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Professor Carolyn Mountford

Conjoint Professor

School of Health Sciences

Career Summary

Biography

Carolyn Mountford is Professor in Radiology at the University of Newcastle, Australia, and full Professor of Radiology at the Harvard Medical School, USA. She is Director of the Centre for MR in Health in Newcastle and Director of the Centre for Clinical Spectroscopy at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston MA.

Research Expertise
Professor Carolyn Mountford is a world-leading expert in magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. An advocate of multidisciplinary research, she has spent the last three decades working with scientists, physicians, surgeons, mathematicians, pathologists and engineers initially developing MR as an adjunct to, and in some cases a replacement for, histopathology. The team, led by Professor Mountford, has identified early stages of human cancers not detectable by conventional methods such as light microscopy. She has pioneered the development and application of many novel in vivo MR techniques to measure metabolic changes associated with tumour development and progression. The analysis of a primary breast tumour alone can predict if the tumour has spread to the nodes, removing the need for surgical intervention. A new in vivo MR approach known as neuro two dimensional spectroscopy has provided an objective test for chronic pain, head injury and post traumatic stress disorder. This has allowed hitherto undetected changes to brain chemistry to be identified, leading to potential new therapies. These and other techniques her team has developed are being used by research centres and hospitals to evaluate patients with cancer, brain tumours and neurologic and psychological disorders. The technology has been taken on by the USA and Australian militaries for assessment of soldiers. The same two dimensional spectroscopy methodologies have allowed the recent discovery of a new condition in the breast tissue of women who carry the faulty BRCA genes. Her team has been the worldwide development site for Siemens Healthcare for MR spectroscopy since 1999. Across 2006-2011, while at Harvard Medical School full time, Professor Mountford worked with Siemens to develop an improved operating system for its scanners, allowing spectroscopy to be undertaken by a trained radiographer as opposed to a highly trained physicist. This has made the previously site-dependent MR spectroscopy technology available worldwide. Three of her past students are now in senior development roles at Siemens (Germany) and GE (USA). Others are surgeons or academics. She is currently working with Canadian and UK-based teams to produce a pathology MR spectroscopy system, with pattern recognition technology, to allow the biopsy program to go mainstream in a clinical capacity. Professor Mountford is the holder of five significant patents (USA & worldwide) in the areas of cancer, chronic pain, head injury and MR technological advances. A further five are currently in the PCT phase. Current goals include: a new objective and personalised medicine approach for soldiers and the general public afflicted by head injury, post traumatic stress disorder, blast injury and chronic pain; the capability for screening women at high risk for breast cancer to diagnose early changes that reflect a microenvironment for rapid tumour growth; understanding how brain chemistry affects the gut; seeing MR spectroscopy on biopsy become a mainstream diagnostic text worldwide; and educating and encouraging young Australian early career researchers to become part of the flourishing international and commercial interface.

Teaching Expertise
Professor Mountford has previously held academic positions at Oxford University, UK, the University of Sydney, Australia and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Administrative Expertise
2007 - Present | Director of Clinical Spectroscopy, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, U.S.A. 1998 - 2006 | Foundation Head, Department of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia 1995 - 2006 | Foundation Chief Executive, Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonard's, NSW, Australia

Collaborations
Professor Mountford Mountford has led and has participated in research in different areas of human disease. These activities include cancer diagnosis and prognosis, neuro-degenerative diseases such as those associated with chronic pain and brain injury and more recently metabolic syndrome and obesity. All aspects of this research are multidisciplinary. The results of this research have been reported in a variety of peer-reviewed journal articles. She is the author and co-author of more than 160 peer-reviewed articles and four patents. Current collaborations trough her position at the University of Newcastle, Australia, include with the Priority Research Centre for Cancer and the Hunter Medical Research Institute's Cancer program. As Director, Center for Clinical Spectroscopy at the Brigham and Woman's Hospital in Boston, MA, she leads the application of advanced spectroscopy methods and the scientific evaluation of spectroscopy technology for other groups within the Partners organization and around the world. The Center works closely with clinical collaborators as well as with other groups within the Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Various research projects are supported by federal and private grants, and there is extensive collaboration with multiple industrial partners. There are long standing collaborations in place with the Institute for Biodiagnostics at the National Research Council of Canada and more recently with the Draper Laboratories. The Center also offers a variety of training opportunities for fellows, junior scientists and clinical specialists to advance the field of MR spectroscopy through the active dissemination of new MRS technology.

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oxford - UK
  • Master of Science (Biophysics), University of Oxford - UK

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Head Injury
  • MR Imaging and Spectroscopy
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Radiology

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111299 Oncology and Carcinogenesis not elsewhere classified 25
110904 Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases 25
110320 Radiology and Organ Imaging 50

Professional Experience

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
22/05/2015 - 22/06/2015 Director Center for Clinical Spectroscopy
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston MA
United States
1/01/2012 -  Professor in Radiology Harvard University
United States
1/01/2008 - 1/12/2011 Lecturer Harvard University
Department of Radiology
United States
1/01/2007 -  Director of Clinical Spectroscopy Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston MA, USA
Radiology Department
United States
1/01/2006 - 1/12/2008 Visiting Professor Harvard University
Department of Radiology
United States
1/01/2006 - 1/01/2014 Honorary Clinical Professorial Fellow Royal Melbourne Hospital
Australia
1/01/2003 -  Editorial Board - MAGMA MAGMA
Australia
1/01/2002 -  Editorial Board - Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
Australia
1/01/1998 - 1/12/2012 Honorary Scientist Institute of Biodiagnostics
Canada
1/01/1998 - 1/12/2006 Foundation Head The University of Sydney
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Australia
1/01/1997 - 31/12/1997 Membership - Management of Research and Ethics on Australia's World Heritage Areas Management of Research and Ethics on Australia's World Heritage Areas
Australia
1/01/1996 - 31/12/1996 Membership - Radiological Society of North America Radiological Society of North America
United States
1/01/1996 - 31/12/1998 Membership - Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies
Australia
1/01/1996 - 31/12/1999 Membership - Australian Science, Technology and Engineering Council Australian Science, Technology and Engineering Council
Australia
1/01/1995 - 1/01/2006 Honorary Member The University of Sydney
Department of Surgery
Australia
1/01/1995 - 1/12/2006 Foundation Chief Executive Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research
Australia
1/01/1995 - 31/12/1996 Membership - Ministerial Advisory Group, Science and Technology Awareness and Promotion Ministerial Advisory Group, Science and Technology Awareness and Promotion
Australia
1/01/1993 - 31/12/1998 Editorial Board - Journal of Magnetic Resonance Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Australia
1/01/1990 - 31/12/2000 Editorial Board - Journal of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Journal of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Australia
1/01/1990 - 31/12/2012 Membership - International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Australia
1/01/1988 - 1/12/1995 Director The University of Sydney
MR Unit, Department of Medicine
Australia
1/01/1988 - 31/12/1988 Membership - Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Australia
1/01/1982 - 1/12/1988 Senior Research Fellow & Head MR Unit The University of Sydney
Ludwig Institute for Cancer
Australia
1/01/1972 - 1/12/1976 Lecturer Oxford University, UK
Biophysics Laboratory
United Kingdom

Membership

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/01/2003 -  Membership - MAGMA MAGMA
Australia

Awards

Honours

Year Award
2013 Thought Leader Award
Aglient Technologies
2008 Excellence Award
Brigham and Woman's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
1996 Graham Coupland Award
Royal Australasian College of Surgeons

Recognition

Year Award
1994 Inaugural 'Unsung Hero of Science' Award
Australian Association of Science Communicators
1990 Fellowship
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Research Award

Year Award
2013 Excellence in Innovation Award
Newcastle Innovation
1998 Clinical Centre of Excellence Award
Australian National Health and Medical Research Council
1997 Inaugural 'Pioneer of Hope' Award
NSW Cancer Council
1996 Innovation Flagship Award
Australian Government/NSW Government

Invitations

Keynote Speaker

Year Title / Rationale
2009 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Molecular Imaging Congress, Nice
2005 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Biomedical MR, New Delhi
2003 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: XIXth International Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Toronto
2003 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: MRI/MRS Practical Applications
2002 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: XXth International Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, Toronto
2001 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 3rd International Symposium, Japanese Society for MR in Medicine, Tokyo
2001 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Australian and New Zealand Head and Neck Society
2001 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: MRI/MRS Practical Applications
2000 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: XIX International Conference on Magnetic Resonance and Biological Systems, Florence
1999 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research
1999 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: VII Scientific Meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Philadelphia
1998 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research and Hunting Research Institute
1992 Science in the Classroom
Organisation: CONASTA 41 Annual Conference of Australian Science Teachers
1992 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Royal Australian Chemical Institute Annual Meeting
1992 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: 11th Annual Cytology Meeting
1985 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Magnetic Resonance in Cancer

Speaker

Year Title / Rationale
2013 Neurospectroscopy to Monitor Pain, Head Injury and PTSD
Organisation: Australian Army Colonels
2012 Neurospectroscopy to Monitor Pain, Head Injury and PTSD
Organisation: CTTSO
2012 Neurospectroscopy to Monitor Pain, Head Injury and PTSD
Organisation: Australian Defence Force
2011 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: IUPAB International Biophysics Congress, Beijing
2010 Neurospectroscopy to Monitor Pain, Head Injury and PTSD
Organisation: United States Congress
2010 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Refresher Course on Breast MR, RSNA Chicago
2009 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: NCI Small Animal Imaging Symposium, Washington
2009 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Department of Radiology, University of Maryland
2009 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Refresher Course on Breast MR, RSNA Chicago
2008 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Refresher Course on Breast MR, RSNA Chicago
2006 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Department of Radiology, University of Singapore
2006 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: International Congress on MR-Mammography, Jena
2006 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Department of Radiology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
2005 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Department of Molecular Imaging, John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore
2005 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Molecular Imaging, University of California, San Francisco
2005 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: International Congress on MR-Mammography, Jena
2005 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: MRI/MRS Clinical and Practical Applications, Port Douglas
2004 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: New York University Department of Radiology, New York
2004 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics
2004 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston
2004 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Kyoto
2004 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 4th International congress on MR-Mammography, Jena
2004 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Liposciences, Raleigh Durham
2004 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Sydney Breast Clinic
2004 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Northern Beaches Prostate Cancer Support Group
2003 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: MRI/MRS Clinical and Practical Applications, Port Douglas
2003 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 12th International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Kyoto
2003 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Huntington Medical Center, Pasadena
2003 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 3rd International Congres on MR-Mammography, Jena
2003 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Familial Cancer Symposium
2002 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: XIV International Biophysics Congress, Buenos Aires
2002 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Biennial Conference of the New Zealand & Australian Society for Magnetic Resonance, Taupo
2002 Spectroscopy of the Breast on Biopsy
Organisation: US Department of Defense
2001 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: MRI/MRS 2001, Cairns
2001 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 9th Scientific Meeting, International Society for MR in Medicine, Glasgow
2001 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Annual Scientific Meeting
2001 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Medical Imaging Australia Conference
2000 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: 8th Scientific Meeting, International Society for MR in Medicine, Denver
2000 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: RSNA, Chicago
2000 Spectroscopy on Biopsy and In Vivo
Organisation: Clinical MR Spectroscopy MRS Training Course, Honolulu
2000 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Royal Australasian College of Radiology
2000 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Inaugural Magnetic Resonance in Neurosciences Meeting
1998 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: Australasian Society of Breast Disease
1998 Preoperative Diagnosis of Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Organisation: 6th Scientific Meeting, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
1998 Spectroscopy of the Breast on Biopsy
Organisation: US Department of Defense
1997 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinic
Organisation: International Conference on Chemotherapy
1997 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinic
Organisation: CSIRO XXX Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale
1996 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: 4th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of the Society of Magnetic Resonance, New York
1996 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinic
Organisation: 9th World Congress of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy
1995 Spectroscopy of the Breast on Biopsy
Organisation: MR Breast Cancer Conference, Society of Magnetic Resonance
1995 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: 5th International Conference on Anticancer Research
1995 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Advances in Physiological Chemistry by In Vivo NMR, Boston
1995 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Clinic
Organisation: International Society of Magnetic Resonance
1994 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: ISMRM Mini-Categorical Course - Cancer Detection
1994 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
1993 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Royal Australian College of Surgeons Annual Meeting
1993 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: XV International Congress of Clinical Chemistry
1993 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Australian Institute of Medical Scientists, National Scientific Meeting
1993 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
1993 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: An Insight from NMR, University of British Columbia
1993 Science in the Classroom
Organisation: Science Mapping the Possible Future
1992 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Australian Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology
1992 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Gray conference on Tumor Assessment in Response to Therapy
1990 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Special Topics in Magnetic Resonance
1989 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy
1989 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: EEC Concerted Research Project on Tissue Characterisation by MRS and MRI
1987 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, New York
1986 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: International Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems
1986 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: International Cancer Congress
1986 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Montreal
1984 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Treatment of Cancer in Adults
1983 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Australian Biophysics Society
1982 Immunoglobulin Structure
Organisation: Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
1982 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: NMR of Synthetic and Biological Polymers
1982 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Australian Biophysics Society
1981 Development of MRS as an Adjunct to Hisopathology
Organisation: Third National NMR Conference
1975 Immunoglobulin Structure
Organisation: Homogenous Immunoglobulin Workshop, National Institute of Health, Bethesada
1974 Immunoglobulin Structure
Organisation: Royal Society Conversazione, London
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (100 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Cocuzzo D, Lin A, Stanwell P, Mountford C, Keshava N, 'In Vivo Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Measurement of Biomarker Sensitivity to Post-Processing Algorithms', IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, 2 1-17 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1109/JTEHM.2014.2309333
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2011 Ramadan S, Andronesi A, Stanwell P, Lin A, Sorensen G, Mountford C, 'In Vivo Two Dimensional MR Spectroscopy Compares the Biochemistry of the Human Brain and Glioblastoma', Radiology, 259 540-549 (2011)
Co-authors Peter Stanwell, Saadallah Ramadan
2011 Ramadan S, Andronesi A, Stanwell P, Lin A, Sorensen G, Mountford C, 'In Vivo Two Dimensional MR Spectroscopy Compares the Biochemistry of the Human Brain and Glioblastoma', Radiology, 259 540-549 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan, Peter Stanwell
2011 Ramadan S, Mountford C, 'Adiabatic Localized Correlation Spectroscopy (AL-COSY) - Application in Muscle and Brain', Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 33 1447-1455 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2010 Mountford CE, Stanwell PT, Lin A, Ramadan S, Ross B, 'Neurospectroscopy: The past, present and future', Chemical Reviews, 110 3060-3086 (2010) [D1]
DOI 10.1021/cr900250y
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 33
Co-authors Peter Stanwell, Saadallah Ramadan
2010 Birdwell RL, Mountford CE, Iglehart JD, 'Molecular Imaging of the Breast', RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 48 1075-+ (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2010.07.017
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2010 Woodhams R, Kakita S, Hata H, Iwabuchi K, Kuranami M, Gautam S, et al., 'Identification of residual breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Diffusion-weighted imaging - Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR imaging and pathologic findings', Radiology, 254 357-366 (2010) [C1]

Purpose: To compare the capability of diffusion-weighted (DW) and contrast material - enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to provide diagnostic information on residual breast... [more]

Purpose: To compare the capability of diffusion-weighted (DW) and contrast material - enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to provide diagnostic information on residual breast cancers following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to assess apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the carcinoma prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy to determine if the method could help predict response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Three hundred ninety-eight patients underwent MR imaging of the breast, including DW MR (b values, 0 and 1500 sec/mm 2) and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Of these, the contralateral breast in 73 women was used as a control. Seventy-two patients with 73 lesions with malignant disease were treated by using neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were examined for residual disease following therapy. Three were excluded because of prolonged intervals between final MR imaging and surgery. Thus, 69 patients (70 lesions) with DW and contrast-enhanced MR imaging results were compared with postoperative histopathologic findings. The ADCs of the carcinoma prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were calculated for each patient, and those with complete response and residual disease were compared. Results: The accuracy for depicting residual tumor was 96% for DW MR imaging, compared with an accuracy of 89% for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (P =.06). There was no significant difference in prechemotherapy ADCs between pathologic complete response cases and those with residual disease. Conclusion: DW MR imaging had at least as good of accuracy as did contrast-enhanced MR imaging for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The ADCs prior to chemotherapy did not predict response to chemotherapy. The use of DW imaging to visualize residual breast cancer without the need for contrast medium could be advantageous in women with impaired renal function. © RSNA, 2010.

DOI 10.1148/radiol.2542090405
Citations Scopus - 61
2010 Andronesi OC, Ramadan S, Mountford CE, Sorensen AG, 'Low-power adiabatic sequences for in vivo localized two-dimensional chemical shift correlated MR spectroscopy', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 64 1542-1556 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/mrm.22535
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2010 Andronesi OC, Ramadan S, Mountford CE, Sorensen AG, 'Low-power adiabatic sequences for in vivo localized two-dimensional chemical shift correlated MR spectroscopy', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 64 1542-1556 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/mrm.22535
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2010 Stanwell PT, Siddall P, Keshava N, Cocuzzo D, Ramadan S, Lin A, et al., 'Neuro magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet decomposition and statistical testing identifies biochemical changes in people with spinal cord injury and pain', Neuroimage, 53 544-552 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.06.051
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan, Peter Stanwell
2010 Andronesi OC, Ramadan S, Ratai EM, Jennings D, Mountford CE, Sorensen GA, 'Spectroscopic imaging with improved gradient modulated constant adiabaticity pulses on high-field clinical scanners', Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 203 283-293 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 23
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2010 Ramadan S, Ratai EM, Wald LL, Mountford CE, 'IN VIVO 1D and 2D Correlation MR Spectroscopy of the Soleus Muscle at 7T', Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 204 91-98 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 16
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2009 Ramadan S, Mountford C, 'Two-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biopsy and In Vivo 161-199 (2009)
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2009 Woodhams R, Kakita S, Hata H, Iwabuchi K, Umeoka S, Mountford CE, Hatabu H, 'Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast: Evaluation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Signal Intensity in Correlation With Histologic Findings', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY, 193 260-266 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.2214/AJR.08.1670
Citations Scopus - 64Web of Science - 56
2009 Birdwell RL, Mountford CE, Iglehart JD, 'Molecular Imaging of the Breast', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY, 193 367-376 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.2214/AJR.09.3079
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2009 Mountford CE, Ramadan SA, Stanwell PT, Malycha PL, 'Proton MRS of the Breast in the clinical setting.', NMR in Biomedicine, 22 54-64 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/nbm.1301
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 26
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan, Peter Stanwell
2009 Tokuda J, Schmitt M, Sun Y, Patz S, Tang Y, Mountford CE, et al., 'Lung Motion and Volume Measurement by Dynamic 3D MRI Using a 128-Channel Receiver Coil', ACADEMIC RADIOLOGY, 16 22-27 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2008.07.021
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 11
2008 Stanwell PT, Russell P, Carter J, Pather S, Heintze S, Mountford C, 'Evaluation of ovarian tumors by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at three tesla', Investigative Radiology, 43 745-751 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/RLI.0b013e31817e9104
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 19
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2008 Mountford CE, Stanwell PT, Ramadan S, 'Breast MR imaging at 3.0 T', Radiology, 248 319-320 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1148/radiol.2481072049
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2008 Swindle P, Ramadan S, Stanwell PT, McCredie S, Russell P, Mountford C, 'Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the central, transition and peripheral zones of the prostate: Assignments and correlation with histopathology.', Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics Biology and Medicine, 21 423-434 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s10334-008-0136-0
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors Peter Stanwell, Saadallah Ramadan
2008 Mountford C, 'Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the prostate', Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 21 369-370 (2008) [C3]
DOI 10.1007/s10334-008-0153-z
Citations Scopus - 2
2007 Ramadan S, Thomas MA, Mountford CE, 'Phase-rotated MR spectroscopy using dual-PRESS: theory and application in human brain', DATA MINING, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AND OPTIMIZATION IN BIOMEDICINE, 953 277-291 (2007)
2007 Stanwell PT, Mountford C, 'In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of the breast', Radiographics, 27 253-266 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1148/rg.27si075519
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 29
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2006 Mountford C, Lean C, Malycha P, Russell P, 'Proton spectroscopy provides accurate pathology on biopsy and in vivo', Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24 459-477 (2006)

In the last 25 years, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has moved from being a basic research tool into routine clinical use. The spectroscopy method reports on those chemicals that are mobil... [more]

In the last 25 years, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has moved from being a basic research tool into routine clinical use. The spectroscopy method reports on those chemicals that are mobile on the MR time scale. Many of these chemicals reflect specific pathological processes but are complicated by the fact that many chemicals change at one time. There are currently two clinical applications for spectroscopy. The first is in the pathology laboratory, where it can be an adjunct to, and in some cases replacement, for difficult pathologies like Barrett's esophagus and follicular adenoma of the thyroid. The spectroscopy method on a breast biopsy can also report on prognostic indicators, including the potential for spread, from information present in the primary tumor alone. The second application for spectroscopy is in vivo to provide a preoperative diagnosis and this is now achievable for several organs including the prostate. The development of spectroscopy for clinical purposes has relied heavily on the serially-sectioned histopathology to i confirm the high accuracy of the method. The combination of in vivo MRI, in vivo MRS, and ex vivo MRS on biopsy samples offers a modality of very high accuracy for preoperative diagnosis and provision of prognostic information for human cancers. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

DOI 10.1002/jmri.20668
Citations Scopus - 42
2006 Siddall PJ, Stanwell PT, Woodhouse A, Somorjai RL, Dolenko B, Nikulin A, et al., 'Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects biochemical changes in the brain associated with chronic low back pain: A preliminary report', Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102 1164-1168 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1213/01.ane.0000198333.22687.a6
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 29
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2005 Stretch J, Thompson J, Scolyer R, Mountford C, Lean C, 'Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the management of melanoma', Cancer Forum, 29 73-76 (2005)

The surgical treatment of melanoma has been progressively rationalised during the last two decades. Radical excision of primary tumours and elective (prophylactic) resection of re... [more]

The surgical treatment of melanoma has been progressively rationalised during the last two decades. Radical excision of primary tumours and elective (prophylactic) resection of regional lymph nodes have been replaced with more selective procedures that reflect improved understanding of the metastatic potential of individual tumours. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an evolving technology which has the potential to diagnose many tumours and to characterise their metastatic potential. The Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research and the Sydney Melanoma Unit have developed MRS techniques to diagnose, stage and aid in the clinical management of melanoma. It is anticipated that these techniques will ultimately be used as clinical tools to provide non-surgical diagnosis of metastatic disease in sentinel nodes, either by MRS examination of a simple outpatient fine needle biopsy specimen or by use of an entirely non-invasive in vivo MRS assessment. Experience with MRS of primary breast cancers indicates that it may also be possible to predict the metastatic potential of melanoma by spectroscopic analysis of the primary tumour and to distinguish naevi from melanomas thus better selecting patients for surgery.

Citations Scopus - 1
2005 Bourne RM, Stanwell PT, Stretch JR, Scolyer RA, Thompson JF, Mountford CE, Lean CL, 'In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma', European Journal of Radiology, 53 506-513 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2004.03.016
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 16
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2005 Dzendrowskyj TE, Dolenko B, Sorrell TC, Somorjai RL, Malik R, Mountford CE, Himmelreich U, 'Diagnosis of cerebral cryptococcoma using a computerized analysis of 1H NMR spectra in an animal model', Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 52 101-105 (2005)

Viable cryptococci load in biopsy material from an animal model of cerebral cryptococcoma were correlated with 1H NMR spectra and metabolite profiles. A statistical classification... [more]

Viable cryptococci load in biopsy material from an animal model of cerebral cryptococcoma were correlated with 1H NMR spectra and metabolite profiles. A statistical classification strategy was applied to distinguish among high-resolution 1H NMR spectra acquired from cryptococcomas, glioblastomas, and normal brain tissue. The overall classification accuracy was 100% when a genetic-algorithm-based optimal region selection preceded the development of linear discriminant analysis-based classifiers. The method remained robust despite differences in the microbial load of the cryptococcoma group when harvested at different time points. These results indicate the feasibility of the method for diagnosis without isolation of the pathogenic microorganism and its potential for in vivo diagnosis based on computerized analysis of magnetic resonance spectra. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.02.004
Citations Scopus - 5
2005 Stanwell PT, Gluch L, Clark D, Tomanek B, Baker L, Giuffre B, et al., 'Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using 1H MRS at 1.5 T', European Radiology, 15 1037-1043 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00330-004-2475-1
Citations Scopus - 76Web of Science - 63
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2005 Stretch JR, Somorjai R, Bourne R, Hsiao E, Scolyer RA, Dolenko B, et al., 'Melanoma metastases in regional lymph nodes are accurately detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of fine-needle aspirate biopsy samples', ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, 12 943-949 (2005)
DOI 10.1245/AOS.2005.03.073
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 14
2005 Mountford C, Stanwell PT, Ferrier A, Bourne R, Doran S, Christie J, et al., 'In vivo spectroscopy and imaging of the ovary in vivo at 3 tesla and spectroscopy on biopsy at 8.5 tesla', Journal of Women's Imaging, 7 71-76 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.jwi.0000170626.02187.22
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2005 Himmelreich U, Accurso R, Malik R, Dolenko B, Somorjai RL, Gupta RK, et al., 'Identification of Staphylococcus aureus brain abscesses: Rat and human studies with1H MR spectroscopy', Radiology, 236 261-270 (2005)

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of a statistical classification strategy (SCS) and the identity of metabolites of bacterial and host origins that potentially contributed to ... [more]

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of a statistical classification strategy (SCS) and the identity of metabolites of bacterial and host origins that potentially contributed to the most discriminatory regions of magnetic resonance (MR) spectra from Staphylococcus aureus abscesses of biopsy material from controls, gliomas, and staphylococcal abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and animal study received ethics committee approval, and informed patient consent was obtained. A rat model of S aureus brain abscess was developed. Histologic and microbiologic examination was performed to assess abscess development 3-4, 6-8, and 10-15 days after initiation. Metabolite profiles in pus (n = 62) and controls (n = 37) were characterized with ex vivo MR spectroscopy and compared with data from rat gliomas (n = 27). SCS, optimal region selection, and development of pairwise classifiers allowed MR spectra of abscesses (n = 42, day 6-8) to be distinguished from those of glioblastoma multiforme and controls. MR spectroscopy profiles of pus from animal abscesses were compared with in vivo MR spectra from patients with staphylococcal brain abscesses (n = 7, aged 6-67 years) and ex vivo pus MR spectra from patients with S aureus abscesses. RESULTS: Histologically confirmed abscesses were present 6-8 days after stereotactic injection of S aureus in 42 of 47 rats (89%). MR spectra of abscesses and glioblastoma multiforme in the animal model were similar. Typical metabolites of abscesses due to anaerobe bacteria (acetate, succinate, amino acids) were not detectable in S aureus abscesses in rats or humans. MR spectroscopic findings from controls, abscesses, and gliomas were distinguished by means of SCS with an accuracy of 99%. Analysis of the most discriminatory regions with two-dimensional correlation spectra indicated that glutamine and/or glutamate and aspartate potentially contributed to successful classification. CONCLUSION: S aureus is detectable in abscesses with a non-culture-based method in an animal model. © RSNA, 2005.

DOI 10.1148/radiol.2361040869
Citations Scopus - 20
2004 Mountford CE, Doran S, Lean CL, Russell P, 'Proton MRS can determine the pathology of human cancers with a high level of accuracy', Chemical Reviews, 104 3677-3704 (2004)

1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can determine both neoplastic status and prognostic variables from human biopsies with histological correlation approaching 100%. The MR m... [more]

1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can determine both neoplastic status and prognostic variables from human biopsies with histological correlation approaching 100%. The MR method is fast, accurate, and robust and complements routine biopsy diagnosis. An overview is given of the current state of MRS on biopsies and in vivo for neuro, prostate, thyroid, and breast spectroscopy. Individual case studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of MRS in the cancer clinic.

DOI 10.1021/cr030410g
Citations Scopus - 47
2004 Laveissière G, Todor L, Degrande N, Jaminion S, Jutier C, di Salvo R, et al., 'Measurement of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton in virtual compton scattering at Q2 = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2 ', Physical Review Letters, 93 (2004)

The generalized polarizabilities (GP) of proton at low c.m. energies were investigated in virtual Compton scattering (VCS). At momentum transfer Q 2 = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2, the stru... [more]

The generalized polarizabilities (GP) of proton at low c.m. energies were investigated in virtual Compton scattering (VCS). At momentum transfer Q 2 = 0.92 and 1.76 GeV2, the structure functions and the electric and magnetic GP were determined. The global behavior of electric GP did not follow a simple dipole form and indicated a strong falloff with Q 2. A paramagnetic contribution from pN intermediate states at higher Q2 compensated the dominance of a long-distance diamagnetic pion cloud at low Q2.

DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.122001
Citations Scopus - 28
2004 Laveissière G, Degrande N, Jaminion S, Jutier C, Todor L, Di Salvo R, et al., 'Backward electroproduction of p0 mesons on protons in the region of nucleon resonances at four momentum transfer squared Q2=1.0 GeV2 ', Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics, 69 (2004)

Exclusive electroproduction of p0 mesons on protons in the backward hemisphere has been studied at Q2 = 1.0 GeV2 by detecting protons in the forward direction in coincidence with ... [more]

Exclusive electroproduction of p0 mesons on protons in the backward hemisphere has been studied at Q2 = 1.0 GeV2 by detecting protons in the forward direction in coincidence with scattered electrons from the 4 GeV electron beam in Jefferson Lab's Hall A. The data span the range of the total (¿*p) center-of-mass energy W from the pion production threshold to W=2.0 GeV. The differential cross sections sT+ esL, sTL, and sTT were separated from the azimuthal distribution and are presented together with the MAID and SAID parametrizations.

DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.69.045203
Citations Scopus - 16
2004 Baumgartner R, Somorjai R, Bowman C, Sorrell TC, Mountford CE, Himmelreich U, 'Unsupervised feature dimension reduction for classification of MR spectra', Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 22 251-256 (2004)

We present an unsupervised feature dimension reduction method for the classification of magnetic resonance spectra. The technique preserves spectral information, important for dis... [more]

We present an unsupervised feature dimension reduction method for the classification of magnetic resonance spectra. The technique preserves spectral information, important for disease profiling. We propose to use this technique as a preprocessing step for computationally demanding wrapper-based feature subset selection. We show that the classification accuracy on an independent test set can be sustained while achieving considerable feature reduction. Our method is applicable to other classification techniques, such as neural networks, support vector machines, etc. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2003.08.033
Citations Scopus - 4
2004 Lean C, Doran S, Somorjai RL, Malycha P, Clarke D, Himmelreich U, et al., 'Determination of grade and receptor status from the primary breast lesion by magnetic resonance spectroscopy', Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, 3 551-556 (2004)

Magnetic resonance spectra (MRS) from fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) from primary breast lesions were analysed using a pattern recognition method, Statistical Classificati... [more]

Magnetic resonance spectra (MRS) from fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) from primary breast lesions were analysed using a pattern recognition method, Statistical Classification Strategy, to assess tumor grade and oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. Grade 1 and 2 breast cancers were separated from grade 3 cancers with a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 95%, respectively. The ER status was predicted with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 90%, and the PgR status with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 86%. These classifiers provide rapid and reliable, computerized information and may offer an objective method for determining these prognostic indicators simultaneously with the diagnosis of primary pathology and lymph node involvement.

Citations Scopus - 24
2003 Bourne R, Katelaris P, Danieletto S, Dzendrowskyj T, Stanwell PT, Mountford C, 'Detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in vivo', ANZ Journal of Surgery, 73 666-668 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1046/j.1445-2197.2003.02700.x
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2003 Doran ST, Falk GL, Somorjai RL, Lean CL, Himmelreich U, Philips J, et al., 'Pathology of Barrett's esophagus by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a statistical classification strategy', American Journal of Surgery, 185 232-238 (2003)

Background: Barrett's esophagus is thought to be a precursor of adenocarcinoma. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus in the Western world is rising and accounts ... [more]

Background: Barrett's esophagus is thought to be a precursor of adenocarcinoma. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lower esophagus in the Western world is rising and accounts for more than 40% of esophageal carcinomas in males. It is not possible to identify which Barrett's patients are at high risk of developing malignancy. Here we applied a statistical classification strategy to the analysis of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histopathological data from esophageal biopsies to ascertain whether this risk could be identified in Barrett's patients. Methods: Tissue specimens from 72 patients (29 noncancer-bearing and 43 cancer-bearing) were analyzed by one-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 8.5 Tesla. Diagnostic correlation was performed between the magnetic resonance spectra and histopathology. The magnetic resonance magnitude spectra were preprocessed, followed by identification of optimal spectral regions, and were then classified by cross-validated linear discriminant analysis of rank orders of the first derivative of magnetic resonance spectra. Results: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with a statistical classification strategy analysis distinguished normal esophagus from adenocarcinoma and Barrett's epithelium with an accuracy of 100%. Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma were distinguished with an accuracy of 98.6% but only when 4 of the Barrett's specimens and 7 of the carcinoma specimens, determined to be "fuzzy" (ie, unable to be accurately assigned to either class) were withdrawn. The 7 cancer and 4 Barrett's specimens, determined to be "fuzzy" using the Barrett's versus cancer (B versus C) classifier, were submitted to the other two classifiers (Barrett's versus normal [B versus N] and normal versus cancer [N versus C], respectively). The 4 Barrett's specimens were assigned to Barrett's by the N versus B classifier and to normal (n = 2) or cancer (n = 2) classes by the N versus C classifer. The 7 cancer specimens were crisply assigned to the cancer class (N versus C), or for the B versus N classifier, to the Barrett's class (ie, more similar to Barrett's than to normal tissue). Visual inspection of the spectra from histologically identified Barrett's epithelium showed a gradation from normal to carcinoma. Conclusions: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of esophageal biopsies combined with a statistical classification strategy data analysis provides a robust diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy for discriminating normal epithelium from esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus. Different spectral categories of Barrett's epithelium were identified both by visual inspection and by statistical classification strategy, possibly reflecting the risk of future malignant transformation. © 2003 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0002-9610(02)01374-0
Citations Scopus - 16
2003 Himmelreich U, Somorjai RL, Dolenko B, Lee OC, Daniel H-M, Murray R, et al., 'Rapid identification of Candida species by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a statistical classification strategy', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69 4566-4574 (2003)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from suspensions of clinically important yeast species of the genus Candida to characterize the relationship between metabol... [more]

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from suspensions of clinically important yeast species of the genus Candida to characterize the relationship between metabolite profiles and species identification. Major metabolites were identified by using two-dimensional correlation NMR spectroscopy. One-dimensional proton NMR spectra were analyzed by using a staged statistical classification strategy. Analysis of NMR spectra from 442 isolates of Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis resulted in rapid, accurate identification when compared with conventional and DNA-based identification. Spectral regions used for the classification of the five yeast species revealed species-specific differences in relative amounts of lipids, trehalose, polyols, and other metabolites. Isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata with unusual PCR fingerprinting patterns also generated atypical NMR spectra, suggesting the possibility of intraspecies discontinuity. We conclude that NMR spectroscopy combined with a statistical classification strategy is a rapid, nondestructive, and potentially valuable method for identification and chemotaxonomic characterization that may be broadly applicable to fungi and other microorganisms.

DOI 10.1128/AEM.69.8.4566-4574.2003
Citations Scopus - 40
2003 Bourne R, Dzendrowskyj T, Mountford C, 'Leakage of metabolites from tissue biopsies can result in large errors in quantitation by MRS', NMR in Biomedicine, 16 96-101 (2003)

The leakage of metabolites from frozen and thawed tissue biopsies was measured semi-quantitatively by high-field (8.5 T) proton MRS. Human prostate and rat brain tissue specimens,... [more]

The leakage of metabolites from frozen and thawed tissue biopsies was measured semi-quantitatively by high-field (8.5 T) proton MRS. Human prostate and rat brain tissue specimens, frozen within 1 min of collection, lost significant and variable amounts of diagnostic metabolites immediately upon thawing. For prostate tissue 30-50% of initial total choline compounds, total creatines and citrate were detected in the collection buffer immediately after thawing. The widely used protocol for MR assessment of tissue biopsies, which involves washing of thawed tissue samples in fresh buffer, results in loss of large and unpredictable amounts of possibly diagnostic metabolites prior to MRS. This reduces the reproducibility of MR analysis of tissue biopsies and compromises the reliable identification of MR spectral patterns diagnostic of tissue pathology. The problem can be avoided by minimizing the volume of storage buffer, omitting tissue washing and performing MRS measurements on the tissue immersed in the original storage buffer. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI 10.1002/nbm.815
Citations Scopus - 18
2003 Lean CL, Bourne R, Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Stretch J, Li L-XL, et al., 'Rapid detection of metastatic melanoma in lymph nodes using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens', Melanoma Research, 13 259-261 (2003)

Accurate staging of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma includes assessment of regional lymph nodes for the presence of micrometastatic disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is... [more]

Accurate staging of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma includes assessment of regional lymph nodes for the presence of micrometastatic disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is highly accurate but is an invasive surgical procedure with a 5-10% complication rate, and requires labour-intensive and expensive histological examination to identify disease. A rapid, accurate and cost-effective non-surgical technique able to detect micrometastatic deposits of melanoma in regional lymph nodes would be of great benefit. Fine needle aspiration biopsies and tissue specimens were obtained from lymph nodes from 18 patients undergoing node resection for metastatic melanoma and five patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy. One-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was undertaken at 360 MHz (8.5 T). Lymph nodes were cut into 3 mm thick slices and embedded. Four sequential 5 µm tissue sections were cut from each block and stained, with haematoxylin and eosin, for S100 protein, for HMB45, and again with haematoxylin and eosin, respectively. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy distinguished between benign and malignant lymph node tissue (P < 0.001, separate t-test) and benign and malignant lymph node fine needle aspiration biopsy (P < 0.012) based on the ratio of the integrals of resonances from lipid/other metabolites (1.8-2.5 p.p.m, region) and 'choline' (3.1-3.3 p.p.m. region). In conclusion, one-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a simple fine needle aspiration biopsy can distinguish lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma from uninvolved nodes, providing a rapid, accurate and cost-effective non-surgical technique to assess regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

DOI 10.1097/00008390-200306000-00006
Citations Scopus - 21
2003 Himmelreich U, Allen C, Dowd S, Malik R, Shehan BP, Mountford C, Sorrell TC, 'Identification of metabolites of importance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary cryptococcoma using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy', Microbes and Infection, 5 285-290 (2003)

Primary lung infection with Cryptococcus neoformans is characterised by circumscribed lesions (cryptococcomas). To identify cryptococcal and/or host products of importance in path... [more]

Primary lung infection with Cryptococcus neoformans is characterised by circumscribed lesions (cryptococcomas). To identify cryptococcal and/or host products of importance in pathogenesis, we applied proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which identifies mobile compounds present in complex mixtures, to experimental pulmonary cryptococcomas from rats. Magnetic resonance experiments were performed on cryptococcomas (n = 10) and healthy lungs (n = 8). Signal assignment to key metabolites was confirmed by homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear NMR correlation spectroscopy. Cryptococcal metabolites, dominating spectra from cryptococcomas included the stress protectants, trehalose and mannitol, acetate, and in some animals, ethanol. Glycerophosphorylcholine was also abundant in cryptococcomas, consistent with hydrolysis of phospholipids in vivo by the cryptococcal enzyme, phospholipase B (PLB). PLB has been identified by molecular studies as a cryptococcal virulence determinant. We propose that PLB secreted by cryptococci promotes tissue invasion by hydrolysing host phospholipids, such as dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, which is abundant in pulmonary surfactant, and lung cell membrane phospholipids. Our results confirm the utility of NMR spectroscopy in studies of microbial pathogenesis. © 2003 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S1286-4579(03)00028-5
Citations Scopus - 25
2002 Soper R, Himmelreich U, Painter D, Somorjai RL, Lean CL, Dolenko B, et al., 'Pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma and its precursors using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a statistical classification strategy', PATHOLOGY, 34 417-422 (2002)
DOI 10.1080/0031302021000009324
Citations Web of Science - 34
2001 Mountford CE, Somorjai RL, Malycha P, Gluch L, Lean C, Russell P, et al., 'Diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy of fine-needle aspirates analysed using a statistical classification strategy', British Journal of Surgery, 88 1234-1240 (2001)

Background: The aim was to develop robust classifiers to analyse magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data of fine-needle aspirates taken from breast tumours. The resulting data ... [more]

Background: The aim was to develop robust classifiers to analyse magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data of fine-needle aspirates taken from breast tumours. The resulting data could provide computerized, classification-based diagnosis and prognostic indicators. Methods: Fine-needle aspirate biopsies obtained at the time of surgery for both benign and malignant breast diseases were analysed by one-dimensional proton MRS at 8.5 Tesla. Diagnostic correlation was performed between the spectra and standard pathology reports, including the presence of vascular invasion by the primary cancer and involvement of the excised axillary lymph nodes. Results: Malignant tissue was distinguished from benign lesions with an overall accuracy of 93 per cent. From the same spectra, lymph node involvement was predicted with an overall accuracy of 95 per cent, and tumour vascular invasion with an overall accuracy of 94 per cent. Conclusion: The pathology, nodal involvement and tumour vascular invasion were predicted by computerized statistical classification of the proton MRS spectrum from a fine-needle aspirate biopsy taken from the primary breast lesion.

DOI 10.1046/j.0007-1323.2001.01864.x
Citations Scopus - 87
2001 Himmelreich U, Dzendrowskyj TE, Allen C, Dowd S, Malik R, Shehan BP, et al., 'Cryptococcomas distinguished from gliomas with MR spectroscopy: an experimental rat and cell culture study.', Radiology, 220 122-128 (2001)
DOI 10.1148/radiology.220.1.r01jl25122
2001 Bourne R, Himmelreich U, Sharma A, Mountford C, Sorrell T, 'Identification of Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus by multivariate analysis of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic data from plate cultures', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39 2916-2923 (2001)

A new fingerprinting technique with the potential for rapid identification of bacteria was developed by combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with multivariate... [more]

A new fingerprinting technique with the potential for rapid identification of bacteria was developed by combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with multivariate statistical analysis. This resulted in an objective identification strategy for common clinical isolates belonging to the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and the Streptococcus milleri group. Duplicate cultures of 104 different isolates were examined one or more times using 1H MRS. A total of 312 cultures were examined. An optimized classifier was developed using a bootstrapping process and a seven-group linear discriminant analysis to provide objective classification of the spectra. Identification of isolates was based on consistent high-probability classification of spectra from duplicate cultures and achieved 92% agreement with conventional methods of identification. Fewer than 1% of isolates were identified incorrectly. Identification of the remaining 7% of isolates was defined as indeterminate.

DOI 10.1128/JCM.39.8.2916-2923.2001
Citations Scopus - 30
1998 Malycha P, Mountford C, 'Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and breast cancer', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 68 859-862 (1998)
DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1622.1998.01480.x
Citations Scopus - 5
1997 Mackinnon WB, Barry PA, Malycha PL, Gillett DJ, Russell P, Lean CL, et al., 'Fine-needle biopsy specimens of benign breast lesions distinguished from invasive cancer ex vivo with proton MR spectroscopy', Radiology, 204 661-666 (1997)

PURPOSE: To determine whether invasive breast cancer can be distinguished from benign lesions with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy ex vivo on the basis of altered cell... [more]

PURPOSE: To determine whether invasive breast cancer can be distinguished from benign lesions with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy ex vivo on the basis of altered cellular chemistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen fine-needle biopsy specimens were obtained in 191 patients undergoing surgery and were analyzed with proton MR spectroscopy. MR spectroscopic and histopathologic findings were compared. RESULTS: Invasive carcinoma produced increased signal at 3.25 ppm, attributable to choline-containing metabolites. Discrimination between invasive carcinoma (n = 82), benign lesions (n = 106), or carcinoma in situ (n = 17) was based on the resonance intensity at 3.25 ppm standardized to the resonance at 3.05 ppm (P < .001). The ratio of peak height intensities of resonances at 3.25 to those at 3.05 ppm was less than 1.7 in 102 of the 106 normal or benign lesions. All carcinoma in situ specimens with comedonecrosis or a microinvasive component (n = 6) were categorized at MR spectroscopy with invasive carcinoma, while others with in situ disease alone were categorized with benign lesions (n = 11). The sensitivity and specificity of MR spectroscopy in fine-needle biopsy specimens in distinguishing benign lesions from invasive cancer were 95% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Proton MR spectroscopy of fine-needle biopsy specimens provides objective diagnostic information that complements findings of conventional preoperative investigations of breast lesions.

Citations Scopus - 111
1997 Mountford CE, Doran S, Lean CL, Russell P, 'Cancer pathology in the year 2000', Biophysical Chemistry, 68 127-135 (1997)

The last one hundred and fifty years has produced the mature and sophisticated discipline of histopathology, yet still leaves the diagnosis of human cancer, by the best available ... [more]

The last one hundred and fifty years has produced the mature and sophisticated discipline of histopathology, yet still leaves the diagnosis of human cancer, by the best available technique, as more art than science. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) ex vivo identifies the chemical markers of established pathobiological disorders within excised biopsies and fine needle aspirates, in particular, those associated with the development and progression of malignant disease. Alterations to cellular chemistry monitored by I H MRS allow distinction between invasive and pre- invasive lesions of the uterine cervix [1], and separate truly benign follicular neoplasms from follicular carcinomas on analysis of fine needle aspirates containing as few as 106 cells [2,3]. 1H chemical shift imaging (CSI) determines the spatial location of these chemical changes and provides insight into the chemistry of neoplastic transformation [4,5]. It is our hypothesis that, by the year 2000, CSI will aid image guided biopsy techniques and that correlation of biopsy histology with in vivo localised 1H MRS data will: (a) lead to improved assessment of the extent of malignant disease and (b) establish the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo 1H MRS for the simultaneous determination of the size, location and neoplastic potential of a tumour mass.

DOI 10.1016/S0301-4622(97)00024-0
Citations Scopus - 18
1996 Delikatny EJ, Roman SK, Hancock R, Jeitner TM, Lander CM, Rideout DC, Mountford CE, 'Tetraphenylphosphonium chloride induced MR-visible lipid accumulation in a malignant human breast cell line', International Journal of Cancer, 67 72-79 (1996)

The effect of the cationic lipophilic phosphonium salt tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPP) on a human malignant breast cell line, DU4475, was monitored with proton nuclear magne... [more]

The effect of the cationic lipophilic phosphonium salt tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPP) on a human malignant breast cell line, DU4475, was monitored with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MRS). TPP caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in resonances arising from MR-visible lipid as measured by the CH2/CH3 ratio in the 1-dimensional 1H MR spectrum. Two-dimensional MRS identified increases in the glycerophosphocholine/lysine cross-peak ratio and corresponding decreases in the phosphocholine/lysine ratio in a dose-dependent fashion in TPP-treated cells. Lipid metabolic changes are discussed in the light of other MR experiments, and the data indicate that accumulation of MR-visible lipids may arise from the rearrangement of phospholipids accompanying mitochondrial destruction or from the catabolism of phospholipids associated with early events in the cytotoxic process.

DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960703)67:1<72::AID-IJC13>3.0.CO;2-E
Citations Scopus - 35
1996 Delikatny EJ, Lander CM, Jeitner TM, Hancock R, Mountford CE, 'Modulation of MR-visible mobile lipid levels by cell culture conditions and correlations with chemotactic response', International Journal of Cancer, 65 238-245 (1996)

A transformed murine fibroblast cell line has been used to assess which criteria govern the appearance of a lipid pool that is mobile on the MR time scale. A high-resolution proto... [more]

A transformed murine fibroblast cell line has been used to assess which criteria govern the appearance of a lipid pool that is mobile on the MR time scale. A high-resolution proton MR signal arising from neutral lipids, including triglyceride and cholesteryl esters, has previously been associated with membrane events in stimulated, transformed and malignant cells. We report that the attenuation of cellular proliferation by confluence or low pH caused significant increases in MR-visible lipid and that the lipid signal could be amplified at high density by the removal of serum. A significant decrease in chemotactic response accompanied the culture of cells at high density, but chemotactic response was not generally linked to alteration of the lipid signal. The appearance of the signal was also not correlated with the proportion of cells in any phase of the cell cycle. Significant changes in the MR-visible pools of the lipid metabolites choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine were measured under the culture conditions employed with 2D MRS and suggest that MR-visible lipid may arise from the catabolism of phospholipids.

DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19960117)65:2<238::AID-IJC18>3.0.CO;2-9
Citations Scopus - 33
1996 Mackinnon WB, Delbridge L, Russell P, Lean CL, May GL, Doran S, et al., 'Two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for tissue characterization of thyroid neoplasms', WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY, 20 841-847 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 19
1996 Rutter A, Mackinnon WB, Huschtscha LI, Mountford CE, 'A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of aging and transformed human fibroblasts', Experimental Gerontology, 31 669-686 (1996)

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) has been used to monitor changes occurring during aging and transformation in human lung fibroblasts. Aging was studied in MRC-5 ce... [more]

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) has been used to monitor changes occurring during aging and transformation in human lung fibroblasts. Aging was studied in MRC-5 cells from nonsenescent (early passage) to presenescent (late passage) and senescence. Nonsenescent cells infected with SV40 virus (pretransformed) were monitored through crisis and subsequent immortalization. Aging changes were observed with one- and two- dimensional MR spectra. Cholesterol and lipid resonances were significantly increased from nonsenescent cultures to senescence. These changes could be caused by chemical or structural changes in the plasma membrane or in intracellular lipid pools. In contrast, choline levels rose from nonsenescent to presenescent cells but at senescence dropped to that of nonsenescent cells. Increased choline levels are often associated with increased cellular proliferation. After SV40 infection of MRC-5 cells there was an increase of cholesterol and lipid levels that peaked at crisis. Newly immortalized cells exhibited a drop in cholesterol and lipid to nonsenescent cell levels, but these rose again in established immortalized cells. In contrast to presensescent cultures, the levels of choline gradually increased from pretransformed to crisis phase but still continued to rise after immortalization. Thus, 1H MRS illustrates similarities in lipid behavior at senescence and crisis, whereas the choline levels are different.

DOI 10.1016/S0531-5565(96)00076-9
Citations Scopus - 10
1996 Ende D, Rutter A, Russell P, Mountford CE, 'Chemical shift imaging of human colorectal tissue (Ex vivo)', NMR in Biomedicine, 9 179-183 (1996)

The spatial location of MR visible lipid in the wall of the normal human colon, and in carcinomatous colonic tissue has been documented using proton chemical shift imaging, one- a... [more]

The spatial location of MR visible lipid in the wall of the normal human colon, and in carcinomatous colonic tissue has been documented using proton chemical shift imaging, one- and two-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histochemical staining. Following dissection of the mucosal and submucosal layers of normal colon, these techniques showed high levels of neutral lipid distributed in the submucosal layer. Relatively less lipid was observed in the mucosal layer. Histochemical staining confirmed that the majority of the neutral lipid was in the submucosa, extracellular, and in the lymphatic channels. Carcinomatous tissue gave a variable lipid signal which histochemical staining identified as being from turnout stroma, necrotic and degenerate tumour cells and macrophages.

DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199606)9:4<179::AID-NBM407>3.0.CO;2-N
Citations Scopus - 8
1996 Rutter A, Kunnecke B, Dowd S, Russell P, Delbridge L, Mountford CE, 'Proton magnetic resonance and human thyroid neoplasia .3. Ex vivo chemical-shift microimaging', JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE SERIES B, 110 240-248 (1996)
DOI 10.1006/jmrb.1996.0039
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 8
1995 SOMORJAI RL, NIKULIN AE, PIZZI N, JACKSON D, SCARTH G, DOLENKO B, et al., 'COMPUTERIZED CONSENSUS DIAGNOSIS - A CLASSIFICATION STRATEGY FOR THE ROBUST ANALYSIS OF MR SPECTRA .1. APPLICATION TO H-1 SPECTRA OF THYROID NEOPLASMS', MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, 33 257-263 (1995)
DOI 10.1002/mrm.1910330217
Citations Web of Science - 78
1995 MACKINNON WB, RUSSELL P, MAY GL, MOUNTFORD CE, 'CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN OVARIAN EPITHELIAL TUMORS (EX-VIVO) BY PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER, 5 211-221 (1995)
DOI 10.1046/j.1525-1438.1995.05030211.x
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 28
1995 LEAN CL, DELBRIDGE L, RUSSELL P, MAY GL, MACKINNON WB, ROMAN S, et al., 'DIAGNOSIS OF FOLLICULAR THYROID LESIONS BY PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ON FINE-NEEDLE BIOPSY', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, 80 1306-1311 (1995)
DOI 10.1210/jc.80.4.1306
Citations Scopus - 37Web of Science - 38
1994 RUSSELL P, LEAN CL, DELBRIDGE L, MAY GL, DOWD S, MOUNTFORD CE, 'PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE AND HUMAN THYROID NEOPLASIA .1. DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 96 383-388 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0002-9343(94)90071-X
Citations Scopus - 65Web of Science - 65
1994 Mackinnon WB, Huschtscha L, Dent K, Hancock R, Paraskeva C, Mountford CE, 'Correlation of cellular differentiation in human colorectal carcinoma and adenoma cells lines with metabolite profiles determined by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy', International Journal of Cancer, 59 248-261 (1994)

The aim was to determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could grade human colorectal cells of differing malignant potential. A cell model of tumour developme... [more]

The aim was to determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could grade human colorectal cells of differing malignant potential. A cell model of tumour development and progression comprising 2 non-tumorigenic adenoma lines and 4 carcinoma lines of increasing tumorigenicity was chosen. A gradual reduction in cellular differentiation and an accumulation of genetic alterations from adenoma to carcinoma characterized the selected cell lines. One-dimensional and 2-dimensional MRS showed that reduced differentiation in the cell model correlated with an increase in the levels of lipid, metabolites, the glycosylation intermediate uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine and cell surface fucosylation. Mutations involving the K-ras, APC and DCC genes are present both in adenoma- and in carcinoma-derived lines in this model, but the first evidence of an abnormality in the p53 gene was concomitant with the cells' ability to grow as a tumour in athymic nude mice. This genetic change coincided with the detection, by MRS, of UDP-hexose (ribose moiety, 2D MRS cross peak between H2 at 4.38 ppm and HI at 5.99 ppm) and the appearance of an additional fucosyl resonance (cross peak between-CH3 at 1.41 and H5 at 4.30 ppm) in the least tumorigenic of the carcinoma cell lines. An increase in complexity of the fucosylation spectral pattern was observed with further cellular de-differentiation and increased tumorigenicity. Collectively these data support the existence of an adenomacarcinoma sequence.

DOI 10.1002/ijc.2910590218
Citations Scopus - 52
1994 Mountford CE, Mackinnon WB, 'Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lymphocytes: An historical perspective', ImmunoMethods, 4 98-112 (1994)

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to elucidate alterations to cellular chemistry associated with specific biological functions. It became apparent that this type ... [more]

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to elucidate alterations to cellular chemistry associated with specific biological functions. It became apparent that this type of information was present in the magnetic resonance spectra from intact viable lymphocytes in the late 1970s. It was not until the 1980s, however, that one-dimensional multipulse sequences were used to filter the large signal contributions from water and fat, which had until then masked weaker signals from other molecules. When this technology was combined with two-dimensional spectroscopy, unambiguous assignment of the biologically relevant chemical species became possible. In vitro activated, stimulated, transformed, and malignant lymphocytes, as well as embryonic fibroblasts and malignant cells of epithelial origin, all gave rise to a strong triglyceride spectrum and resonances from a multitude of cellular metabolites. Two-dimensional spectroscopy and the analyses of highly purified membranes determined that the triglyceride signals originated, at least in part, from the plasma membrane. Based on physicochemical data, a new model for the structural arrangement of plasma membrane lipid in these cells was proposed. While differences exist between the proton magnetic resonance spectra of stimulated lymphocytes and malignant cells in vitro, they share a high-resolution lipid spectrum. In tissue, however, the presence of activated lymphocytes does not always produce the lipid spectrum, particularly in the vicinity of tumors.

DOI 10.1006/immu.1994.1012
Citations Scopus - 13
1994 KUNNECKE B, DELIKATNY EJ, RUSSELL P, HUNTER JC, MOUNTFORD CE, 'PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE AND HUMAN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA .2. EX-VIVO CHEMICAL-SHIFT MICROIMAGING', JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE SERIES B, 104 135-142 (1994)
DOI 10.1006/jmrb.1994.1066
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
1993 MACKINNON WB, DYNE M, HANCOCK R, GRANT AJ, RUSSELL P, MOUNTFORD CE, 'MALIGNANCY-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF WILD-TYPE AND DRUG-RESISTANT CHINESE-HAMSTER OVARY CELLS', PATHOLOGY, 25 268-276 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
1993 DELIKATNY EJ, RUSSELL P, HUNTER JC, HANCOCK R, ATKINSON KH, VANHAAFTENDAY C, MOUNTFORD CE, 'PROTON MR AND HUMAN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA - EX-VIVO SPECTROSCOPY ALLOWS DISTINCTION OF INVASIVE-CARCINOMA OF THE CERVIX FROM CARCINOMA IN-SITU AND OTHER PREINVASIVE LESIONS', RADIOLOGY, 188 791-796 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 74Web of Science - 76
1993 Mountford CE, Lean CL, Mackinnon WB, Russell P, 'The Use of Proton MR in Cancer Pathology', Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, 27 173-215 (1993)
DOI 10.1016/S0066-4103(08)60267-7
Citations Scopus - 33
1993 MOUNTFORD CE, LEAN CL, HANCOCK R, DOWD S, MACKINNON WB, TATTERSALL MHN, RUSSELL P, 'MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY DETECTS CANCER IN DRAINING LYMPH-NODES', INVASION & METASTASIS, 13 57-71 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 31
1993 Lean CL, Newland RC, Ende DA, Bokey EL, Smith ICP, Mountford CE, 'Assessment of human colorectal biopsies by 1H MRS: Correlation with histopathology', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 30 525-533 (1993)

Samples (3 mm3) of histopathologically normal (n = 15) and carcinomatous tissue (n = 15) were obtained from colectomy specimens and examined by 1H MRS. A combination of one- and t... [more]

Samples (3 mm3) of histopathologically normal (n = 15) and carcinomatous tissue (n = 15) were obtained from colectomy specimens and examined by 1H MRS. A combination of one- and two-dimensional spectra, obtained with appropriate acquisition and processing parameters, provide multiple diagnostic parameters allowing the distinction between normal and carcinomatous tissue. The diagnostic parameters include resonances from choline, choline-based, and other metabolites, cell surface fucosylation, and altered lipid profiles. Tissues histopathologically classified as normal, while remaining distinct from the malignant spectral profile, were found to fit into two categories, one of which had some of the spectral characteristics of malignancy. These results indicate that 1H MRS identifies abnormal colorectal mucosa, which is not morphologically manifest. Such abnormalities have been reported previously to exist in premalignant colorectal tissue by monoclonal antibody studies. Collectively, these results suggest that a clinical study of colorectal biopsies by 1H MRS could provide support for the use of MRS as an adjunct to current pathological procedures.

DOI 10.1002/mrm.1910300502
Citations Scopus - 54
1992 Lean CL, Mackinnon WB, Delikatny EJ, Whitehead RH, Mountford CE, 'Cell-surface fucosylation and magnetic resonance spectroscopy characterization of human malignant colorectal cells', Biochemistry, 31 11095-11105 (1992)

Proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to distinguish lowly and highly tumorigenic human malignant colorectal cell lines based on differences in lipid, ch... [more]

Proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to distinguish lowly and highly tumorigenic human malignant colorectal cell lines based on differences in lipid, choline, and fucose resonances. The spectral patterns were comparable with those obtained for human colorectal biopsy specimens, indicating that cells grown in vitro are suitable for documenting colorectal tumor biology. For the first time, two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) has been used to assess the fucosylation state on the surface of intact viable cells, and differences were recorded between the highly and lowly tumorigenic cell lines. Four methyl-methine cross-peaks were assigned to covalently linked fucose on the basis of increases in volume following the addition of free fucose. Both cell lines incorporated the same amount of exogenous free fucose as determined chemically, but the COSY spectra indicated that the fucose was distributed differently by each cell line. Of the four sites containing MR-visible bound fucose, one was common to both cell lines, two characteristic of the highly tumorigenic line, and the remaining site unique to the lowly tumorigenic cells. Material released from the highly tumorigenic cells in response to increased cell density was also fucosylated (whereas shed material from lowly tumorigenic cells was not), suggesting a biological role for shed fucosylated antigens in tumor aggression.

DOI 10.1021/bi00160a020
Citations Scopus - 62
1992 Mackinnon WB, May GL, Mountford CE, 'Esterified cholesterol and triglyceride are present in plasma membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells', European Journal of Biochemistry, 205 827-839 (1992)

The chemical composition of highly purified plasma membrane preparations from a series of malignant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines were undertaken to ascertain if neutral ... [more]

The chemical composition of highly purified plasma membrane preparations from a series of malignant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines were undertaken to ascertain if neutral lipid, including cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol, were present. Triacylglycerols (33-41 nmol/mg total lipid) and cholesteryl ester (226-271 nmol/mg) were measured in the plasma membranes and differences in the chemical composition of these membranes recorded. The most significant difference was a gradual decrease in the level of free cholesterol from wild type (312 ± 7 nmol/mg total plasma membrane lipid), Pod RII-6 (268 ± 64 nmol/mg total plasma membrane lipid), Col R-22 (243 ± 39 nmol/mg total plasma membrane lipid) to EOT (204 ± 20 nmol/mg total plasma membrane lipid), with a concomitant increase in the degree of saturation of the cholesteryl ester fatty acids, particularly palmitic acid. No statistically significant differences were apparent in the chemical composition of the whole cells in this series. The one-dimensional (1D) 1H-NMR spectra of the four malignant cell lines showed a gradation in intensity of lipid resonances, in the order of wild type, Pod RII-6, Col R-22 and EOT, with EOT having the strongest lipid spectrum. Interestingly, the increase in acyl-chain signal intensities in the 1H-NMR spectra of this series of CHO cells and emergence of signals from cholesterol and/or cholesteryl ester, coincide with alterations in the amount of free cholesterol and the degree of saturation of the fatty-acyl chain of the esterified cholesterol in the plasma membranes. It is our hypothesis that, together, cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol form domains in the plasma membrane and that when the cholesteryl ester has a largely saturated fatty acid content, the lipids are in isotropic liquid phase and hence visible by NMR.

Citations Scopus - 41
1992 MACKINNON WB, HANCOCK R, DYNE M, RUSSELL P, MOUNTFORD CE, 'EVALUATION OF AN INVITRO INVASION ASSAY FOR USE ON SOLID TISSUE SAMPLES AND CULTURED-CELLS', INVASION & METASTASIS, 12 241-252 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 19
1991 Delikatny EJ, Hull WE, Mountford CE, 'The effect of altering time domains and window functions in two-dimensional proton COSY spectra of biological specimens', Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), 94 563-573 (1991)

The time constraints imposed by the limited viability of biopsy and cell samples require careful selection of both acquisition and processing parameters for two-dimensional NMR sp... [more]

The time constraints imposed by the limited viability of biopsy and cell samples require careful selection of both acquisition and processing parameters for two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The consequences of truncating 2D NMR data sets in the t1 dimension are discussed in terms of the inherent loss of resolution versus the time constraints imposed by the degrading sample. The choice of window functions during processing is shown to have dramatic effects on the resolution, sensitivity, and appearance of 2D spectra of biological specimens containing lipid. For magnitude-mode COSY spectra, sine-bell window functions in both domains generally give the best combination of resolution, lineshape, and signal-to-noise. However, components with short spin-spin relaxation values (including lipid and oligopeptides) are better visualized by applying Lorentz-Gauss window functions or by shortening the time domain. This is demonstrated with an example of a 2D data set of cultured malignant melanoma cells processed under various conditions. Each cell line and tissue type (and the molecules of interest) must be considered independently when acquiring, analyzing, and presenting 2D NMR spectra. © 1991.

DOI 10.1016/0022-2364(91)90143-H
Citations Scopus - 33
1991 Holmes KT, Mountford CE, 'Identification of triglyceride in malignant cells', Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), 93 407-409 (1991)
DOI 10.1016/0022-2364(91)90016-M
Citations Scopus - 12
1991 WRIGHT LC, MAY GL, MACKINNON WB, GREGORY P, HOLMES KT, DYNE M, et al., 'TUMOR EVOLUTION IN RATS MONITORED BY CHANGES TO SERUM AND LIPOPROTEINS', INVASION & METASTASIS, 11 332-347 (1991)
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1991 Lean CL, Mackinnon WB, Mountford CE, 'Fucose in 1H COSY spectra of plasma membrane fragments shed from human malignant colorectal cells', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 20 306-311 (1991)

The methyl-methine cross peak of bound fucose has been assigned in the COSY spectrum of plasma membrane shed from human malignant colorectal cells. This cross peak (1.33-4.27 ppm)... [more]

The methyl-methine cross peak of bound fucose has been assigned in the COSY spectrum of plasma membrane shed from human malignant colorectal cells. This cross peak (1.33-4.27 ppm), which is superimposed on the methyl-methine cross peak of threonine, was assigned following hydrolysis of the sample. Acid hydrolysis led to a 28 ± 5% reduction in the intensity of the cross peak and the appearance of the a and ß forms of fucose. Chemical analysis confirmed the release of free fucose. Lactate anion, which was not perturbed by the hydrolysis, was used as an internal standard.

Citations Scopus - 25
1990 MOUNTFORD CE, DELIKATNY EJ, DYNE M, HOLMES KT, MACKINNON WB, FORD R, et al., 'UTERINE CERVICAL PUNCH BIOPSY SPECIMENS CAN BE ANALYZED BY H-1 MRS', MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE, 13 324-331 (1990)
DOI 10.1002/mrm.1910130216
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 47
1989 Holmes KT, Dyne M, Williams PG, May GL, Tripp E, Wright LC, Mountford CE, 'Vinblastine sensitivity of leukaemic lymphoblasts modulated by serum lipid', FEBS Letters, 244 103-107 (1989)

The high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectrum of leukaemic lymphoblasts is characteristic of neutral lipid in an isotropic environment. When such lymphoblasts are selecte... [more]

The high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectrum of leukaemic lymphoblasts is characteristic of neutral lipid in an isotropic environment. When such lymphoblasts are selected for resistance to the anticancer drug vinblastine, the intensity of this spectrum increases with increasing drug resistance. A reversal of this trend can be achieved by growing cells in delipidated serum, whereby lipid spectrum and drug resistance are diminished. However, both can be restored by subsequent regrowth in normal medium. Thus, although detectable genetic changes accompany the development of vinblastine resistance, the expression of these changes can be modulated by environmental lipid. © 1989.

DOI 10.1016/0014-5793(89)81172-X
Citations Scopus - 3
1989 WRIGHT LC, SULLIVAN DR, MULLER M, DYNE M, TATTERSALL MHN, MOUNTFORD CE, 'ELEVATED APOLIPOPROTEIN(A) LEVELS IN CANCER-PATIENTS', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, 43 241-244 (1989)
DOI 10.1002/ijc.2910430212
Citations Scopus - 37Web of Science - 60
1989 Mackinnon WB, Dyne M, Holmes KT, Mountford CE, Gupta RS, 'Further evidence that the narrow 1H magnetic resonance signals from malignant cells do not arise from intracellular lipid droplets.', NMR in biomedicine, 2 161-164 (1989)

1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of intact viable malignant cells yields high resolution spectra from lipid. In previous studies we have provided evidence that these signal... [more]

1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of intact viable malignant cells yields high resolution spectra from lipid. In previous studies we have provided evidence that these signals are generated by neutral lipid located in the plasma membrane in unique domains. We show that intracellular lipid droplets do not contribute to the MR signal. Two malignant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, EOT and its parental line WT were studied. The EOT cells have a more highly resolved lipid spectrum than the WT, a result which correlates with slightly increased levels of triglyceride in highly purified plasma membranes. The intracellular lipid droplets of both lines were quantified using both fluorescence and electron microscopy but no significant differences were observed. Together these results provide evidence that narrow 1H MR signals from malignant cells arise from neutral lipid in the plasma membrane, rather than from intracellular lipid droplets.

Citations Scopus - 24
1988 Mackinnon WB, Mountford CE, 'Assessment of enzyme inhibition or stimulation in plasma membrane preparations', Analytical Biochemistry, 175 386-389 (1988)

The purity of isolated plasma membranes is routinely judged by the activity of enzymes present both in this membrane and other locations in the cell. However, since enzyme inhibit... [more]

The purity of isolated plasma membranes is routinely judged by the activity of enzymes present both in this membrane and other locations in the cell. However, since enzyme inhibition and/or stimulation often occurs following disruption of the cell, the question as to which enzyme(s) provides a reliable marker of membrane purity should be considered. We have devised a simple method with which to address this problem. Inhibition or stimulation of plasma membrane marker enzymes can be rapidly assessed in cell homogenates and subfractions by mixing both samples, with known enzyme activity, and observing any deviation from the expected combined activity. Should the activity remain constant that enzyme can be used to gauge the purity of the plasma membrane preparation. Of the four putative plasma membrane marker enzymes examined only one, ¿-glutamyltranspeptidase appeared to give a reliable purity measurement in the cell system studied. © 1988.

DOI 10.1016/0003-2697(88)90561-1
Citations Scopus - 2
1988 Wright LC, May GL, Gregory P, Dyne M, Holmes KT, Williams PG, Mountford CE, 'Inhibition of metastatic potential by fucosidase: An NMR study identifies a cell surface metastasis marker', Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 37 49-59 (1988)
Citations Scopus - 20
1988 Williams PG, Saunders JK, Dyne M, Mountford CE, Holmes KT, 'Application of a T2-filtered COSY experiment to identify the origin of slowly relaxing species in normal and malignant tissue', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 7 463-471 (1988)

The 1H NMR spectrum of whole cells consists of many overlapping resonances which are difficult to resolve into individual components. We have developed a modification of the COSY ... [more]

The 1H NMR spectrum of whole cells consists of many overlapping resonances which are difficult to resolve into individual components. We have developed a modification of the COSY pulse sequence which filters out resonances on the basis of their T2 relaxation rate. When applied to malignant cells, this technique has helped to identify fucose as the origin of the slowly relaxing species associated with their metastatic capacity. The technique can also be used to obtain T2 relaxation rates for individual resonances in a broad envelope of lines.

Citations Scopus - 13
1988 Holmes KT, Mackinnon WB, May GL, Wright LC, Dyne M, Tattersall MH, et al., 'Hyperlipidemia as a biochemical basis of magnetic resonance plasma test for cancer.', NMR in biomedicine, 1 44-49 (1988)

An increase in the plasma levels of apoprotein B-containing lipoproteins is the basis of the magnetic resonance (MR) test for cancer. The narrow MR line width reported by Fossel a... [more]

An increase in the plasma levels of apoprotein B-containing lipoproteins is the basis of the magnetic resonance (MR) test for cancer. The narrow MR line width reported by Fossel and co-workers to be associated with the presence of malignant disease is due to a relative increase of very low density lipoprotein. In contrast, the plasma from healthy controls, which has a much broader spectrum, has a higher proportion of high density lipoprotein. However, plasma from patients with hyperlipidemia unrelated to cancer also show narrow MR line widths and are therefore a confounding variable. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the plasma from 253 patients with a range of lipid related diseases and cancer, and 28 controls. A significant difference (p less than or equal to 0.0005) of 10 Hz exists between the mean line width of the controls and hyperlipidemics without malignant disease. However, in patients with solid tumours a difference of 7 Hz (p less than or equal to 0.0005) in the mean values is recorded although there is an overlap of 6 Hz compared with the controls. Moreover the MRS method was not found to distinguish patients with lymphomas from the control population. The index was not found to be related to patient age or tumour burden.

Citations Scopus - 21
1988 Mountford CE, Wright LC, 'Organization of lipids in the plasma membranes of malignant and stimulated cells: a new model', Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 13 172-177 (1988)

Neutral lipids make up about 6% of the lipid content of plasma membranes from malignant cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) identifies this neutral lipid as predominantly... [more]

Neutral lipids make up about 6% of the lipid content of plasma membranes from malignant cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) identifies this neutral lipid as predominantly triglyceride which is not in bilayer form. A new structural model is proposed whereby neutral lipid domains are intercalated with the bilayer lipid of the plasma membrane. A functional role for these neutral lipid domains is also proposed based on plasma membrane alterations which occur with cellular stimulation, with the acquisition of resistance to anti-cancer drugs, and in metastatic cells. © 1988.

DOI 10.1016/0968-0004(88)90145-4
Citations Scopus - 107
1987 MOUNTFORD CE, WRIGHT LC, DYNE M, MAY GL, MACKINNON WB, HOLMES KT, et al., 'PROTEOLIPID IDENTIFIED BY MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN PLASMA OF A PATIENT WITH BORDERLINE OVARIAN TUMOR', LANCET, 1 829-834 (1987)
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 51
1987 MOUNTFORD CE, TATTERSALL MHN, 'PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND TUMOR-DETECTION', CANCER SURVEYS, 6 285-314 (1987)
Citations Web of Science - 48
1987 Holmes KT, Williams PG, King NJC, May GL, Dyne M, Bloom M, Mountford CE, 'A comparison of the chemical analyses of cell lipids with their complete proton NMR spectrum', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 4 567-574 (1987)
Citations Scopus - 9
1986 Holmes KT, Williams PG, May GL, Gregory P, Wright LC, Dyne M, Mountford CE, 'Cell surface involvement in cancer metastasis: an NMR study', FEBS Letters, 202 122-126 (1986)

NMR spectroscopy is one of the few techniques which has the sensitivity to detect subtle changes to the surface chemistry of cells. It has previously been demonstrated that high r... [more]

NMR spectroscopy is one of the few techniques which has the sensitivity to detect subtle changes to the surface chemistry of cells. It has previously been demonstrated that high resolution 1H NMR methods can distinguish tumour cells with the capacity to metastasise and this information appears to arise from a type of proteolipid in or attached to the plasma membrane. Here we report that the 1H NMR signal, which we have used to identify metastatic cells in rat tumours, is significantly reduced in intensity after cultured cells are treated with trypsin/EDTA. The long T2 relaxation value (» 350 ms) observed in metastatic cells is absent after enzyme treatment. 2D scalar correlated NMR (COSY) spectra of these treated cells show that a cross peak normally associated with malignancy and metastatic disease is markedly reduced. These findings indicate that the plasma membrane lipid particle which generates the high resolution spectrum is directly affected by trypsin/EDTA. Alterations to the cell surface properties were also demonstrated in vivo since reduced numbers of metastases were observed in animals injected with enzyme-treated cells. The correlation between the absence of a long T2 relaxation value and the diminished numbers of metastases in animals suggests that the plasma membrane particle is involved in the metastatic process. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0014-5793(86)80661-5
Citations Scopus - 7
1986 Wright LC, May GL, Dyne M, Mountford CE, 'A proteolipid in cancer cells is the origin of their high-resolution NMR spectrum', FEBS Letters, 203 164-168 (1986)

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that the spectrum of a proteolipid complex, isolated from the serum of patients with malignant diseases, is directly... [more]

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that the spectrum of a proteolipid complex, isolated from the serum of patients with malignant diseases, is directly comparable with that obtained from intact cancer cells and solid tumours. These NMR signals have previously been shown to reveal differences between cancer cells with various biological characteristics such as metastatic capacity and drug sensitivity. The proteolipid contains cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, glycolipids, ether-linked lipids, and an apoprotein of unusual electrophoretic mobility. We have yet to confirm the presence of the mRNA reported by others. NMR spectroscopy could be used as a rapid method of identifying the presence of this proteolipid complex in human serum and aiding the diagnosis of malignant disease. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0014-5793(86)80735-9
Citations Scopus - 17
1986 May GL, Wright LC, Holmes KT, Williams PG, Smith IC, Fox RM, Mountford CE, 'Assignment of methylene proton resonances in NMR spectra of embryonic and transformed cells to plasma membrane triglyceride', Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261 3048-3053 (1986)

Some biological characteristics of cancer cells and solid tumors are identificable by the high resolution NMR relaxation behavior of their nonaqueous components. Chemical analysis... [more]

Some biological characteristics of cancer cells and solid tumors are identificable by the high resolution NMR relaxation behavior of their nonaqueous components. Chemical analysis and two-dimensional scalar correlated (COSY) NMR spectroscopy show these resonances arise from neutral lipid in the plasma membrane. Triglyceride is shown to be the main plasma membrane component giving rise to the NMR spectrum, while soluble nonmembrane components account for 90% of the remaining resonances in the spectrum of intact cells. The presence of triglyceride has been detected by chemical analysis in highly purified plasma membranes from two different cell lines. The COSY spectra of cancer cells are comparable with that obtained for the triglyceride-rich very low density human lipoprotein.

Citations Scopus - 108
1986 Bloom M, Holmes KT, Mountford CE, Williams PG, 'Complete proton magnetic resonance in whole cells', Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), 69 73-91 (1986)

The proton magnetic resonance spectrum of whole cells is a complex, composite spectrum with a myriad of dipolar broadened ("broadline") and non-dipolar-broadened ("high-resolution... [more]

The proton magnetic resonance spectrum of whole cells is a complex, composite spectrum with a myriad of dipolar broadened ("broadline") and non-dipolar-broadened ("high-resolution") contributions. Methods of separating and characterizing the different types of components are described and developed using a phospholipid bilayer model membrane and the R13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. It was found that 35 ± 2% of the protons in the 1H NMR spectrum of the R13762 cells are associated with the high-resolution spectrum. Of the remaining 65%, approximately 40% can be assigned to the characteristic fluid membrane dipolar-broadened, super-Lorentzian lines. A further 20% can be assigned to dipolar-broadened lines from membrane proteins and the last 5% to non-dipolar-broadened lines of width several hundred hertz, from rigid parts of cytoplasmic proteins. Quantitative analysis of the narrow methylene peak, which has been used to characterize the metastatic properties of R13762 cells, shows that it contains 7.3 ± 1.6% of all the protons in the cell. The introduction of spectroscopic selection methods such as the CPMG pulse sequence and the Jeener-Broekaert echo sequence has made it possible to simultaneously analyze the broadline and high-resolution characteristics of an intact viable cell. © 1986.

DOI 10.1016/0022-2364(86)90219-2
Citations Scopus - 24
1986 MOUNTFORD CE, MAY GL, WILLIAMS PG, TATTERSALL MHN, RUSSELL P, SAUNDERS JK, et al., 'CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN-TUMORS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY', LANCET, 1 651-653 (1986)
Citations Web of Science - 50
1986 Wright LC, Dyne M, Holmes KT, Romeo T, Mountford CE, 'Cellular resistance to vinblastine is associated with altered respiratory function', Biochemistry International, 13 295-305 (1986)
Citations Scopus - 3
1985 Wright LC, Dyne M, Holmes KT, Mountford CE, 'Phospholipid and ether linked phospholipid content alter with cellular resistance to vinblastine', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 133 539-545 (1985)

The phospholipid and ether linked phospholipid content of leukaemic lymphocytes alters when the cells become resistant to low levels of the anti-cancer drug, vinblastine. Sphingom... [more]

The phospholipid and ether linked phospholipid content of leukaemic lymphocytes alters when the cells become resistant to low levels of the anti-cancer drug, vinblastine. Sphingomyelin and cardiolipin increase, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine and serine decrease in resistant cells. In addition, increases in 1-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidyl choline and 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-phosphatidyl ethanolamine are concomitant with decreased 1,2-diacyl phosphatidyl choline and ethanolamine. Changes to the ultrastructure of the inner half of the plasma membrane bilayer, as a consequence of drug resistance, are illustrated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. © 1985.

DOI 10.1016/0006-291X(85)90940-4
Citations Scopus - 21
1985 Williams PG, Helmer MA, Wright LC, Dyne M, Fox RM, Holmes KT, et al., 'Lipid domain in cancer cell plasma membrane shown by 1H NMR to be similar to a lipoprotein', FEBS Letters, 192 159-164 (1985)

Human blood lipoproteins have been characterised by 1H NMR methods and chemical analysis, and comparisons made with the properties of the triglyceride-rich plasma membrane domain ... [more]

Human blood lipoproteins have been characterised by 1H NMR methods and chemical analysis, and comparisons made with the properties of the triglyceride-rich plasma membrane domain found in cancer cells. By means of selective and non-selective T1 experiments, the lipids in HDL and LDL are shown to be in diffusive exchange. In contrast, the lipids ofchylomicra and VLDL do not exhibit lipid diffusion, and therefore resemble the neutral lipids of cancer cell plasma membranes. 2D scalar correlated NMR (COSY) spectra of cancer cells or solid tumours are similar to those obtained from VLDL and LDL. The long T2 relaxation value observed for neutral lipid methylenes in metastatic cancer cells (>00 ms) was not observed for any of the 4 lipoproteins studied. None of the lipoprotein classes gave a T2 longer than 250 ms. © 1985.

DOI 10.1016/0014-5793(85)80064-8
Citations Scopus - 17
1984 Mountford CE, Mackinnon WB, Bloom M, Elliott Burnell E, Smith ICP, 'NMR methods for characterizing the state of the surfaces of complex mammalian cells', Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 9 323-330 (1984)

It is shown that narrow 1H NMR resonances may be observed in cancer cells, and that these belong to fatty acyl chains of membrane lipids. A variety of NMR techniques such as Gauss... [more]

It is shown that narrow 1H NMR resonances may be observed in cancer cells, and that these belong to fatty acyl chains of membrane lipids. A variety of NMR techniques such as Gaussian-Lorentzian deconvolution, and T1 and T2 measurements, may be used to subdivide these resonances further. The results of these various methods require that in the membrane structures the observed lipids tumble isotropically and sufficiently rapidly to give motionally narrowed 1H NMR lines. © 1984.

DOI 10.1016/0165-022X(84)90016-2
Citations Scopus - 32
1984 Cross KJ, Holmes KT, Mountford CE, Wright PE, 'Assignment of acyl chain resonances from membranes of mammalian cells by two-dimensional NMR methods', Biochemistry, 23 5895-5897 (1984)

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been successfully used to assign resonances in the 1H NMR spectrum of intact viable rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells.... [more]

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been successfully used to assign resonances in the 1H NMR spectrum of intact viable rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Two-dimensional scalar-correlated spectroscopy identifies connectivities for resonances of the lipid acyl chains in the plasma membrane of these cells. We expect that two-dimensional scalar-correlated methods may be of general use for providing unequivocal assignments in the complex and often poorly resolved 1H NMR spectra of cells. © 1984 American Chemical Society.

Citations Scopus - 37
1984 Mountford CE, Wright LC, Holmes KT, Mackinnon WB, Gregory P, Fox RM, 'High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of metastatic cancer cells', Science, 226 1415-1418 (1984)

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of intact cancer cells revealed differences between cells with the capacity to metastasize and those that produce l... [more]

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of intact cancer cells revealed differences between cells with the capacity to metastasize and those that produce locally invasive tumors. The NMR resonances that characterize the metastatic cells were associated with an increased ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid and an increased amount of plasma membrane-bound cholesterol ester. High-resolution NMR streptoscopy could therefore be used to assess the metastatic potential of primary tumors.

DOI 10.1126/science.6505699
Citations Scopus - 60
1982 Mountford CE, Grossman G, Holmes KT, O'Sullivan WJ, Hampson AW, Raison RL, Webster R, 'Effect of monoclonal anti-neuraminidase antibodies on the kinetic behaviour of influenza virus neuraminidase', Molecular Immunology, 19 811-816 (1982)

Neuraminidase from the recombinant influenza virus A/NWSHA-Tokyo/3/67NA HON2 has been shown to exhibit non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The multiphasic behaviour was demonstrated fo... [more]

Neuraminidase from the recombinant influenza virus A/NWSHA-Tokyo/3/67NA HON2 has been shown to exhibit non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The multiphasic behaviour was demonstrated for both the isolated neuraminidase heads and for the intact virus. Interaction of the enzyme with two monoclonal anti-neuraminidase antibodies (WANA 1 and RANA 1), which recognize separate antigenic determinants on the molecule, resulted in hyperbolic kinetic behaviour. While both antibodies abolished the multiphasic kinetics of the enzymic reaction, only WANA 1 altered the Vmax and Km values, indicating that it may in some way inhibit the interaction of enzyme and substrate. © 1982.

DOI 10.1016/0161-5890(82)90007-4
Citations Scopus - 2
1981 Mountford CE, Grossman G, Holmes KT, Hampson AW, Reid GH, 'Interaction of influenza virus with chicken fibroblasts: A proton magnetic resonance study', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 100 1183-1188 (1981)

It has been shown that high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy can be used to study the replication of influenza virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Marked changes in the NMR spectru... [more]

It has been shown that high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy can be used to study the replication of influenza virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Marked changes in the NMR spectrum were observed during the course of viral infection and these depended on the presence of culture medium. Only minor changes were observed when cells were maintained in phosphate buffered saline. These data distinguish influenza from other RNA enveloped viruses which have been reported to cause major spectral changes in the absence of nutrient medium. © 1981.

DOI 10.1016/0006-291X(81)91948-3
Citations Scopus - 3
Show 97 more journal articles

Conference (7 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Ramadan S, Arm J, Silcock J, Santamaria G, Buck J, Roy M, et al., 'LIPID AND METABOLITE DEREGULATION IN THE BREAST TISSUE OF WOMEN CARRYING BRCA1 AND BRCA2 GENETIC MUTATIONS', ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY (2014) [E3]
DOI 10.1111/ajco.12336
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2013 Stanwell PT, Carter J, Russell P, Mountford CE, 'Multiparametric approach to diagnose ovarian lesions preoperatively: Combination of ADC and MRS', Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (2013) [E3]
Co-authors Peter Stanwell
2012 Ramadan S, Baltzer PAT, Lin A, Stanwell PT, Box H, Kaiser WA, Mountford CE, 'L-COSY of breast cancer at 3T', European Journal of Radiology, Jena, Germany (2012) [E1]
Co-authors Peter Stanwell, Saadallah Ramadan
2012 Mountford CE, Schuster C, Baltzer PAT, Malycha P, Kaiser WA, 'MR spectroscopy in the breast clinic is improving', European Journal of Radiology, Jena, Germany (2012) [E3]
Citations Scopus - 1
2011 Cocuzzo D, Keshava N, Lin AP, Ramadan S, Mountford C, 'Algorithms for Characterizing Brain Metabolites in Two-Dimensional in Vivo MR Correlation Spectroscopy' (2011)
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
2011 Cocuzzo D, Keshava N, Lin AP, Ramadan S, Mountford C, 'Algorithms for Characterizing Brain Metabolites in Two-Dimensional in Vivo MR Correlation Spectroscopy', Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, Boston, MA, United States (2011) [E1]
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Saadallah Ramadan
1994 DELBRIDGE L, LEAN CL, RUSSEL P, MAY GL, ROMAN S, DOWD S, et al., 'PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE AND HUMAN THYROID NEOPLASIA-II - POTENTIAL AVOIDANCE OF SURGERY FOR BENIGN FOLLICULAR NEOPLASMS', WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY, HONG KONG, HONG KONG (1994)
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 29
Show 4 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 28
Total funding $3,895,471

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20141 grants / $10,000

Neurochemical dysfunction following concussion and mild traumatic brain injury in 10-16 year olds $10,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford, Professor Zsolt Balogh, Doctor Saadallah Ramadan
Scheme Near Miss Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2014
GNo G1301397
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20133 grants / $437,320

Biomarkers for mTBI, Blast Injury and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)$431,367

Funding body: Department of Defence

Funding body Department of Defence
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford
Scheme Research Support for National Security
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1200918
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Travel for discussions in Erlangen.$5,028

Funding body: Siemens Ltd

Funding body Siemens Ltd
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1300385
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

ANZMAG 2013 / Asia-Pacific NMR, Brisbane Australia, 27-31 October 2013$925

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1301094
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20122 grants / $13,385

Biochemical origin and potential management of chronic pain$12,000

Funding body: Foundation Diane

Funding body Foundation Diane
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford, Dr Edward Vickers
Scheme Research Donation
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1200452
Type Of Funding Donation - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFD
UON Y

ISMRM 20th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, 5 - 11 May 2012$1,385

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1200599
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20111 grants / $1,500

The 17th International biophysics Congress (IUPAB), Beijing China, 30/10/2011 - 3/11/2011$1,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Professor Carolyn Mountford
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2011
GNo G1100871
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

19961 grants / $120,000

NHMRC$120,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1996
Funding Finish 1996
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

19952 grants / $1,439,740

US Army Program$1,172,740

Funding body: US Army

Funding body US Army
Project Team
Scheme US Amry Breast Cancer Research Program
Role Lead
Funding Start 1995
Funding Finish 1998
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Non Competitive
Category 3IFB
UON Y

MRS Breast Cancer$267,000

Application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study breast cancer

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1995
Funding Finish 1997
GNo
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

19942 grants / $135,911

MR Microimaging$120,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Enabling Grants - Special Facilities
Role Lead
Funding Start 1994
Funding Finish 1994
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

Equipment$15,911

Equipment

Funding body: University of Sydney

Funding body University of Sydney
Project Team
Scheme USyd Research Grant Scheme
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1994
Funding Finish 1994
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

19933 grants / $59,900

Leo and Jenny Foundation$35,000

Funding body: Leo & Jenny Leukaemia & Cancer Foundation

Funding body Leo & Jenny Leukaemia & Cancer Foundation
Project Team
Scheme External
Role Lead
Funding Start 1993
Funding Finish 1993
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON Y

Ramaciotti$15,000

Funding body: Ramaciotti Foundations

Funding body Ramaciotti Foundations
Project Team
Scheme Major Equipment Award
Role Lead
Funding Start 1993
Funding Finish 1993
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON Y

MRS technology development$9,900

Funding body: Australian Kidney Foundation

Funding body Australian Kidney Foundation
Project Team
Scheme Equipment
Role Lead
Funding Start 1993
Funding Finish 1993
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON Y

19923 grants / $220,000

MR applied to cancer cells$189,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1992
Funding Finish 1992
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

Leo and Jenny Foundation$20,000

Funding body: Leo & Jenny Leukaemia & Cancer Foundation

Funding body Leo & Jenny Leukaemia & Cancer Foundation
Project Team
Scheme External
Role Lead
Funding Start 1992
Funding Finish 1992
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON Y

MR applied to cancer cells$11,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1992
Funding Finish 1992
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

19911 grants / $18,000

MRS technology development$18,000

Funding body: The University of Sydney

Funding body The University of Sydney
Project Team
Scheme Shared
Role Lead
Funding Start 1991
Funding Finish 1991
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

19901 grants / $510,000

National Institutes of Health$510,000

Funding body: National Institutes of Health

Funding body National Institutes of Health
Project Team
Scheme MRS Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1990
Funding Finish 1990
GNo
Type Of Funding International - Non Competitive
Category 3IFB
UON Y

19892 grants / $186,000

NHMRC$110,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1989
Funding Finish 1989
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

MRS technology development$76,000

Funding body: The University of Sydney

Funding body The University of Sydney
Project Team
Scheme Shared
Role Lead
Funding Start 1989
Funding Finish 1989
GNo
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

19883 grants / $109,926

MRS applied to malignant cells$50,000

Funding body: Ramaciotti Foundations

Funding body Ramaciotti Foundations
Project Team
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 1988
Funding Finish 1988
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

MRS technology development$35,000

Funding body: The University of Sydney

Funding body The University of Sydney
Project Team
Scheme Shared
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1988
Funding Finish 1988
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

Ovarian cultured cells studied by MRS$24,926

Funding body: Private Donation

Funding body Private Donation
Project Team
Scheme Private Donation
Role Lead
Funding Start 1988
Funding Finish 1988
GNo
Type Of Funding Donation - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFD
UON Y

19843 grants / $633,789

Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease$315,000

Preoperative diagnostic

Funding body: Cancer Council NSW

Funding body Cancer Council NSW
Project Team
Scheme Cancer Council funding
Role Lead
Funding Start 1984
Funding Finish 1984
GNo
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

MRS Kidney$213,789

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1984
Funding Finish 1984
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y

Colorectal Cancer$105,000

Funding body: The University of Sydney

Funding body The University of Sydney
Project Team
Scheme Shared
Role Lead
Funding Start 1984
Funding Finish 1994
GNo
Type Of Funding Not Known
Category UNKN
UON Y
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed0
Current1

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.34

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2014 PhD Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to Document Changes in Neurochemistry
Radiology, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle
Principal Supervisor
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News

breast cancer treatment

Breast cancer early warning signal

March 3, 2015

A new magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) technique developed by Australian researchers may potentially reduce or delay the need for preventive mastectomies among women at high risk of breast cancer.

Dr Carolyn Mountford

Global thought leader

May 29, 2014

Professor Carolyn Mountford has received global recognition for her innovative cancer research using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy technology.

Imaging Centre

New Imaging Centre to bring sharper focus on disease

March 14, 2014

A new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) centre boasting the most advanced scanning technology in the Southern Hemisphere was opened today at the Hunter Medical Research Institute in Newcastle NSW, Australia.

MR Centre announced

MR centre announced

August 13, 2013

Magnetic Resonance centre to boost medical research

Professor Carolyn Mountford

Position

Conjoint Professor
Centre for MR in Health
School of Health Sciences
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Email carolyn.mountford@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 5671
Fax (02) 4921 7744
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