Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk

Conjoint Professor

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy (Anatomy)

Career Summary

Biography

I commenced research into spinal pain, in 1972, when essentially nothing was known about the problem. There being no established groups or departments working on this problem, I forged my own career, using borrowed resources. I commenced in a Department of Anatomy, where I pursued the innervation of the vertebral column, as a fundamental element in understanding the sources and mechanisms of spinal pain. Professor Jim Lance fostered this interest, and accommodated my PhD studies. In his department I continued my Anatomy studies but was able also to commence clinical applications. I developed and tested new diagnostic and surgical procedures for back pain and for neck pain. While in Professor Lance's Department I participated in laboratory studies of the mechanisms of migraine. At the University of Queensland I continued to develop and apply the diagnostic and surgical techniques that I started at the University of NSW, serving as an honorary medical officer at the Pain Clinic of Princess Alexandra Hospital. Meanwhile I supervised science and medicine postgraduate students who undertook basic science studies into the biomechaincs of the back and neck. At the University of Newcastle, I had established a reputation sufficient to attract a grant from the Motor Accidents Authority of NSW to investigate the cause and treatment of neck pain after whiplash. The grant supported three PhD students over a six year period. They performed studies that validated the diagnostic procedures and which tested the surgical procedures in a placebo-controlled double-blind randomised trial. Having established an international standing in the development and testing of treatments for spinal pain, I participated in the design and analysis of controlled trials conducted elsewhere in Australia and in the USA. These tested the efficacy of: lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy for back pain, intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for back pain, prolotherapy for back pain, exercises for neck pain. I am now a consultant for the International Spine Intervention Society for various studies of spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures. Most recently we completed a placebo-controlled trial that validated the efficacy of transforaminal injections of steroids for sciatica. Between 1997 and 2002 I conducted the National Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative which developed and tested evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, knee pain, and pain in the foot, wrist, and elbow. My work has been awarded the Volvo Award for Back Pain Research, the Research Prize of the Cervical Spine Research Society, the Award for Outstanding Research of the North American Spine Society, and three times the Research Prize of the Spine Society of Australia. My students have been awarded research prizes by the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Australian Rheumatology Association, and the Australian New Zealand college of Anaesthetists. I have never had a funded Department to which to attract investigators and academics. I have relied on scholarships for students, and the goodwill of private practitioners who wished to contribute to clinical research. I am currently involved in studies of the long-term effectiveness of sugery for back pain and sciatica. Otherwise my time is now occupied: serving the editorial board of Pain Medicine and two guidelines groups for the treatment of spinal pain and the management of musculoskeletal pain.

Research Expertise

I have pursued the problem of spinal pain and headache across several disciplines, starting in an era where essentially nothing ws known about the cause and treatment of these problems. I undertook anatomy studies to determine how the vertebral column was innervated. I devised anaesthetic techniques whereby nerves that might be mediating a patient's pain might be blocked, as a diagnostic test. I devised surgical procedures whereby spinal pain and headache could be stopped. I undertook clinical trials to validate the diagnostic techniques and the therapeutic techniques. Parenthetically I conducted studies on the normal and abnormal biomechanics of the spine, which have now become pertinent to the evaluation of arthroplastic surgery of the spine. Other anatomy studies estalbished the basis for causes of spinal pain. I performed Anatomy studies and clinical trials to disprove myths in medical practice.

Teaching Expertise
I have taught at all academic levels, from tutor to professor, in classical and problem based learning systems. I have taught undergraduates in all health disciplines. I have taught postgraduate surgeons. I have regularly been a keynote speaker at health profession conferences internationally. From the Univeristy of Newcaslte, I hold an award for Excellence in Teaching, and an award for Postgraduate Supervisor of the Year.

Administrative Expertise
I have served on the Academic Boards or Senates of three universities. I have been an Assistant Dean in the Faculty of Medicine. I have served on the Vice Chancellor's Committee for University Development and Assessment, as the member elected by the Professors of the University of Newcastle. I am presently Acting Medical Superintendent of the Royal Newcastle Centre, and Director of Clinical Research in the Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute. 


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Medicine, University of New South Wales
  • Doctor of Science, University of Sydney
  • PhD, University of New South Wales
  • Bachelor of Science (Medicine), University of Sydney
  • Bachelor of Medicine & Surgery, University of Sydney

Keywords

  • Anatomy
  • Clinical Biomechanics
  • Clinical Trials
  • Evidence Based Medicine
  • Musculoskeletal Medicine
  • Pain Medicine

Languages

  • French (Fluent)
  • Russian (Fluent)

Fields of Research

CodeDescriptionPercentage
110999Neurosciences not elsewhere classified10
111599Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences not elsewhere classified15
110399Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified75

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2002 - 1/01/2002ProfessorUniversity of Newcastle
Faculty of Health
Australia

Academic appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2011 - Editor - Pain Medicine, Official Journal of American Academy of Pain MedicinePain Medicine, Official Journal of American Academy of Pain Medicine
Australia
1/01/2011 - Editorial Board - Cephalalgia, Journal of the International Headache SocietyCephalalgia, Journal of the International Headache Society
Australia
1/01/1997 - Director of Clinical ResearchHunter New England Health
Pain Medicine
Australia
1/01/1991 - 1/12/1996Professor of AnatomyThe University of New South Wales
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/01/1989 - 1/12/1990Associate Professor
Anatomy
University of Newcastle
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/07/1987 - 1/12/1989Senior Lecturer
Anatomy
University of Newcastle
Faculty of Medicine
Australia
1/01/1987 - 1/06/1987ReaderThe University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia
1/01/1983 - 1/12/1986Senior LecturerThe University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia
1/02/1981 - 1/12/1982LecturerThe University of Queensland
Anatomy
Australia

Membership

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
Member Research Committee - International Association for the Study of PainIASP International Association for the Study of Pain
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (7 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2008Bogduk N, Yotsui kotsuban Ryoiki no Rinsho Kaibogaku: Yotsui no Hyoka Chiryo no Kagakuteki Konkyo, Elsevier, Japan, 253 (2008) [A2]
2006Bogduk N, McGuirk B, Management of acute and chronic neck pain : an evidence-based approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 188 (2006) [A1]
2005Bogduk N, Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum, Elsevier / Churchill Livingstone, New York, 250 (2005) [A3]
2002Adams M, Bogduk N, Burton K, Dolan P, The Biomechanics of Back Pain, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 238 (2002) [A2]
2002Bogduk N, McGuirk B, Medical Management of Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain. An Evidence-Based Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 224 (2002) [A2]
1999Bogduk N, Govind J, Medical Management of Acute Lumbar Radicular Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach, Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute, Newcastle, Australia, 108 (1999) [A1]
1999Bogduk N, Medical Management of Acute Cervical Radicular Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach, Newcastle Bone and Joint Institute, Newcastle, Australia., 106 (1999) [A1]
Show 4 more books

Chapter (48 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2013Carrino JA, Bogduk N, 'Spinal Injections for Low Back Pain: Evidence-Based Treatment', Evidence-Based Neuroimaging Diagnosis and Treatment: Improving the Quality of Neuroimaging in Patient Care, Springer, New York 499-510 (2013) [B1]
DOI10.1007/978-1-4614-3320-0_30
2009Bogduk N, 'Schleudertrauma under Schmerzen in den Wirbelbogengelenken', Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaule 'HWS-Schleudertrauma', Verlag Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden, Germany 210-215 (2009) [B1]
DOI10.1007/978-3-7985-1838-4_25
2008Bogduk N, Bartsch T, 'Cervicogenic headache', Wolff's Headache and Other Head Pain, Oxford University Press, Oxford 551-570 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of the spine', Rheumatology, Mosby, Maryland Heights, Missouri 45-62 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Neck pain and whiplash', Clinical Pain Management, Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom 484-500 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic procedures in chronic pain', Clinical Pain Management, Hodder Arnold, London, United Kingdom 145-168 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Principles of diagnostic blocks', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 187-191 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Placebo', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 203-205 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Pathophysiologic evidence of injury', Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 589-592 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Rachis lombaire, sacrum et coccyx. Anatomie', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 365-376 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Rachis lombaire, sacrum et coccyx. Physiologie et biom?canique', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 376-383 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Rachis cervical. Anatomie', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 176-192 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Rachis cervical. Physiologie et biomecanique', Pathologie Medicale de l'Appareil Locomoteur, Maloine, Paris, France 192-201 (2008) [B1]
2008Bogduk N, 'Why I pursue discogenic pain', LBP: Controversies in Clinical Practice and Research: 8th Physiatric Summer School, ORTON Rehabilitation, Helsinki, Finland 49-71 (2008) [B1]
2007Bogduk N, 'Complications Associated with Transforaminal Injections', Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Elsevier, Amsterdam 259-265 (2007) [B1]
CitationsScopus - 6
2007Bogduk N, 'Lumbar facet syndrome', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 769-776 (2007) [B1]
2007Bogduk N, 'Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 800-809 (2007) [B1]
2007McGuirk B, Bogduk N, 'Occupational back pain', Pain Management, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 777-790 (2007) [B1]
2006Bogduk N, 'Evidence-based treatment of back pain', Low Back Syndromes: Integrated Clinical Management, McGraw-Hill, New York 821-840 (2006) [B2]
2006Bogduk N, 'Cervical zygapophysical joint pain', Decision Making in Pain Management, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, PA 152-153 (2006) [B2]
2006Bogduk N, 'Chronic Low Back Pain', Pain: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, Amsterdam 779-790 (2006) [B1]
2006Bogduk N, 'Whiplash Injury', Pain: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, Amsterdam 792-801 (2006) [B1]
2005Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic blocks', The Cervical Spine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 255-260 (2005) [B1]
2005Wilson PR, Bogduk N, 'Retrospection , Science and Epidemiology of CRPS', CRPS: Current Diagnosis and Therapy, IASP Press, Seattle 19-41 (2005) [B1]
2005Bogduk N, Bartsch T, 'Headaches of cervical origin: Focus on anatomy and physiology', Chronic Daily Headache for Clinicians, BC Decker, Hamilton 129-143 (2005) [B1]
2004Bogduk N, Mercer S, Elkins M, Moseley A, Sherrington C, Herbert R, Maher CG, 'Selection of treatment for musculoskeletal conditions', Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy: Clinical Science and Evidence-Based Practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, Philadelphia 245-275 (2004) [B1]
2003Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of the spine', Rheumatology, Elsevier Science, Madrid 545-564 (2003) [B2]
2003Bogduk N, 'Functional Anatomy of the Disc and Lumbar Spine', The Artifical Disc, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York 19-32 (2003) [B2]
2002Bogduk N, 'Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002Bogduk N, 'Innervation and Pain Patterns of the Cervical Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002Bogduk N, 'Innervation and Pain Patterns of the Thoracic Spine', Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, Churchill Livingstone, USA 449 (2002) [B2]
2002Bogduk N, 'Cervical Pain', Diseases of the Nervous System, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 2192 (2002) [B2]
2001Bogduk N, 'Mechanisms and pain patterns of the upper cervical spine', The Cranio-Cervical Syndrome Mechanisms, Assessment and Treatment, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford UK 110-116 (2001) [B2]
2000Bogduk N, 'An Overview of Pain', Integrated Basic Surgical Sciences, Arnold [Hodder Headline Group], London UK 3-12 (2000) [B1]
2000Bogduk N, 'An Overview of Whiplash', Frontiers in Whiplash Trauma. Clinical and Biomechanical, IOS Press, Amsterdam Netherlands 3-9 (2000) [B1]
2000Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic Headache', Drug Treatment of Migraine and Other Headaches, Karger, Basel 357-362 (2000) [B1]
1999Bogduk N, Barnsley L, 'An Evidence-Based Update', Pain 1999 - An Updated Review. Refresher Course Syllabus., IASP Press, Seattle, U.S.A. 371-377 (1999) [B1]
1999Bogduk N, 'The patient with neck pain and headache', Advanced Therapy of Headache., B.C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 277-282 (1999) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Introduction', Whiplash Injuries. Current Concepts in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Cervical Whiplash Syndrome., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 17-18 (1998) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain and Percutaneous Neurotomy: An Update to the Quebec Task Force Report on Whiplash-Associated Disorders', Whiplash Injuries: Current Concepts in Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Cervical Whiplash Syndrome., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 211-219 (1998) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Spine', Rheumatology, Second Edition. (2 Volumes), Mosby International, London, U.K. 4.2.1-4.2.20 (1998) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Work-related low back pain', Rheumatology, Second Edition. (2 Volumes), Mosby International, London, U.K. 4.6.5-4.6.5 (1998) [B1]
1998Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'The Pathophysiology of Whiplash', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 209-242 (1998) [B1]
1998Gibson T, Bogduk N, 'Automotive Design and Whiplash Injury', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 243-256 (1998) [B1]
1998Lord S, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Cervical Zygapophyseal Joint Pain in Whiplash Injuries', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 301-322 (1998) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Treatment of Whiplash Injuries', Cervical Flexion-Extension/Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 469-483 (1998) [B1]
1998Bogduk N, 'Patho-Anatomical Assessment of Whiplash', Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 299-307 (1998) [B1]
1998Gibson G, Bogduk N, Ryan G, Sparke L, 'Neck Injury Research Needs: An Australian Perspective', Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 730-738 (1998) [B1]
Show 45 more chapters

Journal article (286 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2014Bogduk N, 'The Neck and Headaches', NEUROLOGIC CLINICS, 32 471-+ (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.ncl.2013.11.005Author URL
2014Bogduk N, 'Editor's Response: Group vs Categorical Data in Epidural Studies', PAIN MEDICINE, 15 1812-1813 (2014) [C3]
DOI10.1111/pme.12562Author URL
2014Haskins R, Henderson JM, Bogduk N, 'Health professional consultation and use of conservative management strategies in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis awaiting orthopaedic consultation', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH, 20 305-310 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1071/PY13064Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2014Engel A, Macvicar J, Bogduk N, 'A philosophical foundation for diagnostic blocks, with criteria for their validation', Pain Medicine (United States), 15 998-1006 (2014) [C1]

Background: In the absence of a suitable reference standard, diagnostic local anesthetic blocks cannot be validated in the manner conventionally used for diagnostic tests. Consequently, diagnostic blocks are vulnerable to criticism for lacking validity, or being "not proven." Study Design: Philosophical essay. Methods: Inspired by the "viewpoints" proposed by Bradford Hill for testing cause and effect in epidemiology, a set of axiomatic criteria was developed with which the validity of diagnostic blocks could be assessed. Results: Eight criteria were established: plausibility, experiment, target-specificity, effect, duration, consistency, control, and replication. Applying weighted scores to these criteria produces a metric by which the validity of a particular diagnostic block can be quantified. Conclusion: The eight criteria provide an axiomatic, philosophical basis for diagnostic blocks in general, and serve to show what empirical evidence needs to be gathered in order to validate a particular block. The associated metric allows the scientific evidence for different blocks to be quantified and compared. © 2014 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

DOI10.1111/pme.12436
2014Haskins R, Henderson JM, Bogduk N, 'Health professional consultation and use of conservative management strategies in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis awaiting orthopaedic consultation', Australian Journal of Primary Health, 20 305-310 (2014) [C1]

The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) referred for orthopaedic consultation at a large Australian public hospital reported using conservative management strategies as recommended by current practice guidelines. A therapist-assisted questionnaire was employed within the context of a standard physiotherapy assessment in a consecutive cohort of patients with hip or knee OA. Two hundred and two patients with hip or knee OA comprised the included sample. Thirty-nine percent (n=79) reported having only previously consulted their general practitioner. Only 20% (n=41) felt that they had been sufficiently educated about the diagnosis, their treatment options and prognosis. Thirty-three percent (n=66) had not previously engaged in any non-pharmacological management strategy considered a core clinical practice guideline recommendation. The findings of this study suggest that several inconsistencies may exist between current Australian clinical practice and OA clinical guideline recommendations. Identification of the barriers to the use of conservative management requires timely investigation coupled with a national implementation framework to support the translation of guideline recommendations into practice. © 2014 La Trobe University.

DOI10.1071/PY13064
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2013Bogduk N, 'Time to reconsider steroid injections in the spine?', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 199 752-752 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.5694/mja13.11077Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2013Cheung NK, Ferch RD, Ghahreman A, Bogduk N, 'Long-term Follow-up of Minimal-Access and Open Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Spondylolisthesis', NEUROSURGERY, 72 443-450 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1227/NEU.0b013e31827fce96Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2013Khong P, Bogduk N, Ghahreman A, Davies M, 'Cervical disc arthroplasty for the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 20 1411-1416 (2013) [C1]

The concept of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for the anterior treatment of cervical pathology has existed for approximately half a decade. In this time, multiple devices have been developed for this purpose, with the ultimate aim to provide an alternative to fusion. Fifty-five patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy underwent CDA over a 5 year period. Data was collected on 46 patients, which included Visual Analogue Scale scores for neck pain and arm pain, Neck Disability Index scores, Short Form-36 v2 (SF-36) and Nurick grades for myelopathy patients. Preoperative data and data obtained at the latest clinical follow-up (median 48 months, range, 10-76 months) were analysed to assess the intermediate term efficacy of the procedure. In patients with radiculopathy, arm pain improved by 88% (p < 0.001). In those presenting with myelopathy, the Nurick grades improved from a median of 1 to 0 (p < 0.001). In both groups of patients, improvements in pain and neurologic deficit were accompanied by significant improvements in multiple domains of the SF-36. Using a composite system which considered neck pain, arm pain, function and myelopathy, we arrived at an overall success rate of 73%. We concluded that CDA is an effective intervention for improving neurologic deficit, arm pain and local neck symptoms that translated into improvements in physical and social functioning in the intermediate term. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.jocn.2012.12.013
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2013Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Rickards L, Turner R, Bogduk N, 'The reliability of a quality appraisal tool for studies of diagnostic reliability (QAREL)', BMC MEDICAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2288-13-111Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2013MacVicar J, King W, Landers MH, Bogduk N, 'The Effectiveness of Lumbar Transforaminal Injection of Steroids: A Comprehensive Review with Systematic Analysis of the Published Data', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 14-28 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01508.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 35
2013Bogduk N, 'Not a Placebo, but Is It Effective?', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 315-316 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1111/pme.12052Author URL
2013MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N, 'Lumbar Medial Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy in New Zealand', PAIN MEDICINE, 14 639-645 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1111/pme.12000Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2013Bogduk N, Aprill C, Derby R, 'Lumbar discogenic pain: State-of-the-art review', Pain Medicine (United States), 14 813-836 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To test the null hypotheses that: lumbar intervertebral discs cannot be a source of pain; discs are not a source of pain; painful lumbar discs cannot be diagnosed; and there is no pathology that causes discogenic pain. Methods: Philosophical essay and discourse with reference to the literature. Results: Anatomic and physiologic evidence denies the proposition that disc cannot be a source of pain. In patients with back pain, discs can be source of pain. No studies have refuted the ability of disc stimulation to diagnose discogenic pain. Studies warn only that disc stimulation may have a false-positive rate of 10% or less. Internal disc disruption is the leading cause of discogenic pain. Discogenic pain correlates with altered morphology on computerized tomography scan, with changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and with internal biophysical features of the disc. The morphological and biophysical features of discogenic pain have been produced in biomechanics studies and in laboratory animals. Conclusions: All of the null hypotheses that have been raised against the concept of discogenic pain and its diagnosis have each been refuted by one or more studies. Although studies have raised concerns, none has sustained any null hypothesis. Discogenic pain can occur and can be diagnosed if strict operational criteria are used to reduce the likelihood of false-positive results. © 2013.

DOI10.1111/pme.12082
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 4
2013Bui J, Bogduk N, 'A systematic review of the effectiveness of CT-guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids', Pain Medicine (United States), 14 1860-1865 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of computerized tomography (CT) guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids in the treatment of radicular pain. Design: Systematic review of published literature. Interventions: Two reviewers independently assessed 19 publications on the effectiveness and safety of CT-guided, lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids. Outcome Measures: For effectiveness, the primary outcome was the success rate for relief of pain. For safety, the radiation exposure involved and the nature of complications were determined. Results: Much of the literature fails to provide evidence. Two studies reported decreases in mean or median pain scores but no other data. Two studies reported success rates of between 34% and 62% for achieving 50% relief of pain at between 1 and 6 months after treatment. CT-guided injections may involve greater radiation exposure than does fluoroscopy-guided injections and do not avoid catastrophic spinal cord injury. Conclusion: The evidence-base for CT-guided lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids is meagre. This intervention is not more effective than fluoroscopy-guided injections and is not demonstrably safer. © 2013.

DOI10.1111/pme.12243
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2012Bogduk N, 'No more excuses: Fracture liaison services work and are cost-effective', Medical Journal of Australia, 197 147 (2012) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2012Bogduk N, 'Degenerative joint disease of the spine', Radiologic Clinics of North America, 50 613-628 (2012) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.rcl.2012.04.012
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 9
2012Desmoulin GT, Szostek JS, Khan AH, Al-Ameri OS, Hunter CJ, Bogduk N, 'Spinal intervention efficacy on correcting cervical vertebral axes of rotation and the resulting improvements in pain, disability and psychsocial measures', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 20 31-40 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2012Landers MH, Dreyfuss P, Bogduk N, 'On the Geometry of Fluoroscopy Views for Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 58-65 (2012) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01291.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 10
2012MacVicar J, Borowczyk JM, MacVicar AM, Loughnan BM, Bogduk N, 'Cervical Medial Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy in New Zealand', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 647-654 (2012) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01351.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 18Web of Science - 14
2012Bogduk N, MacVicar J, 'Translating Procedural Spine Science into Cross-Cultural Clinical Practice: Methodological Questions and Answers', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 655-657 (2012) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01393.xAuthor URL
2012Landers MH, Bogduk N, 'Geometry and Technique of Cervical Epidural Interlaminar Access: Response to Letter by Dr. Perper', PAIN MEDICINE, 13 1522-1523 (2012) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01506.xAuthor URL
2012Bogduk N, 'Power and meaninglessness', Pain Medicine, 13 148-149 (2012) [C3]
2011Bogduk N, 'Re: response to letter: The pain of vertebral compression fractures can arise in the posterior elements', Pain Medicine, 12 989 (2011) [C3]
2011Bogduk N, 'When data are not proof', Pain Medicine, 12 1297-1298 (2011) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01216.x
2011Bogduk N, 'Re: Response to Letter. The pain of vertebral compression fractures can arise in the posterior elements', Pain Medicine, 12 989 (2011) [C3]
2011Ghahreman A, Bogduk N, 'Predictors of a favorable response to transforaminal injection of steroids in patients with lumbar radicular pain due to disc herniation', Pain Medicine, 12 871-879 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 25Web of Science - 21
2011Lucas N, Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic reliability in osteopathic medicine', International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 14 43-47 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2011Bogduk N, 'Response to Dr. Yellowlees' letter', Pain, 152 952-958 (2011) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.010
2011Jull GA, Soderlund A, Stemper BD, Kenardy J, Gross AR, Cote P, et al., 'Toward Optimal Early Management After Whiplash Injury to Lessen the Rate of Transition to Chronicity Discussion Paper 5', SPINE, 36 S335-S342 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182388449Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2011Bogduk N, 'On cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash', Spine, 36 S194-S199 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1097/brs.0b013e3182387f1d
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 9
2011Curatolo M, Bogduk N, Ivancic PC, McLean SA, Siegmund GP, Winkelstein BA, 'The role of tissue damage in whiplash-associated disorders', Spine, 36 S309-S315 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1097/brs.0b013e318238842a
CitationsScopus - 21Web of Science - 16
2011Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 22 367-382 (2011) [C2]
DOI10.1016/j.pmr.2011.03.008
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 12
2011Govind J, Bogduk N, Lau P, 'Headaches and the cervical zygapophysial joints', Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine, 16 21-32 (2011) [C2]
2010Bogduk N, Fraifeld EM, 'Proof or Consequences: Who Shall Pay for the Evidence in Pain Medicine?', PAIN MEDICINE, 11 1-2 (2010) [C3]
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 8
2010Bogduk N, MacVicar J, Borowczyk J, 'The Pain of Vertebral Compression Fractures Can Arise in the Posterior Elements', PAIN MEDICINE, 11 1666-1673 (2010) [C1]
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 9
2010Weisz GM, Houang M, Bogduk N, 'Complex regional pain syndrome associated with cervical disc protrusion and foraminotomy', Pain Medicine, 11 1348-1351 (2010) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2010Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Henning T, 'Response to 'Branch Blockade of the Dorsal Sacral Rami'', Pain Medicine, 11 283 (2010) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00779.x
2010Ghahreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N, 'The efficacy of transforaminal injection of steroids for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain', Pain Medicine, 11 1149-1168 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00908.x
CitationsScopus - 101Web of Science - 92
2010Bogduk N, 'On diagnostic blocks for lumbar zygapophysial joint pain', F1000 Medicine Reports, 2 57-59 (2010) [C2]
DOI10.3410/M2-57
CitationsScopus - 13
2010Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic blocks for chronic pain', Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 1 186-192 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.sjpain.2010.07.001
CitationsScopus - 4
2010Schliessbach J, Siegenthaler A, Heini P, Bogduk N, Curatolo M, 'Blockade of the Sinuvertebral Nerve for the Diagnosis of Lumbar Diskogenic Pain: An Exploratory Study', ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 111 204-206 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e19d03Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2010Ghahreman A, Ferch RD, Rao PJ, Bogduk N, 'Minimal Access Versus Open Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Spondylolisthesis', NEUROSURGERY, 66 296-304 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1227/01.NEU.0000363600.24074.D0Author URL
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 6
2010Bogduk N, 'A cure for back pain?', Pain, 149 7-8 (2010) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2009.05.022
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2010Lucas NP, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Bogduk N, 'The development of a quality appraisal tool for studies of diagnostic reliability (QAREL)', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 63 854-861 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.10.002
CitationsScopus - 66Web of Science - 54
2009Bogduk N, Govind J, 'Cervicogenic headache: An assessment of the evidence on clinical diagnosis, invasive tests, and treatment', The Lancet Neurology, 8 959-968 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70209-1
CitationsScopus - 57Web of Science - 53
2009Dreyfuss P, Henning T, Malladi N, Goldstein B, Bogduk N, 'The ability of multi-site, multi-depth sacral lateral branch blocks to anesthetize the sacroiliac joint complex', Pain Medicine, 10 679-688 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00631.x
CitationsScopus - 28Web of Science - 24
2009Yin W, Bogduk N, 'Retrograde filling of a thoracic spinal artery during transforaminal injection', Pain Medicine, 10 689-692 (2009) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00629.x
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2009Bogduk N, 'Jayantilal Govind MB, ChB, DPH, MMed (Pain Med), FAFOM, FAFMM [in memoriam]', Pain Medicine, 10 1159-1160 (2009) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00695.x
2009Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Govind J, 'A narrative review of lumbar medial branch neurotomy for the treatment of back pain', Pain Medicine, 10 1035-1045 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00692.x
CitationsScopus - 39Web of Science - 26
2009Kennedy DJ, Dreyfuss P, Aprill CN, Bogduk N, 'Paraplegia following image-guided transforaminal lumbar spine epidural steroid injection: Two case reports', Pain Medicine, 10 1389-1394 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00728.x
CitationsScopus - 77Web of Science - 71
2009Indahl A, Holm SH, Bogduk N, 'Sensory motor control of the spine - A key to low-back pain?', European Musculoskeletal Review, 4 44-47 (2009) [C2]
2009Dreyfuss P, Cohen S, Chen AS, Bohart Z, Bogduk N, 'Is immediate pain relief after a spinal injection procedure enhanced by intravenous sedation?', PM and R, 1 60-63 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.pmrj.2008.10.006
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2009Dreyfuss P, Stout A, Aprill C, Pollei S, Johnson B, Bogduk N, 'The significance of multifidus atrophy after successful radiofrequency neurotomy for low back pain', PM and R, 1 719-722 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.05.014
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2009Cohen S, Bogduk N, Dragovich A, Buckenmaier C, Griffith S, Kurihara C, et al., 'Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response, and preclinical safety study of transforaminal epidural etanercept for the treatment of sciatica', Anesthesiology, 110 1116-1126 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181a05aa0
CitationsScopus - 74Web of Science - 65
2009Bogduk N, 'On the definitions and physiology of back pain, referred pain, and radicular pain', Pain, 147 17-19 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2009.08.020
CitationsScopus - 42Web of Science - 36
2009Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Bogduk N, 'Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: A systematic review of the literature', Clinical Journal of Pain, 25 80-89 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1097/AJP.0b013e31817e13b6
CitationsScopus - 71Web of Science - 58
2009Bogduk N, 'On the rational use of diagnostic blocks for spinal pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly, 19 88-100 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1097/WNQ.0b013e3181a32e8b
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 6
2008Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Yin W, Landers M, Hammer M, Aprill C, 'Complications of spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures', Pain Medicine, 9 S11-S34 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00437.x
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 20
2008Yin W, Bogduk N, 'The nature of neck pain in a private pain clinic in the United States', Pain Medicine, 9 196-203 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00369.x
CitationsScopus - 47Web of Science - 47
2008Yin W, Willard F, Dixon T, Bogduk N, 'Ventral innervation of the lateral C1-C2 Joint: An anatomical study', Pain Medicine, 9 1022-1029 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00493.x
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2008Dreyfuss P, Snyder BD, Park K, Willard F, Carreiro J, Bogduk N, 'The ability of single site, single depth sacral lateral branch blocks to anesthetize the sacroiliac joint complex', Pain Medicine, 9 844-850 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00517.x
CitationsScopus - 19Web of Science - 16
2008Bogduk N, 'Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with facet injections and radiofrequency neurotomy', Spine Journal, 8 56-64 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.010
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 40
2008Hadjipavlou AG, Tzermiadianos MN, Bogduk N, Zindrick MR, 'The pathophysiology of disc degeneration: A critical review', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume, 90 1261-1270 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1302/0301-620x.90b10.20910
CitationsScopus - 122Web of Science - 105
2008Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 33 1298 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1097/brs.0b013e3181732a0d
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 6
2008Phillips S, Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 222 151-159 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1243/09544119jeim266
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2007Stewart MJ, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Randomized controlled trial of exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders', Pain, 128 59-68 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2006.08.030
CitationsScopus - 67Web of Science - 55
2007Stewart M, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Responsiveness of pain and disability measures for chronic whiplash', Spine, 32 580-585 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1097/01.brs.0000256380.71056.6d
CitationsScopus - 47Web of Science - 43
2007Mercer SR, Bogduk N, 'Intra-articular inclusions of the elbow joint complex', Clinical Anatomy, 20 668-676 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1002/ca.20467
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2007Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, Spindler MF, McAuley JH, Laslett M, Bogduk N, 'Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain', European Spine Journal, 16 1539-1550 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1007/s00586-007-0391-1
CitationsScopus - 115Web of Science - 92
2007McGuirk BE, Bogduk N, 'Evidence-based care for low back pain in workers eligible for compensation', Occupational Medicine, 57 36-42 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1093/occmed/kql102
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 20
2007Bogduk N, 'Back pain help [3]', Australian Doctor, 25-25 (2007)
2007Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P, 'Chronic Whiplash and Whiplash-associated disorders: An evidence-based approach', Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 15 596-606 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 11
2007Bogduk N, 'Pulsed radiofrequency - Reply', PAIN MEDICINE, 8 390-391 (2007)
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637-2007.00319.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2007Bogduk N, 'In reply to pulsed radiofrequency (Letter)', Pain Medicine, 8 390-391 (2007) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00319.x
2007Bogduk N, 'AAPM and ISIS', Pain Medicine, 8 3 (2007) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00267.x
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2007Cooper G, Bailey BJ, Bogduk N, 'Cervical zygapophysial joint pain maps', Pain Medicine, 8 344-353 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00201.x
CitationsScopus - 36Web of Science - 34
2007King WM, Lau P, Lees R, Bogduk N, 'The validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain', Spine Journal, 7 22-26 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.spinee.2006.07.009
CitationsScopus - 45Web of Science - 33
2007Bogduk N, 'In defense of King et al.: The validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain', The Spine Journal, 7 749-752 (2007) [C3]
2007Bogduk N, 'REMOVED: In defense of King et al.: the validity of manual examination in assessing patients with neck pain.', The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society, (2007)
DOI10.1016/j.spinee.2007.06.007
2007Bogduk N, 'Outcome Research (Editorial)', Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 30 333-334 (2007) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.04.010
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2006Bogduk N, 'Chapter 52 Chronic low back pain', Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 81 779-790 (2006)
DOI10.1016/S0072-9752(06)80056-4
2006Bogduk N, 'Chapter 53 Whiplash injury', Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 81 791-801 (2006)
DOI10.1016/S0072-9752(06)80057-6
CitationsScopus - 3
2006Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 31 (2006)
DOI10.1097/01.brs.0000236892.47925.fd
CitationsScopus - 1
2006Bogduk N, 'Prognostic factors associated with minimal improvement following acute whiplash-associated disorders - Point of view', Spine, 31 E766-E766 (2006) [C3]
2006Bogduk N, 'Whiplash can have lesions', Pain Research and Management, 11 155 (2006) [C3]
2006Bogduk N, 'Pulsed radiofrequency', Pain Medicine, 7 396-407 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00210.x
CitationsScopus - 59Web of Science - 40
2006Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Bogduk N, 'Comparative effectiveness of cervical transforaminal injections with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroid preparations for cervical radicular pain', Pain Medicine, 7 237-242 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00162.x
CitationsScopus - 81Web of Science - 65
2006Bogduk N, 'Lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy (Letter)', Clinical Journal of Pain, 22 409-409 (2006) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 13
2006Bogduk N, 'Psychology and low back pain', International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 9 49-53 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.ijosm.2005.11.005
CitationsScopus - 6
2006Bogduk N, 'Mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain', Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine, 28 113-124 (2006) [C1]
2006Eichenberger U, Greher M, Kapral S, Marhofer P, Wiest R, Remonda L, et al., 'Sonographic visualization and utlrasound-guided block of the third occipital nerve - Prospective for a new method to diagnose C2-C3 zygapophysial joint pain', Anesthesiology, 104 303-308 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1097/00000542-200602000-00016
CitationsScopus - 63Web of Science - 47
2005Stovner LJ, Kolstad F, Heide G, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency denervation treatment for cervicogenic headache [1] (multiple letters)', Cephalalgia, 25 759-760 (2005)
DOI10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00931a.x
CitationsScopus - 2
2005Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Back and Neck Pain', Continuum: Lifelong learning in Neurology, 11 94-136 (2005) [C2]
2005Bogduk N, Lau P, Govind J, Karasek M, 'Intradiscal electrothermal therapy', Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management, 9 25-34 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1053/j.trap.2005.01.002
CitationsScopus - 11
2005Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency denervation treatment for cervicogenic headache - Reply', Cephalalgia, 25 760-760 (2005) [C3]
2005Derby R, Lee SH, Kim BJ, Chen Y, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Pressure-controlled lumbar discography in volunteers without low back symptoms', PAIN MEDICINE, 6 213-221 (2005)
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.05034.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 77Web of Science - 51
2005Bogduk N, 'Diagnosing lumbar zygapophysial joint pain', Pain Medicine, 6 139-142 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.05023.x
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 11
2005Bogduk N, 'A narrative review of intra-articular corticosteroid injections for low back pain', Pain Medicine, 6 287-296 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2005.00048.x
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 31
2005Schneider G, Pearcy MJ, Bogduk N, 'Abnormal motion in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis', Spine, 30 1159-1164 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1097/01.brs.0000162400.06685.37
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 15
2005Schneider G, J PM, Bogduk N, 'Re: Schneider G, Pearcy MJ, Bogduk N. Abnormal motion in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Spine 2005; 30: 1159-64. Response (letter)', Spine, 30 2474-2475 (2005) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 3
2005Bogduk N, 'Distinguishing Primary Headache Disorders from Cervicogenic Headache: Clinical and Therapeutic Implications', Headache Currents, 2 27-36 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1743-5013.2005.20204.x
CitationsScopus - 10
2005Spearing N, March L, Bellamy N, Bogduk N, Brooks PM, 'Management of acute musculoskeletal pain', International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 8 5-15 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1479-8077.2005.00114.x
CitationsScopus - 3
2004Rathmell JP, Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'Cervical transforaminal injection of steroids', Anesthesiology, 100 1595-1600 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1097/00000542-200406000-00035
CitationsScopus - 147Web of Science - 106
2004Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain - Reply', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 180 543-544 (2004)
Author URL
2004Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain - Reply', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 181 55-56 (2004)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2004Elder DS, Salmon J, Hilyard A, Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain (multiple letters) [5]', Medical Journal of Australia, 180 542-544 (2004)
2004Wenban AB, Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain (multiple letters) [2]', Medical Journal of Australia, 181 55-55 (2004)
2004Bogduk N, 'Management of chronic low back pain', Medical Journal of Australia, 180 79-83 (2004) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 77Web of Science - 52
2004Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery and diagnosing the level of nerve root pathology: comments on Baker et al., Pain 103/1-2, 2003 - Reply', PAIN, 109 527-528 (2004)
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2004.02.003Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2004Cohen SP, Larkin TM, Carragee E, Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery and diagnosing the level of nerve root pathology: Comments on Baker et al., Pain 103/1-2, 2003 [4] (multiple letters)', Pain, 109 526-528 (2004)
DOI10.1016/j.pain.2004.03.011
CitationsScopus - 1
2004Bogduk N, Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, 'In response to Larkin, Carragee and Cohen letter 'Transforaminal epidural steroid delivery...'', Pain, 109 527-528 (2004) [C3]
2004Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic headache', Cephalalgia, 24 819-820 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00774.x
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 2
2004Yelland MJ, Glasziou PP, Bogduk N, Schluter PJ, McKernon M, 'Prolotherapy injections, saline injections, and exercises for chronic low-back pain: A randomized trial', Spine, 29 9-16 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1097/01.BRS.0000105529.07222.5B
CitationsScopus - 89Web of Science - 64
2004Bogduk N, 'The neck and headaches', Neurologic Clinics, 22 151-171 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0733-8619(03)00100-2
CitationsScopus - 60Web of Science - 37
2004Bogduk N, 'Diagnostics Blocks: A Truth Serum for Malingering', The Clinical Journal of Pain, 20 409-414 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1097/00002508-200411000-00005
CitationsScopus - 24Web of Science - 13
2004Bogduk N, 'Pharmacological alternatives for the allevation of back pain', Expert opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 5 2091-2098 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1517/14656566.5.10.2091
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 10
2004Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Temporary neurologic deficit after cervical transforaminal injection of local anesthetic', Pain Medicine, 5(2) 202-205 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2004.04028.x
CitationsScopus - 93Web of Science - 69
2004Lau P, Mercer S, Govind J, Bogduk N, 'The Surgical Anatomy of Lumbar Medial Branch Neurotomy (Facet Denervation)', Pain Medicine, 5 289-298 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1526-4637.2004.04042.x
CitationsScopus - 61Web of Science - 42
2004Pauza KJ, Howell S, Dreyfuss P, Peloza JH, Dawson K, Bogduk N, 'A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal therapy for the treatment of discogenic low back pain', The Spine Journal, 4 27-35 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.spinee.2003.07.001
CitationsScopus - 199
2004Bogduk N, 'Commentary: Difficulties inherent in the interpretation and performance of randomized controlled clinical trials', The Spine Journal, 4 245-247 (2004) [C3]
2004Bogduk N, 'Role of Anesthesiologic Blockade in Headache Management', Current Pain and Headache Reports, 8 399-403 (2004) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 14
2003Stewart MJ, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Bogduk N, Nicholas M, 'Advice or exercise for chronic whiplash disorders? Design of a randomized controlled trial', BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, 4 (2003)
DOI10.1186/1471-2474-4-18Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 11
2003Bogduk N, Govind J, King W, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy - Reply', JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 74 1165-1165 (2003)
Author URL
2003Kwan O, Friel J, Bogduk N, Govind J, King W, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy [10] (multiple letters)', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74 1164-1165 (2003)
DOI10.1136/jnnp.74.8.1164
2003Govind J, King WM, Bailey B, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of third occipital headache', Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74 88-93 (2003)
DOI10.1136/jnnp.74.1.88
CitationsScopus - 88Web of Science - 65
2003Jackson C, Broadhurst N, Bogduk N, 'An audit of the use of epidural injections for back pain and sciatica', Australian Health Review, 26 34-41 (2003) [C1]
2003Baker R, Dreyfuss P, Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Cervical transforaminal injection of corticosteroids into radicular artery: a possible mechanism for spinal cord injury', Pain, 103 211-215 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00343-3
CitationsScopus - 167Web of Science - 117
2003Mercer SR, Bogduk N, 'Clinical Anatomy of Ligamentum Nuchae', Clinical Anatomy, 16 484-493 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1002/ca.10121
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 7
2003Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 14 455-472 (2003)

This article carefully itemizes the various anatomic structures that can evoke neck pain, putting in perspective what clinicians know, what they assume, and what they need to understand better about neck pain and pain referred from the neck. The critique of many of the accepted entities in the differential diagnosis of neck pain is crucial to an understanding of the causes of neck pain and an ability to implement appropriate therapies.

DOI10.1016/S1047-9651(03)00041-X
CitationsScopus - 47
2002Chapuis P, Bokey L, Fahrer M, Sinclair G, Bogduk N, 'Mobilization of the Rectum. Anatomic Concepts and the Bookshelf Revisited', Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 45 [1] 1-9 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 42Web of Science - 36
2002April C, Axinn M, Bogduk N, 'Occipital headaches stemming from the atlanto-axial [C1-2] joint', Cephalalgia, 22 15-22 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 77Web of Science - 47
2002Bogduk N, McGuirk B, King W, Govind J, 'Re: Safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute low back pain in primary care (Spine 2001;26 : 2615-22). Response', SPINE, 27 1593-1594 (2002)
DOI10.1097/00007632-200207150-00031Author URL
2002Bogduk N, 'Point of view', SPINE, 27 1895-1895 (2002)
DOI10.1097/01.BRS.0000025717.39456.48Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6
2002Bogduk N, 'Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents - A systematic review - Point of view', SPINE, 27 1940-1941 (2002)
DOI10.1097/01.BRS.0000025640.67998.DCAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
2002Bogduk N, 'Point of view', Spine, 27 1940-1941 (2002)
DOI10.1097/00007632-200209010-00024
CitationsScopus - 2
2002Bogduk N, 'Point of View re: Outcome of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as perceived by patients treated for dominant axial - mechanical cervical spine pain', Spine, 27 1895 (2002) [C3]
2002Bogduk N, 'Point of View re: Cervical Spine Lesions after Road Traffic Accidents: A systematic review', Spine, 27 1940-1941 (2002) [C3]
2002Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency Procedures in Chronic Pain', Best Practice & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 16[4] 597-617 (2002) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 29
2002Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic Nerve Blocks in Chronic Pain', Best Practice & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 16[4] 565-578 (2002) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 26
2002Bogduk N, 'Etiologies of failed back surgery syndrome', PAIN MEDICINE, 3 215-215 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.1526-4637.2002.02037.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2002Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'Two year follow-up of a controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for chronic low back pain resulting from internal disc disruption', The Spine Journal, 2 343-350 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 71
2002Bogduk N, 'Radiofrequency Treatment in Australia', Pain Practice, 2 180-182 (2002) [C3]
2002Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Morphologie du disque cervical adulte', Medecine Vertebrale, 6 10-12 (2002) [C3]
2002Bogduk N, 'Que met-an dans un nom? Etiqueter le mal de dos', Medicine Vertebrale, 5 3 (2002) [C3]
2002Bogduk N, 'In defense of radiofrequency neurotomy', REGIONAL ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MEDICINE, 27 439-441 (2002)
DOI10.1053/rapm.2002.33280Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 7
2002Bogduk N, Geurts JWM, Van Wijk RMAW, Stolker R, Groen GJ, Carr DB, Goudas LC, 'In defense of radiofrequency neurotomy [1] (multiple letters)', Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27 439-442 (2002)
CitationsScopus - 16
2002Bogduk N, 'Manual therapy produces greater relief of neck pain than physiotherapy or general practitioner care', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOTHERAPY, 48 240-240 (2002)
Author URL
2001Bogduk N, 'Book Review Fabric of the Human Body. Book II: Ligaments & Muscles. by Andreas Vesalius. ed Richardson WF: Norman Publishing, San Fransisco 1999', Australian & New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 71 no3 197 (2001) [C3]
2001Bogduk N, 'Untitled - Reply', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 16 932-933 (2001)
DOI10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00094-8Author URL
2001Bogduk N, Yoganandan N, 'Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: minor injuries', Clinical Biomechanics, 16 262-275 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 90Web of Science - 68
2001Bogduk N, 'Beyond Evidence Based Practice - Guest Editorial', New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy, 29 no3 3,5, (2001) [C2]
2001McGuirk BE, King WM, Govind J, Lowry JF, Bogduk N, 'Safety, Efficacy, and Cost Effectiveness of Evidence-based Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care', Spine, 26 2615-2622 (2001) [C1]
DOI10.1097/00007632-200112010-00017
CitationsScopus - 117Web of Science - 82
2001Bogduk N, 'Art macabre: Is anatomy necessary?', ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 71 782-782 (2001)
DOI10.1046/j.1445-1433.2001.02279.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 9
2000Bogduk N, '"What's in a Name? The Labelling of Back Pain"', Medical Journal of Australia, 173 no 8 400-401 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 11
2000Bogduk N, Mercer S, 'Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine. I: Normal Kinematics', Clinical Biomechanics, 15 633-648 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 181Web of Science - 157
2000Bogduk N, 'Cervical discography: Clinical implications from 12 years of experience - Point of view', SPINE, 25 1389-1389 (2000)
Author URL
2000Bogduk N, Mercer S, 'Re: The ligaments and annulus fibrosus of human adult cervical intervertebral discs (Spine 1999;24 : 619-28). Response', SPINE, 25 1867-1867 (2000)
DOI10.1097/00007632-200007150-00024Author URL
2000Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Twelve-Month Followup of a Controlled Trial of Intradiscal Thermal Anuloplasty for Back Pain Due to Internal Disc Disruption', Spine, 25 no20 2601-2607 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 148Web of Science - 87
2000Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Pauza K, Joshi A, McLarty J, Bogduk N, 'Efficacy and Validity of Radiofrequency Neurotomy for Chronic Lumbar Zygapophysial Joint Pain', Spine, 25 no 10 1270-1277 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 264
2000Bogduk N, 'CT-guided intraarticular injection of the sacroiliac joint', JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS, 13 365-365 (2000)
DOI10.1097/00002517-200008000-00016Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2000Gibson T, Bogduk N, MacPherson JG, McIntosh A, 'Crash Characteristics of Whiplash Associated Chronic Neck Pain', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 8 no1/2 87-95 (2000) [C1]
CitationsWeb of Science - 13
2000Bogduk N, 'Whiplash "Why Pay for What Does Not Work"', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 8 no1/2 29-53 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 3
2000Bogduk N, Holmes S, 'Controlled Zygapophysial Joint Blocks: The Travesty of Cost Effevtiveness', Pain Medicine, 1 no 1 24-34 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 32
2000Bogduk N, 'Epidemiology of whiplash', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 59 394-395 (2000)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2000Bogduk N, 'Letter in response to "Epidemiology of Whiplash: an International dilemma" Ferrari R & Russell A Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1999 v58 1-5', Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 59 no 5 394 (2000) [C3]
2000Bogduk N, Teasell R, 'Whiplash The evidence for an Organic Etiology', Archives of Neurology, 57 590-591 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 22
1999McDonald G, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain', Neurosurgery, 45 No. 1 61-68 (1999) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 153Web of Science - 89
1999Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Reply to Kendall et al., Pain, 73 (1997) 15-22', PAIN, 81 323-325 (1999)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 5
1999Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Letters to the editor: Reply to Kendall et. al., PAIN, 73 (1997) 15-22', Pain, 81 323-325 (1999)
DOI10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00066-4
CitationsScopus - 2
1999Wallis BJ, Lord S, Bogduk N, 'Reply to Kendall et al', Pain, 81 No. 3 323 (1999) [C3]
1999Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 24 308-308 (1999)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199902010-00029Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1999Bogduk N, 'Motion analysis of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading - Points of view', SPINE, 24 770-770 (1999)
Author URL
1999Bogduk N, Lu J, Ebraheim NA, 'Letter to the editor [3] (multiple letters)', Spine, 24 308-308 (1999)
CitationsScopus - 2
1999Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'The ligaments and anulus fibrosus of human adult cervical intervertebral discs', Spine, 24 No. 7 619-626 (1999) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 78Web of Science - 67
1999Bogduk N, 'Point of view on motion analysis of cervical vertebrae during whiplash loading', Spine, 24 No. 8 770 (1999) [C3]
1999Bogduk N, 'C2 Nerve Root Ganglion', Spine, 24 No. 3 308 (1999) [C3]
1999Bogduk N, Broadhurst N, Bond M, 'Pain provocation tests for the assessment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction (multiple letters)', Journal of Spinal Disorders, 12 357-358 (1999)
CitationsScopus - 6
1999Bogduk N, 'Pain Provocation Tests for the Assessment of Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction', Journal of Spinal Disorders, 12 No. 4 357 (1999) [C3]
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1999Bogduk N, 'Who let the cat out of the bag', Pain Research and Management, 4 No. 3 119-120 (1999) [C3]
1999Bogduk N, 'Regional musculoskeletal pain. The neck.', Bailliere's best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology, 13 261-285 (1999)
DOI10.1053/berh.1999.0020
1998Lord SM, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N, 'Side-effects and complications of cervical percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy - An audit of 83 procedures', Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 26 322-323 (1998)
1998Bogduk N, 'Predictive signs of discogenic lumbar pain on magnetic resonance imaging with discography correlation - Point of view', SPINE, 23 1259-1260 (1998)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199806010-00017Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 10
1998Wallis BJ, Lord S, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'The psychological profiles of patients with whiplash-associated headache', Cephalalgia, 18 No. 2 101-105 (1998) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 33Web of Science - 26
1998Bogduk N, 'Physical therapy: a role in migraine?', Cephalalgia, Vol. 18 No. 5 242 (1998) [C3]
1998Bogduk N, Johnson G, Spalding DA, 'The morphology and biomechanics of latissimus dorsi', Clinical Biomechanics, 13 No. 6 377-385 (1998) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 67Web of Science - 50
1998Kaplan M, Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Bogduk N, 'The ability of lumbar medial branch blocks to anesthetise the zygapophysial joint', Spine, 23 1847-1852 (1998) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 143Web of Science - 81
1998Bogduk N, 'Point of view on imaging for signs of discogenic lumbar pain', Spine, Vol. 23 No. 11 1259-1260 (1998) [C3]
1998Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: Intensive training, physiotherapy,or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 127-130 (1998) [C3]
1998Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: Acute treatment of whiplash neck sprains: a randomized trial of treatment during the first 14 days after a car accident', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 123-126 (1998) [C3]
1998Bogduk N, 'Commentary on: A population-based, randomized clinical trial on back pain management', The Pain Medicine Journal Club Journal, Vol. 4 No. 3 131-134 (1998) [C3]
1997Bogduk N, 'The College as an educational institution', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 67 679-681 (1997)
DOI10.1111/j.1445-2197.1997.tb07107.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1997Bogduk N, 'Four times tables.', The Australian journal of physiotherapy, 43 290-291 (1997)
1997Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Treatment of chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain - Reply', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 336 1531-1531 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1997Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial', PAIN, 73 15-22 (1997)
DOI10.1016/S0304-3959(97)00060-2Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 117
1997Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 22 114-115 (1997) [J2]
DOI10.1097/00007632-199701010-00021Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1997Dreyfuss P, Schwarzer AC, Lau P, Bogduk N, 'Specificity of lumbar medial branch and L5 dorsal ramus blocks - A computed tomography study', SPINE, 22 895-902 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 158Web of Science - 98
1997Bogduk N, Lord S, Barnsley L, 'Untitled - Response', SPINE, 22 1420-1421 (1997)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199706150-00028Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1997Latham JM, Fraser RD, Moore RJ, Blumbergs PC, Bogduk N, 'The pathologic effects of intrathecal betamethasone', SPINE, 22 1558-1562 (1997)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199707150-00004Author URL
CitationsScopus - 64Web of Science - 34
1997Bogduk N, 'Groin pain associated with lower lumbar disc herniation - Point of view', SPINE, 22 1740-1740 (1997)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199708010-00011Author URL
1997Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'Letter to the editor: Pain and psychological symptoms of Australian patients with whiplash [2]', Spine, 22 114-115 (1997)
CitationsScopus - 4
1996Bogduk N, 'Issues in anatomy: The external anal sphincter revisited', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 66 626-629 (1996)
DOI10.1111/j.1445-2197.1996.tb00834.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 12
1996Johnson GR, Spalding D, Nowitzke A, Bogduk N, 'Modelling the muscles of the scapula morphometric and coordinate data and functional implications', JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, 29 1039-1051 (1996)
DOI10.1016/0021-9290(95)00176-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 55Web of Science - 54
1996Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N, 'Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 335 1721-1726 (1996)
DOI10.1056/NEJM199612053352302Author URL
CitationsScopus - 465Web of Science - 331
1996Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Faking a profile: Can naive subjects simulate whiplash responses?', PAIN, 66 223-227 (1996)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(96)03044-8Author URL
CitationsScopus - 50Web of Science - 39
1996Bogduk N, 'Untitled', SPINE, 21 150-151 (1996)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1996Bogduk N, Modic MT, 'Controversy - Lumbar discography - Pro', SPINE, 21 402-403 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199602010-00031Author URL
CitationsScopus - 70Web of Science - 60
1996Schwarzer A, Bogduk N, 'Untitled - Response', SPINE, 21 776-777 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199603150-00028Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 6
1996Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Pain and psychologic symptoms of Australian patients with whiplash', SPINE, 21 804-810 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199604010-00006Author URL
CitationsScopus - 36Web of Science - 32
1996Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash - A placebo-controlled prevalence study', SPINE, 21 1737-1744 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199608010-00005Author URL
CitationsScopus - 345Web of Science - 242
1996Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, McLarty J, Bogduk N, 'The value of medical history and physical examination in diagnosing sacroiliac joint pain', SPINE, 21 2594-2602 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199611150-00009Author URL
CitationsScopus - 274Web of Science - 213
1996Bogduk N, Modic MT, 'Lumbar discography.', Spine, 21 402-404 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199602010-00031
1996Bogduk N, 'Assessing a new procedure: Thoracic radiofrequency dorsal root ganglion lesions', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 12 76-77 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00002508-199603000-00014Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
1996Bogduk N, 'The argument for discography', NEUROSURGERY QUARTERLY, 6 152-153 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00013414-199606000-00008Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
1996Lord SM, Bogduk N, 'The cervical synovial joints as sources of post-traumatic headache', Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 4 81-94 (1996)

Objectives: To describe recent research which elucidates the role of the cervical synovial joints as sources of pain in patients with post-traumatic headache. Findings: Recent research has demonstrated that the cervical synovial joints are innervated and that they can be potent sources of neck pain and headache if stimulated in normal subjects or if injured in patients. Postmortem studies of injured joints have revealed chondral and subchondral fractures, braising/damage of the intra-articular inclusions, hemarthroses and capsular tears or avulsions. These acute lesions constitute the substrate for the development of post-traumatic arthritis and, consequently, chronic post-traumatic headache. Such lesions evade detection by conventional diagnostic techniques. However, the advent of innovative diagnostic approaches, including manipulative assessment, biomechanical analysis and controlled diagnostic injection techniques, has allowed the identification of painful cervical synovial joints in vivo. Using these diagnostic techniques, epidemiological studies have shown that the cervical zygapophysial joints [in particular C2-3] are common sources of post-traumatic headache. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that cervical synovial joint pain is a real and common clinical entity. Controlled diagnostic blocks are the only reliable means whereby this condition can be identified. Controlled blocks provide a criterion standard against which other diagnostic techniques could be calibrated in the future.

DOI10.1300/J094v04n04_08
CitationsScopus - 9
1995BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - REPLY', PAIN, 61 490-491 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(95)90009-8Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1995Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, Aprill C, 'Phantom or central neuropathic pain? Reply', PAIN, 63 395-396 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(95)90043-8Author URL
1995Bogduk N, 'Reply to J. Hancock', Pain, 61 490-491 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(95)90009-8
1995Bogduk N, Schwarzer A, Aprill C, 'Reply to P. Graziotti and R. Goucke', Pain, 63 395-396 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(95)90043-8
1995HINDERAKER J, LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF C2-3 INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION IN PATIENTS WITH HEADACHE OF CERVICAL ORIGIN', CEPHALALGIA, 15 391-395 (1995)
DOI10.1046/j.1468-2982.1995.1505391.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 6
1995BARNSLEY L, LORD SM, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, 'THE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN AFTER WHIPLASH', SPINE, 20 20-25 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199501000-00004Author URL
CitationsScopus - 331Web of Science - 246
1995SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, BOGDUK N, 'THE SACROILIAC JOINT IN CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 31-37 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199501000-00007Author URL
CitationsScopus - 417Web of Science - 284
1995BOGDUK N, 'SPINE UPDATE EPIDURAL STEROIDS', SPINE, 20 845-848 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199504000-00021Author URL
CitationsScopus - 75Web of Science - 60
1995SCHWARZER AC, WANG SC, ODRISCOLL D, HARRINGTON T, BOGDUK N, LAURENT R, 'THE ABILITY OF COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY TO IDENTIFY A PAINFUL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 907-912 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199504150-00005Author URL
CitationsScopus - 166Web of Science - 95
1995BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - RESPONSE', SPINE, 20 975-975 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199504150-00019Author URL
1995SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL-FEATURES OF INTERNAL DISC DISRUPTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 20 1878-1883 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199509000-00007Author URL
CitationsScopus - 370Web of Science - 242
1995BOGDUK N, 'UNTITLED - RESPONSE', SPINE, 20 2173-2173 (1995)
Author URL
1995Bogduk N, 'Epidural steroids.', Spine, 20 845-848 (1995)
1995LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'THE UTILITY OF COMPARATIVE LOCAL-ANESTHETIC BLOCKS VERSUS PLACEBO-CONTROLLED BLOCKS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 11 208-213 (1995)
DOI10.1097/00002508-199509000-00008Author URL
CitationsScopus - 171Web of Science - 126
1995Bogduk N, 'Anatomy and physiology of headache', BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 49 435-445 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0753-3322(96)82687-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 12
1995Bogduk N, Amevo B, Pearcy M, 'Biological basis for instantaneous centres of rotation of the vertebral column', Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 209 (1995)

The instantaneous centre of rotation has proven to be a useful parameter of vertebral motion. The normal location of instantaneous centres has been determined in cadavers and in normal volunteers for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spines, and abnormal location of centres has been shown to correlate with spinal pain. However, to date, an instantaneous centre has constituted no more than a convenient mathematical summary of vertebral kinematics. It has defied resolution into biologically meaningful parameters. This study offers a novel model of vertebral motion in which the instantaneous centre of rotation can be shown to be a function of the location of the centre of reaction of a vertebra, and the intrinsic rotation and translation it undergoes. These parameters are strictly linked by equations that determine the location of an axis of rotation. These equations allow aberrations in the location of an axis to be interpreted in terms of the anatomical and pathological factors that affect the centre of reaction of the vertebra and the rotation and translation it undergoes.

CitationsScopus - 27
1995CHUA WH, BOGDUK N, 'THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THORACIC FACET DENERVATION', ACTA NEUROCHIRURGICA, 136 140-144 (1995)
DOI10.1007/BF01410616Author URL
CitationsScopus - 54Web of Science - 26
1995SCHWARZER AC, WANG SC, BOGDUK N, MCNAUGHT PJ, LAURENT R, 'PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL-FEATURES OF LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A STUDY IN AN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION WITH CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 54 100-106 (1995)
DOI10.1136/ard.54.2.100Author URL
CitationsScopus - 234Web of Science - 147
1995LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, BOGDUK N, 'PERCUTANEOUS RADIOFREQUENCY NEUROTOMY IN THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A CAUTION', NEUROSURGERY, 36 732-739 (1995)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 113Web of Science - 81
1995Bogduk N, 'The anatomical basis for spinal pain syndromes', JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS, 18 603-605 (1995)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 63Web of Science - 50
1994LORD SM, BARNSLEY L, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, '3RD OCCIPITAL NERVE HEADACHE - A PREVALENCE STUDY', JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, 57 1187-1190 (1994)
DOI10.1136/jnnp.57.10.1187Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 100
1994Lord SM, Barmsley L, Wallis BJ, Bogduk N, 'Third occipital nerve headache: A prevalence study', Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57 1187-1190 (1994)

A consecutive series of 100 patients was studied to determine the prevalence of third occipital nerve headache in patients with chronic neck pain (> three months in duration) after whiplash. Seventy one patients complained of headache associated with their neck pain. Headache was the dominant complaint of 40 patients, but was only a secondary problem for the other 31. Each patient with headache underwent double blind, controlled diagnostic blocks of the third occipital nerve. On two separate occasions the nerve was blocked with either lignocaine or bupivacaine, in random order. The diagnosis of third occipital nerve headache was made only if both blocks completely relieved the patient's upper neck pain and headache and the relief lasted longer with bupivacaine. The prevalence of third occipital nerve headache among all 100 whiplash patients was 27% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 18-36%) and among those with dominant headache the prevalence was as high as 53% (95% CI 37-68%). There were no distinguishing features on history or examination that enabled a definitive diagnosis to be made before the nerve blocks. Those patients with a positive diagnosis, however, were significantly more likely to be tender over the C2-3 zygapophysial joint (p = 0-01). Third occipital nerve headache is a common condition in patients with chronic neck pain and headache after whiplash. Third occipital nerve blocks are essential to make this diagnosis.

DOI10.1136/jnnp.57.10.1187
CitationsScopus - 141
1994BARNSLEY L, LORD SM, WALLIS BJ, BOGDUK N, 'LACK OF EFFECT OF INTRAARTICULAR CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR CHRONIC PAIN IN THE CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 330 1047-1050 (1994)
DOI10.1056/NEJM199404143301504Author URL
CitationsScopus - 148Web of Science - 113
1994JOHNSON G, BOGDUK N, NOWITZKE A, HOUSE D, 'ANATOMY AND ACTIONS OF THE TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 9 44-50 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0268-0033(94)90057-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 108Web of Science - 90
1994NOWITZKE A, WESTAWAY M, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINTS - GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS AND RELATIONSHIP TO CERVICAL KINEMATICS', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 9 342-348 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0268-0033(94)90063-9Author URL
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 9
1994Bogduk N, 'Post whiplash syndrome.', Australian family physician, 23 2303-2307 (1994)

Whiplash is a poorly understood problem that attracts accusations of malingering and compensation neurosis. Recent research has revealed a variety of occult lesions that can be responsible for the chronic pain and suffering after whiplash; however, appropriate diagnostic techniques are still either lacking or not widely used. While there are reasonable options for acute management there is no proven therapy for the chronic situation.

CitationsScopus - 16
1994SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE FALSE-POSITIVE RATE OF UNCONTROLLED DIAGNOSTIC BLOCKS OF THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS', PAIN, 58 195-200 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(94)90199-6Author URL
CitationsScopus - 235Web of Science - 168
1994BARNSLEY L, LORD S, BOGDUK N, 'WHIPLASH INJURY', PAIN, 58 283-307 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(94)90123-6Author URL
CitationsScopus - 353Web of Science - 277
1994SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE DISC AND ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT IN CHRONIC LOW-BACK-PAIN', SPINE, 19 801-806 (1994)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199404000-00013Author URL
CitationsScopus - 241Web of Science - 154
1994SCHWARZER AC, APRILL CN, DERBY R, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'CLINICAL-FEATURES OF PATIENTS WITH PAIN STEMMING FROM THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS - IS THE LUMBAR FACET SYNDROME A CLINICAL ENTITY', SPINE, 19 1132-1137 (1994)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199405001-00006Author URL
CitationsScopus - 329Web of Science - 215
1994SCHWARZER AC, DERBY R, APRILL CN, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'THE VALUE OF THE PROVOCATION RESPONSE IN LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT INJECTIONS', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 10 309-313 (1994)
DOI10.1097/00002508-199412000-00011Author URL
CitationsScopus - 84Web of Science - 42
1994SCHWARZER AC, DERBY R, APRILL CN, FORTIN J, KINE G, BOGDUK N, 'PAIN FROM THE LUMBAR ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS - A TEST OF 2 MODELS', JOURNAL OF SPINAL DISORDERS, 7 331-336 (1994)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 84Web of Science - 47
1994Bogduk N, 'Diskography', APS Journal, 3 149-154 (1994)

Lumbar diskography is not a test for disk herniation. It is a test for intrinsically painful, externally intact disks and so does not compete with computed tomography as a diagnostic instrument. Formal studies have shown that the lumbar disks are innervated and can be a source of pain that has pathomorphologic correlates. The biological basis for lumbar diskography, therefore, resists criticism. Cervical diskography, however, lacks the same biological basis and remains open to criticism. Utility is the weak point of both lumbar and cervical diskography. Although both provide diagnostic information, it remains to be shown that this information makes a difference to outcome when treatment is direct to the ostensibly painful disk. © 1994 American Pain Society.

DOI10.1016/S1058-9139(05)80308-0
CitationsScopus - 14
1994Bogduk N, 'Rebuttal', APS Journal, 3 166-167 (1994)
DOI10.1016/S1058-9139(05)80313-4
1993MACINTOSH JE, PEARCY MJ, BOGDUK N, 'THE AXIAL TORQUE OF THE LUMBAR BACK MUSCLES - TORSION STRENGTH OF THE BACK MUSCLES', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 63 205-212 (1993)
DOI10.1111/j.1445-2197.1993.tb00520.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 18Web of Science - 13
1993Barnsley L, Bogduk N, 'Medial branch blocks are specific for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain', Regional Anesthesia, 18 343-350 (1993)

Background and Objectives. To determine the specificity of cervical medial branch blocks for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain by ascertaining the disposition of the local anesthetic after injection of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami. Methods. Sixteen consecutive patients with chronic neck pain from motor vehicle accidents underwent cervical medial branch blocks. A 22-gauge, 90-mm spinal needle was placed onto the target nerve under image-intensifier guidance. Immediately after each target nerve had been infiltrated with 0.5 ml of local anesthetic, 0.5 ml of contrast medium was injected to map the spread of injectate. Radiographs were recorded to document the pattern of spread. Results. Twenty-five injections of local anesthetic and contrast medium were performed. Contrast medium dispersed in characteristic patterns at all vertebral levels and always incorporated at least 5 mm of the perceived course of the target nerve. There was never any spread to the ventral ramus, beyond the medial fibers of semispinalis capitis or to the adjacent medial branches. No other single structure was consistently within the field of the contrast. Eleven patients obtained complete or definite relief of their pain, which could only be attributed to anesthetization of the zygapophyseal joint innervated by the nerves blocked. Conclusions. Local anesthetic blocks of the cervical medial branches are a specific test for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. The local anesthetic always reaches the target nerve and does not affect any other diagnostically important structures. © 1993.

CitationsScopus - 124
1993MERCER S, BOGDUK N, 'INTRAARTICULAR INCLUSIONS OF THE CERVICAL SYNOVIAL JOINTS', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 705-710 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 37Web of Science - 30
1993BARNSLEY L, LORD S, THOMAS P, ALLEN L, SOUTHEE A, BOGDUK N, 'SPECT BONE SCANS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SYMPTOMATIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 52-52 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1993BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN - A PROSPECTIVE PREVALENCE STUDY', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 52-52 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1993BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'A DOUBLE-BLIND, CONTROLLED TRIAL OF INTRAARTICULAR CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR CHRONIC CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 32 53-53 (1993)
Author URL
1993BOGDUK N, APRILL C, 'ON THE NATURE OF NECK PAIN, DISCOGRAPHY AND CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT BLOCKS', PAIN, 54 213-217 (1993)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(93)90211-7Author URL
CitationsScopus - 126Web of Science - 86
1993BARNSLEY L, LORD S, BOGDUK N, 'COMPARATIVE LOCAL-ANESTHETIC BLOCKS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT PAIN', PAIN, 55 99-106 (1993)
DOI10.1016/0304-3959(93)90189-VAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 187Web of Science - 140
1993MACINTOSH JE, BOGDUK N, PEARCY MJ, 'THE EFFECTS OF FLEXION ON THE GEOMETRY AND ACTIONS OF THE LUMBAR ERECTOR SPINAE', SPINE, 18 884-893 (1993)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199306000-00013Author URL
CitationsScopus - 54Web of Science - 42
1993BARNSLEY L, LORD S, WALLIS B, BOGDUK N, 'FALSE-POSITIVE RATES OF CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINT BLOCKS', CLINICAL JOURNAL OF PAIN, 9 124-130 (1993)
DOI10.1097/00002508-199306000-00007Author URL
CitationsScopus - 135Web of Science - 106
1992APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'HIGH-INTENSITY ZONE - A DIAGNOSTIC SIGN OF PAINFUL LUMBAR-DISK ON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY, 65 361-369 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 247
1992BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 151-153 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 10
1992BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 584-584 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1992BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 664-664 (1992)
Author URL
1992BOGDUK N, 'THE CAUSES OF LOW-BACK-PAIN - REPLY', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 157 211-212 (1992)
Author URL
1992Carroll PG, Bogduk N, 'The causes of low back pain [5]', Medical Journal of Australia, 157 211-212 (1992)
1992JOHNSON GR, BUXTON T, HOUSE D, BOGDUK N, 'USE OF UNCALIBRATED BIPLANAR RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SKELETAL COORDINATES AROUND THE SHOULDER GIRDLE', JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 14 490-494 (1992)
DOI10.1016/0141-5425(92)90101-PAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
1992BOGDUK N, 'THE ANATOMICAL BASIS FOR CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE', JOURNAL OF MANIPULATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS, 15 67-70 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 93Web of Science - 64
1992BOGDUK N, PEARCY M, HADFIELD G, 'ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF PSOAS MAJOR', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 7 109-119 (1992)
DOI10.1016/0268-0033(92)90024-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 98Web of Science - 81
1992AMEVO B, APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'ABNORMAL INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION IN PATIENTS WITH NECK PAIN', SPINE, 17 748-756 (1992)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199207000-00004Author URL
CitationsScopus - 57Web of Science - 39
1992BOGDUK N, MACINTOSH JE, PEARCY MJ, 'A UNIVERSAL MODEL OF THE LUMBAR BACK MUSCLES IN THE UPRIGHT POSITION', SPINE, 17 897-913 (1992)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199208000-00007Author URL
CitationsScopus - 185Web of Science - 152
1992Aprill C, Bogduk N, 'The prevalence of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain: A first approximation', Spine, 17 744-747 (1992)

A null hypothesis was tested to the effect that cervical zygapophyseal joint pain was uncommon. The prospectively recorded responses were reviewed of 318 consecutive patients with intractable neck pain who underwent provocation discography and cervical zygapophyseal joint blocks. Symptomatic zygapophyseal joints were encountered in 25% of the sample with a possibility that a further 38% suffered zygapophyseal pain but were not appropriately investigated. The null hypothesis was rejected. Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain is not rare, and is worthy of further consideration not just in research but in clinical practice.

CitationsScopus - 102
1991AMEVO B, WORTH D, BOGDUK N, 'INSTANTANEOUS AXES OF ROTATION OF THE TYPICAL CERVICAL MOTION SEGMENTS - A STUDY IN NORMAL VOLUNTEERS', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 6 111-117 (1991)
DOI10.1016/0268-0033(91)90008-EAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 50Web of Science - 48
1991Amevo B, Worth D, Bogduk N, 'Instantaneous axes of rotation of the typical cervical motion segments: II. optimization of technical errors', Clinical Biomechanics, 6 38-46 (1991)

The reliability of a modified protocol for plotting the instantaneous axes of sagittal rotation for the cervical spine was evaluated by measuring the observer differences when the process was performed separately by two observers, and by a single observer, on two separate occasions. Small observer differences were found both for individual steps in the process and for the process as a whole. These differences were substantially less than those found using the conventional technique for plotting the instantaneous axes of rotation. The improvement in the technique was resultant from the use of stricter criteria for recognizing and tracing vertebral landmarks. © 1991.

DOI10.1016/0268-0033(91)90040-W
CitationsScopus - 13
1991Amevo B, Macintosh JE, Worth D, Bogduk N, 'Instantaneous axes of rotation of the typical cervical motion segments: I. an empirical study of technical errors', Clinical Biomechanics, 6 31-37 (1991)

The reliability of the conventional technique for determining the instantaneous axes of rotation of the cervical motion segments was evaluated by comparing the determinations made by two observers and the same observer on two separate occasions. Different observers found the same mean location for the instantaneous axis at each segment in a test population of 17 normal subjects, but for any given subject the interobserver and intraobserver differences were large, with a relative variation of up to 35%. Thus, while reliable for determining the mean location of the instantaneous axis of rotation in a population, the technique was not reliable for determining the axis in a given subject. Qualitative analysis suggested that the identification of the radiographic images of the vertebrae and their tracing is the greatest source of error for this technique. © 1991.

DOI10.1016/0268-0033(91)90039-S
CitationsScopus - 18
1991LAMBERT GA, ZAGAMI AS, BOGDUK N, LANCE JW, 'CERVICAL SPINAL-CORD NEURONS RECEIVING SENSORY INPUT FROM THE CRANIAL VASCULATURE', CEPHALALGIA, 11 75-85 (1991)
DOI10.1046/j.1468-2982.1991.1102075.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 43
1991MACINTOSH JE, BOGDUK N, 'THE ATTACHMENTS OF THE LUMBAR ERECTOR SPINAE', SPINE, 16 783-792 (1991)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199107000-00017Author URL
CitationsScopus - 69Web of Science - 55
1991Bogduk N, 'The lumbar disc and low back pain.', Neurosurgery clinics of North America, 2 791-806 (1991)

The lumbar disc serves to sustain compression loads and is subject to tension and shear in forward bending and rotation. Its outer third is innervated and can be a source of pain. The annulus fibrosus may be injured in rotation and flexion of the lumbar spine and may become symptomatic as a ligamentous injury. Compression injuries of the disc are initially asymptomatic but may set in train a degradative process that, in time, leads to internal disc disruption, which becomes symptomatic as a result of chemical or mechanical irritation of nociceptors in the annulus fibrosus. Disc prolapse is but one possible end stage of internal disc disruption and represents the culmination of a series of destructive processes affecting the disc. This condition can be symptomatic while the external appearance of the disc remains normal and before nerve roots are affected in any way.

CitationsScopus - 67
1990DWYER A, APRILL C, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT PAIN PATTERNS .1. A STUDY IN NORMAL VOLUNTEERS', SPINE, 15 453-457 (1990)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 273Web of Science - 191
1990APRILL C, DWYER A, BOGDUK N, 'CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSEAL JOINT PAIN PATTERNS .2. A CLINICAL-EVALUATION', SPINE, 15 458-461 (1990)
DOI10.1097/00007632-199006000-00005Author URL
CitationsScopus - 173Web of Science - 120
1990Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, 'Basic biomechanics pertinent to the study of the lumbar disc', Journal of Manual Medicine, 5 52-57 (1990)
CitationsScopus - 2
1990Bogduk N, 'Pathology of lumbar disc pain', Journal of Manual Medicine, 5 72-79 (1990)

Intervertebral disc herniation is not a common cause of back pain. Rather, the discs can be a source of pain without rupture of herniation. The pathological changes responsible are not those of disc degeneration, as commonly understood, but two specific entities: torsional injury of the annulus fibrosis and compression injuries of the disc. Torsional injuries occur as a result of forceful or excessive rotation combined with flexion and result in circumferential tears in the innervated outer third of the annulus fibrosis. This lesion probably underlies what is commonly interpreted as back pain due to 'ligament strain'. Compression injuries arise as a result of excessive weight-bearing and are initiated by fractures of the vertebral end-plate. Degradation of the nuclear matrix follows, resulting in the condition of internal disc disruption. The nuclear degradation erodes the annulus fibrosis centrifugally and the disc may become symptomatic as a result of chemical and/or mechanical irritation of the nerve endings in the compromised annulus fibrosis. Strong correlations have been established between the reproduction of discogenic pain and the morphology of internal disc disruption as seen on CT discography.

CitationsScopus - 8
1988BOGDUK N, WINDSOR M, INGLIS A, 'THE INNERVATION OF THE CERVICAL INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS', SPINE, 13 2-8 (1988)
DOI10.1097/00007632-198801000-00002Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 60
1988BOGDUK N, MARSLAND A, 'THE CERVICAL ZYGAPOPHYSIAL JOINTS AS A SOURCE OF NECK PAIN', SPINE, 13 610-617 (1988)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 207Web of Science - 171
1987BOGDUK N, 'ANIMAL RESEARCH IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DYSFUNCTION', CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, 2 183-184 (1987)
DOI10.1016/0268-0033(87)90077-5Author URL
1987Macintosh JE, Bogduk N, 'The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae', Spine, 12 658-668 (1987)

The lumbar erector spinae consists of two muscles - iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus thoracis - each with distinct thoracic and lumbar parts. The thoracic parts consist of tiny muscle bellies with segmental origins from the thorax and long caudal tendons that form the erector spinae aponeurosis. The lumbar fibers arise from the lumbar accessory processes and the L1-4 transverse processes, and insert independently of the erector spinae aponeurosis into the ilium. The intrinsic lumbar fibers of the erector spinae are poorly described in the literature, and the existence of the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum has rarely been recognized even though it constitutes a substantial portion of the total muscle mass acting directly on the lumbar vertebrae.

CitationsScopus - 114
1984BOGDUK N, MAJOR GAC, CARTER J, 'LATERAL SUBLUXATION OF THE ATLAS IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS - A CASE-REPORT AND POST-MORTEM STUDY', ANNALS OF THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES, 43 341-346 (1984)
DOI10.1136/ard.43.2.341Author URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 14
1983BOGDUK N, MAJOR GAC, CARTER J, 'LATERAL SUBLUXATION OF THE ATLAS - A POSTMORTEM STUDY', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 13 210-210 (1983)
Author URL
Show 283 more journal articles

Review (35 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2007Bogduk N, 'Attributable effect and number needed to treat', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Bisphosphonates', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis of pain, epidural blocks', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis of pain, neurological examination', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D1]
2007Yin W, Bogduk N, 'Dorsal root ganglion radiofrequency', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Effect size', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Epidural steroid injections', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Vivian D, Bogduk N, 'Fibromyalgia', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Headache', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Intra-articular injections of steroids', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Pauza K, Bogduk N, 'Intradiscal electrothermal therapy', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Johnson M, Bogduk N, 'Local anaesthetics', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Johnson M, Bogduk N, 'Muscle relaxants', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Simple analgesics', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Steroid injections', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Taxonomy', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Whiplash', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D2]
2007Bogduk N, 'Diagnosis and general pain management', Encyclopedia of Pain (2007) [D1]
2003Bogduk N, 'Neck and Arm Pain', Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (2003) [D1]
2003Bogduk N, 'The anatomy and pathophysiology of neck pain', Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America (2003) [D1]
2003Bogduk N, 'Spinal Manipulation for Neck Pain Does Not Work', The Journal of Pain (2003) [D2]
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 1
2002Bogduk N, 'The Physiology of Deep Somatic Pain', Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine (2002) [D1]
2001Bogduk N, 'Complex Regional Pain Syndrome', Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology (2001) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 15
2001Bogduk N, 'Cervicogenic Headache: Anatomic Basis and Pathophysiologic Mechanisms', Current Pain and Headache Reports (2001) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 87
2001Mercer S, Bogduk N, 'Joints of the Cervical Vertebral Column', Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2001) [D1]
CitationsWeb of Science - 14
2001Bogduk N, 'Acute and Chronic Whiplash', SpineLine (2001) [D1]
2001Karasek M, Bogduk N, 'Intradiscal Electrothermal Annuloplasty: Percutaneous Treatment of Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain', Techniques in Regional Anesthesia & Pain Management (2001) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 9
2001Curatolo M, Bogduk N, 'Pharmacologic pain treatment of musculoskeletal disorders: current perspectives and future prospects', The Clinical Journal of Pain (2001) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 55Web of Science - 41
1999Bogduk N, 'The Neck', Bailliere's Best Practice & Research - Clinical Rheumatology. (1999) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 36
1999Bogduk N, 'Management of Low Back Pain', Merck Sharp & Dohme University Program for General Practitioners. Update in The Management of Musculoskeletal Pain. (1999) [D1]
1999Bogduk N, 'Epidural Steroids for Low Back Pain and Sciatica: Executive Summary and Recommnedations of the Working Party of the National Health and Medical Research Council', Pain Digest (1999) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 32
1998Bogduk N, Lord S, 'Cervical Spine Disorders', Current Opinion in Rheumatology (1998) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 22
1998Bogduk N, Lord S, 'Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly (1998) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 51Web of Science - 21
1998Lord S, McDonald G, Bogduk N, 'Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of the cervical medial branches: a validated treatment for cervical zygapophyseal joint pain', Neurosurgery Quarterly (1998) [D1]
CitationsScopus - 38Web of Science - 29
Show 32 more reviews

Conference (16 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2009Govind J, Bogduk N, 'Whiplash: Diagnostic and interventional techniques', Australian Pain Society 29th Annual Scientific Meeting. Conference Booklet, Sydney, NSW (2009) [E3]
2009Bogduk N, West K, 'An audit of outcomes from functional restoration for chronic low back pain', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume, Adelaide, SA (2009) [E3]
2009Gharhreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N, 'Outcomes of minimally-invasive and open posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume, Adelaide, SA (2009) [E3]
2009Gowaily K, Bogduk N, 'A pilot audit of radiofrequency biacuplasty for back pain due to internal disc disruption', Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Volume, Adelaide, SA (2009) [E3]
2007Hancock MJ, Maher C, Latimer J, Spindler MF, McAuley JH, Laslett M, Bogduk N, 'Systematic review of tests to identify the sij, disc or facet joint as the source of low back pain', Physiotherapy (World Physical Therapy 2007 - Abstracts), Vancouver, Canada (2007) [E3]
2005Bogduk N, 'The neck and headache', CEPHALALGIA, Kyoto, JAPAN (2005)
Author URL
2002Bogduk N, 'Intervention Therapy for Back Pain: Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and Treatment, Winnipeg, Manitoba (2002) [E3]
2002Bogduk N, 'Whiplash: mechanisms and treatment', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and Treatment, Winnipeg , Manitoba (2002) [E3]
2002Bogduk N, 'Pain Interventions: assessing effectiveness', Back to the Future: Emerging Ideas on Pain Mechanisms and treatment., Winnipeg, Manitoba (2002) [E3]
2002Bogduk N, 'An overview of the International Congress on Whiplash Associated Disorders', Whiplash Associated Disorders - medical, biomechanical and legal aspects, Berne, Switzerland (2002) [E2]
CitationsScopus - 2
2000Bogduk N, Sneider G, 'A method to secure the accuracy of determination of instantaneous centres of rotation', J Clin Neuroscience 2000 p80, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2000) [E3]
2000Bogduk N, Karasek M, 'A Controlled clinical trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for internal disc disruption', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2000 p76, Coffs Harbour NSW (2000) [E3]
2000Sneider G, Bogduk N, 'Abnormal quality of segment motion, without excess horizontal displacement found in cases of lumbar instability', Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2000 p80, Coffs Harbour NSW (2000) [E3]
1997Bogduk N, 'Musculoskeletal pain: Toward precision diagnosis', PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH WORLD CONGRESS ON PAIN, INT ASSOC STUDY PAIN, VANCOUVER, CANADA (1997)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 9
1996Bogduk N, 'Needle techniques in the diagnosis of low back pain', LOW BACK PAIN: A SCIENTIFIC AND CLINICAL OVERVIEW, SAN DIEGO, CA (1996)
Author URL
1993BOGDUK N, 'SPINAL PAIN - BACKACHE AND NECK PAIN', SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN CLINICAL NEUROLOGY, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
Show 13 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants13
Total funding$8,259,000

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20081 grants / $73,357

Literature reviews in spine medicine$73,357

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding bodyInternational Spine Intervention Society
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189871
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20071 grants / $60,202

Controlled trial of lumbar transforaminal and other injections for radicular pain$60,202

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding bodyInternational Spine Intervention Society
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0187910
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20024 grants / $290,977

A Double-blind controlled trial of Intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for painful internal disc disruption.$156,940

Funding body: Smith & Nephew (formerly Oratec)

Funding bodySmith & Nephew (formerly Oratec)
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0181715
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

A controlled trial of intradiscal electrothermal anuloplasty for chronic low back pain.$64,492

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding bodyInternational Spine Intervention Society
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0182577
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Management of Acute Musculoskeletal Pain.$54,545

Funding body: University of Queensland

Funding bodyUniversity of Queensland
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeUni of Queensland/CDHAC consultancy
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0181943
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

Development of evidence-based guidelines and the production of an implementation strategy for the management of patients presenting with acute low back pain for$15,000

Funding body: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)

Funding bodyRoyal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeConsultancy
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0182248
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20012 grants / $74,000

External funding for 2 rural general practitioners to undertake Masters of pain medicine.$64,000

Funding body: GlaxoSmithKline Australia

Funding bodyGlaxoSmithKline Australia
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemePostgraduate Research Scholarship
RoleLead
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0181200
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

SparkeHelmore /Prime Television Award for Research Excellence - Treatment of Spinal Pain.$10,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0181548
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20001 grants / $6,029

Musculoskeletal Pain Medicine.$6,029

Funding body: International Spine Intervention Society

Funding bodyInternational Spine Intervention Society
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2000
Funding Finish2000
GNoG0179227
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

19972 grants / $6,488,803

The establishment of hospital and primary care clinics and General Practice Division comparison groups under the Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative.$4,474,171

Funding body: Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care

Funding bodyCommonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeSpecial Access Program
RoleLead
Funding Start1997
Funding Finish1997
GNoG0177645
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

National Directorate for the Musculoskeletal Medicine Initiative$2,014,632

Funding body: Commonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care

Funding bodyCommonwealth Department of Health & Aged Care
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeSpecial Access Program
RoleLead
Funding Start1997
Funding Finish1997
GNoG0177647
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

19951 grants / $5,000

The University of Newcastle Award for Excellence in Teaching$5,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeTeaching Committee Awards for Excellence
RoleLead
Funding Start1995
Funding Finish1995
GNoG0175963
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19941 grants / $1,260,632

94,95,96GRANT.Cervical Spine Research Unit - Research, Education & Service Activities$1,260,632

Funding body: Motor Accidents Authority of NSW

Funding bodyMotor Accidents Authority of NSW
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1994
Funding Finish1994
GNoG0174623
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY
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Research Supervision

Past Supervision

YearResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2006The Side of a Radial Annular Tear on CT Discography and the Side of the Patient's Symptoms: Is There a Correlation?
Radiography, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Co-Supervisor
2004Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Quadratus Lumborum
Human Biology, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Sole Supervisor
2004Evaluation of the Health Status of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Undergoing a Functional Restoration Program
Radiography, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Co-Supervisor
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Emeritus Professor Nikolai Bogduk

Positions

Conjoint Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Emeritus Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Focus area

Anatomy

Contact Details

Emailnik.bogduk@newcastle.edu.au

Office

RoomRNC3405
BuildingThe Royal Newcastle Centre
LocationOther

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