2006.07.009
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 48
2007 Bogduk N, 'In defense of King et al.: The validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain', The Spine Journal, 7 749-752 (2007) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 18
2007 Bogduk N, 'REMOVED: In defense of King et al.: the validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain.', The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society, (2007)
2007 Bogduk N, 'Outcome Research (Editorial)', Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 30 333-334 (2007) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.04.010
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2006 Bogduk N, 'Chapter 52 Chronic low back pain', Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 81 779-790 (2006)
DOI 10.1016/S0072-9752(06)80056-4
Citations Scopus - 1
2006 Bogduk N, 'Chapter 53 Whiplash injury', Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 81 791-801 (2006)
DOI 10.1016/S0072-9752(06)80057-6
Citations Scopus - 3
2006 Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 31 (2006)
DOI 10.1097/01.brs.0000236892.47925.fd
Citations Scopus - 1
2006 Bogduk N, 'Prognostic factors associated with minimal improvement following acute whiplash-associated disorders - Point of view', Spine, 31 E766-E766 (2006) [C3]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Whiplash can have lesions', Pain Research and Management, 11 155 (2006) [C3]
2006 Bogduk N, 'Pulsed radiofrequency', Pain Medicine, 7 396-407 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00210.x
Citations Scopus - 75Web of Science - 59
2006 Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Bogduk N, 'Comparative effectiveness of cervical transforaminal injections with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroid preparations for cervical radicular pain', Pain Medicine, 7 237-242 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00162.x
Citations Scopus - 100Web of Science - 82
2006 Bogduk N, 'Lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy (Letter)', Clinical Journal of Pain, 22 409-409 (2006) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 14
2006 Bogduk N, 'Psychology and low back pain', International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 9 49-53 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ijosm.2005.11.005
Citations Scopus - 6
2006 Bogduk N, 'Mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain', Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine, 28 113-124 (2006) [C1]
2006 Eichenberger U, Greher M, Kapral S, Marhofer P, Wiest R, Remonda L, et al., 'Sonographic visualization and utlrasound-guided block of the third occipital nerve - Prospective for a new method to diagnose C2-C3 zygapophysial joint pain', Anesthesiology, 104 303-308 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/00000542-200602000-00016
Citations Scopus - 68Web of Science - 51
2005 Stovner LJ, Kolstad F, Heide G, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency denervation treatment for cervicogenic headache [1] (multiple letters)', Cephalalgia, 25 759-760 (2005)
DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00931a.x
Citations Scopus - 2
2005 Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Back and Neck Pain', Continuum: Lifelong learning in Neurology, 11 94-136 (2005) [C2]
2005 Bogduk N, Lau P, Govind J, Karasek M, 'Intradiscal electrothermal therapy', Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management, 9 25-34 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1053/j.trap.2005.01.002
Citations Scopus - 11
2005 Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency denervation treatment for cervicogenic headache - Reply', Cephalalgia, 25 760-760 (2005) [C3]
2005 Derby R, Lee SH, Kim BJ, Chen Y, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Pressure-controlled lumbar discography in volunteers without low back symptoms', PAIN MEDICINE, 6 213-221 (2005)
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.05034.x
Citations Scopus - 88Web of Science - 57
2005 Bogduk N, 'Diagnosing lumbar zygapophysial joint pain', Pain Medicine, 6 139-142 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.05023.x
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 13
2005 Bogduk N, 'A narrative review of intra-articular corticosteroid injections for low back pain', Pain Medicine, 6 287-296 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.00048.x
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 35
2005 Schneider G, Pearcy MJ, Bogduk N, 'Abnormal motion in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis', Spine, 30 1159-1164 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.brs.0000162400.06685.37
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 23
2005 Schneider G, J PM, Bogduk N, 'Re: Schneider G, Pearcy MJ, Bogduk N. Abnormal motion in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Spine 2005; 30: 1159-64. Response (letter)', Spine, 30 2474-2475 (2005) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 3
2005 Bogduk N, 'Distinguishing Primary Headache Disorders from Cervicogenic Headache: Clinical and Therapeutic Implications', Headache Currents, 2 27-36 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1743-5013.2005.20204.x
Citations Scopus - 11
2005 Spearing N, March L, Bellamy N, Bogduk N, Brooks PM, 'Management of acute musculoskeletal pain', International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 8 5-15 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2005.00114.x
Citations Scopus - 3
2005 Gajraj NM, Willis ML, Martin DC, Rathmell J, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Avoid excessive sedation during cervical injections [4] (multiple letters)', Anesthesiology, 102 869-870 (2005)
Citations Scopus - 2
2004 Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain', Medical Journal of Australia, 180 79-83 (2004) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 93Web of Science - 68
2004 Rathmell JP, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Cervical transforaminal injection of steroids', Anesthesiology, 100 1595-1600 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/00000542-200406000-00035
Citations Scopus - 181Web of Science - 126
2004 Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain - Reply', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 180 543-544 (2004)
2004 Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain - Reply', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 181 55-56 (2004)
Citations Web of Science - 3
2004 Elder DS, Salmon J, Hilyard A, Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain (multiple letters) [5]', Medical Journal of Australia, 180 542-544 (2004)
2004 Wenban AB, Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain (multiple letters) [2]', Medical Journal of Australia, 181 55 (2004)
2004 Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery and diagnosing the level of nerve root pathology: comments on Baker et al., Pain 103/1-2, 2003 - Reply', PAIN, 109 527-528 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2004.02.003
Citations Web of Science - 1
2004 Cohen SP, Larkin TM, Carragee E, Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery and diagnosing the level of nerve root pathology: Comments on Baker et al., Pain 103/1-2, 2003 [4] (multiple letters)', Pain, 109 526-528 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2004.03.011
Citations Scopus - 1
2004 Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'In response to Larkin, Carragee and Cohen letter 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery...'', Pain, 109 527-528 (2004) [C3]
2004 Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic headache', Cephalalgia, 24 819-820 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00774.x
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 2
2004 Yelland MJ, Glasziou PP, Bogduk N, Schluter PJ, McKernon M, 'Prolotherapy injections, saline injections, and exercises for chronic low-back pain: A randomized trial', Spine, 29 9-16 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.BRS.0000105529.07222.5B
Citations Scopus - 102Web of Science - 74
2004 Bogduk N, 'The neck and headaches', Neurologic Clinics, 22 151-171 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/S0733-8619(03)00100-2
Citations Scopus - 70Web of Science - 48
2004 Bogduk N, 'Diagnostics Blocks: A Truth Serum for Malingering', The Clinical Journal of Pain, 20 409-414 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/00002508-200411000-00005
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 13
2004 Bogduk N, 'Pharmacological alternatives for the allevation of back pain', Expert opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 5 2091-2098 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1517/14656566.5.10.2091
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2004 Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Temporary neurologic deficit after cervical transforaminal injection of local anesthetic', Pain Medicine, 5(2) 202-205 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2004.04028.x
Citations Scopus - 109Web of Science - 83
2004 Lau P, Mercer S, Govind J, Bogduk N, 'The Surgical Anatomy of Lumbar Medial Branch Neurotomy (Facet Denervation)', Pain Medicine, 5 289-298 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2004.04042.x
Citations Scopus - 75Web of Science - 54
2004 Pauza KJ, Howell S, Dreyfuss P, Peloza JH, Dawson K, Bogduk N, 'A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal therapy for the treatment of discogenic low back pain', The Spine Journal, 4 27-35 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2003.07.001
Citations Scopus - 226
2004 Bogduk N, 'Commentary: Difficulties inherent in the interpretation and performance of randomized controlled clinical trials', The Spine Journal, 4 245-247 (2004) [C3]
2004 Bogduk N, 'Role of Anesthesiologic Blockade in Headache Management', Current Pain and Headache Reports, 8 399-403 (2004) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 16
2004 Halderman S, Gatchel RJ, Bogduk N, 'Difficulties inherent in the interpretation and performance of randomized controlled clinical trials', Spine Journal, 4 241-247 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.spinee.2004.01.001
Citations Scopus - 2
2003 Stewart MJ, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Advice or exercise for chronic whiplash disorders? Design of a randomized controlled trial', BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, 4 (2003)
DOI 10.1186/1471-2474-4-18
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 13
2003 Bogduk N, Govind J, King W, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy - Reply', JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 74 1165-1165 (2003)
2003 Kwan O, Friel J, Bogduk N, Govind J, King W, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy [10] (multiple letters)', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74 1164-1165 (2003)
DOI 10.1136/jnnp.74.8.1164
2003 Govind J, King WM, Bailey B, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of third occipital headache', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74 88-93 (2003)
DOI 10.1136/jnnp.74.1.88
Citations Scopus - 103Web of Science - 77
2003 Jackson C, Broadhurst N, Bogduk N, 'An audit of the use of epidural injections for back pain and sciatica', Australian Health Review, 26 34-41 (2003) [C1]
2003 Jackson C, Broadhurst N, Bogduk N, 'An audit of the use of epidural injections for back pain and sciatica.', Australian health review : a publication of the Australian Hospital Association, 26 34-42 (2003)

An audit was conducted to determine if epidural injections for back pain and sciatica were practised in accordance with guidelines prescribed by the National Health and Medical Re... [more]

An audit was conducted to determine if epidural injections for back pain and sciatica were practised in accordance with guidelines prescribed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). More than 80% of injections were used for conditions for which they were not indicated, and which the NHMRC considers experimental. Most commonly, epidural injections afforded no benefit to the patients, yet were often repeated. In no instance was informed consent recorded as recommended by the NHMRC. The practice of epidural injections is dissonant both with the evidence-based literature and with recommended guidelines, and squanders both financial and professional resources.

Citations Scopus - 5
2003 Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Cervical transforaminal injection of corticosteroids into radicular artery: a possible mechanism for spinal cord injury', Pain, 103 211-215 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00343-3
Citations Scopus - 203Web of Science - 139
2003 Mercer SR, Bogduk N, 'Clinical Anatomy of Ligamentum Nuchae', Clinical Anatomy, 16 484-493 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/ca.10121
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 12
2003 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 14 455-472 (2003)

This article carefully itemizes the various anatomic structures that can evoke neck pain, putting in perspective what clinicians know, what they assume, and what they need to unde... [more]

This article carefully itemizes the various anatomic structures that can evoke neck pain, putting in perspective what clinicians know, what they assume, and what they need to understand better about neck pain and pain referred from the neck. The critique of many of the accepted entities in the differential diagnosis of neck pain is crucial to an understanding of the causes of neck pain and an ability to implement appropriate therapies.

DOI 10.1016/S1047-9651(03)00041-X
Citations Scopus - 54
2002 Chapuis P, Bokey L, Fahrer M, Sinclair G, Bogduk N, 'Mobilization of the Rectum. Anatomic Concepts and the Bookshelf Revisited', Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 45 [1] 1-9 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 50Web of Science - 39
2002 April C, Axinn M, Bogduk N, 'Occipital headaches stemming from the atlanto-axial [C1-2] joint', Cephalalgia, 22 15-22 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 89Web of Science - 58
2002 Bogduk N, McGuirk B, King W, Govind J, 'Re: Safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute low back pain in primary care (Spine 2001;26 : 2615-22). Response', SPINE, 27 1593-1594 (2002)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-200207150-00031
2002 Bogduk N, 'Point of view', SPINE, 27 1895-1895 (2002)
DOI 10.1097/01.BRS.0000025717.39456.48
Citations Scopus - 6
2002 Bogduk N, 'Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents - A systematic review - Point of view', SPINE, 27 1940-1941 (2002)
DOI 10.1097/01.BRS.0000025640.67998.DC
Citations Web of Science - 2
2002 Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 27 1940-1941 (2002)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-200209010-00024
Citations Scopus - 3
2002 Bogduk N, 'Point of View re: Outcome of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as perceived by patients treated for dominant axial - mechanical cervical spine pain', Spine, 27 1895 (2002) [C3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Point of View re: Cervical Spine Lesions after Road Traffic Accidents: A systematic review', Spine, 27 1940-1941 (2002) [C3]
2002 Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency Procedures in Chronic Pain', Best Practice & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 16[4] 597-617 (2002) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 35
2002 Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic Nerve Blocks in Chronic Pain', Best Practice & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 16[4] 565-578 (2002) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 29
2002 Bogduk N, 'Etiologies of failed back surgery syndrome', PAIN MEDICINE, 3 215-215 (2002)
DOI 10.1046/j.1526-4637.2002.02037.x
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2002 Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'Two year follow-up of a controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for chronic low back pain resulting from internal disc disruption', The Spine Journal, 2 343-350 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 75
2002 Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency Treatment in Australia', Pain Practice, 2 180-182 (2002) [C3]
2002 Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Morphologie du disque cervical adulte', Medecine Vertebrale, 6 10-12 (2002) [C3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Que met-an dans un nom? Etiqueter le mal de dos', Medicine Vertebrale, 5 3 (2002) [C3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'In defense of radiofrequency neurotomy', REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 27 439-441 (2002)
DOI 10.1053/rapm.2002.33280
Citations Web of Science - 7
2002 Bogduk N, Geurts JWM, Van Wijk RMAW, Stolker RJ, Groen GJ, Carr DB, Goudas LC, 'In defense of radiofrequency neurotomy [1] (multiple letters)', Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27 439-442 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 17
2002 Giles LGF, Bogduk N, McGuirk B, King W, Govind J, 'Re: Safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute low back pain in primary care [5] (multiple letters)', Spine, 27 1592-1594 (2002)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-200207150-00030
2002 Bogduk N, 'Manual therapy produces greater relief of neck pain than physiotherapy or general practitioner care', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOTHERAPY, 48 240-240 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2001 Bogduk N, 'Book Review Fabric of the Human Body. Book II: Ligaments & Muscles. by Andreas Vesalius. ed Richardson WF: Norman Publishing, San Fransisco 1999', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 71 no3 197 (2001) [C3]
2001 Bogduk N, 'Untitled - Reply', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 16 932-933 (2001)
DOI 10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00094-8
2001 Bogduk N, Yoganandan N, 'Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: minor injuries', Clinical Biomechanics, 16 262-275 (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 107Web of Science - 80
2001 Bogduk N, 'Beyond Evidence Based Practice - Guest Editorial', New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 29 no3 3,5, (2001) [C2]
2001 McGuirk BE, King WM, Govind J, Lowry JF, Bogduk N, 'Safety, Efficacy, and Cost Effectiveness of Evidence-based Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care', Spine, 26 2615-2622 (2001) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/00007632-200112010-00017
Citations Scopus - 130Web of Science - 92
2001 Bogduk N, 'Art macabre: Is anatomy necessary?', ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 71 782-782 (2001)
DOI 10.1046/j.1445-1433.2001.02279.x
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2001 Ferrari R, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor (multiple letters) [1]', Clinical Biomechanics, 16 930-933 (2001)
DOI 10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00093-6
Citations Scopus - 4
2001 van Kleef M, Weber WE, Kessels A, Dreyfuss P, Pauza K, Bogduk N, 'Re: Efficacy and validity of radiofrequency neurotomy for chroniclumbar zygapophysial joint pain (Spine 2000;25:1270-7).', Spine, 26 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 8
2001 Thompson RVS, Cosman PH, Hutchins M, Cregan P, Drummond K, Taylor TKF, et al., 'Art macabre: Is anatomy necessary? (multiple letters)', ANZ Journal of Surgery, 71 779-784 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 6
2000 Bogduk N, Mercer S, 'Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine. I: Normal Kinematics', Clinical Biomechanics, 15 633-648 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 241Web of Science - 205
2000 Bogduk N, '"What's in a Name? The Labelling of Back Pain"', Medical Journal of Australia, 173 no 8 400-401 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 18
2000 Bogduk N, 'Cervical discography: Clinical implications from 12 years of experience - Point of view', SPINE, 25 1389-1389 (2000)
2000 Bogduk N, Mercer S, 'Re: The ligaments and annulus fibrosus of human adult cervical intervertebral discs (Spine 1999;24 : 619-28). Response', SPINE, 25 1867-1867 (2000)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-200007150-00024
2000 Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Twelve-Month Followup of a Controlled Trial of Intradiscal Thermal Anuloplasty for Back Pain Due to Internal Disc Disruption', Spine, 25 no20 2601-2607 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 156Web of Science - 90
2000 Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Pauza K, Joshi A, McLarty J, Bogduk N, 'Efficacy and Validity of Radiofrequency Neurotomy for Chronic Lumbar Zygapophysial Joint Pain', Spine, 25 no 10 1270-1277 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 304
2000 Bogduk N, 'CT-guided intraarticular injection of the sacroiliac joint', JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS, 13 365-365 (2000)
DOI 10.1097/00002517-200008000-00016
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2000 Gibson T, Bogduk N, MacPherson JG, McIntosh A, 'Crash Characteristics of Whiplash Associated Chronic Neck Pain', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 8 no1/2 87-95 (2000) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 13
2000 Bogduk N, 'Whiplash "Why Pay for What Does Not Work"', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 8 no1/2 29-53 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 3
2000 Bogduk N, Holmes S, 'Controlled Zygapophysial Joint Blocks: The Travesty of Cost Effevtiveness', Pain Medicine, 1 no 1 24-34 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 51Web of Science - 33
2000 Hoaken PCS, Bogduk N, 'Re: Who let the cat out of the bag. Pain Res Manage 1999;4:119-20 (multiple letters)', Pain Research and Management, 5 10-11 (2000)
2000 Bogduk N, 'Epidemiology of whiplash', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 59 394-395 (2000)
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 1
2000 Bogduk N, 'Letter in response to "Epidemiology of Whiplash: an International dilemma" Ferrari R & Russell A Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1999 v58 1-5', Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 59 no 5 394 (2000) [C3]
2000 Bogduk N, Teasell R, 'Whiplash The evidence for an Organic Etiology', Archives of Neurology, 57 590-591 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 38Web of Science - 22
1999 Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'The ligaments and anulus fibrosus of human adult cervical intervertebral discs', Spine, 24 No. 7 619-626 (1999) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 97Web of Science - 82
1999 McDonald G, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain', Neurosurgery, 45 No. 1 61-68 (1999) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 172Web of Science - 99
1999 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Reply to Kendall et al., Pain, 73 (1997) 15-22', PAIN, 81 323-325 (1999)
Citations Web of Science - 5
1999 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Letters to the editor: Reply to Kendall et. al., PAIN, 73 (1997) 15-22', Pain, 81 323-325 (1999)
DOI 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00066-4
Citations Scopus - 2
1999 Wallis BJ, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Reply to Kendall et al', Pain, 81 No. 3 323 (1999) [C3]
1999 Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 24 308-308 (1999)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199902010-00029
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
1999 Bogduk N, 'Motion analysis of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading - Points of view', SPINE, 24 770-770 (1999)
1999 Bogduk N, Lu J, Ebraheim NA, 'Letter to the editor [3] (multiple letters)', Spine, 24 308 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 2
1999 Bogduk N, 'Point of view on motion analysis of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading', Spine, 24 No. 8 770 (1999) [C3]
1999 Bogduk N, 'C2 Nerve Root Ganglion', Spine, 24 No. 3 308 (1999) [C3]
1999 Bogduk N, Broadhurst N, Bond M, 'Pain provocation tests for the assessment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction (multiple letters)', Journal of Spinal Disorders, 12 357-358 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 8
1999 Bogduk N, 'Pain Provocation Tests for the Assessment of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction', Journal of Spinal Disorders, 12 No. 4 357 (1999) [C3]
Citations Web of Science - 3
1999 Seres JL, Bogduk N, 'Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain [3] (multiple letters)', Neurosurgery, 45 1499-1500 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 1
1999 Bogduk N, 'Who let the cat out of the bag', Pain Research and Management, 4 No. 3 119-120 (1999) [C3]
1999 Bogduk N, 'Regional musculoskeletal pain. The neck.', Bailliere's best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology, 13 261-285 (1999)
1998 Lord SM, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N, 'Side-effects and complications of cervical percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy - An audit of 83 procedures', Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 26 322-323 (1998)
1998 Bogduk N, 'Predictive signs of discogenic lumbar pain on magnetic resonance imaging with discography correlation - Point of view', SPINE, 23 1259-1260 (1998)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199806010-00017
Citations Web of Science - 12
1998 Wallis BJ, Lord S, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'The psychological profiles of patients with whiplash-associated headache', Cephalalgia, 18 No. 2 101-105 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 38Web of Science - 27
1998 Bogduk N, 'Physical therapy: a role in migraine?', Cephalalgia, Vol. 18 No. 5 242 (1998) [C3]
1998 Bogduk N, Johnson G, Spalding DA, 'The morphology and biomechanics of latissimus dorsi', Clinical Biomechanics, 13 No. 6 377-385 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 79Web of Science - 61
1998 Kaplan M, Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Bogduk N, 'The ability of lumbar medial branch blocks to anesthetise the zygapophysial joint', Spine, 23 1847-1852 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 158Web of Science - 91
1998 Bogduk N, 'Point of view on imaging for signs of discogenic lumbar pain', Spine, Vol. 23 No. 11 1259-1260 (1998) [C3]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: Intensive training, physiotherapy,or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 127-130 (1998) [C3]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: Acute treatment of whiplash neck sprains: a randomized trial of treatment during the first 14 days after a car accident', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 123-126 (1998) [C3]
1998 Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: A population-based, randomized clinical trial on back pain management', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 131-134 (1998) [C3]
1997 Bogduk N, 'The College as an educational institution', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 67 679-681 (1997)
DOI 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1997.tb07107.x
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1997 Bogduk N, 'Four times tables.', The Australian journal of physiotherapy, 43 290-291 (1997)
1997 Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Treatment of chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain - Reply', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 336 1531-1531 (1997)
Citations Web of Science - 1
1997 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial', PAIN, 73 15-22 (1997)
DOI 10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00060-2
Citations Scopus - 173Web of Science - 124
1997 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 22 114-115 (1997) [J2]
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199701010-00021
Citations Web of Science - 3
1997 Dreyfuss P, Schwarzer AC, Lau P, Bogduk N, 'Specificity of lumbar medial branch and L5 dorsal ramus blocks - A computed tomography study', SPINE, 22 895-902 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 175Web of Science - 110
1997 Bogduk N, Lord S, Barnsley L, 'Untitled - Response', SPINE, 22 1420-1421 (1997)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199706150-00028
Citations Web of Science - 1
1997 Latham JM, Fraser RD, Moore RJ, Blumbergs PC, Bogduk N, 'The pathologic effects of intrathecal betamethasone', SPINE, 22 1558-1562 (1997)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199707150-00004
Citations Scopus - 72Web of Science - 38
1997 Bogduk N, 'Groin pain associated with lower lumbar disc herniation - Point of view', SPINE, 22 1740-1740 (1997)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199708010-00011
1997 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor: Pain and psychological symptoms of Australian patients with whiplash [2]', Spine, 22 114-115 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 5
1997 Bogduk N, Jull G, 'Four times tables (multiple letters) [2]', Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 43 290-292 (1997)
1997 Drinka PJ, Jaschob K, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Treatment of chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain [5]', New England Journal of Medicine, 336 1530-1531 (1997)
DOI 10.1056/NEJM199705223362116
Citations Scopus - 6
1997 Tanner J, Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, McLarty J, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor [1] (multiple letters)', Spine, 22 1673-1674 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 2
1997 Maigne JY, Bogduk N, Lord S, Barnsley L, 'Letter to the editor [3] (multiple letters)', Spine, 22 1420-1421 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 3
1997 Bogduk N, 'International spinal injection society guidelines for the performance of spinal injection procedures. Part 1: Zygapophysial joint blocks', Clinical Journal of Pain, 13 285-302 (1997)
DOI 10.1097/00002508-199712000-00003
Citations Scopus - 237
1996 Johnson GR, Spalding D, Nowitzke A, Bogduk N, 'Modelling the muscles of the scapula morphometric and coordinate data and functional implications', JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, 29 1039-1051 (1996)
DOI 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00176-X
Citations Scopus - 64Web of Science - 61
1996 Bogduk N, 'Issues in anatomy: The external anal sphincter revisited', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 66 626-629 (1996)
DOI 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1996.tb00834.x
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 14
1996 Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N, 'Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 335 1721-1726 (1996)
DOI 10.1056/NEJM199612053352302
Citations Scopus - 529Web of Science - 370
1996 Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Faking a profile: Can naive subjects simulate whiplash responses?', PAIN, 66 223-227 (1996)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(96)03044-8
Citations Scopus - 54Web of Science - 40
1996 Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 21 150-151 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199601010-00034
Citations Web of Science - 4
1996 Bogduk N, Modic MT, 'Controversy - Lumbar discography - Pro', SPINE, 21 402-403 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199602010-00031
Citations Scopus - 72Web of Science - 61
1996 Schwarzer A, Bogduk N, 'Untitled - Response', SPINE, 21 776-777 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199603150-00028
Citations Web of Science - 6
1996 Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Pain and psychologic symptoms of Australian patients with whiplash', SPINE, 21 804-810 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199604010-00006
Citations Scopus - 37Web of Science - 34
1996 Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash - A placebo-controlled prevalence study', SPINE, 21 1737-1744 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199608010-00005
Citations Scopus - 379Web of Science - 270
1996 Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, McLarty J, Bogduk N, 'The value of medical history and physical examination in diagnosing sacroiliac joint pain', SPINE, 21 2594-2602 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199611150-00009
Citations Scopus - 311Web of Science - 247
1996 Bogduk N, Modic MT, 'Lumbar discography.', Spine, 21 402-404 (1996)
1996 Bogduk N, 'Assessing a new procedure: Thoracic radiofrequency dorsal root ganglion lesions', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 12 76-77 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00002508-199603000-00014
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 3
1996 Bogduk N, 'The argument for discography', NEUROSURGERY QUARTERLY, 6 152-153 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00013414-199606000-00008
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
1996 Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'The cervical synovial joints as sources of post-traumatic headache', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 4 81-94 (1996)

Objectives: To describe recent research which elucidates the role of the cervical synovial joints as sources of pain in patients with post-traumatic headache. Findings: Recent res... [more]

Objectives: To describe recent research which elucidates the role of the cervical synovial joints as sources of pain in patients with post-traumatic headache. Findings: Recent research has demonstrated that the cervical synovial joints are innervated and that they can be potent sources of neck pain and headache if stimulated in normal subjects or if injured in patients. Postmortem studies of injured joints have revealed chondral and subchondral fractures, braising/damage of the intra-articular inclusions, hemarthroses and capsular tears or avulsions. These acute lesions constitute the substrate for the development of post-traumatic arthritis and, consequently, chronic post-traumatic headache. Such lesions evade detection by conventional diagnostic techniques. However, the advent of innovative diagnostic approaches, including manipulative assessment, biomechanical analysis and controlled diagnostic injection techniques, has allowed the identification of painful cervical synovial joints in vivo. Using these diagnostic techniques, epidemiological studies have shown that the cervical zygapophysial joints [in particular C2-3] are common sources of post-traumatic headache. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that cervical synovial joint pain is a real and common clinical entity. Controlled diagnostic blocks are the only reliable means whereby this condition can be identified. Controlled blocks provide a criterion standard against which other diagnostic techniques could be calibrated in the future.

DOI 10.1300/J094v04n04_08
Citations Scopus - 11
1996 Bogduk N, 'Tension Headache', Cephalalgia, 16 79 (1996)
DOI 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1996.1602077-3.x
1996 Bogduk N, 'Tension headache.', Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache, 16 77-78 (1996)
1996 Moffat M, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor', Spine, 21 150-151 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199601010-00033
Citations Scopus - 6
1996 Carragee EJ, Schwarzer A, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor [2]', Spine, 21 776-777 (1996)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199603150-00027
Citations Scopus - 11
1995 BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - REPLY', PAIN, 61 490-491 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(95)90009-8
Citations Web of Science - 1
1995 Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, Aprill C, 'Phantom or central neuropathic pain? Reply', PAIN, 63 395-396 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(95)90043-8
1995 Bogduk N, 'Reply to J. Hancock', Pain, 61 490-491 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(95)90009-8
1995 Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, Aprill C, 'Reply to P. Graziotti and R. Goucke', Pain, 63 395-396 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(95)90043-8
1995 HINDERAKER J, LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF C2-3 INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION IN PATIENTS WITH HEADACHE OF CERVICAL ORIGIN', CEPHALALGIA, 15 391-395 (1995)
DOI 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1995.1505391.x
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 7
1995 BARNSLEY L, LORD SM, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, 'THE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN AFTER WHIPLASH', SPINE, 20 20-25 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199501000-00004
Citations Scopus - 370Web of Science - 269
1995 SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, BOGDUK N, 'THE SACROILIAC JOINT IN CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 31-37 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199501000-00007
Citations Scopus - 489Web of Science - 341
1995 BOGDUK N, 'SPINE UPDATE EPIDURAL STEROIDS', SPINE, 20 845-848 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199504000-00021
Citations Scopus - 83Web of Science - 65
1995 SCHWARZER AC, WANG SC, ODRISCOLL D, HARRINGTON T, BOGDUK N, LAURENT R, 'THE ABILITY OF COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY TO IDENTIFY A PAINFUL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 907-912 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199504150-00005
Citations Scopus - 186Web of Science - 111
1995 BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - RESPONSE', SPINE, 20 975-975 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199504150-00019
1995 BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - RESPONSE', SPINE, 20 2173-2173 (1995)
1995 Bogduk N, 'Epidural steroids.', Spine, 20 845-848 (1995)
1995 LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'THE UTILITY OF COMPARATIVE LOCAL-ANESTHETIC BLOCKS VERSUS PLACEBO-CONTROLLED BLOCKS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 11 208-213 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00002508-199509000-00008
Citations Scopus - 189Web of Science - 139
1995 Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and physiology of headache', BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 49 435-445 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0753-3322(96)82687-4
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 15
1995 Bogduk N, Amevo B, Pearcy M, 'A biological basis for instantaneous centres of rotation of the vertebral column', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 209 177-183 (1995)

The instantaneous centre of rotation has proven to be a useful parameter of vertebral motion. The normal location of instantaneous centres has been determined in cadavers and in n... [more]

The instantaneous centre of rotation has proven to be a useful parameter of vertebral motion. The normal location of instantaneous centres has been determined in cadavers and in normal volunteers for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spines, and abnormal location of centres has been shown to correlate with spinal pain. However, to date, an instantaneous centre has constituted no more than a convenient mathematical summary of vertebral kinematics. It has defied resolution into biologically meaningful parameters. This study offers a novel model of vertebral motion in which the instantaneous centre of rotation can be shown to be a function of the location of the centre of reaction of a vertebra, and the intrinsic rotation and translation it undergoes. These parameters are strictly linked by equations that determine the location of an axis of rotation. These equations allow aberrations in the location of an axis to be interpreted in terms of the anatomical and pathological factors that affect the centre of reaction of the vertebra and the rotation and translation it undergoes. © 1995, Institution of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1995_209_341_02
Citations Scopus - 35
1995 SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL-FEATURES OF INTERNAL DISC DISRUPTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 1878-1883 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199509000-00007
Citations Scopus - 430Web of Science - 291
1995 Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, 'Facet joint pain.', Australian family physician, 24 924 (1995)
Citations Scopus - 3
1995 Graziotti P, Goucke R, Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, Aprill C, 'Comments on Schwarzer et al., PAIN, 58 (1994) 195-200 [3]', Pain, 63 394-396 (1995)
1995 Brown MF, Fraser RD, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor', Spine, 20 975 (1995)
1995 Cabot WD, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor [4]', Spine, 20 2173 (1995)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199510000-00024
1995 Bogduk N, 'Letters: In response', Spine, 20 2173 (1995)
1995 Bogduk N, Aprill C, 'Over de aard van nekpijn, discografie en cervicale facetgewrichtsblokkeringen', Stimulus, 14 43-44 (1995)
DOI 10.1007/BF03075970
1995 Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, Fortin J, Kline G, Bogduk N, 'The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints', Neurosurgery Quarterly, 5 287-288 (1995)
1995 CHUA WH, BOGDUK N, 'THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THORACIC FACET DENERVATION', ACTA NEUROCHIRURGICA, 136 140-144 (1995)
DOI 10.1007/BF01410616
Citations Scopus - 62Web of Science - 29
1995 SCHWARZER AC, WANG SC, BOGDUK N, MCNAUGHT PJ, LAURENT R, 'PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL-FEATURES OF LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A STUDY IN AN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 54 100-106 (1995)
DOI 10.1136/ard.54.2.100
Citations Scopus - 271Web of Science - 172
1995 LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'PERCUTANEOUS RADIOFREQUENCY NEUROTOMY IN THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A CAUTION', NEUROSURGERY, 36 732-739 (1995)
Citations Scopus - 132Web of Science - 89
1995 Bogduk N, 'The anatomical basis for spinal pain syndromes', JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS, 18 603-605 (1995)
Citations Scopus - 72Web of Science - 57
1994 Bogduk N, 'Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in post-concussional headache', Cephalalgia, 14 258 (1994)
DOI 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1994.1404257-3.x
1994 Bogduk N, 'Letters', Spine, 19 1771-1772 (1994)
1994 Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor [1]', Spine, 19 1771 (1994)
Citations Scopus - 2
1994 Bogduk N, 'Zygapophysial joint and anulus fibrosus.', Spine, 19 1771 (1994)
Citations Scopus - 1
1994 Amevo B, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Awijkende momentane rotatieassen bij patiënten met nekpijn', Stimulus, 13 37 (1994)
DOI 10.1007/BF03075858
1994 Bogduk N, 'Pathologie van lumbale discuspijn', Stimulus, 13 11-17 (1994)
DOI 10.1007/BF03075851
1994 Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Pijn in de facetgewrichten van de cervicale wervelkolom', Stimulus, 13 28-29 (1994)
DOI 10.1007/BF03075856
1994 Schwarzer AC, Derby R, Aprili CN, Fortin J, Kine G, Bogduk N, 'Pain from the lumbar zygapophysial joints: A test of two models', Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8 331-336 (1994)

One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with chronic low-back pain and no history of previous lumbar surgery were studied to test the clinical criteria of Fairbank et al. and... [more]

One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with chronic low-back pain and no history of previous lumbar surgery were studied to test the clinical criteria of Fairbank et al. and Helbig and Lee for zygapophysial joint pain. All patients underwent a history, examination, and a series of zygapophysial joint injections or blocks of the medial branches of the dorsal ramus with lignocaine. Those patients responding to the first series of blocks were given confirmatory blocks using bupivacaine. None of the clinical features tested was found to be associated with response to the confirmatory block. The Fairbank et al. and Helbig and Lee criteria were shown to be unreliable in distinguishing pain of zygapophysial joint origin from pain of other origins. © 1994 Raven Press, Ltd.

Citations Scopus - 5
1994 LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, '3RD OCCIPITAL NERVE HEADACHE - A PREVALENCE STUDY', JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 57 1187-1190 (1994)
DOI 10.1136/jnnp.57.10.1187
Citations Web of Science - 109
1994 Lord SM, Barmsley L, Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Third occipital nerve headache: A prevalence study', Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57 1187-1190 (1994)

A consecutive series of 100 patients was studied to determine the prevalence of third occipital nerve headache in patients with chronic neck pain ( > three months in duration) af... [more]

A consecutive series of 100 patients was studied to determine the prevalence of third occipital nerve headache in patients with chronic neck pain ( > three months in duration) after whiplash. Seventy one patients complained of headache associated with their neck pain. Headache was the dominant complaint of 40 patients, but was only a secondary problem for the other 31. Each patient with headache underwent double blind, controlled diagnostic blocks of the third occipital nerve. On two separate occasions the nerve was blocked with either lignocaine or bupivacaine, in random order. The diagnosis of third occipital nerve headache was made only if both blocks completely relieved the patient's upper neck pain and headache and the relief lasted longer with bupivacaine. The prevalence of third occipital nerve headache among all 100 whiplash patients was 27% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 18-36%) and among those with dominant headache the prevalence was as high as 53% (95% CI 37-68%). There were no distinguishing features on history or examination that enabled a definitive diagnosis to be made before the nerve blocks. Those patients with a positive diagnosis, however, were significantly more likely to be tender over the C2-3 zygapophysial joint (p = 0-01). Third occipital nerve headache is a common condition in patients with chronic neck pain and headache after whiplash. Third occipital nerve blocks are essential to make this diagnosis.

DOI 10.1136/jnnp.57.10.1187
Citations Scopus - 160
1994 BARNSLEY L, LORD SM, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, 'LACK OF EFFECT OF INTRAARTICULAR CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR CHRONIC PAIN IN THE CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 330 1047-1050 (1994)
DOI 10.1056/NEJM199404143301504
Citations Scopus - 172Web of Science - 121
1994 JOHNSON G, BOGDUK N, NOWITZKE A, HOUSE D, 'ANATOMY AND ACTIONS OF THE TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 9 44-50 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(94)90057-4
Citations Scopus - 135Web of Science - 115
1994 NOWITZKE A, WESTAWAY M, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS - GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS AND RELATIONSHIP TO CERVICAL KINEMATICS', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 9 342-348 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(94)90063-9
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 11
1994 Bogduk N, 'Post whiplash syndrome.', Australian family physician, 23 2303-2307 (1994)

Whiplash is a poorly understood problem that attracts accusations of malingering and compensation neurosis. Recent research has revealed a variety of occult lesions that can be re... [more]

Whiplash is a poorly understood problem that attracts accusations of malingering and compensation neurosis. Recent research has revealed a variety of occult lesions that can be responsible for the chronic pain and suffering after whiplash; however, appropriate diagnostic techniques are still either lacking or not widely used. While there are reasonable options for acute management there is no proven therapy for the chronic situation.

Citations Scopus - 16
1994 SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE FALSE-POSITIVE RATE OF UNCONTROLLED DIAGNOSTIC BLOCKS OF THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS', PAIN, 58 195-200 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(94)90199-6
Citations Scopus - 260Web of Science - 183
1994 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, BOGDUK N, 'WHIPLASH INJURY', PAIN, 58 283-307 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(94)90123-6
Citations Scopus - 383Web of Science - 298
1994 SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE DISC AND ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT IN CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 19 801-806 (1994)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199404000-00013
Citations Scopus - 281Web of Science - 180
1994 SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'CLINICAL-FEATURES OF PATIENTS WITH PAIN STEMMING FROM THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS - IS THE LUMBAR FACET SYNDROME A CLINICAL ENTITY', SPINE, 19 1132-1137 (1994)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199405001-00006
Citations Scopus - 372Web of Science - 236
1994 SCHWARZER AC, DERBY R, APRILL CN, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE VALUE OF THE PROVOCATION RESPONSE IN LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT INJECTIONS', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 10 309-313 (1994)
DOI 10.1097/00002508-199412000-00011
Citations Scopus - 94Web of Science - 45
1994 SCHWARZER AC, DERBY R, APRILL CN, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'PAIN FROM THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS - A TEST OF 2 MODELS', JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS, 7 331-336 (1994)
Citations Scopus - 89Web of Science - 53
1994 Bogduk N, 'Diskography', APS Journal, 3 149-154 (1994)

Lumbar diskography is not a test for disk herniation. It is a test for intrinsically painful, externally intact disks and so does not compete with computed tomography as a diagnos... [more]

Lumbar diskography is not a test for disk herniation. It is a test for intrinsically painful, externally intact disks and so does not compete with computed tomography as a diagnostic instrument. Formal studies have shown that the lumbar disks are innervated and can be a source of pain that has pathomorphologic correlates. The biological basis for lumbar diskography, therefore, resists criticism. Cervical diskography, however, lacks the same biological basis and remains open to criticism. Utility is the weak point of both lumbar and cervical diskography. Although both provide diagnostic information, it remains to be shown that this information makes a difference to outcome when treatment is direct to the ostensibly painful disk. © 1994 American Pain Society.

DOI 10.1016/S1058-9139(05)80308-0
Citations Scopus - 14
1994 Bogduk N, 'Rebuttal', APS Journal, 3 166-167 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/S1058-9139(05)80313-4
1993 MACINTOSH JE, PEARCY MJ, BOGDUK N, 'THE AXIAL TORQUE OF THE LUMBAR BACK MUSCLES - TORSION STRENGTH OF THE BACK MUSCLES', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 63 205-212 (1993)
DOI 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1993.tb00520.x
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 13
1993 Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Medial branch blocks are specific for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain', Regional Anesthesia, 18 343-350 (1993)

Background and Objectives. To determine the specificity of cervical medial branch blocks for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain by ascertaining the disposition of ... [more]

Background and Objectives. To determine the specificity of cervical medial branch blocks for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain by ascertaining the disposition of the local anesthetic after injection of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami. Methods. Sixteen consecutive patients with chronic neck pain from motor vehicle accidents underwent cervical medial branch blocks. A 22- gauge, 90-mm spinal needle was placed onto the target nerve under image-intensifier guidance. Immediately after each target nerve had been infiltrated with 0.5 ml of local anesthetic, 0.5 ml of contrast medium was injected to map the spread of injectate. Radiographs were recorded to document the pattern of spread. Results. Twenty-five injections of local anesthetic and contrast medium were performed. Contrast medium dispersed in characteristic patterns at all vertebral levels and always incorporated at least 5 mm of the perceived course of the target nerve. There was never any spread to the ventral ramus, beyond the medial fibers of semispinalis capitis or to the adjacent medial branches. No other single structure was consistently within the field of the contrast. Eleven patients obtained complete or definite relief of their pain, which could only be attributed to anesthetization of the zygapophyseal joint innervated by the nerves blocked. Conclusions. Local anesthetic blocks of the cervical medial branches are a specific test for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. The local anesthetic always reaches the target nerve and does not affect any other diagnostically important structures. © 1993 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

Citations Scopus - 141
1993 MERCER S, BOGDUK N, 'INTRAARTICULAR INCLUSIONS OF THE CERVICAL SYNOVIAL JOINTS', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 705-710 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 51Web of Science - 37
1993 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, THOMAS P, ALLEN L, SOUTHEE A, BOGDUK N, 'SPECT BONE SCANS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYMPTOMATIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 52-52 (1993)
Citations Web of Science - 4
1993 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A PROSPECTIVE PREVALENCE STUDY', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 52-52 (1993)
Citations Web of Science - 4
1993 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'A DOUBLE-BLIND, CONTROLLED TRIAL OF INTRAARTICULAR CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 53-53 (1993)
1993 BOGDUK N, APRILL C, 'ON THE NATURE OF NECK PAIN, DISCOGRAPHY AND CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT BLOCKS', PAIN, 54 213-217 (1993)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(93)90211-7
Citations Scopus - 143Web of Science - 96
1993 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, BOGDUK N, 'COMPARATIVE LOCAL-ANESTHETIC BLOCKS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', PAIN, 55 99-106 (1993)
DOI 10.1016/0304-3959(93)90189-V
Citations Scopus - 223Web of Science - 154
1993 MACINTOSH JE, BOGDUK N, PEARCY MJ, 'THE EFFECTS OF FLEXION ON THE GEOMETRY AND ACTIONS OF THE LUMBAR ERECTOR SPINAE', SPINE, 18 884-893 (1993)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199306000-00013
Citations Scopus - 57Web of Science - 45
1993 BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'FALSE-POSITIVE RATES OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT BLOCKS', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 9 124-130 (1993)
DOI 10.1097/00002508-199306000-00007
Citations Scopus - 154Web of Science - 118
1992 AMEVO B, APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'ABNORMAL INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION IN PATIENTS WITH NECK PAIN', SPINE, 17 748-756 (1992)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199207000-00004
Citations Scopus - 68Web of Science - 47
1992 APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'HIGH-INTENSITY ZONE - A DIAGNOSTIC SIGN OF PAINFUL LUMBAR-DISK ON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY, 65 361-369 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 379Web of Science - 279
1992 BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 151-153 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 10
1992 BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 584-584 (1992)
Citations Web of Science - 1
1992 BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 664-664 (1992)
1992 BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 157 211-212 (1992)
1992 Carroll PG, Bogduk N, 'The causes of low back pain [5]', Medical Journal of Australia, 157 211-212 (1992)
1992 JOHNSON GR, BUXTON T, HOUSE D, BOGDUK N, 'USE OF UNCALIBRATED BIPLANAR RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SKELETAL COORDINATES AROUND THE SHOULDER GIRDLE', JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 14 490-494 (1992)
DOI 10.1016/0141-5425(92)90101-P
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
1992 BOGDUK N, 'THE ANATOMICAL BASIS FOR CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE', JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS, 15 67-70 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 104Web of Science - 70
1992 BOGDUK N, PEARCY M, HADFIELD G, 'ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF PSOAS MAJOR', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 7 109-119 (1992)
DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(92)90024-X
Citations Scopus - 114Web of Science - 88
1992 BOGDUK N, MACINTOSH JE, PEARCY MJ, 'A UNIVERSAL MODEL OF THE LUMBAR BACK MUSCLES IN THE UPRIGHT POSITION', SPINE, 17 897-913 (1992)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199208000-00007
Citations Scopus - 215Web of Science - 176
1992 Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'The prevalence of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain-a first approximation', Spine, 17 744-747 (1992)

A null hypothesis was tested to the effect that cervical zygapophyseal joint pain was uncommon. The prospectively recorded responses were reviewed of 313 consecutive- patients wit... [more]

A null hypothesis was tested to the effect that cervical zygapophyseal joint pain was uncommon. The prospectively recorded responses were reviewed of 313 consecutive- patients with ntfactable neek pa-lr. who underwent provocation discography anc cervical zygapophyseal joint blocks* Symptomatic zygapophyseal joints were encountered in 75% rtf the sample with a possibility that a further 33% suffered zygapophyssal pain but were not appropriately Investigated. The null hypothesis was rejected. Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain is not rare, and is worthy of further consideration not just in research but in clinical practice. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Citations Scopus - 120
1992 Quintner J, Bogduk N, 'The causes of low back pain [6]', Medical Journal of Australia, 156 664 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 1
1992 Carroll PG, Rae PB, Bogduk N, 'The causes of low back pain [12]', Medical Journal of Australia, 156 584 (1992)
1991 AMEVO B, WORTH D, BOGDUK N, 'INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION OF THE TYPICAL CERVICAL MOTION SEGMENTS - A STUDY IN NORMAL VOLUNTEERS', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 6 111-117 (1991)
DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(91)90008-E
Citations Scopus - 65Web of Science - 55
1991 Amevo B, Worth D, Bogduk N, 'Instantaneous axes of rotation of the typical cervical motion segments: II. optimization of technical errors', Clinical Biomechanics, 6 38-46 (1991)

The reliability of a modified protocol for plotting the instantaneous axes of sagittal rotation for the cervical spine was evaluated by measuring the observer differences when the... [more]

The reliability of a modified protocol for plotting the instantaneous axes of sagittal rotation for the cervical spine was evaluated by measuring the observer differences when the process was performed separately by two observers, and by a single observer, on two separate occasions. Small observer differences were found both for individual steps in the process and for the process as a whole. These differences were substantially less than those found using the conventional technique for plotting the instantaneous axes of rotation. The improvement in the technique was resultant from the use of stricter criteria for recognizing and tracing vertebral landmarks. © 1991.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(91)90040-W
Citations Scopus - 18
1991 Amevo B, Macintosh JE, Worth D, Bogduk N, 'Instantaneous axes of rotation of the typical cervical motion segments: I. an empirical study of technical errors', Clinical Biomechanics, 6 31-37 (1991)

The reliability of the conventional technique for determining the instantaneous axes of rotation of the cervical motion segments was evaluated by comparing the determinations made... [more]

The reliability of the conventional technique for determining the instantaneous axes of rotation of the cervical motion segments was evaluated by comparing the determinations made by two observers and the same observer on two separate occasions. Different observers found the same mean location for the instantaneous axis at each segment in a test population of 17 normal subjects, but for any given subject the interobserver and intraobserver differences were large, with a relative variation of up to 35%. Thus, while reliable for determining the mean location of the instantaneous axis of rotation in a population, the technique was not reliable for determining the axis in a given subject. Qualitative analysis suggested that the identification of the radiographic images of the vertebrae and their tracing is the greatest source of error for this technique. © 1991.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(91)90039-S
Citations Scopus - 24
1991 LAMBERT GA, ZAGAMI AS, BOGDUK N, LANCE JW, 'CERVICAL SPINAL-CORD NEURONS RECEIVING SENSORY INPUT FROM THE CRANIAL VASCULATURE', CEPHALALGIA, 11 75-85 (1991)
DOI 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1991.1102075.x
Citations Scopus - 45Web of Science - 43
1991 MACINTOSH JE, BOGDUK N, 'THE ATTACHMENTS OF THE LUMBAR ERECTOR SPINAE', SPINE, 16 783-792 (1991)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199107000-00017
Citations Scopus - 93Web of Science - 68
1991 Bogduk N, 'The lumbar disc and low back pain.', Neurosurgery clinics of North America, 2 791-806 (1991)

The lumbar disc serves to sustain compression loads and is subject to tension and shear in forward bending and rotation. Its outer third is innervated and can be a source of pain.... [more]

The lumbar disc serves to sustain compression loads and is subject to tension and shear in forward bending and rotation. Its outer third is innervated and can be a source of pain. The annulus fibrosus may be injured in rotation and flexion of the lumbar spine and may become symptomatic as a ligamentous injury. Compression injuries of the disc are initially asymptomatic but may set in train a degradative process that, in time, leads to internal disc disruption, which becomes symptomatic as a result of chemical or mechanical irritation of nociceptors in the annulus fibrosus. Disc prolapse is but one possible end stage of internal disc disruption and represents the culmination of a series of destructive processes affecting the disc. This condition can be symptomatic while the external appearance of the disc remains normal and before nerve roots are affected in any way.

Citations Scopus - 83
1990 DWYER A, APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT PAIN PATTERNS .1. A STUDY IN NORMAL VOLUNTEERS', SPINE, 15 453-457 (1990)
Citations Scopus - 323Web of Science - 211
1990 APRILL C, DWYER A, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT PAIN PATTERNS .2. A CLINICAL-EVALUATION', SPINE, 15 458-461 (1990)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-199006000-00005
Citations Scopus - 205Web of Science - 136
1990 Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, 'Basic biomechanics pertinent to the study of the lumbar disc', Journal of Manual Medicine, 5 52-57 (1990)

This article summarises the cardinal concepts of biomechanics relevant to the understanding of the movements of the lumbar spine. It explains in simple terms the definition of mov... [more]

This article summarises the cardinal concepts of biomechanics relevant to the understanding of the movements of the lumbar spine. It explains in simple terms the definition of movements, stress-strain relationships, stiffness, range of movement, creep and hysteresis and provides the basis for later lectures in this symposium which deal with the biomechanical effects of injury and ageing.

Citations Scopus - 2
1990 Bogduk N, 'Pathology of lumbar disc pain', Journal of Manual Medicine, 5 72-79 (1990)

Intervertebral disc herniation is not a common cause of back pain. Rather, the discs can be a source of pain without rupture of herniation. The pathological changes responsible ar... [more]

Intervertebral disc herniation is not a common cause of back pain. Rather, the discs can be a source of pain without rupture of herniation. The pathological changes responsible are not those of disc degeneration, as commonly understood, but two specific entities: torsional injury of the annulus fibrosis and compression injuries of the disc. Torsional injuries occur as a result of forceful or excessive rotation combined with flexion and result in circumferential tears in the innervated outer third of the annulus fibrosis. This lesion probably underlies what is commonly interpreted as back pain due to 'ligament strain'. Compression injuries arise as a result of excessive weight-bearing and are initiated by fractures of the vertebral end-plate. Degradation of the nuclear matrix follows, resulting in the condition of internal disc disruption. The nuclear degradation erodes the annulus fibrosis centrifugally and the disc may become symptomatic as a result of chemical and/or mechanical irritation of the nerve endings in the compromised annulus fibrosis. Strong correlations have been established between the reproduction of discogenic pain and the morphology of internal disc disruption as seen on CT discography.

Citations Scopus - 11
1990 Bogduk N, 'Editorial', Journal of Manual Medicine, 5 41-42 (1990)
1988 BOGDUK N, WINDSOR M, INGLIS A, 'THE INNERVATION OF THE CERVICAL INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS', SPINE, 13 2-8 (1988)
DOI 10.1097/00007632-198801000-00002
Citations Scopus - 116Web of Science - 65
1988 BOGDUK N, MARSLAND A, 'THE CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS AS A SOURCE OF NECK PAIN', SPINE, 13 610-617 (1988)
Citations Scopus - 251Web of Science - 184
1988 Jull G, Bogduk N, Marsland A, 'The accuracy of manual diagnosis for cervial zygapophysial joint pain syndromes', Medical Journal of Australia, 148 233-236 (1988)

The ability of a manipulative therapist to diagnose symptomatic cervical zygapophysial joint syndromes accurately was evaluated in a series of 20 patients. In 11 patients the pres... [more]

The ability of a manipulative therapist to diagnose symptomatic cervical zygapophysial joint syndromes accurately was evaluated in a series of 20 patients. In 11 patients the presence, or absence, of a symptomatic joint was established by means of radiologically-controlled diagnostic nerve blocks. These patients were assessed by the manipulative therapist, without knowledge of the medical diagnosis. Another nine patients were first seen by the manipulative therapist whose diagnosis was then evaluated by means of diagnostic blocks. The manipulative therapist identified correctly all 15 patients with proven symptomatic zygapophysial joints, and specified correctly the segmental level of the symptomatic joint. None of the five patients with asymptomatic joints was misdiagnosed as having symptomatic zygapophysial joints. Thus, manual diagnosis by a trained manipulative therapist can be as accurate as can radiologically-controlled diagnostic blocks in the diagnosis of cervical zygapophysial syndromes. However, before generalized claims about the reliability of manual diagnosis can be made, further studies of this nature are required to validate intertherapist reliability and the ability of manual techniques to diagnose other spinal pain syndromes.

Citations Scopus - 222
1988 Bogduk N, 'Neck pain: an update.', Australian family physician, 17 75-80 (1988)
Citations Scopus - 15
1988 Pearcy MJ, Bogduk N, 'Instantaneous axes of rotation of the lumbar intervertebral joints', Spine, 13 1033-1041 (1988)

Lateral radiographs of ten normal Individuals were studied to determine the location of the Instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR) of every lumbar vertebra for the movements, of fle... [more]

Lateral radiographs of ten normal Individuals were studied to determine the location of the Instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR) of every lumbar vertebra for the movements, of flexion and extension from the upright position and flexion from the fully extended position; and errors Involved In the technique were quantified to establish confidence limits for the results of the calculations. The distribution of the IARs was found to fall within a small range from the mean location at each level, particularly for the movement of flexion from the extended position. Within-observer and between-observer errors occurred in tracing and superimposing radiographs and marking x and y coordinates. Unacceptably large errors occur when the movement of the joint is less than 5°, and only the IAR for flexion from extension can be plotted with acceptable confidence. This result invalidates the notion that plotting centrodes may be of diagnostic value in recognizing mechanical disorders. The determination of a single extension to flexion IAR may be of more value clinically, to which end this study provides essential normative data. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Citations Scopus - 173
1987 BOGDUK N, 'ANIMAL RESEARCH IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DYSFUNCTION', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 2 183-184 (1987)
DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(87)90077-5
1987 Bogduk N, Macintosh JE, '1987 volvo award in basic science: The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae', Spine, 12 658-668 (1987)

The lumbar erector spinae consists of two muscles iliocostaiis lumborum and longissimus thoracis each with distinct thoracic and lumbar parts. The thoracic parts consist of tiny m... [more]

The lumbar erector spinae consists of two muscles iliocostaiis lumborum and longissimus thoracis each with distinct thoracic and lumbar parts. The thoracic parts consist of tiny muscle bellies with segmental origins from the thorax and long caudal tendons that form the erector spinae aponeurosis. The lumbar fibers arise from the lumbar accessory processes and the L1-4 transverse processes, and insert independently of the erector spinae aponeurosis into the ilium. The intrinsic lumbar fibers of the erector spinae are poorly described in the literature, and the existence of the iliocostaiis lumborum pars lumborum has rarely been recognized even though it constitutes a substantial portion of the total muscle mass acting directly on the lumbar vertebrae. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Citations Scopus - 156
1987 Bogduk N, Macintosh J, Marsland A, 'Technical limitations to the efficacy of radiofrequency neurotomy for spinal pain', Neurosurgery, 20 529-535 (1987)

Prompted by clinical failures of percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy in the treatment of back pain and neck pain, we performed a study to determine the shape and size of lesions... [more]

Prompted by clinical failures of percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy in the treatment of back pain and neck pain, we performed a study to determine the shape and size of lesions made by radiofrequency electrodes. Experimental lesions were made in egg white and fresh meat at temperatures recommended in clinical practice. The cardinal finding was that lesions do not extend distal to the tip of the electrode. They only extend radially around the electrode tip in the shape of an oblate spheroid, with a maximal effective radius of only 2 mm. Consequently, if electrodes are directed perpendicularly onto a nerve, the nerve may not be encompassed by the lesion generated. Some of the clinical failures of percutaneous medial branch neurotomy ('facet rhizotomy') may be due to this phenomenon. We suggest modified techniques for medial branch neurotomy in which the electrodes are introduced parallel to the target nerve whereupon it is more readily encompassed by the radial spread of the lesion.

Citations Scopus - 128
1987 Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, Gracovetsky S, 'The biomechanics of the thoracolumbar fascia', Clinical Biomechanics, 2 78-83 (1987)

The back muscles alone are unable to provide the extensor moment required to lift large weights, and must be aided by another source of anti-flexion moments. It has been postulate... [more]

The back muscles alone are unable to provide the extensor moment required to lift large weights, and must be aided by another source of anti-flexion moments. It has been postulated that contraction of the abdominal muscles can provide an extension moment by developing tension in the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). Anatomical studies and a biomechanical analysis, however, reveal that the anti-flexion moment generated in this way is only very small. Too little of the abdominal musculature attaches to the TLF to generate a significant tension in it. Previous calculations of the forces in the TLF have overestimated the tension developed in it because of erroneous assumptions and interpretations of the relevant anatomy. Whatever the role played by the TLF in lifting it must be essentially independent of abdominal mechanisms. © 1987.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(87)90132-X
Citations Scopus - 61
1986 Bogduk N, Marsland A, 'On the concept of third occipital headache', Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49 775-780 (1986)

One of the putatative causes of headache is osteoarthritis of the C2-3 zygapophysial joint. A technique for blocking the third occipital nerve which innervates this joint was devi... [more]

One of the putatative causes of headache is osteoarthritis of the C2-3 zygapophysial joint. A technique for blocking the third occipital nerve which innervates this joint was devised and used as a screening procedure for headache mediated by this nerve. Seven out of ten consecutive patients presenting with suspected cervical headache were found to suffer pain mediated by the third occipital nerve and stemming from a C2-3 zygapophysial joint. Because third occipital headache may be indistinguishable clinically from tension or other forms of headache, third occipital nerve blocks are advocated as means of establishing this largely unrecognised diagnosis.

DOI 10.1136/jnnp.49.7.775
Citations Scopus - 134
1986 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of whiplash', Clinical Biomechanics, 1 92-101 (1986)

Whereas the symptoms of whiplash injury are frequently poorly understood or misrepresented as due to neurosis, a review of the literature reveals a considerable amount of biomecha... [more]

Whereas the symptoms of whiplash injury are frequently poorly understood or misrepresented as due to neurosis, a review of the literature reveals a considerable amount of biomechanical and experimental data that substantiate a diverse organic basis for these symptoms, including disorders commonly not considered or sought for in the investigation of whiplash. Moreover, formal studies fail to substantiate the notion of 'litigation neurosis' being the cause of prolonged symptoms. This review synthesises the anatomy and pathology of whiplash, and the pathophysiology of symptoms, into what can be construed as the organic basis for whiplash. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(86)90084-7
Citations Scopus - 73
1986 Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, 'The biomechanics of the lumbar multifidus', Clinical Biomechanics, 1 205-213 (1986)

The possible actions of the lumbar multifidus were determined by plotting the points of attachment and orientation of each of its component fascicles on radiographs of 5 cadavers ... [more]

The possible actions of the lumbar multifidus were determined by plotting the points of attachment and orientation of each of its component fascicles on radiographs of 5 cadavers and 21 living subjects. Subsequent analysis revealed that the principal action of multifidus is posterior sagittal rotation (extension without posterior translation) of the lumbar vertebrae. It has no translatory action. Any axial rotation exerted by the lumbar multifidus is only a minor, secondary action which must be coupled with posterior sagittal rotation. This extension balances the flexion moment generated by the abdominal muscles which rotate the trunk. The constancy of the sites of attachment of the multifidus allows each of its fascicles to be plotted accurately on radiographs or computer diagrams which can be used to produce highly detailed analyses or models of the forces exerted by the multifidus on the lumbar spine. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(86)90147-6
Citations Scopus - 129
1986 Macintosh JE, Valencia F, Bogduk N, Munro RR, 'The morphology of the human lumbar multifidus', Clinical Biomechanics, 1 196-204 (1986)

Dissection studies revealed that the fibres of the lumbar multifidus are divided by distinct cleavage planes into five bands. Each band arises from a lumbar spinous process, and i... [more]

Dissection studies revealed that the fibres of the lumbar multifidus are divided by distinct cleavage planes into five bands. Each band arises from a lumbar spinous process, and is innervated unisegmentally. The lumbar multifidus is therefore composed of five myotomes arranged such that the fibres that move a particular segment are innervated by the nerve of that segment. Target points are described that enable electromyography to be performed on paraspinal muscles of known unisegmental innervation. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0268-0033(86)90146-4
Citations Scopus - 146
1985 BOGDUK N, 'The Innervation of the Vertebral Column', Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 31 89-94 (1985)

The posterior elements of the vertebral column are innervated by branches of the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, while the intervertebral discs and related ligaments are innerva... [more]

The posterior elements of the vertebral column are innervated by branches of the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, while the intervertebral discs and related ligaments are innervated by various branches of the ventral rami and sympathetic nervous system. A knowledge of this nerve supply forms the basis for a systematic classification of the possible sources of primary spinal pain, and the basis for several diagnostic techniques that use needles to provoke and anaesthetize putative sources of pain. In particular, the demonstration of a nerve supply to intervertebral discs vindicates the concept that these structures intrinsically may be sources of pain. © 1985, Australian Physiotherapy Association. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0004-9514(14)60626-7
Citations Scopus - 7
1985 Bogduk N, Jull G, 'The theoretical pathology of acute locked back. A basis for manipulative therapy', Manuelle Medizin, 23 77-81 (1985)

As an explanation for the pathological basis for acute locked back, meniscus entrapment is a concept that is inconsistent with both the anatomy of zygapophysial menisci and the cl... [more]

As an explanation for the pathological basis for acute locked back, meniscus entrapment is a concept that is inconsistent with both the anatomy of zygapophysial menisci and the clinical features of acute locked back. Two alternative explanations that better fit the clinical features are postulated: meniscus extrapment and intradiscal nuclear displacement, both of which are amenable to manipulative therapy.

Citations Scopus - 3
1985 Bogduk N, Cherry D, 'Epidural corticosteroid agents for sciatica', Medical Journal of Australia, 143 402-406 (1985)
Citations Scopus - 30
1985 Bogduk N, Corrigan B, Kelly P, Schneider G, Farr R, 'Cervical headache', Medical Journal of Australia, 143 (1985)
Citations Scopus - 34
1985 Bogduk N, Jull G, 'The theoretical pathology of acute locked back: A basis for manipulative therapy', Manual Medicine, 1 78-82 (1985)

As an explanation for the pathological basis for acute locked back, meniscus entrapment is a concept that is inconsistent with both the anatomy of zygapophysial menisci and the cl... [more]

As an explanation for the pathological basis for acute locked back, meniscus entrapment is a concept that is inconsistent with both the anatomy of zygapophysial menisci and the clinical features of acute locked back. Two alternative explanations that better fit the clinical features are postulated: meniscus extrapment and intradiscal nuclear displacement, both of which are amenable to manipulative therapy.

Citations Scopus - 36
1985 Bogduk N, 'Low back pain.', Australian family physician, 14 1168-1172 (1985)
Citations Scopus - 6
1984 BOGDUK N, MAJOR GAC, CARTER J, 'LATERAL SUBLUXATION OF THE ATLAS IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS - A CASE-REPORT AND POST-MORTEM STUDY', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 43 341-346 (1984)
DOI 10.1136/ard.43.2.341
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 15
1984 Lambert GA, Duckworth JW, Bogduk N, Lance JW, 'Low pharmacological responsiveness of the vertebro-basilar circulation in Macaca nemestrina monkeys', European Journal of Pharmacology, 102 451-458 (1984)

We have examined the responsiveness of the vertebro-basilar circulation of the anesthetized Macaca nemestrina monkey to vasoactive agents infused directly into the artery. Infusio... [more]

We have examined the responsiveness of the vertebro-basilar circulation of the anesthetized Macaca nemestrina monkey to vasoactive agents infused directly into the artery. Infusion of noradrenaline caused a slight increase in vertebral arterial resistance. This constriction was less than that seen in previous experiments with either the internal or external carotid arteries. In the presence of vasodilatation caused by inhalation of a CO 2 -rich gas mixture, this constriction became a dilatation. Serotonin was without significant effect on the vertebral arterial bed. Bradykinin, histamine and prostaglandin E 1 all produced slight dilatation, with bradykinin being the most potent. In all cases the concentration required to produce an effect on the vasculature was much greater in the vertebral circulation than it is in the internal carotid and extracerebral circulations. We conclude that the intact vertebro-basilar circulation is much less sensitive to vasoactive agents than experiments with isolated segments of these arteries would indicate and that therefore these agents are unlikely to play a significant part in the pathogenesis of vertebro-basilar migraine. © 1984.

DOI 10.1016/0014-2999(84)90566-1
Citations Scopus - 3
1984 Lambert GA, Bogduk N, Goadsby PJ, Duckworth JW, Lance JW, 'Decreased carotid arterial resistance in cats in response to trigeminal stimulation', Journal of Neurosurgery, 61 307-315 (1984)

Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve or ganglion in the cat caused a frequency-dependent reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Systemic arterial blood pressure (SABP) decreased... [more]

Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve or ganglion in the cat caused a frequency-dependent reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Systemic arterial blood pressure (SABP) decreased at low frequencies (0.2 to 5 sec -1 ) and increased at higher frequencies, thus increasing carotid blood flow at the higher frequencies. The effect on resistance was predominantly ipsilateral and was unaltered by cervical sympathectomy, but was abolished or substantially reduced by section of the trigeminal root proximal to the ganglion. Diminution of carotid vascular resistance was replicated by stimulation of the greater superficial petrosal (GSP) nerve without any change in SABP. Section of the 7th cranial nerve reduced or abolished the response to stimulation of the trigeminal nerve but not that from the GSP nerve. The trigeminal response was prevented by ganglion-blocking drugs in 7 out of 8 cats. The resistance response was unaffected by noradrenergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and histamine-2 blocking agents. No neural connection could be demonstrated between the GSP and the trigeminal ganglion, and the vascular response to GSP stimulation persisted after trigeminal section. It is concluded that activation of the trigeminal system increases carotid blood flow by a pathway involving the 7th cranial nerve, the GSP and Vidian nerves, and a parasympathetic synapse employing an unconventional transmitter. A varying proportion of the response (greatest in the 3rd division) may be mediated by antidromic activation of trigeminal nerves. These findings may have clinical implications for the vascular changes of migraine and other facial pain.

Citations Scopus - 121
1984 Bogduk N, 'Neck pain.', Australian family physician, 13 26-30 (1984)

Any structure innervated by the cervical spinal nerves can be a primary source of neck pain and referred pain to the head, upper limb or chest wall. The most likely sources of chr... [more]

Any structure innervated by the cervical spinal nerves can be a primary source of neck pain and referred pain to the head, upper limb or chest wall. The most likely sources of chronic pain are the cervical intervertebral discs and the cervical zygapophyseal joints. Disc pain can be diagnosed by provocative disc stimulation; zygapophyseal joint pain can be diagnosed by local anaesthetic blocks of the cervical dorsal rami. Disc pain can be treated by anterior cervical fusion and zygapophyseal pain by percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy.

Citations Scopus - 37
1984 Bogduk N, 'Headaches and the cervical spine.', Cephalalgia, 4 7-8 (1984)
Citations Scopus - 20
1984 Bogduk N, 'Headaches and the cervical spine. An editorial', Cephalalgia, 4 6-8 (1984)
DOI 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1984.0401006.x
1984 Bogduk N, Engel R, 'The menisci of the lumbar zygapophyseal joints: A review of their anatomy and clinical significance', Spine, 9 454-460 (1984)

The literature describing menisci In the lumbar zyga-pophyseal joints Is reviewed. The only true menisci In these joints are rudimentary fibrous invaginations of the dorsal and ve... [more]

The literature describing menisci In the lumbar zyga-pophyseal joints Is reviewed. The only true menisci In these joints are rudimentary fibrous invaginations of the dorsal and ventral capsule. So-called menisci at the superior and inferior poles of the joint are basically fat- filled synovial reflections, some of which contain dense fibrous tissue, which probably arises as a result of mechanical stress. The theory of meniscus entrapment is appraised, but is considered to have been an overstated cause of those forms of ¿acute locked back¿ that responds to manipulation. © 1984 Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Citations Scopus - 59
1984 Bogduk N, Macintosh JE, 'The applied anatomy of the thoracolumbar fascia', Spine, 9 164-170 (1984)

The thoracolumbar fascia was studied by dissection in ten adult human cadavers. The posterior layer of this fascia was found to consist of two laminae. The superficial lamina is f... [more]

The thoracolumbar fascia was studied by dissection in ten adult human cadavers. The posterior layer of this fascia was found to consist of two laminae. The superficial lamina is formed by the aponeurosis of latissimus dorsi. The deep lamina consists of bands of fibers passing caudolaterally from the midline. Both laminae form a retinaculum over the back muscles, and the deep lamina constitutes a series of accessory posterior ligaments that anchor the L2 to L5 spinous processes to the ilium and resist flexion of the lumbar spine. The function of these ligaments Is enhanced by the contraction of the back muscles and the action of certain, restricted portions of the abdominal muscles. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

Citations Scopus - 129
1983 BOGDUK N, MAJOR GAC, CARTER J, 'LATERAL SUBLUXATION OF THE ATLAS - A POSTMORTEM STUDY', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 13 210-210 (1983)
1983 Bogduk N, 'The innervation of the lumbar spine', Spine, 8 286-293 (1983)

The lumbar intervertebral discs are innervated posteriorly by the sinuvertebral nerves, but laterally by branches of the ventral rami and grey rami communicantes. The posterior lo... [more]

The lumbar intervertebral discs are innervated posteriorly by the sinuvertebral nerves, but laterally by branches of the ventral rami and grey rami communicantes. The posterior longitudinal ligament is innervated by the sinuvertebral nerves and the anterior longitudinal ligament by branches of the grey rami. Lateral and intermediate branches of the lumbar dorsal rami supply the iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus thoracis, respectively. Medial branches supply the multifidus, intertransversarii mediales, interspinales, interspinous ligament, and the lumbar zygapophysial joints. The distribution of the intrinsic nerves of the lumbar vertebral column systematically identifies those structures that are potential sources of primary low-back pain. © 1983 Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.

Citations Scopus - 337
1982 Bogduk N, Wilson AS, Tynan W, 'The human lumbar dorsal rami', Journal of Anatomy, 134 383-397 (1982)

The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intert... [more]

The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while at the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described.

Citations Scopus - 259
1982 Engel R, Bogduk N, 'The menisci of the lumbar zygapophysial joints', Journal of Anatomy, 135 795-809 (1982)

In a study of 82 lumbar zygapophysial joints three types of intra-articular structures were identified. They were adipose tissue pads and fibro-adipose meniscoids, both located at... [more]

In a study of 82 lumbar zygapophysial joints three types of intra-articular structures were identified. They were adipose tissue pads and fibro-adipose meniscoids, both located at the superior and inferior poles of the joint, and connective tissue rims, located along the dorsal and ventral margins. Every lumbar zygapophysial joint contained at least one of these structures and 47 contained more than one type. Connective tissue rims are short, central projections of the joint capsule and do not enter between the articular surfaces. Adipose tissue pads are covered by synovium and fill the subcapsular space at the superoventral and inferodorsal poles of the joint. Fibro-adipose meniscoids, also covered by synovium, project from the joint capsule at the superior and inferior poles and enter between the articular surfaces. Adipose tissue pads and fibro-adipose meniscoids are probably derived from a common primitive mesenchymal meniscus which primarily differentiates into a fatty structure. The fibrous component of fibro-adipose meniscoids then secondarily develops as a result of compression of the tip of the fatty structure between the articular surfaces. The function of these intra-articular structures is not evident but may be related to protection of the articular processes as they subluxate during flexion and extension. Meniscus entrapment in the lumbar zygapophysial joints has been proposed as a cause of acute locked back, but the present morphological data are inconsistent with this view.

Citations Scopus - 49
1982 Bogduk N, 'The clinical anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami', Spine, 7 319-330 (1982)

A detailed description of the anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami is provided on the basis of the past literature and independent studies on five cadavers. In particular, the anat... [more]

A detailed description of the anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami is provided on the basis of the past literature and independent studies on five cadavers. In particular, the anatomy of the upper cervical dorsal rami and the innervation of the cervical zygapophyseal joints are described. The clinical significance of the cervical dorsal rami is discussed in relation to headache, occipital neuralgia, and neck pain. The surgical anatomy of cervical facet denervation is discussed. The radiologic anatomy of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami is described, and target points suitable for diagnostic blocks or facet denervation are illustrated. © 1982 Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.

Citations Scopus - 247
1981 Bogduk N, 'A reply', Anaesthesia, 36 426-426 (1981)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1981.tb10263.x
1981 Bogduk N, Tynan W, Wilson AS, 'The nerve supply to the human lumbar intervertebral discs', Journal of Anatomy, 132 39-56 (1981)

The lumbar intervertebral discs are supplied by a variety of nerves. The posterior aspects of the discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament are innervated by the sinuvertebral... [more]

The lumbar intervertebral discs are supplied by a variety of nerves. The posterior aspects of the discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament are innervated by the sinuvertebral nerves. The posterolateral aspects of the discs receive branches from adjacent ventral primary rami and from the grey rami communicantes near their junction with the ventral primary rami. The lateral aspects of the discs receive other branches from the rami communicantes. Some rami communicantes cross intervertebral discs and are embedded in the connective tissue of the disc deep to the origin of psoas. Such paradiscal rami are likely to be another source of innervation to the discs. The anterior longitudinal ligament is innervated by current branches of rami communicantes.

Citations Scopus - 334
1981 Bogduk N, 'An anatomical basis for the Neck-Tongue Syndrome', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 44 202-208 (1981)

The C2 nerve roots and rami were dissected in 5 cadavers to explore the pathogenesis of Neck-Tongue Syndrome. The most likely cause of the simultaneous occurrence of suboccipital ... [more]

The C2 nerve roots and rami were dissected in 5 cadavers to explore the pathogenesis of Neck-Tongue Syndrome. The most likely cause of the simultaneous occurrence of suboccipital pain and ipsilateral numbness of the tongue is an abnormal subluxation of one lateral atlanto-axial joint with impaction of the C2 ventral ramus against the subluxated articular processes.

Citations Scopus - 56
1981 Bogduk N, 'Lumbar lateral branch neuralgia. A complication of rhizolysis', Medical Journal of Australia, 1 242-243 (1981)

Rhizolysis has been regarded as a controversial, but safe, procedure for the treatment of back pain. A case of a neuralgia-like pain syndrome resulting from transection of the lat... [more]

Rhizolysis has been regarded as a controversial, but safe, procedure for the treatment of back pain. A case of a neuralgia-like pain syndrome resulting from transection of the lateral branches of the lumbar dorsal rami during rhizolysis is reported. The anatomy of the lumbar lateral branches is described, and their vulnerability is discussed. Attention is drawn to the likelihood of this complication with the use of rhizolysis in the vicinity of cutaneous branches of the dorsal rami.

Citations Scopus - 7
1981 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy of occipital neuralgia.', Clinical and experimental neurology, 17 167-184 (1981)
Citations Scopus - 73
1981 Bogduk N, Lambert GA, Duckworth JW, 'The Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertebral Nerve in Relation to Cervical Migraine', Cephalalgia, 1 11-24 (1981)

The anatomy of the vertebral nerve was investigated in humans and in monkeys. The effect of stimulation of the vertebral nerve and the cervical sympathetic trunk in the monkey was... [more]

The anatomy of the vertebral nerve was investigated in humans and in monkeys. The effect of stimulation of the vertebral nerve and the cervical sympathetic trunk in the monkey was studied. The vertebral nerves in man and monkey represent a series of deep grey rami communicantes which form intersegmental neural arcades around the vertebral artery between C7 and C3. Above C3 the vertebral artery is accompanied by direct branches from the C1¿3 ventral rami. Electrical stimulation of either the vertebral nerve or the cervical sympathetic trunk had a minimal effect on vertebral blood flow. In contrast, sympathetic stimulation had pronounced effects on carotid flow and resistance. Anatomically and physiologically there are no grounds to support the hypothesis that irritation of the ¿vertebral nerve¿ is the pathogenetic mechanism of cervical migraine. © 1981, International Headache Society. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2982.1981.tb00003.x
Citations Scopus - 32
1981 Bogduk N, 'Local Anesthetic Blocks of the Second Cervical Ganglion: A Technique with Application in Occipital Headache', Cephalalgia, 1 41-50 (1981)

Dissections of five human adult cadavers revealed that the C2 spinal ganglion bears a constant relationship to the dorsal aspect of the lateral atlanto-axial joint. Radiologically... [more]

Dissections of five human adult cadavers revealed that the C2 spinal ganglion bears a constant relationship to the dorsal aspect of the lateral atlanto-axial joint. Radiologically, the ganglion lies extradurally opposite the midpoint of the silhouette of the lateral atlanto-axial joint space. Needles can be introduced onto this target point using fluoroscopic control and used to perform selective local anesthetic blocks of the C2 spinal nerve. This technique is applicable in cases where it is difficult to decide on clinical grounds whether occipital headaches are due to an upper cervical abnormality or are a symptom of tension headache or common migraine. In particular the technique anesthetizes the otherwise inaccessible articular branches of the median and lateral atlanto-axial joints which may be an occult source of headache. © 1981, International Headache Society. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1111/j.1468-2982.1981.tb00007.x
Citations Scopus - 56
1981 Bogduk N, 'The lumbar mamillo- accessory ligament its anatomical and neurosurgical significance', Spine, 6 162-167 (1981)

The anatomy of the lumbar mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL) was studied by gross dissection in six cadavers. The MAL bridges the mamillary and accessory processes of each lumbar ve... [more]

The anatomy of the lumbar mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL) was studied by gross dissection in six cadavers. The MAL bridges the mamillary and accessory processes of each lumbar vertebra and encloses the medial branch of the dorsal ramus in an osseofibrous tunnel. The tunnel maintains the proximal course of the medial branch in a constant relationship to bone. This constancy allows for accurate percutaneous techniques to stimulate, anesthetize or destroy the medial branch. The MAL morphologically appears to represent remnants of transversospinal elements in the lumbar region, and is ossified in over 10% of lower lumbar vertebrae. Ossification may interfere with some percutaneous denervation techniques. The MAL may be a site of entrapment of the medial branch and may be a source of low-back pain. ©1981 Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.

Citations Scopus - 40
1980 Bogduk N, '¿Rhizolysis¿', Anaesthesia, 35 1020-1020 (1980)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1980.tb05017.x
Citations Scopus - 3
1980 Bogduk N, 'The dorsal lumbar muscles of the cat', Anatomischer Anzeiger, 148 55-67 (1980)

Observations made in the present study of the dorsal lumbar muscles of the cat are at variance with descriptions in the available literature. The morphology of these muscles is de... [more]

Observations made in the present study of the dorsal lumbar muscles of the cat are at variance with descriptions in the available literature. The morphology of these muscles is described in detail, and a revised interpretation of this morphology is made. There are 5 muscles - multifidus, intertransversarii mediales, lumbococcygeus, iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus lumborum. They are arranged in 5 parallel polysegmental columns and are covered by the dorsal layer of thoracolumbar fascia and the erector spinae aponeurosis. The multifidus consists of fibres connecting mamillary and spinous processes. From each mamillary process 4 sets of fasciculi arise. Each set has constant specific attachments. The intertransversarii mediales are fibres connecting accessory and mamillary process. 3 principal fasciculi arise from each accessory process and insert into particular mamillary processes at more caudal levels. The ilicostalis and longissimus arise from the ilium and from opposite surfaces of an intermuscular septum. The lumbococcygeus arises in the lumbar region from the accessory processes but inserts in the tail. Reasons for the revised nomenclature and interpretation are discussed. A specific definition of the longissimus lumborum and iliocostalis lumborum is made on the basis of their observed morphology and nerve supply. It is argued that the lumbococcygeus should be considered as the lumbar portion of sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis rather than part of a common muscle mass.

Citations Scopus - 25
1980 Bogduk N, 'A reappraisal of the anatomy of the human lumbar erector spinae', Journal of Anatomy, 131 525-540 (1980)

In the lumbar region the longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum are separated by the erector spinae aponeurosis and its ventral reflection - the lumbar intermuscular apone... [more]

In the lumbar region the longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum are separated by the erector spinae aponeurosis and its ventral reflection - the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis. Lumbar fibres of the longissimus arise from the ilium and the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis and insert into the accessory processes and proximal ends of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar fibres of iliocostalis insert into the costal elements of the first four lumbar vertebrae. The lumbar insertions of these muscles are homologous to their thoracic insertions. The lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis is homologous to the lumbar intermuscular septum in the dog, cat and monkey. The details of attachment of the lumbar fibres of the erector spinae and of the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis should be taken into account in biomechanical analyses of the lumbar vertebral column.

Citations Scopus - 81
1980 Bogduk N, 'Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome', Medical Journal of Australia, 2 537-541 (1980)

Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulati... [more]

Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

Citations Scopus - 43
1980 Bogduk N, 'Neck-tongue syndrome.', Medical Journal of Australia, 2 4 (1980)
Citations Scopus - 1
1980 Bogduk N, Long DM, 'Percutaneous lumbar medial branch neurotomy: A modification of facet denervation', Spine, 5 193-200 (1980)

Percutaneous lumbar medial branch neurotomy is a technique for facet denervation in which the target is specifically the medial branch of the dorsal ramus. The radiology of the te... [more]

Percutaneous lumbar medial branch neurotomy is a technique for facet denervation in which the target is specifically the medial branch of the dorsal ramus. The radiology of the technique is illustrated, and the technical aspects of the procedure are described. The accuracy of previous techniques for facet denervation as compared with medial branch neurotomy is reviewed in a comparative analysis of radiographs illustrating the various techniques. It is suggested that the greater accuracy of medial branch neurotomy will permit a more adequate trial of the rationale and efficacy of facet denervation. © 1980 Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.

Citations Scopus - 98
1980 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathology of lumbar back disability', Bulletin of the Postgraduate Committee in Medicine, University of Sydney, 36 2-17 (1980)
Citations Scopus - 5
1979 Bogduk N, Long DM, 'The anatomy of the so-called 'articular nerves' and their relationship to facet denervation in the treatment of low back pain', Journal of Neurosurgery, 51 172-177 (1979)

Dissections of the dorsal rami of L1-5 were performed in human cadavers, and the course of the dorsal rami, their branches, and the innervation of the zygapophyseal joints in the ... [more]

Dissections of the dorsal rami of L1-5 were performed in human cadavers, and the course of the dorsal rami, their branches, and the innervation of the zygapophyseal joints in the lumbar region were specifically studied. At the L-1 through L-4 levels, the dorsal rami divide into medial and lateral branches within the intertransverse ligaments. Each medial branch runs across the root of the adjacent superior articular process. At the caudal edge of the process, the branch turns medially beneath the mammillo-accessory ligament. Beneath the mammillo-accessory ligament, medial branches occur that innervate the adjacent zygapophyseal joint, and distal zygapophyseal branches arise at the laminar level to innervate the next lower joint. The L-5 dorsal ramus runs along a groove between the ala of the sacrum and its superior articular process. At the caudal edge of the articular process, the ramus divides into medial and lateral branches, and the medial branch supplies the L5-S1 articulation.

Citations Scopus - 166
1979 Bogduk N, 'Headaches and cervical manipulation', Medical Journal of Australia, 2 65-66 (1979)
Citations Scopus - 12
1977 Bogduk N, Colman RRS, Winer CER, 'An anatomical assessment of the 'percutaneous rhizolysis' procedure', Medical Journal of Australia, 1 397-399 (1977)
Citations Scopus - 16
1977 Bogduk N, ''Rhizolysis' and low back pain.', Medical Journal of Australia, 1 504 (1977)
Citations Scopus - 4
1976 Bogduk N, 'The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat', Journal of Anatomy, 122 653-662 (1976)

The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat were studied by gross dissection. The L1-6 dorsal rami form three discrete branches: lateral, intermediate and medial. The lateral branches ... [more]

The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the cat were studied by gross dissection. The L1-6 dorsal rami form three discrete branches: lateral, intermediate and medial. The lateral branches supply the iliocostalis lumborum and become cutaneous over the back. The intermediate branches ramify in the longissimus lumborum, and are separated from the lateral branches by the lumbar intermuscular septum. The medial branches supply the multifidus and have a constant branch, the nerve to intertransversarii mediales. The L7 dorsal ramus forms only medial and intermediate branches. The S1 and S2 dorsal rami form three branches, the middle of which form the ascending sacral trunk and accessory ascending sacral trunk. The ascending sacral trunk is derived from S1 and S2, the accessory ascending sacral trunk from S2. Both nerves are the exclusive nerve supply of lumbococcygeus.

Citations Scopus - 21
1976 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy of the lumbar intervertebral disc syndrome', Medical Journal of Australia, 1 878-881 (1976)

Four elements of the nervous system may be involved in the production of the lumbar intervertebral disk syndrome. These are the lumbosacral nerve roots, the spinal nerves, the dor... [more]

Four elements of the nervous system may be involved in the production of the lumbar intervertebral disk syndrome. These are the lumbosacral nerve roots, the spinal nerves, the dorsal rami and the sinuvertebral nerves. Each nerve is associated with a particular group of pathologic conditions which may irritate the nerve and produce symptoms. The anatomy of each nerve determines which particular conditions may irritate it. Moreover, one or both of two mechanisms may be involved in symptom production. The type of nerve irritated determines which mechanism, low back pain and referred lower limb symptoms are produced when afferent fibers from dorsal and ventral rami are stimulated where they pass in common through spinal nerves or nerve roots. In the second mechanism, dorsal rami or sinuvertebral nerves are stimulated. This directly produces low back pain, but referred pain is produced by reflex mechanisms in the spinal cord.

Citations Scopus - 20
1974 Bogduk N, Munro RR, 'Proceedings: Dorsal ramus - ventral ramus reflexes in the cat and man.', Journal of Anatomy, 118 394 (1974)
Citations Scopus - 5
1974 Bogduk N, 'Proceedings: The lumbosacral dorsal rami of the monkey and dog.', Journal of Anatomy, 118 393-394 (1974)
Citations Scopus - 3
1973 Bogduk N, 'Proceedings: The posterior lumbar muscles and nerves of the cat.', Journal of Anatomy, 116 476-477 (1973)
Citations Scopus - 2
1973 Baker K, Bogduk N, Burnett I, Davis R, Jones D, Meldrum B, Munro R, 'Proceedings: Displacement of articular surfaces in the hip joint.', Journal of Anatomy, 116 477 (1973)
Citations Scopus - 1
Show 381 more journal articles

Review (35 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2007 Bogduk N, 'Attributable effect and number needed to treat', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Bisphosphonates', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis of pain, epidural blocks', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis of pain, neurological examination', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D1]
2007 Yin W, Bogduk N, 'Dorsal root ganglion radiofrequency', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Effect size', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Epidural steroid injections', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Vivian D, Bogduk N, 'Fibromyalgia', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Headache', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Intra-articular injections of steroids', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Pauza K, Bogduk N, 'Intradiscal electrothermal therapy', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Johnson M, Bogduk N, 'Local anaesthetics', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Johnson M, Bogduk N, 'Muscle relaxants', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Simple analgesics', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Steroid injections', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Taxonomy', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Whiplash', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007 Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis and general pain management', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D1]
2003 Bogduk N, 'Neck and Arm Pain', Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (2003) [D1]
2003 Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America (2003) [D1]
2003 Bogduk N, 'Spinal Manipulation for Neck Pain Does Not Work', The Journal of Pain (2003) [D2]
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 1
2002 Bogduk N, 'The Physiology of Deep Somatic Pain', Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine (2002) [D1]
2001 Bogduk N, 'Complex Regional Pain Syndrome', Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology (2001) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 16
2001 Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic Headache: Anatomic Basis and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms', Current Pain and Headache Reports (2001) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 108
2001 Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Joints of the Cervical Vertebral Column', Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2001) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 17
2001 Bogduk N, 'Acute and Chronic Whiplash', SpineLine (2001) [D1]
2001 Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Intradiscal Electrothermal Annuloplasty: Percutaneous Treatment of Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain', Techniques in Regional Anesthesia & Pain Management (2001) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 10
2001 Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Pharmacologic pain treatment of musculoskeletal disorders: current perspectives and future prospects', The Clinical Journal of Pain (2001) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 64Web of Science - 48
1999 Bogduk N, 'The Neck', Bailliere's Best Practice & Research - Clinical Rheumatology. (1999) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 39
1999 Bogduk N, 'Management of Low Back Pain', Merck Sharp & Dohme University Program for General Practitioners. Update in The Management of Musculoskeletal Pain. (1999) [D1]
1999 Bogduk N, 'Epidural Steroids for Low Back Pain and Sciatica: Executive Summary and Recommnedations of the Working Party of the National Health and Medical Research Council', Pain Digest (1999) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 33
1998 Bogduk N, Lord S, 'Cervical Spine Disorders', Current Opinion in Rheumatology (1998) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 24
1998 Bogduk N, Lord S, 'Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly (1998) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 54Web of Science - 24
1998 Lord S, McDonald G, Bogduk N, 'Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of the cervical medial branches: a validated treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly (1998) [D1]
Citations Scopus - 49Web of Science - 34
Show 32 more reviews

Conference (17 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Nakayama A, Major G, Bogduk N, 'COMPARATIVE RE-FRACTURE RATES IN HOSPITALS WITH AND WITHOUT A FRACTURE LIAISON SERVICE: A 6 MONTH HISTORICAL COHORT STUDY', INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL (2015) [E3]
2009 Govind J, Bogduk N, 'Whiplash: Diagnostic and interventional techniques', Australian Pain Society 29th Annual Scientific Meeting. Conference Booklet (2009) [E3]
2009 Bogduk N, West K, 'An audit of outcomes from functional restoration for chronic low back pain', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume (2009) [E3]
2009 Gharhreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N, 'Outcomes of minimally-invasive and open posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume (2009) [E3]
2009 Gowaily K, Bogduk N, 'A pilot audit of radiofrequency biacuplasty for back pain due to internal disc disruption', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume (2009) [E3]
2007 Hancock MJ, Maher C, Latimer J, Spindler MF, McAuley JH, Laslett M, Bogduk N, 'Systematic review of tests to identify the sij, disc or facet joint as the source of low back pain', Physiotherapy (World Physical Therapy 2007 - Abstracts) (2007) [E3]
2005 Bogduk N, 'The neck and headache', CEPHALALGIA (2005)
2002 Bogduk N, 'Intervention Therapy for Back Pain: Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and Treatment (2002) [E3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Whiplash: mechanisms and treatment', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and Treatment (2002) [E3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'Pain Interventions: assessing effectiveness', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and treatment. (2002) [E3]
2002 Bogduk N, 'An overview of the International Congress on Whiplash Associated Disorders', Whiplash Associated Disorders - medical, biomechanical and legal aspects (2002) [E2]
Citations Scopus - 4
2000 Bogduk N, Sneider G, 'A method to secure the accuracy of determination of instantaneous centres of rotation', J Clin Neuroscience 2000 p80 (2000) [E3]
2000 Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'A Controlled clinical trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for internal disc disruption', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2000 p76 (2000) [E3]
2000 Sneider G, Bogduk N, 'Abnormal quality of segment motion, without excess horizontal displacement found in cases of lumbar instability', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2000 p80 (2000) [E3]
1997 Bogduk N, 'Musculoskeletal pain: Toward precision diagnosis', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH WORLD CONGRESS ON PAIN (1997)
Citations Web of Science - 9
1996 Bogduk N, 'Needle techniques in the diagnosis of low back pain', LOW BACK PAIN: A SCIENTIFIC AND CLINICAL OVERVIEW (1996)
1993 BOGDUK N, 'SPINAL PAIN - BACKACHE AND NECK PAIN', SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN CLINICAL NEUROLOGY (1993)
Show 14 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 13
Total funding $8,259,000

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20081 grants / $73,357

Literature reviews in spine medicine$73,357

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding body International Spine Intervention Society
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2008
Funding Finish 2008
GNo G0189871
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20071 grants / $60,202

Controlled trial of lumbar transforaminal and other injections for radicular pain$60,202

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding body International Spine Intervention Society
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0187910
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20024 grants / $290,977

A Double-blind controlled trial of Intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for painful internal disc disruption.$156,940

Funding body: Smith & Nephew (formerly Oratec)

Funding body Smith & Nephew (formerly Oratec)
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2002
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0181715
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

A controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for chronic low back pain.$64,492

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding body International Spine Intervention Society
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2002
Funding Finish 2002
GNo G0182577
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Management of Acute Musculoskeletal Pain.$54,545

Funding body: University of Queensland

Funding body University of Queensland
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Uni of Queensland/CDHAC consultancy
Role Lead
Funding Start 2002
Funding Finish 2002
GNo G0181943
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

Development of evidence-based guidelines and the production of an implementation strategy for the management of patients presenting with acute low back pain for$15,000

Funding body: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)

Funding body Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Consultancy
Role Lead
Funding Start 2002
Funding Finish 2002
GNo G0182248
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20012 grants / $74,000

External funding for 2 rural general practitioners to undertake Masters of pain medicine.$64,000

Funding body: GlaxoSmithKline Australia

Funding body GlaxoSmithKline Australia
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Postgraduate Research Scholarship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2001
Funding Finish 2002
GNo G0181200
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

SparkeHelmore /Prime Television Award for Research Excellence - Treatment of Spinal Pain.$10,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2001
Funding Finish 2001
GNo G0181548
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20001 grants / $6,029

Musculoskeletal Pain Medicine.$6,029

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding body International Spine Intervention Society
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2000
GNo G0179227
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

19972 grants / $6,488,803

The establishment of hospital and primary care clinics and General Practice Division comparison groups under the Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative.$4,474,171

Funding body: Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care

Funding body Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Special Access Program
Role Lead
Funding Start 1997
Funding Finish 1999
GNo G0177645
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

National Directorate for the Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative$2,014,632

Funding body: Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care

Funding body Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Special Access Program
Role Lead
Funding Start 1997
Funding Finish 1999
GNo G0177647
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

19951 grants / $5,000

The University of Newcastle Award for Excellence in Teaching$5,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Teaching Committee Awards for Excellence
Role Lead
Funding Start 1995
Funding Finish 1995
GNo G0175963
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

19941 grants / $1,260,632

94,95,96GRANT.Cervical Spine Research Unit - Research, Education & Service Activities$1,260,632

Funding body: Motor Accidents Authority of NSW

Funding body Motor Accidents Authority of NSW
Project Team Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1994
Funding Finish 1998
GNo G0174623
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - State
Category 2OPS
UON Y
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed3
Current0

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2006 Masters The Side of a Radial Annular Tear on CT Discography and the Side of the Patient's Symptoms: Is There a Correlation? M MedSc (Med Radiation Sc) [R], Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2004 Masters Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Quadratus Lumborum M MedSc (Anatomy) [R], Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Sole Supervisor
2004 Masters Evaluation of the Health Status of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Undergoing a Functional Restoration Program M MedSc (Med Radiation Sc) [R], Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
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Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk

Positions

Conjoint Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Emeritus Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Focus area

Anatomy

Contact Details

Email nik.bogduk@newcastle.edu.au

Office

Room RNC3405
Building The Royal Newcastle Centre
Location Other

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