Conjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell

Conjoint Professor

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy (Immunology and Microbiology)

Career Summary

Biography

Research Expertise

Genetic, environmental and developmental factors affecting susuceptibility to infectious diseases and conditions for which infections are suggested to play a role in the aetiology of the disease process: meningococcal disease; ear infections; sudden unexpected deaths in infancy.



Teaching Expertise

Undergraduate, honours and postgraduate teaching in faculties of science and medicine



Administrative Expertise

Supervision of honours and postgraduate students; health and safety committee


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Science, University of Edinburgh - Scotland
  • Bachelor of Science, Louisiana State University - USA
  • PhD, Stanford University

Keywords

  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medical Microbiology

Fields of Research

CodeDescriptionPercentage
060599Microbiology not elsewhere classified15
110799Immunology not elsewhere classified50
110899Medical Microbiology not elsewhere classified35

Professional Experience

Academic appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/11/2000 - Conjoint ProfessorUniversity of Newcastle
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Australia
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (1 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2004Blackwell CC, Weir D, Alkout A, El Ahmer O, Mackenzie D, James V, et al., 'Blood group phenotypes and infectious diseases', Susceptibility to infectious diseases: the importance of host genetics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 309-336 (2004) [B1]

Journal article (160 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2014Moscovis S, Hall S, Burns C, Scott R, Blackwell C, 'Development of an experimental model for assessing the effects of cigarette smoke and virus infections on inflammatory responses to bacterial antigens', Innate Immunity, 20 647-658 (2014) [C1]

Interactions among major risk factors associated with bacterial infections were assessed in a model system using surrogates for virus infection; IFN-g, and exposure to cigarette smoke; cigarette smoke extract (CSE), nicotine and cotinine. Cytokine responses elicited by LPS from THP-1 cells in the presence of these components, or combinations of components, were assessed by multiplex bead assay, i.e. IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-a and IFN-¿. IFN-¿-priming significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. CSE suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-a and IFN-¿, but enhanced production of IL-8. Nicotine and cotinine suppressed all cytokine responses. In combination, IFN-¿ masked the inhibitory effects of CSE. In relation to the objectives of the study, we concluded that (a) IFN¿ at biologically relevant concentrations significantly enhanced pro-inflammatory responses; (b) CSE, nicotine and cotinine dysregulated the inflammatory response and that the effects of CSE were different from those of the individual components, nicotine and cotinine; (c) when both IFN-¿ and CSE were present, IFN-¿ masked the effect of CSE. There is a need for clinical investigations on the increase in IL-8 responses in relation to exposure to cigarette smoke and increased pro-inflammatory responses in relation to recent viral infection. © 2013 The Author(s).

DOI10.1177/1753425913503893
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsRodney Scott, Sharron Hall
2014Rae KM, Weatherall L, Blackwell CC, Pringle K, Smith R, Lumbers E, 'Long conversations: Gomeroi gaaynggal tackles renal disease in the Indigenous community', Australasian Epidemiologist, 21 44-48 (2014) [C2]
Author URL
Co-authorsKym Rae, Roger Smith, Kirsty Pringle
2014Moscovis SM, Hall ST, Burns CJ, Scott RJ, Blackwell CC, 'The male excess in sudden infant deaths', INNATE IMMUNITY, 20 24-29 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1177/1753425913481071Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authorsSharron Hall, Rodney Scott
2014Ashhurst-Smith C, Hall ST, Burns CJ, Stuart J, Blackwell CC, 'Induction of inflammatory responses from THP-1 cells by cell-free filtrates from clinical isolates of Alloiococcus otitidis', INNATE IMMUNITY, 20 283-289 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1177/1753425913490535Author URL
Co-authorsJohn Stuart, Sharron Hall
2014Ashhurst-Smith C, Hall ST, Burns CJ, Stuart J, Blackwell CC, 'Invitro inflammatory responses elicited by isolates of Alloiococcus otitidis obtained from children with otitis media with effusion', INNATE IMMUNITY, 20 320-326 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1177/1753425913492181Author URL
Co-authorsJohn Stuart, Sharron Hall
2014Cox AJ, Moscovis SM, Blackwell CC, Scott RJ, 'Cytokine gene polymorphism among Indigenous Australians.', Innate Immun, 20 431-439 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1177/1753425913498911Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authorsRodney Scott
2013Moscovis S, Hall S, Burns C, Scott R, Blackwell C, 'Development of an experimental model for assessing the effects of cigarette smoke and virus infections on inflammatory responses to bacterial antigens.', Innate Immun, 20 647-658 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1177/1753425913503893Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsSharron Hall, Rodney Scott
2013Titmarsh CJ, Moscovis SM, Hall S, Tzanakaki G, Kesanopoulos K, Xirogianni A, et al., 'Comparison of cytokine gene polymorphisms among Greek patients with invasive meningococcal disease or viral meningitis', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 62 694-700 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1099/jmm.0.058073-0Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsRodney Scott, Sharron Hall
2013Rae K, Weatherall L, Hollebone K, Apen K, McLean M, Blackwell C, et al., 'Developing research in partnership with Aboriginal communities - strategies for improving recruitment and retention', RURAL AND REMOTE HEALTH, 13 (2013) [C2]
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsKym Rae, Roger Smith
2012Ashhurst-Smith CIJ, Hall ST, Stuart J, Burns CJ, Liet E, Walker PJ, et al., 'Alloiococcus otitidis: An emerging pathogen in otitis media', Journal of Infection, 64 233-235 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authorsSharron Hall, John Stuart
2009Sakou I-I, Tzanakaki G, Tsolia MN, Sioumala M, Barbouni A, Kyprianou M, et al., 'Investigation of serum bactericidal activity in childhood and adolescence 3-6 years after vaccination with a single dose of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine', Vaccine, 27 4408-4411 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.047
CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 14
2008Blackwell CC, 'Bacterial toxins and sudden unexpected death in infancy', The Lancet, 372 714 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61296-9
2007Ashhurst-Smith CIJ, Hall ST, Walker PJ, Stuart JE, Hansbro PM, Blackwell CC, 'Isolation of Alloiococcus otitidis from Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children with chronic otitis media with effusion', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 51 163-170 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00297.x
CitationsScopus - 19Web of Science - 17
Co-authorsSharron Hall, Philip Hansbro, John Stuart
2006Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, Al Madani OM, Gleeson M, Scott R, Roberts-Thomson JM, et al., 'IL6 G-174C Associated With Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in a Caucasian Australian Cohort', Human Immunology, 67 819-825 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.humimm.2006.07.010
CitationsScopus - 30Web of Science - 29
Co-authorsMaree Gleeson, Sharron Hall, Rodney Scott
2006Tzankaki G, Markou F, Kesanopoulos K, Levidiotou S, Pangalis A, Tsolia MR, et al., 'Phenotypic assessment of Neisseria meningitidis isolates obtained from patients with invasive meningococcal disease in Greece, 1993-2003: Implications for serogroup B vaccines based on PorA serosubtype antigens', Vaccine, 24 819-825 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.07.058
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2005Blackwell CC, Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, Al Madani OM, Hall S, Gleeson M, et al., 'Cytokine responses and sudden infant death: genetic, developmental, and environmental risk factors', Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 78 1242-1254 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1189/jlb.0505253
CitationsScopus - 54Web of Science - 50
Co-authorsMaree Gleeson, Sharron Hall, Rodney Scott
2005Kesanopoulos K, Tzanakaki G, Levidiotou S, Blackwell CC, Kremastinou J, 'Evaluation of touch-down real-time PCR based on SYBR Green I fluorescent dye for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis in clinical samples', Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 43 419-424 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.femsim.2004.10.011
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
2004Fischbacher C, Blackwell CC, Bhopal R, Ingram R, Unwin N, White M, 'Serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in UK South Asian and European populations: implications for gastric cancer and coronary heart disease', Journal of Infection, 48 168-174 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0163-4453(03)00127-0
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 8
2004Braun JM, Beuth J, Blackwell CC, Giersen S, Higgins PG, Tzanakaki G, et al., 'Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica and Moraxella catarrhalis share cross-reactive carboydrate antigens', Vaccine, - 898-908 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.036
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 10
2004Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, Al Madani OM, Gleeson M, Scott R, Roberts-Thomson JM, et al., 'Interleukin-10 and sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 42 130-138 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.femsim.2004.06.020
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 29
Co-authorsSharron Hall, Maree Gleeson, Rodney Scott
2004Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, Hall ST, Gleeson M, Scott R, Roberts-Thomson JM, et al., 'Interleukin 1-b responses to bacterial toxins and sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 42 139-145 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.femsim.2004.06.005
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 23
Co-authorsMaree Gleeson, Sharron Hall, Rodney Scott
2004Blackwell CC, Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, Al Madani OM, Hall ST, Gleeson M, et al., 'Ethnicity, infection and sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 42 53-65 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.femsim.2004.06.007
CitationsScopus - 30Web of Science - 21
Co-authorsRodney Scott, Maree Gleeson, Sharron Hall
2004Blackwell CC, 'Infection, inflammation and SIDS', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 42 1-2 (2004) [C3]
2003El Ahmer OR, Braun M, Amyes SGB, Weir DM, Beuth J, Blackwell CC, 'Comparison of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from children and adults for growth on modified New York City medium and potential virulence factors', Journal of Medical Microbiology, 52 853-859 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1099/jmm.0.05124-0
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 10
2003El-Ahmer OR, Braun JM, Amyes SG, Weir DM, Beuth J, Blackwell CC, 'Comparison of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates from children and adults for growth on modified New York City medium and potential virulence factors.', Journal of medical microbiology, 52 853-859 (2003)
DOI10.1099/jmm.0.05124-0
2003Braun JM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Beuth J, 'Cytokine release of whole blood from adult female donors challenged with mistletoe lectin-1 standardised mistletoe extract and E-coli endotoxin or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)', ANTICANCER RESEARCH, 23 1349-1352 (2003)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 9
2003Tzanakaki G, Tsolia M, Vlachou V, Theodoridou M, Pangalis A, Foustoukou M, et al., 'Evaluation of non-culture diagnosis of invasive meningococcal disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 39 31-36 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00175-5
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 22
2003Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Levidiotou S, Markou F, Themeli E, Voyiatzi A, et al., 'Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in northern Greece', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 39 23-29 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00174-3
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 13
2003Tsolia MN, Theodoridou M, Tzanakaki G, Kalabalikis P, Urani E, Mostrou G, et al., 'The evolving epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease: a two year prospective, population-based study in children in the area of Athens', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 36 87-94 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00083-X
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 12
2003Blackwell CC, Busuttil A, Weir DM, 'Risk factors for cot death increase danger from infection', BMJ, 326 222 (2003) [C3]
DOI10.1136/bmj.326.7382.222
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 8
2003Fischbacher CM, Bhopal R, Blackwell CC, Ingram R, Unwin NC, White M, Alberti KGMM, 'IgG is higher in South Asians than Europeans: Does infection contribute to ethnic variation in cardiovascular disease?', ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY, 23 703-704 (2003)
DOI10.1161/01.ATV.0000060449.70345.8EAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 13
2002Blackwell CC, Dundas S, James VS, Mackenzie DAC, Braun JM, Alkout AM, et al., 'Blood group and susceptibility to disease caused by Escherichia coli O157', JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 185 393-396 (2002)
DOI10.1086/338343Author URL
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 16
2002Gordon AE, El Ahmer OR, Chan R, Al Madani OM, Braun JM, Weir DM, et al., 'Why is smoking a risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome?', CHILD CARE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, 28 23-25 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.1365-2214.2002.00007.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 6
2002Gordon AE, MacKenzie DAC, El Ahmer OR, Al Madani OM, Braun JM, Weir DM, et al., 'Evidence for a genetic component in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome', CHILD CARE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, 28 27-29 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.1365-2214.2002.00008.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 7
2002Blackwell CC, Gordon AE, James VS, MacKenzie DAC, Mogensen-Buchanan M, El Ahmer OR, et al., 'The role of bacterial toxins in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 291 561-570 (2002)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 42Web of Science - 40
2001Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'The need for further evidence for the proposed role of Helicobacter pylori in SIDS', ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, 84 528-529 (2001)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2001Tzanakaki G, Urwin R, Musilek M, Kriz P, Kremastinou J, Pangalis A, et al., 'Phenotypic and genotypic approaches to characterization of isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from patients and their close family contacts', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 39 1235-1240 (2001)
DOI10.1128/JCM.39.4.1235-1240.2001Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 19
2001Braun JM, Ko HL, Schierholz JM, Weir D, Blackwell CC, Beuth J, 'Application of standardized mistletoe extracts augment immune response and down regulates metastatic organ colonization in murine models', CANCER LETTERS, 170 25-31 (2001)
DOI10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00517-1Author URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 7
2001Raza MW, Bint AT, Blackwell CC, 'Role of infection and cytokines in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', REVIEWS IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 12 109-119 (2001)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2001Blackwell CC, Gordon AE, James VS, Mackenzie DAC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Making sense of the risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): infection and inflammation', REVIEWS IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 12 219-229 (2001)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2000Alkout AM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, 'Increased inflammatory responses of persons of blood group O to Helicobacter pylori', JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 181 1364-1369 (2000)
DOI10.1086/315375Author URL
CitationsScopus - 30Web of Science - 27
2000Raza MW, Blackwell CC, Elton RA, Weir DM, 'Bactericidal activity of a monocytic cell line (THP-1) against common respiratory tract bacterial pathogens is depressed after infection with respiratory syncytial virus', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 49 227-233 (2000)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2000Gordon AE, MacKenzie DAC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, Blackwell CC, 'Genetic control of inflammatory responses in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)', JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 190 59A-59A (2000)
Author URL
2000Alkout AM, Ramsay EJ, Mackenzie DAC, Weir DM, Bentley AJ, Elton RA, et al., 'Quantitative assessment of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and outcome of ischaemic heart disease', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 29 271-274 (2000)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 7
2000Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Infection, inflammation and sudden infant death syndrome', Ambulatory Child Health, 6 32-33 (2000)
DOI10.1046/j.1467-0658.2000.00014.x
1999Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Infection, inflammation and sleep: more pieces to the puzzle of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)', APMIS, 107 455-473 (1999)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 14
1999El Ahmer OR, Essery SD, Saadi AT, Raza MW, Ogilvie MM, Weir DM, Blackwell CC, 'The effect of cigarette smoke on adherence of respiratory pathogens to buccal epithelial cells', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 23 27-36 (1999)
DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(98)00114-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 75Web of Science - 70
1999Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Kansouzidou A, Pagalis A, Danielides V, Kouppari G, et al., 'Recent emergence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Greece', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 23 49-55 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01716.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 30
1999Raza MW, El Ahmer OR, Ogilvie MM, Blackwell CC, Saadi AT, Elton RA, Weir DM, 'Infection with respiratory syncytial virus enhances expression of native receptors for non-pilate Neisseria meningitidis on HEp-2 cells', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 23 115-124 (1999)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 28
1999El Ahmer OR, Raza MW, Ogilvie MM, Weir DM, Blackwell CC, 'Binding of bacteria to HEp-2 cells infected with influenza A virus', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 23 331-341 (1999)
DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(98)00153-9Author URL
CitationsScopus - 42Web of Science - 39
1999Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Pagalis A, Theodondou M, Weir DM, Blackwell CC, 'Detection of IgG and IgM to meningococcal outer membrane proteins in relation to carriage of Neisseria meningitidis or Neisseria lactamica', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 24 73-78 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01267.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 13
1999Raza MW, Essery SD, Weir DM, Ogilvie MM, Elton RA, Blackwell CC, 'Infection with respiratory syncytial virus and water-soluble components of cigarette smoke alter production of tumour necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide by human blood monocytes', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 24 387-394 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01310.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 20
1999Blackwell CC, Weir DM, 'The role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 1-6 (1999)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 42Web of Science - 34
1999Blackwell CC, MacKenzie DAC, James VS, Elton RA, Zorgani AA, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Toxigenic bacteria and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): nasopharyngeal flora during the first year of life', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 51-58 (1999)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 45Web of Science - 45
1999Raza MW, Blackwell CC, 'Sudden infant death syndrome, virus infections and cytokines', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 85-96 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01330.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 36Web of Science - 32
1999Zorgani A, Essery SD, Al Madani O, Bentley AJ, James VS, MacKenzie DAC, et al., 'Detection of pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus in sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 103-108 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01332.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 58
1999Molony N, Blackwell CC, Busuttil A, 'The effect of prone posture on nasal temperature in children in relation to induction of staphylococcal toxins implicated in sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 109-113 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01333.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 41Web of Science - 34
1999Saadi AT, Gordon AE, MacKenzie DAC, James VS, Elton RA, Weir DM, et al., 'The protective effect of breast feeding in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). I. The effect of human milk and infant formula preparations on binding of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to epithelial cells', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 155-165 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01339.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 13
1999Gordon AE, Saadi AT, MacKenzie DAG, James VS, Elton RA, Weir DM, et al., 'The protective effect of breast feeding in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). II. The effect of human milk and infant formula preparations on binding of Clostridium perfringens to epithelial cells', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 167-173 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01340.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 17Web of Science - 12
1999Gordon AE, Saadi AT, MacKenzie DAC, Molony N, James VS, Weir DM, et al., 'The protective effect of breast feeding in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): III. Detection of IgA antibodies in human milk that bind to bacterial toxins implicated in SIDS', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 25 175-182 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1999.tb01341.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 16
1999Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Pagalis A, Theodondou M, Weir DM, Blackwell CC, 'Detection of IgG and IgM to meningococcal outer membrane proteins in relation to carriage of Neisseria meningitidis or Neisseria lactamica', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 24 73-78 (1999)

Carriage of non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis or Neisseria lactamica induces antibodies protective against meningococcal disease. Antibodies directed against outer membrane proteins are bactericidal and the serotype and subtype outer membrane protein antigens are being examined for their value as vaccine candidates for serogroup B disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carriage of these two Neisseria species among children and young adults on induction of antibodies to outer membrane components from strains causing disease in Greece. Among 53 patients with meningococcal disease, IgG or IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9 of 13 (69%) from whom the bacteria were isolated and 27 of 40 (67%) who were culture-negative. For military recruits (n=604), the proportion of carriers of meningococci with IgM or IgG to outer membrane proteins was higher than non-carriers, P<0.05 and P=0.000000, respectively. Among school children (n=319), the proportion with IgM or IgG to outer membrane proteins for carriers of meningococci was higher compared with non-carriers, P=0.000000 and P=0000043, respectively. Carriage of N. lactamica was not associated with the presence of either IgM or IgG to the outer membrane proteins in the children. The higher proportion of children (50%) with IgM to outer membrane proteins compared with recruits (10%) might reflect more recent exposure and primary immune responses to the bacteria. The lack of association between antibodies to outer membrane proteins and carriage of N. lactamica could reflect observations that the majority of N. lactamica isolates from Greece and other countries do not react with monoclonal typing reagents. Bactericidal antibodies to meningococci associated with high levels of IgG to N. lactamica were found in a previous study; these are thought to be directed to antigens other than outer membrane proteins or capsules and imply antigens such as lipo-oligosaccharide are involved in induction of antibodies cross-reactive with meningococci. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(99)00009-7
CitationsScopus - 14
1999Zorgani A, Essery SD, Al Madani O, Bentley AJ, James VS, MacKenzie DAC, et al., 'Detection of pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus in sudden infant death syndrome', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 25 103-108 (1999)

It has been suggested that pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are involved in the series of events leading to some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The objectives of the study were to screen tissues from SIDS infants for pyrogenic toxins and to compare incidence of identification of these toxins among these infants from different countries. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a flow cytometry method were used to screen body fluids and frozen or formalin-fixed tissues for pyrogenic toxins of S. aureus, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST), staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB), and C1 (SEC). Toxins were identified in tissues of 33/62 (53%) SIDS infants from three different countries: Scotland (10/19, 56%); France (7/13, 55%); Australia (16/30, 53%). In the Australian series, toxins were identified in only 3/19 (16%) non-SIDS deaths (¿2=5.42, P<0.02). The flow cytometry method was useful for toxin detection in both frozen and fixed tissues, but ELISA was suitable only for frozen tissues or those fixed for less than 12 months. Identification of pyrogenic toxins in >50% of SIDS infants from three different countries indicated further investigation into the role the toxins play in cot deaths might result in development of additional measures to reduce further the incidence of these infant deaths. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(99)00077-2
CitationsScopus - 66
1999Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Kansouzidou A, Pagalis A, Danielides V, Kouppari G, et al., 'Recent emergence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Greece', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 23 49-55 (1999)

The number of cases of meningococcal disease reported to the Meningitis Reference Laboratory in Athens rose dramatically in 1996-1997. The aims were (1) to determine if the increase was due to introduction of new strains, (2) to assess the geographic and age distribution of the cases, (3) to compare antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the current isolates with strains from the early 1990s. In 1993-1994, 15/19 (74%) of the cases for which information on age was available were in children =5 years; in 1995-1997, 80/179 (45%) of cases were in children =5 years and 99 (55%) in the older age range (P<0.02). From 593 cases in 1993-1997, 214 (36%) isolates were available for characterisation. Serogroup B was predominant in the early 1990s, but by 1997, serogroup C accounted for 46/72 (64%) of isolates and serogroup B for 25/72 (35%). Serogroup B was predominant in children =5 years (44/78, 56%) but only 19/99 (18%) of older children and adults (P=0.0000005). Sulfonamide resistance decreased from 10/22 (45%) in 1993-1994 to 27/192 (14%) in 1995-1997 (P<0.01). Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of 70 strains obtained during this period identified the epidemic ET-15 clone in 24 (34.3)%. The profiles of the Greek ET-15 isolates were identical to C:2a:P1.2(P1.5) strains responsible for the epidemic in the Czech Republic which began in 1993. This genotype was not found in Greek strains isolated prior to 1993. We conclude that the increase in meningococcal disease is due to introduction of the epidemic serogroup C:2a:P1.2(P1.5) strain responsible for disease in the Czech Republic and Canada. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(98)00120-5
CitationsScopus - 32
1999Saadi AT, Gordon AE, MacKenzie DAC, James VS, Elton RA, M Weir D, et al., 'The protective effect of breast feeding in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): I. The effect of human milk and infant formula preparations on binding of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to epithelial cells', FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 25 155-165 (1999)

Epidemiological studies indicate that breast-fed infants are at a decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) compared to formula-fed infants. Increasing evidence suggests that infectious agents might be involved in some of these deaths, in particular bacteria which colonise mucosal surfaces and produce superantigenic toxins. One species implicated in recent studies of SIDS infants is Staphylococcus aureus. We tested the hypothesis that in comparison to infant formula, human milk might be a better inhibitor of binding of S. aureus to epithelial cells. In this study, two protocols were used for the binding assays which were assessed by flow cytometry: the in vitro method in which bacteria were treated with milk or formula, washed and added to epithelial cells; and a method more closely reflecting the competitive interactions in vivo in which cells, bacteria, and milk or infant formula were added at the same time. With the in vivo method, breast milk caused enhancement of bacterial binding to cells whilst infant formula caused inhibition; however, for the in vitro method, both human milk and infant formula caused consistent enhancement of binding. Flow cytometry and light microscopy studies indicated that the enhancement was due to the formation of bacterial aggregates. Human milk and infant formula preparations were also compared for components (antibodies or oligosaccharides) that could inhibit binding of S. aureus using the in vitro method. Human milk contained both IgA and IgG. Neither human milk nor infant formula contained oligosaccharides reactive with the Ulex europaeus lectin but both contained components that bound monoclonal antibodies to Lewisa and Lewisb antigens which can act as receptors for S. aureus. With both methods, synthetic Lewisa and Lewisb inhibited S. aureus binding in a dose-dependent manner. With human milk, however, the only component which showed a significant correlation with inhibition of binding was the IgA specific for the staphylococcal surface component that binds Lewisa. Both human milk and infant formula contain components which could potentially inhibit bacterial binding but only breast milk contains the IgA specific for the bacterial adhesin that binds Lewisa. Studies using the in vivo method suggest that protection associated with breast feeding in relation to SIDS could be due mainly to the formation of bacterial aggregates. The studies have implications for further research into constituents of infant formula. Copyright (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

DOI10.1016/S0928-8244(99)00084-X
CitationsScopus - 18
1998Kilpatrick DC, James VS, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Hallam NF, Busuttil A, 'Mannan binding lectin and the sudden infant death syndrome', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 97 135-138 (1998)
DOI10.1016/S0379-0738(98)00149-2Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 10
1997Alkout AM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Poxton IR, Elton RA, Luman W, Palmer K, 'Isolation of a cell surface component of Helicobacter pylori that binds H type 2, Lewis(a), and Lewis(b) antigens', GASTROENTEROLOGY, 112 1179-1187 (1997)
DOI10.1016/S0016-5085(97)70129-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 47
1997Alkout AM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Luman W, Palmer K, 'Inflammatory response to Helicobacter pylori in relation to abo blood group', GUT, 41 A49-A49 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1997Smith GW, James V, Mackenzie DAC, Stewart J, Blackwell CC, Elton RA, Nuki G, 'Ankylosing spondylitis and secretor status: A re-evaluation', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 36 778-780 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 8
1997Smith GW, Blackwell CC, Nuki G, 'Faecal flora in spondyloarthropathy', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 36 850-854 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 6
1997Bentley AJ, Zorgani AA, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Bacterial toxins and sudden unexpected death in a young child', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 88 141-146 (1997)
DOI10.1016/S0379-0738(97)00067-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 13
1997Tzanakaki G, Kriz P, Kremastinou J, Musilek M, Snart LE, Blackwell CC, 'Reactivity of the new monoclonal antibody '22' with meningococcal strains isolated from patients and carriers in Greece', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 19 1-5 (1997)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 8
1996Blackwell CC, Saadi AT, Essery SD, Raza MW, Zorgani AA, Elahmer OR, et al., 'Adhesins of Staphylococcus aureus that bind Lewis(a) antigen - Relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome', TOWARD ANTI-ADHESION THERAPY FOR MICROBIAL DISEASES, 408 95-105 (1996)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
1996Elahmer OR, Raza MW, Ogilvie MM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Elton RA, 'The effect of respiratory virus infection on expression of cell surface antigens associated with binding of potentially pathogenic bacteria', TOWARD ANTI-ADHESION THERAPY FOR MICROBIAL DISEASES, 408 169-177 (1996)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 15
1996Kremastinou J, Tzanakaki G, Karafoti PH, Elton RA, Weir DM, Blackwell CC, 'Distribution of ABO and Lewis blood groups in Greece', GENE GEOGRAPHY, 10 201-205 (1996)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1996Zorgani AA, James VS, Stewart J, Blackwell CC, Elton RA, Weir DM, 'Serum bactericidal activity in a secondary school population following an outbreak of meningococcal disease: Effects of carriage and secretor status', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 14 73-81 (1996)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 14
1996Saadi AT, Blackwell CC, Essery SD, Raza MW, ElAhmer OR, MacKenzie DAC, et al., 'Developmental and environmental factors that enhance binding of Bordetella pertussis to human epithelial cells in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 16 51-59 (1996)
DOI10.1111/j.1574-695X.1996.tb00111.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 31Web of Science - 30
1996Luman W, Alkout AM, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Palmer KR, 'Helicobacter pylori in the mouth - Negative isolation from dental plaque and saliva', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY, 8 11-14 (1996)
DOI10.1097/00042737-199601000-00004Author URL
CitationsScopus - 43Web of Science - 39
1996Molony NC, Kerr AIG, Blackwell CC, Busuttil A, 'Is the nasopharynx warmer in children than in adults?', Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 3 157-160 (1996)

Recent studies on the aetiology of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have suggested that some of these deaths are the consequence of an overwhelming inflammatory response to the production of pyrogenic toxins from bacteria colonizing the upper respiratory tract, particularly the nasopharynx. The pyrogenic toxins of Staphlococcus aureus, one of the likelier bacterial candidates, are only produced in temperatures of over 37°C. This study examined nasopharyngeal temperatures in children. It is a preliminary study to develop an accurate means to measure how close to 37°C the nasopharyngeal temperature lies in infants at the age when SIDS deaths occur. Following a pilot study and power calculation, measurements of nasopharyngeal temperature were made on 30 apyrexial children aged 4-10 years and 30 adults with no nasal pathology, undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia, using an accurately sited thermocouple probe. The mean temperature in children (35.64°C) was significantly higher than in adults (34.01°C). Comparable measurements attempted with the same subjects awake gave similar results.

DOI10.1016/S1353-1131(96)90020-6
CitationsScopus - 11
1995ALY FZ, BLACKWELL CC, MACKENZIE DAC, WEIR DM, 'IDENTIFICATION OF ORAL YEAST SPECIES ISOLATED FROM INDIVIDUALS WITH DIABETES-MELLITUS', MYCOSES, 38 107-110 (1995)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 7
1995Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, 'Infectious agents, the inflammatory responses of infants and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)', Molecular Medicine Today, 1 72-78 (1995)

There is no convincing epidemiological or pathological evidence that particular infectious events cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); therefore, we have explored the concept that ergy between bacterial endotoxins, exotoxins or viruses might elicit inflammatory responses during a period when the infant's do ine system is less able to 'damp down' cts of powerful mediators such as is factor or to maintain lu which is affected by these mediato his hypothesis is discussed with reference to the recent decline in the number of cot deaths. © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd.

DOI10.1016/S1357-4310(95)92343-8
CitationsScopus - 34
1994ESSERY SD, SAADI AT, TWITE SJ, WEIR DM, BLACKWELL CC, BUSUTTIL A, 'LEWIS ANTIGEN EXPRESSION ON HUMAN MONOCYTES AND BINDING OF PYROGENIC TOXINS', AGENTS AND ACTIONS, 41 108-110 (1994)
DOI10.1007/BF01986408Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 7
1994SAADI AT, WEIR DM, POXTON IR, STEWART J, ESSERY SD, BLACKWELL CC, et al., 'ISOLATION OF AN ADHESIN FROM STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS THAT BINDS LEWIS(A) BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGEN AND ITS RELEVANCE TO SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 8 315-320 (1994)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 25
1994ESSERY SD, WEIR DM, JAMES VS, BLACKWELL CC, SAADI AT, BUSUTTIL A, TZANAKAKI G, 'DETECTION OF MICROBIAL SURFACE-ANTIGENS THAT BIND LEWIS(A) ANTIGEN', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 9 15-21 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0928-8244(94)90076-0Author URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 13
1994BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, BUSUTTIL A, SAADI AT, ESSERY SD, RAZA MW, et al., 'THE ROLE OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS IN SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 9 91-100 (1994)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 28Web of Science - 22
1994ZORGANI AA, STEWART J, BLACKWELL CC, ELTON RA, WEIR DM, 'INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SALIVA FROM SECRETORS AND NONSECRETORS ON BINDING OF MENINGOCOCCI TO EPITHELIAL-CELLS', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 9 135-142 (1994)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 4
1994RAZA MW, BLACKWELL CC, OGILVIE MM, SAADI AT, STEWART J, ELTON RA, WEIR DM, 'EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF GLYCOPROTEIN-G OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN BINDING OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS TO HEP-2 CELLS', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 10 25-30 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0928-8244(94)00052-2Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 10
1994BLACKWELL CC, BUSUTTIL A, WEIR DM, SAADI AT, ESSERY SD, 'SUDDEN UNEXPECTED NOCTURNAL DEATHS AMONG THAI IMMIGRANT WORKERS IN SINGAPORE - THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF TOXIGENIC BACTERIA', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, 106 205-208 (1994)
DOI10.1007/BF01371338Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 7
1993BOLAND OM, BLACKWELL CC, CLARKE BF, EWING DJ, 'EFFECTS OF PONALRESTAT, AN ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITOR, ON NEUTROPHIL KILLING OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES-MELLITUS', DIABETES, 42 336-340 (1993)
DOI10.2337/diabetes.42.2.336Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 40
1993TZANAKAKI G, BLACKWELL CC, KREMASTINOU J, WEIR DM, MENTIS A, FALLON RJ, 'SEROGROUPS, SEROTYPES AND SUBTYPES OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS AND CARRIERS IN GREECE', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 38 19-22 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 22
1993BUSUTTIL A, BLACKWELL CC, JAMES VS, MACKENZIE DAC, SAADI AT, WEIR DM, 'ASSESSMENT OF LEWIS BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS AND SECRETOR STATUS IN AUTOPSY SPECIMENS', FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, 61 133-140 (1993)
DOI10.1016/0379-0738(93)90221-UAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 2
1993KAKLAMANI E, KARALIS D, KOUMANDAKI Y, KAKLAMANIS P, KATSOUYANNI E, TZANETEA R, et al., 'THE EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA-ARTHRITIDIS INFECTION ON THE KINETICS OF COLLOIDAL CARBON CLEARANCE IN MICE', FEMS IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 6 299-306 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1993BLACKWELL CC, SAADI AT, RAZA MW, WEIR DM, BUSUTTIL A, 'THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BACTERIAL TOXINS IN SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME (SIDS)', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, 105 333-338 (1993)
DOI10.1007/BF01222118Author URL
CitationsScopus - 31Web of Science - 29
1993RAZA MW, OGILVIE MM, BLACKWELL CC, STEWART J, ELTON RA, WEIR DM, 'EFFECT OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS-INFECTION ON BINDING OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS AND HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE TYPE-B TO A HUMAN EPITHELIAL-CELL LINE (HEP-2)', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 110 339-347 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 28Web of Science - 29
1993SAADI AT, BLACKWELL CC, RAZA MW, JAMES VS, STEWART J, ELTON RA, WEIR DM, 'FACTORS ENHANCING ADHERENCE OF TOXIGENIC STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS TO EPITHELIAL-CELLS AND THEIR POSSIBLE ROLE IN SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 110 507-517 (1993)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 53Web of Science - 51
1992BLACKWELL CC, SAADI AT, RAZA MW, STEWART J, WEIR DM, 'SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION IN RELATION TO SIDS', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, 45 20-24 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 27
1992Blackwell CC, Saadi AT, Raza MW, Stewart J, Weir DM, 'Susceptibility to infection in relation to SIDS', Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45 20-24 (1992)

Because there is little evidence that invasive bacterial diseases contribute to cot deaths, most studies on infectious causes of SIDS have focused on viruses or toxin producing bacteria. Although epidemiological studies found marginally significant associations between influenza virus and SIDS, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was isolated from 90% of older infants with SIDS. There are conflicting reports that some toxigenic bacteria (Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium difficile, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) might be implicated in cot deaths. S aureus are common micro-organisms and their toxins are very powerful. As the pyrogenic toxic shock syndrome toxin of S aureus can kill a previously healthy adult, it might easily kill a small infant. Based on our studies on susceptibility of infants to other infections, we suggest the following might be factors leading to colonisation of infants by toxin producing S aureus: - The Lewisa blood group antigen appears to act as a receptor for some micro-organisms. Epithelial cells expressing high concentrations of Lewisa bound appreciably more toxin producing S aureus than cells expressing low concentrations of the antigen. - Lewisa is expressed in secretions of nearly 90% of infants aged 3 months, the peak age for SIDS. - RSV infects about 50% of infants by the first year of life and it is often isolated from infants with SIDS. Studies in our laboratory indicate that RSV infected HEp-2 cells bind more toxin producing S aureus than uninfected controls.

CitationsScopus - 27
1992Blackwell CC, Saadi AT, Raza MW, Stewart J, Weir DM, 'Susceptibility to infection in relation to SIDS.', Journal of clinical pathology, 45 20-24 (1992)
1992BLACKWELL CC, TZANAKAKI G, KREMASTINOU J, WEIR DM, VAKALIS N, ELTON RA, et al., 'FACTORS AFFECTING CARRIAGE OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS AMONG GREEK MILITARY RECRUITS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 108 441-448 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 36
1992TZANAKAKI G, BLACKWELL CC, KREMASTINOU J, KALLERGI C, KOUPPARI G, WEIR DM, 'ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITIES OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS ISOLATES FROM PATIENTS AND CARRIERS IN GREECE', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 108 449-455 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 26
1992ZORGANI AA, STEWART J, BLACKWELL CC, ELTON RA, WEIR DM, 'SECRETOR STATUS AND HUMORAL IMMUNE-RESPONSES TO NEISSERIA-LACTAMICA AND NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 109 445-452 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
1992ALY FZ, BLACKWELL CC, MACKENZIE DAC, WEIR DM, CLARKE BF, 'FACTORS INFLUENCING ORAL CARRIAGE OF YEASTS AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH DIABETES-MELLITUS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 109 507-518 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 29Web of Science - 20
1991KAKLAMANI E, KOUMANTAKI Y, KARALIS D, ROMMAIN M, SMETS P, KAKLAMANIS P, et al., 'KLEBSIELLA-PNEUMONIAE GLYCOPROTEIN RU-41740 ENHANCES RESISTANCE OF MICE AGAINST MYCOPLASMA-ARTHRITIDIS-INDUCED ARTHRITIS', FEMS MICROBIOLOGY IMMUNOLOGY, 76 205-210 (1991)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1991MENTIS A, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, SPILIADIS C, DAILIANAS A, SKANDALIS N, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP, SECRETOR STATUS AND DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTRIC OR DUODENAL-ULCERS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 106 221-229 (1991)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 67
1991ALY FZ, BLACKWELL CC, MACKENZIE DAC, WEIR DM, ELTON RA, CUMMING CG, et al., 'CHRONIC ATROPHIC ORAL CANDIDIASIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH DIABETES-MELLITUS - ROLE OF SECRETOR STATUS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 106 355-363 (1991)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 14
1991RAZA MW, BLACKWELL CC, MOLYNEAUX P, JAMES VS, OGILVIE MM, INGLIS JM, WEIR DM, 'ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SECRETOR STATUS AND RESPIRATORY VIRAL ILLNESS', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 303 815-818 (1991)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 44Web of Science - 45
1991BLACKWELL CC, JAMES VS, DAVIDSON S, WYLD R, BRETTLE RP, ROBERTSON RJ, WEIR DM, 'SECRETOR STATUS AND HETEROSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 303 825-826 (1991)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 12
1990RAHAT A, STEWART J, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, 'SEMIQUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF H-TYPE-1 AND TYPE-2 ANTIGENS ON BUCCAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS AND IN SALIVA OF SECRETORS AND NONSECRETORS', VOX SANGUINIS, 59 101-105 (1990)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 11
1990BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, 'MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE - HIGH VIRULENCE AND LOW TRANSMISSION', LANCET, 336 53-53 (1990)
DOI10.1016/0140-6736(90)91565-RAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 2
1990TOFT AD, BLACKWELL CC, SAADI AT, WU P, LYMBERI P, SOUDJIDELLI M, WEIR DM, 'SECRETOR STATUS AND INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH GRAVES-DISEASE', AUTOIMMUNITY, 7 279-289 (1990)
DOI10.3109/08916939009087587Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
1990BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, JAMES VS, TODD WTA, BANATVALA N, CHAUDHURI AKR, et al., 'SECRETOR STATUS, SMOKING AND CARRIAGE OF NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 104 203-209 (1990)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 43Web of Science - 53
1989BLACKWELL CC, ALY FZM, JAMES VS, WEIR DM, COLLIER A, PATRICK AW, et al., 'BLOOD-GROUP, SECRETOR STATUS AND ORAL CARRIAGE OF YEASTS AMONG PATIENTS WITH DIABETES-MELLITUS', DIABETES RESEARCH CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, 12 101-104 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 9
1989Blackwell CC, 'The role of ABO blood groups and secretor status in host defences', FEMS Microbiology Letters, 47 341-349 (1989)

Epidemiological studies on the associations between ABO blood group antigens, secretor status and susceptibility to infectious agents are summarized. Evidence for association of non-secretion with some autoimmune diseases for which infectious aetiologies have been proposed is also given. Several hypothesis are proposed to explain the host-parasite interactions underlying the epidemiological observations, and evidence to support or refute them is presented. © 1989.

DOI10.1016/0378-1097(89)90256-5
CitationsScopus - 23
1989May SJ, Rahat A, Blackwell CC, MacCallum CJ, Brettle RP, Weir DM, 'Characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of secretors and non-secretors', FEMS Microbiology Letters, 47 377-381 (1989)

Strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urine of secretors (242) and non-secretors (121) were compared for their serotype and their ability to express mannose-sensitive (MS) haemagglutinins and mannose-resistant (MR) haemagglutinins and to produce haemolysin. The results of the survey refuted our hypothesis that strains with characteristics associated with virulence, those with MR haemagglutinins and/or haemolysins, would be isolated more frequently from non-secretors. MR haemagglutinins were detected among 36.4% of isolates from secretors and 27.3% of isolates from non-secretors. Haemolysin production was detected among 19.8% of isolates from secretors and 12.5% of isolates from non-secretors. Both MR haemagglutinins and haemolysin were detected only on 12.4% of strains from secretors and 6.7% of strains from non-secretors. © 1989.

DOI10.1016/0378-1097(89)90261-9
CitationsScopus - 1
1989May SJ, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, 'Lewis a blood group antigen of non-secretors: a receptor for candida blastospores', FEMS Microbiology Letters, 47 407-409 (1989)

This study tested the hypothesis that the Lewis a blood group antigen found predominantly on the cells of non-secretors might be one of the receptors for Candida species. Binding of strain 3118C to epithelial cells from either secretor or non-secretor donors was not inhibited by treating the cells with anti-Lewis a or anti-Lewis b antisera. Binding of strain 3091 to non-secretor cell was inhibited by pretreating the cells with anti-Lewis a, but this was not observed for secretor cells. The results suggest that Lewis a might be one of the receptors for some yeast strains. © 1989.

DOI10.1016/0378-1097(89)90266-8
CitationsScopus - 15
1989May SJ, Blackwell CC, Brettle RP, MacCallum CJ, Weir DM, 'Non-secretion of ABO blood group antigens: a host factor predisposing to recurrent urinary tract infections and renal scarring', FEMS Microbiology Letters, 47 383-387 (1989)

In a study of 718 women referred for specialist investigation for recurrent urinary tract infections, 250 (34.8%, P<0.01) were non-secretors. The proportion of non-secretors among the women with renal scars (42.6%) was higher than that found for women with no evidence of renal scars (36.6%). Among 29 patients in whom symptoms began in childhood or adolescence, 51.7% were non-secretors. The proportion of non-secretors among individuals with renal scars in this study (42.6%) and that reported in the accompanying paper for Swedish children (40%) suggests that non-secretion might influence the pathogenic sequelae of these infections. Possible host-parasite interactions underlaying the increased proportion of non-secretors among women with recurrent urinary tract infections and those leading to development of renal scars are discussed. © 1989.

DOI10.1016/0378-1097(89)90262-0
CitationsScopus - 9
1989Blackwell CC, Jonsdottir K, Weir DM, Hanson MF, Cartwright KAV, Stewart J, et al., 'Blood group, secretor status and susceptibility to bacterial meningitis', FEMS Microbiology Letters, 47 351-356 (1989)
DOI10.1016/0378-1097(89)90257-7
CitationsScopus - 3
1989May SJ, Blackwell CC, Brettle RP, MacCallum CJ, Weir DM, 'Non-secretion of ABO blood group antigens: a host factor predisposing to recurrent urinary tract infections and renal scarring.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 383-387 (1989)
1989Thom SM, Blackwell CC, MacCallum CJ, Weir DM, Brettle RP, Kinane DF, Wray D, 'Non-secretion of blood group antigens and susceptibility to infection by Candida species.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 401-405 (1989)
1989May SJ, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, 'Lewis a blood group antigen of non-secretors: a receptor for candida blastospores.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 407-409 (1989)
1989Blackwell CC, 'The role of ABO blood groups and secretor status in host defences.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 341-349 (1989)
1989Blackwell CC, Jonsdottir K, Weir DM, Hanson MF, Cartwright KA, Stewart J, et al., 'Blood group, secretor status and susceptibility to bacterial meningitis.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 351-356 (1989)
1989May SJ, Rahat A, Blackwell CC, MacCallum CJ, Brettle RP, Weir DM, 'Characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of secretors and non-secretors.', FEMS microbiology immunology, 1 377-381 (1989)
1989BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, JAMES VS, CARTWRIGHT KAV, STUART JM, JONES DM, 'THE STONEHOUSE STUDY - SECRETOR STATUS AND CARRIAGE OF NEISSERIA SPECIES', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 102 1-10 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 17
1988BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, PATRICK AW, COLLIER A, CLARKE BF, 'SECRETOR STATE AND COMPLEMENT LEVELS (C-3 AND C-4) IN INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS', DIABETES RESEARCH CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, 9 117-119 (1988)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 2
1988BLACKWELL CC, 'SECRETOR STATE OF PATIENTS WITH INSULIN DEPENDENT OR NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 296 357-357 (1988)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1988COLLIER A, PATRICK AW, TOFT AD, BLACKWELL CC, JAMES V, WEIR DM, 'INCREASED PREVALENCE OF NON-SECRETORS IN PATIENTS WITH GRAVES-DISEASE - EVIDENCE FOR AN INFECTIVE ETIOLOGY', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 296 1162-1162 (1988)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 10
1987CUMMING CG, WIGHT C, BLACKWELL CC, SCHOU L, ROSS PW, 'DENTURE STOMATITIS IN THE ELDERLY', JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH, 66 890-890 (1987)
Author URL
1987BLACKWELL CC, MAY SJ, BRETTLE RP, MACCALLUM CJ, WEIR DM, 'SECRETOR STATE AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVELS AMONG WOMEN WITH RECURRENT URINARY-TRACT INFECTIONS', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 22 133-137 (1987)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 8
1987BLACKWELL CC, WINSTANLEY FP, WEIR DM, KINANE DF, 'LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE AND SERUM SENSITIVITY OF NON-SEROGROUPABLE NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 24 29-32 (1987)
Author URL
1987STUART JM, CARTWRIGHT KAV, JONES DM, NOAH ND, WALL RJ, BLACKWELL CC, et al., 'AN OUTBREAK OF MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE IN STONEHOUSE - PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF A LARGE-SCALE SURVEY', EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION, 99 579-589 (1987)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 17
1987SHINEBAUM R, BLACKWELL CC, FORSTER PJG, HURST NP, WEIR DM, NUKI G, 'NON-SECRETION OF ABO BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS AS A HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTOR IN THE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 294 208-210 (1987)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 12
1987BLACKWELL CC, JAMES VS, WEIR DM, GEMMILL JD, PATRICK AW, COLLIER A, CLARKE BF, 'SECRETOR STATE OF PATIENTS WITH INSULIN-DEPENDENT OR NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 295 1024-1025 (1987)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 8
1986BLACKWELL CC, THOM SM, LAWRIE OR, WEIR DM, WRAY D, KINANE DF, 'NON-SECRETION OF BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ORAL INFECTION BY CANDIDA-ALBICANS', JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH, 65 502-502 (1986)
Author URL
1986MAY SJ, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, 'NON-SECRETION OF BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CANDIDA-ALBICANS - THE ROLE OF LEWIS BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS', JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH, 65 503-503 (1986)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 4
1986BLACKWELL CC, JONSDOTTIR K, HANSON M, TODD WTA, CHAUDHURI AKR, MATHEW B, et al., 'NON-SECRETION OF ABO ANTIGENS PREDISPOSING TO INFECTION BY NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS AND STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE', LANCET, 2 284-285 (1986)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 46
1986BLACKWELL CC, JONSDOTTIR K, HANSON MF, WEIR DM, 'NON-SECRETION OF ABO BLOOD-GROUP ANTIGENS PREDISPOSING TO INFECTION BY HAEMOPHILUS-INFLUENZAE', LANCET, 2 687-687 (1986)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 26
1986SHINEBAUM R, BLACKWELL CC, FORSTER PJG, WEIR DM, NUKI G, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP AND SECRETOR STATE IN THE SPONDYLARTHROPATHIES', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 25 125-125 (1986)
Author URL
1985WINSTANLEY FP, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, 'FACTORS INFLUENCING HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE', BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 39 167-170 (1985)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 1
1984WINSTANLEY FP, BLACKWELL CC, TAN EL, PATEL PV, PARSONS NJ, MARTIN PMV, SMITH H, 'ALTERATION OF PYOCIN-SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUCED RESISTANCE TO KILLING BY HUMAN-SERUM', JOURNAL OF GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 130 1303-1306 (1984)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 15
1984Winstanley FP, Blackwell CC, Tan EL, Patel PV, Parsons NJ, Martin PM, Smith H, 'Alteration of pyocin-sensitivity pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is associated with induced resistance to killing by human serum', Journal of General Microbiology, 130 1303-1306 (1984)
CitationsScopus - 1
1984BLACKWELL CC, WINSTANLEY FP, WEIR DM, KINANE DF, 'ABSENCE OF BACTERICIDAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST GROUP-I LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE DETERMINANTS OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE DURING HUMAN INFECTION', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 17 353-356 (1984)
Author URL
1984KINANE DF, WEIR DM, BLACKWELL CC, WINSTANLEY FP, 'BINDING OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE BY LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTORS ON HUMAN PHAGOCYTES', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 13 107-110 (1984)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 9
1984WINSTANLEY FP, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, KINANE DF, 'HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS INFLUENCING ESTABLISHMENT OF GONOCOCCAL-INFECTION - A PARADOX RESOLVED', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 14 169-171 (1984)
Author URL
1984BLACKWELL CC, ANDREW S, MAY SJ, WEIR DM, MACCALLUM C, BRETTLE RP, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO URINARY-TRACT INFECTION - NO EVIDENCE FOR INVOLVEMENT OF ISOHEMAGGLUTININS', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 15 191-194 (1984)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 2
1983KINANE DF, BLACKWELL CC, WINSTANLEY FP, WEIR DM, 'BLOOD-GROUP, SECRETOR STATUS, AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION BY NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE', BRITISH JOURNAL OF VENEREAL DISEASES, 59 44-46 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 9
1983WINSTANLEY FP, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, KINANE DF, 'GONORRHEA, A PREDISPOSING FACTOR FOR MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE', LANCET, 2 1135-1135 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 5
1983WEIR DM, BLACKWELL CC, 'INTERACTION OF BACTERIA WITH THE IMMUNE-SYSTEM', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 10 1-12 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 34
1983BLACKWELL CC, KOWOLIK M, WINSTANLEY FP, KINANE DF, WEIR DM, LAW JA, CHOK YLHW, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GONOCOCCAL-INFECTION .1. FACTORS AFFECTING PHAGOCYTOSIS OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 10 173-178 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1983WINSTANLEY FP, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, KINANE DF, 'BLOOD-GROUPS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GONOCOCCAL-INFECTION .2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE TYPE TO GONOCOCCAL SENSITIVITY TO THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NORMAL HUMAN-SERUM', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 11 27-32 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 7
1983KINANE DF, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, WINSTANLEY FP, ELTON RA, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUPS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GONOCOCCAL-INFECTION .3. ROLE OF ISOHEMAGGLUTININS IN INCREASED ASSOCIATION OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE TO MONOCYTES FROM BLOOD GROUP-B INDIVIDUALS', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 12 83-86 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1
1983WEIR DM, BLACKWELL CC, STEWART J, GLASS EJ, OLIVER AM, 'MACROPHAGE RECEPTORS FOR BACTERIAL CELL-WALL SUGARS AND IMMUNE-RESPONSE GENES - POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION', BRITISH JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, 22 161-167 (1983)
Author URL
1983Weir DM, Blackwell CC, Stewart J, Glass EJ, Oliver AM, 'Macrophage 'receptors' for bacterial cell-wall sugars and immune response genes: Possible determinants of susceptibility to infection', British Journal of Rheumatology, 22 161-167 (1983)

Recognition of bacteria, antigen presentation and regulation of the immune response by the class II antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are among the many factors that influence a host's response to microbial infection. 'Lectin-like' receptors on the macrophage membrane recognize a variety of bacteria by interaction with their cell-wall sugars. These receptors are susceptible to environmental factors and appear to be associated with the I-A subregion of the mouse MHC. Possible effects of this recognition system on the pathogenesis of microbial infection and reactive arthritides are considered.

1982KINANE DF, BLACKWELL CC, BRETTLE RP, WEIR DM, WINSTANLEY FP, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP, SECRETOR STATUS DETERMINED FROM SALIVA AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO URINARY-TRACT INFECTION', JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH, 61 553-553 (1982)
Author URL
1982BLACKWELL CC, WINSTANLEY FP, BRUNTON WAT, 'SENSITIVITY OF THERMOPHILIC CAMPYLOBACTERS TO R-TYPE PYOCINES OF PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 15 247-251 (1982)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 5
1982KINANE DF, BLACKWELL CC, WEIR DM, WINSTANLEY FP, 'PHAGOCYTE RECOGNITION OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 9 169-172 (1982)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1982KINANE DF, BLACKWELL CC, BRETTLE RP, WEIR DM, WINSTANLEY FP, ELTON RA, 'ABO BLOOD-GROUP, SECRETOR STATE, AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RECURRENT URINARY-TRACT INFECTION IN WOMEN', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 285 7-9 (1982)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 77Web of Science - 106
1981WEIR DM, BLACKWELL CC, MCLEAN CA, 'IMPAIRED BACTERIAL BINDING TO PERITONEAL-EXUDATE CELLS FROM MICE WITH ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL & LABORATORY IMMUNOLOGY, 5 37-40 (1981)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 9
1981BLACKWELL CC, LAW JA, 'TYPING OF NON-SEROGROUPABLE NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS BY MEANS OF SENSITIVITY TO R-TYPE PYOCINES OF PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA', JOURNAL OF INFECTION, 3 370-378 (1981)
DOI10.1016/S0163-4453(81)91996-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 13
1979BLACKWELL CC, YOUNG H, ANDERSON I, 'SENSITIVITY OF NEISSERIA-GONORRHOEAE TO PARTIALLY PURIFIED R-TYPE PYOCINES AND A POSSIBLE APPROACH TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TYPING', JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 12 321-335 (1979)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 15
1978FREIMER NB, OGMUNDSDOTTIR HM, BLACKWELL CC, SUTHERLAND IW, GRAHAM L, WEIR DM, 'ROLE OF CELL-WALL CARBOHYDRATES IN BINDING OF MICROORGANISMS TO MOUSE PERITONEAL EXUDATE MACROPHAGES', ACTA PATHOLOGICA ET MICROBIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA SECTION B-MICROBIOLOGY, 86 53-57 (1978)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 60
Show 157 more journal articles

Conference (9 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2014Pringle K, Rae KM, Weatherall L, Hall S, Burns C, Smith R, et al., 'Effects of cigarette smoke and maternal inflammation in pregnancy on birth weight and gestational age at delivery in an Indigenous Australian population', Proceedings of the 57th ESA and 45th SRB Annual Conference, Melbourne (2014) [E3]
Co-authorsKym Rae, Kirsty Pringle, Roger Smith, Sharron Hall
2014Lumbers ER, Grimson S, Cox A, Pringle KG, Burns C, Blackwell CC, Scott R, 'The distribution of some nucleotide polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system in Indigenous Australians.', State of Heart 2014 Congress, Adelaide, SA, Australia (2014) [E3]
Co-authorsKirsty Pringle, Rodney Scott
2014Rae KM, Pringle KG, Sykes SD, Weatherall L, Clausen D, Smith R, et al., 'Factors affecting blood pressure and renal health in young Indigenous pregnant women', State of the Heart 2014 Congress, Adelaide (2014) [E3]
Co-authorsRoger Smith, Kirsty Pringle, Kym Rae
2011Moscovis SM, Hall ST, Gleeson M, Scott R, Blackwell CC, 'Genetics, gender and environment: Effects on inflammatory responses and implications for Indigenous women', Proceedings of the 3rd Coalition for Research to Improve Aboriginal Health (CRIAH) Aboriginal Health Research Conference, Sydney, NSW (2011) [E3]
Co-authorsMaree Gleeson, Rodney Scott, Sharron Hall
2011Ashhurst-Smith CIJ, Hall ST, Stuart JE, Liet E, Walker PJ, Dorrington R, et al., 'Alloiococcus otitidis: The major isolate from both urban and rural/remote children with chronic otitis media with effusion (glue ear)', Proceedings of the 3rd Coalition for Research to Improve Aboriginal Health (CRIAH) Aboriginal Health Research Conference, Sydney, NSW (2011) [E3]
Co-authorsSharron Hall, John Stuart
2011Ashhurst-Smith CIJ, Hall ST, Stuart JE, Walker PJ, Dorrington R, Eisenberg R, et al., 'Antibiotic resistance among alloiococcus otitidis isolates from Indigenous and non-Indigenous children with otitis media with effusion (OME)', Proceedings of the 3rd Coalition for Research to Improve Aboriginal Health (CRIAH) Aboriginal Health Research Conference, Sydney, NSW (2011) [E3]
Co-authorsJohn Stuart, Sharron Hall
2009Hall ST, Tzanakaki G, Kremastinou J, Scott R, Blackwell CC, Titmarsh CJ, Moscovis SM, 'Comparison of cytokine gene polymorphisms among Greek patients with meningococcal or viral meningitis', The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Brussels, Belgium (2009) [E3]
DOI10.1097/inf.0b013e3181a51c24
Co-authorsRodney Scott, Sharron Hall
2007Hall ST, Stuart JE, Blackwell CC, Robilliard M, Dorrington R, Ashhurst-Smith CIJ, et al., '24 Common Themes of Successful Health Service Models in Rural Australia', 2007 Rural Health Research Colloquium. Official Program, Tamworth, NSW (2007) [E3]
Co-authorsRodney Scott
2002Braun JM, Blackwell CC, Poxton IR, El Ahmer O, Gordon AE, Al Madani OM, et al., 'Proinflammatory responses to lipo-oligosaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis immunotype strains in relation to virulence and disease', JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, GALVERSTON, TEXAS (2002)
DOI10.1086/340501Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 16
Show 6 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants18
Total funding$1,325,521

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20151 grants / $20,000

Describing the bacterial flora of the middle ear in health and disease$20,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Mr Chris Ashhurst-Smith
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2015
Funding Finish2015
GNoG1401523
Type Of FundingGrant - Aust Non Government
Category3AFG
UONY

20131 grants / $1,500

International Congress on Meningeal Disease Vaccines, Varadero Cuba, 19-24 May 2013$1,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2013
Funding Finish2013
GNoG1300659
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20111 grants / $780

Soria Moria Conference on Paediatric Forensic Medicine, Oslo, Norway, 19 - 21 May 2011$780

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2011
Funding Finish2011
GNoG1100632
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20101 grants / $25,000

The role of infection and inflammation in stillbirths$25,000

Funding body: Stillbirth Foundation Australia

Funding bodyStillbirth Foundation Australia
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2010
Funding Finish2010
GNoG0190602
Type Of FundingGrant - Aust Non Government
Category3AFG
UONY

20092 grants / $834,035

Stress during pregnancy and the developmental origins of renal disease in aboriginal Australians$832,535

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding bodyNHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Roger Smith, Professor Eugenie Lumbers, Conjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Dr Edouard Tursan D'Espaignet, Professor Pathik Wadhwa, Conjoint Associate Professor Andrew Bisits
SchemeProject Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2009
Funding Finish2009
GNoG0188884
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Meningococcal Research$1,500

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2009
Funding Finish2009
GNoG0189965
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20082 grants / $6,894

Equipment Grant for BioRad Power Pack for Gel Electrophoresis and Gel Drying$4,394

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeEquipment Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189458
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

The 2008 Soria Moria Course on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Paediatric Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Oslo, Norway, 27/11/2008 - 29/11/2008$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189668
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20072 grants / $11,796

Development of 16s ribsome DNA for identification of bacteria causing ear infections in Aboriginal Children from rural communities$8,190

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Conjoint Associate Professor John Stuart
SchemePilot Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0187856
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Cytokine gene polymorphisms among Greek patients with meningococcal disease$3,606

Funding body: Meningitis Association of Scotland

Funding bodyMeningitis Association of Scotland
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0187752
Type Of FundingInternational - Non Competitive
Category3IFB
UONY

20062 grants / $321,136

The Effects of Genetic Background and Cigarette Smoke on Inflammatory Responses Implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome$307,136

Funding body: Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths

Funding bodyFoundation for the Study of Infant Deaths
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Emeritus Professor Maree Gleeson, Professor Rodney Scott
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2006
Funding Finish2006
GNoG0186233
Type Of FundingInternational - Competitive
Category3IFA
UONY

In vitro assessment of genetic and environmental risk factors for SIDS$14,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Professor Rodney Scott, Emeritus Professor Maree Gleeson
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2006
Funding Finish2006
GNoG0186556
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20052 grants / $41,380

Passive exposure to cigarette smoke, inflammatory and immune responses in young children $41,070

Funding body: Babes In Arms, UK

Funding bodyBabes In Arms, UK
Project Team
SchemeInternational Science Linkages Programme - Competitive Grants
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2006
GNo
Type Of FundingNot Known
CategoryUNKN
UONY

SIDS and Stillbirth Symposium. 11 March 2005$310

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2005
GNoG0185199
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20041 grants / $19,000

Assessment of Allioiococcus Otitis for its potential as a pathogen in otitis media$19,000

Funding body: Hunter Children`s Research Foundation

Funding bodyHunter Children`s Research Foundation
Project TeamConjoint Associate Professor John Stuart, Conjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0184566
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20023 grants / $44,000

The effects of cigarette smoke on immune and inflammatory responses in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with middle ear infections.$24,000

Funding body: John Hunter Children`s Hospital Research Foundation

Funding bodyJohn Hunter Children`s Hospital Research Foundation
Project TeamConjoint Associate Professor John Stuart, Conjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeResearch Grant (Defunct)
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0182334
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

Genetic factors influencing inflammatory responses to microorganisms.$10,000

Funding body: Babes In Arms, UK

Funding bodyBabes In Arms, UK
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell, Emeritus Professor Maree Gleeson
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0182525
Type Of FundingInternational - Non Competitive
Category3IFB
UONY

Genetic factors influencing inflammatory responses to microorganisms$10,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamConjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell
SchemeNew Staff Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0182533
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY
Edit

Research Supervision

Current Supervision

CommencedResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2005Alloiococcus otitidis and middle ear infections
Microbiology, University of Newcastle
Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

YearResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2012The Role of Alloiococcus otitidis in Otitis Media
Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Principal Supervisor
2011Susceptibility to and Severity of Inflammatory-related Diseases in Indigenous Australians; An In Vitro Investigation of Associated Environmental and Genetic Risk Factors
Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Co-Supervisor
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Conjoint Professor Caroline Blackwell

Position

Conjoint Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Focus area

Immunology and Microbiology

Contact Details

Emailcaroline.blackwell@newcastle.edu.au
Phone(02) 4921 4028
Fax(02) 4921 4023

Office

RoomJHH
BuildingJohn Hunter Hospital
LocationOther

,
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