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Professor Bob Loo

Professor

School of Engineering

Ironmaking in the digital age

Professor Bob Loo is the Director of the Centre for Ironmaking Materials Research (CIMR), which is a partnership between Newcastle Institute for Energy and Resources (NIER) and BHP Billiton.

Professor Bob LooA PhD graduate from the University of Oxford in the UK, Professor Loo's main area of expertise is the behaviour of iron ores in the ironmaking process. He has authored over 55 journal articles on which and how fundamental ore properties influence the efficiency of the blast furnace and sintering properties. He has also assisted BHP Billiton in the evaluation of new deposits, defining the specification of the ores from these deposits and their marketing to steel mills all over the world.

In 1998 Professor Loo's team received a Major Innovation Award for research and technical contributions in marketing, which resulted in an unprecedented demand for a new ore (Yandi) in the marketplace.  This ore, which was previously considered a problematic material and, hence, only used at low levels, is now a major component in most Asia Pacific ore blends. At the University of Newcastle, research on world iron ores, and the relationship between fundamental ore properties and performance in the ironmaking process continue to be Professor Loos' major activities and his work is fully funded by BHP Billiton.

Professor Loo has successfully supervised three BHP Billiton sponsored postgraduate research students. These include a PhD project at Zhejiang University which was aimed at building a mathematical model of the sintering process based on the fundamental knowledge acquired from research. Further work to improve and fine-tune the complex model is now being carried out at the University of Newcastle under a three-year BHP Billion funded agreement. The model is able to predict the performance of blends under a range of sintering conditions and is used by BHP Billiton to help understand the behaviour of new ores and ore blends, and provide performance data to help determine the value of an iron ore.

Since joining the University of Newcastle Professor Loo has also been successful in obtaining ARC grants. The first was a three-year Linkage grant with partner organisations BHP Billiton and Bluescope Steel, to examine the factors controlling sinter product size and strength. The ability to control these two parameters has a major influence on the economics of both the sintering and blast furnace operations. More recently, Professor Loo was part of the team involved in establishing an ARC Research Hub for Advanced Technologies for Australian Iron Ore. Professor Kevin Galvin (Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport) and Emeritus Professor Alan Roberts (Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies, TUNRA Bulk Solids) are the other collaborators and BHP Billiton is the major partner organisation.

The Research Hub aims to develop fundamental knowledge in the areas of iron ore beneficiation, handling and end-use, which will be used to support the development of new separation and handling technologies to sustain and grow value in iron ore production and sales.

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Professor Bob Loo

Ironmaking in the digital age

Professor Bob Loo's research focuses on defining the link between fundamental iron ore and metallurgical coal properties and their performance in the ironmakin

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Career Summary

Biography

Prior to joining the University of Newcastle in 2010, I spent over 30 years in industrial research. My employment at BHP Research, Shortland - now Newcastle Institute for Energy and Resources (NIER) – spanned over 28 years. During this time our team provided technical support to the marketing of BHP Billiton iron ores and coals worldwide. The aims of our research activities included: defining the link between fundamental iron ore and metallurgical coal properties and their performance in the ironmaking process, the formulation of ore and coal blends for effective sintering and coking, and the evaluation of new deposits. My current research activities continue to focus on these areas, and they include work funded directly by BHP Billiton and an ARC Linkage grant with BHP Billiton and BlueScope Steel as partner organisations.

Research Expertise
• Characterisation of ironmaking raw materials relevant to their end-use (e.g., iron ore for sintering, iron ore sinter and coke for blast furnace ironmaking, and coal for cokemaking)

• Applied research with focus on understanding process fundamentals (e.g., the iron ore sintering and cokemaking processes)

• Formulation of research programs to achieve desired, tangible outcomes (e.g., results that can be used in technical marketing and/or solve commercial-scale problems)

• Effective dissemination and presentation of research results in publications and forums to maximize benefits to the funding organizations (e.g., brochure, journal/conference paper or customer presentation on how to sinter YANDI ore effectively for BHP Billiton Marketing)

Teaching Expertise
• Ran or was involved in over 60 two-day courses on ironmaking for BHP officers - from iron ore operations and marketing - over a period of 25 years

Administrative Expertise
• Group Leader of Carbon Steel Materials at BHP Research with total budgets of over AUS $5 million per annum from 2002 to 2005 • Fundamentals Research Leader of Carbon Steel Materials at BHP Research from 2006 to 2009


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oxford - UK
  • Bachelor of Technology, University of Bradford, UK

Keywords

  • Blast Furnace Ironmaking
  • Cokemaking
  • Iron Ore Properties
  • Iron Ore Sintering
  • Preparation of Ironmaking feed materials

Languages

  • Malay (Fluent)

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
020499 Condensed Matter Physics not elsewhere classified 15
091299 Materials Engineering not elsewhere classified 35
091499 Resources Engineering and Extractive Metallurgy not elsewhere classified 50

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Professor University of Newcastle
School of Engineering
Australia

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/01/2007 - 31/12/2009 Editorial Board - Advisory Board of the journal ISIJ International Advisory Board of the journal ISIJ International
Australia

Awards

Recipient

Year Award
1998 BHP Innovation Prize - Major Innovation Category
BHP

Invitations

Keynote Speaker

Year Title / Rationale
2006 Fourth International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking
Organisation: The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Description: Present paper entitled ' Iron ore sintering research - past approaches, achievements and future requirements'
1993 Sixth International Symposium on Agglomeration
Organisation: The Society of Powder Technology, The Iron and Steel Institute, The Society of Chemical Engineers Description: Present paper entitled ' Effect of high-temperature zone reactions on the sintering process'

Speaker

Year Title / Rationale
2005 Third China International Coking Technology and Coke Market Congress
Organisation: China Iron and Steel Assoc & China Coking Industry Assoc. Description: Present paper entitled 'Defining fundamental metallurgical coke properties using advanced techniques'
2005 150th ISIJ Meeting (International Organised Session)
Organisation: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Description: Present paper entitled ' Minimising energy consumption in sintering'
1997 Annual Meeting
Organisation: China Society of Metals Description: Present paper entitled 'Iron-bearing feed properties for optimal blast furnace performance'
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Journal article (60 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Zhao JP, Loo CE, Dukino RD, 'Modelling fuel combustion in iron ore sintering', COMBUSTION AND FLAME, 162 1019-1034 (2015)
DOI 10.1016/j.combustflame.2014.09.026
2014 Loo CE, Dukino RD, 'Laboratory iron ore sintering studies. 1. Process simulation and airflow rate', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 123 191-196 (2014) [C1]

Iron ore sintering is the most popular process used to produce a suitable feed for the blast furnace. With changing iron ore supplies and composition, steel mills have to continua... [more]

Iron ore sintering is the most popular process used to produce a suitable feed for the blast furnace. With changing iron ore supplies and composition, steel mills have to continually adjust the blended ore mix composition to the sinter plant. To help decision making in this area, and also obtain increased understanding of the process to allow improvements in sintering operations, laboratory-scale sinter pot tests are conducted. The use of a pot for routine testing and for research is discussed. When used as a research tool, the experimental approach used to simulate a plant will have to be modified to facilitate the interpretation of results. Airflow rate through a bed is a critical parameter and this paper highlights the important relationship between post- and pre-ignition airflow rates and also the effect of changing bed suction and coke level in the sinter mix.

DOI 10.1179/1743285514Y.0000000064
2014 Loo CE, Dukino RD, 'Laboratory iron ore sintering studies. 3. Critical heat transfer period', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 123 204-211 (2014) [C1]

The generation of sufficient melt of appropriate properties is essential for the transformation of a blended sinter mix bed into a bed composed of large discrete sinter particles.... [more]

The generation of sufficient melt of appropriate properties is essential for the transformation of a blended sinter mix bed into a bed composed of large discrete sinter particles. For a chosen sinter mix, melt properties are determined by the quantity of heat transferred from the moving flame front and the chemical properties of the bed. Temperature-time profiles from embedded thermocouples are used to assess the transferred heat. From considerations of melt initiation and solidification temperatures, a critical sintering reaction area in the profiles is defined. The area is about three times the flame front area as it includes high temperature regions outside the front. It represents the total amount of heat available to the material in the partially molten state. Reasonable correlations are obtained between this area and the tumble strength of the sinter product. Temperature-time profiles are quite variable and strong correlations cannot be expected.

DOI 10.1179/1743285514Y.0000000066
2014 Loo CE, Dukino RD, 'Laboratory iron ore sintering studies. 2. Quantifying flame front properties', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 123 197-203 (2014) [C1]

The performance of a sinter machine and the quality of the ensuing product are strongly dependent on the processes occurring in the descending flame front. As it is not possible t... [more]

The performance of a sinter machine and the quality of the ensuing product are strongly dependent on the processes occurring in the descending flame front. As it is not possible to measure flame front properties in a sintering bed directly, embedded thermocouples are used to provide information in this area. Through making some assumptions, it is possible to assess flame front properties using the obtained thermocouple profiles. Flame front speed, thickness and maximum temperature are identified as important parameters. The total heat transferred to the material from the flame front is a function of these parameters. Experimental results show that increasing flame front speed decreases residence time, maximum temperatures and total heat transferred to the bed. Only indicative trends can be obtained because of the variability in thermocouple results, which are inherent in the experimental technique. Coke combustion efficiency also depends on flame front speed.

DOI 10.1179/1743285514Y.0000000065
2014 Loo CE, Ellis BG, 'Changing Bed Bulk Density and other Process Conditions during Iron Ore Sintering', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 54 19-28 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.54.19
2014 Liu D, Loo CE, Pinson D, Burgess S, Evans G, Lucas J, 'Understanding Coalescence in Iron Ore Sintering Using Two Bench-scale Techniques', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 54 2179-2188 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.54.2179
Co-authors John Lucas, Geoffrey Evans
2014 Zhao JP, Loo CE, Dukino RD, 'Modelling fuel combustion in iron ore sintering', Combustion and Flame, (2014)

In an iron ore sintering bed, the combustion behaviour of coke particles together with velocity of the flowing gas stream determines the temperature, width and speed of the traver... [more]

In an iron ore sintering bed, the combustion behaviour of coke particles together with velocity of the flowing gas stream determines the temperature, width and speed of the traversing flame front. A bed heat treatment mathematical model was formulated in an earlier study to describe this complex relationship. An area of improvement in the model is the description of the coke combustion process, which is highly dependent on the resistances controlling the flow of gases to and from the coke particles. These vary for different coke particles because of the prior coarsening of the sinter mix by granulation. The characteristic structure of granules - nuclear particle with an adhering fines layer - indicates that gases have better access to finer coke particles. In this study, an available granulation model is integrated into the heat treatment model to provide a novel description of coke positioning within granules. In addition to this change, two endothermic reactions were introduced into the model. Using the previous and modified models, predicted bed temperature-time profiles as a function of position down the bed, were compared against embedded thermocouples results from seventeen laboratory sinter tests. Generally, the modified definition of coke combustion behaviour resulted in improved comparison with experimental results. In the sintering literature, studies have been reported on: the use of charcoal/biomass char to replace coke, the preferential placement of coke particles on the outside of granules, and varying the size distribution of the coke particles. Improving the access of gases to coke particles and decreasing coke size are comparable to using more reactive fuels. Combustion rate, efficiency and flame front properties are all influenced by fuel reactivity. Model predictions of changes in bed temperatures, flame front properties and sintering performance caused by fuel type, location and size are consistent with reported observations.

DOI 10.1016/j.combustflame.2014.09.026
2012 Zhou H, Zhao JP, Loo CE, Ellis BG, Cen KF, 'Numerical modeling of the iron ore sintering process', ISIJ International, 52 1550-1558 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 4
2012 Loo CE, Tame N, Penny GC, 'Effect of iron ores and sintering conditions on flame front properties', ISIJ International, 52 967-976 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 4
2012 Loo CE, Heikkinen J, 'Structural transformation of beds during iron ore sintering', ISIJ International, 52 2158-2167 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2012 Zhou H, Zhao JP, Loo CE, Ellis BG, Cen KF, 'Model predictions of important bed and gas properties during iron ore sintering', ISIJ International, 52 2168-2176 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2011 Loo CE, Matthews LT, O'Dea DP, 'Lump ore and sinter behaviour during softening and melting', ISIJ International, 51 930-938 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 6
2009 Amanat N, Tsafnat N, Loo CE, Jones A, 'Metallurgical coke: An investigation into compression properties and microstructure using X-ray microtomography', Scripta Materialia, 60 92-95 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2008.09.003
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2007 Ellis BG, Loo CE, Witchard D, 'Effect of ore properties on sinter bed permeability and strength', IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING, 34 99-108 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1179/174328107X165726
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2007 Debrincat D, Loo CE, 'Factors influencing particulate emissions during iron ore sintering', ISIJ International, 47 652-658 (2007) [C1]

Controlling particulate emission from a sinter strand is important to minimizing its impact on the environment. Several factors influencing particulate emission from an iron ore s... [more]

Controlling particulate emission from a sinter strand is important to minimizing its impact on the environment. Several factors influencing particulate emission from an iron ore sinter strand were investigated in the current work using a laboratory scale sinter pot. A blend fairly typical of that currently used in the Asia Pacific region, as well as another containing 30 mass% Marra Mamba ore that could represent a future ore blend were used. It was established that most of the particulates emitted were less than 1.18 mm and were mostly from the calcination and dried zones of the bed. In addition, most particulates were released from the bed after the wet zone in the bed had ceased to exist. This work suggests mix moisture and coke rate had a significant impact on particulate emissions. Increasing moisture from 5.5 to 9.0mass% decreased particulate emission while increasing coke content from 5.5 to 7.5mass% increased particulate emission. Therefore when altering the ore blend changes in mix moisture and coke rate may also need to be accounted for when evaluating the impact on particulate emission. It was also found that particulate emission could be decreased by decreasing sintering suction just before burn-through. © 2007 ISIJ.

DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.47.652
Citations Scopus - 8
2007 Jones AS, Reztsov A, Loo CE, 'Application of invariant grey scale features for analysis of porous minerals', MICRON, 38 40-48 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.micron.2006.04.004
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 11
2006 Loo CE, 'Iron ore sintering research - Past approaches, achievements and future requirements', 4th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmarking, ICSTI 2006, Proceedings, 655-658 (2006)

Significant advances have been made to understand the iron ore sintering process. The laboratory sinter pot provides a good simulation of the process occurring on a sinter strand.... [more]

Significant advances have been made to understand the iron ore sintering process. The laboratory sinter pot provides a good simulation of the process occurring on a sinter strand. The controlling variables and their inter-relationships can be obtained from carefully controlled pot tests. The sintering process has also been divided into the various sub-processes for study. Granulation has been studied very extensively; in recent years the flame front has been the focus of research efforts. There is now good understanding of the melt formation process and the dependence of this process on iron ore properties. More work on the interactive behavior of ores in a blend is required. The aim in sintering research must be to obtain sufficient fundamental understanding so that a generally applicable mechanism-based sintering model can be formulated. In the area of sinter quality, advances have also been made to understand the factors controlling sinter degradation and reduction.

Citations Scopus - 1
2006 Loo CE, Penny G, 'The structure and strength of metallurgical cokes formed from various parent coals', 4th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmarking, ICSTI 2006, Proceedings, 117-120 (2006)

Eleven single coals covering a wide rank range were coked individually in a pilot oven. The product cokes and their parent coals were characterized using conventional tests. In ad... [more]

Eleven single coals covering a wide rank range were coked individually in a pilot oven. The product cokes and their parent coals were characterized using conventional tests. In addition, coke micro-structure was quantified using 2-D image analysis. Although several coal and coke parameters were found to influence coke micro-structure, it was not possible to establish consistent trends for all the eleven samples. Clearly the structural transformation of coal to coke is a complex process influenced by many variables. Results also suggest that coke strength is dependent on micro-texture, micro-structure and the adhesion forces holding the assemblage together.

2005 Mahoney M, Andriopoulos N, Keating J, Loo CE, McGuire S, 'Pilot scale simulation of cokemaking in integrated steelworks', IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING, 32 468-478 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1179/174328105X48098
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 11
2005 Loo CE, 'A perspective of goethitic ore sintering fundamentals', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 45 434-435 (2005)
2005 Loo CE, 'A perspective of goethitic ore sintering fundamentals', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 45 436-448 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.45.436
Citations Scopus - 43Web of Science - 25
2005 Loo CE, Wong DJ, 'Fundamental factors determining laboratory sintering results', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 45 449-458 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.45.449
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 15
2005 Loo CE, Wong DJ, 'Fundamental insights into the sintering behaviour of goethitic ore blends', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 45 459-468 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.45.459
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2004 Debrincat D, Loo CE, Hutchens MF, 'Effect of iron ore particle assimilation on Sinter structure', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 44 1308-1317 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.44.1308
Citations Web of Science - 18
2003 Loo CE, Hutchens MF, 'Quantifying the resistance to airflow during iron ore sintering', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 43 630-636 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.43.630
Citations Web of Science - 18
2003 Loo CE, Leung W, 'Factors influencing the bonding phase structure of iron ore sinters', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 43 1393-1402 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.43.1393
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 30
2003 Andriopoulos N, Loo CE, Dukino R, McGuire SJ, 'Micro-properties of Australian coking coals', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 43 1528-1537 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.43.1528
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 19
2002 Loo CE, Leaney JCM, 'Characterizing the contribution of the high-temperature zone to iron ore sinter bed permeability', TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY SECTION C-MINERAL PROCESSING AND EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY, 111 C11-C17 (2002) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 3
2002 Loo CE, Dukino RD, Witchard D, 'Rigidity of iron ore sinter mixes', TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY SECTION C-MINERAL PROCESSING AND EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY, 111 C33-C38 (2002) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 4
2000 Dukino RD, Swain MV, Loo CE, 'A simple contact and fracture mechanics approach to tumble drum breakage', International Journal of Mineral Processing, 59 175-183 (2000) [C1]
2000 Loo CE, 'Changes in heat transfer when sintering porous goethitic iron ores', TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY SECTION C-MINERAL PROCESSING AND EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY, 109 C11-C22 (2000) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 14
2000 Loo CE, Aboutanios J, 'Changes in water distribution when sintering porous goethitic iron ores', TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY SECTION C-MINERAL PROCESSING AND EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY, 109 C23-C35 (2000) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
1998 Loo CE, Bristow NJ, 'Properties of iron bearing materials under simulated blast furnace indirect reduction conditions - Part 1 - Review and experimental procedure', IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING, 25 222-232 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 11
1998 Loo CE, Bristow NJ, 'Properties of iron bearing materials under simulated blast furnace indirect reduction conditions - Part 2 Reduction degradation', IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING, 25 287-295 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 12
1998 Loo CE, Bristow NJ, 'Properties of iron bearing materials under simulated blast furnace indirect reduction conditions - Part 3 Reducibility', IRONMAKING & STEELMAKING, 25 366-373 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 4
1998 Loo CE, Penny GC, 'Granulation behaviour of iron ore blends containing coarse, porous ore', TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY SECTION C-MINERAL PROCESSING AND EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY, 107 C111-C122 (1998) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
1997 Loo CE, Davis L, 'Causes of glass fractures in iron ore sinters', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 106 98-103 (1997) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1997 Dukino RD, Loo CE, Swain MV, 'Characterisation of strength of Australian iron ores by tumble-drum and drop tests', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 106 80-88 (1997) [C1]
1997 Dukino RD, Loo CE, Swain MV, 'Characterization of strength of Australian iron ores by tumble-drum and drop tests', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 106 (1997)

The nature of fracture and the factors that control the extent of fracture in the tumble-drum and drop-tower tests have been identified. The product-size distribution, on which th... [more]

The nature of fracture and the factors that control the extent of fracture in the tumble-drum and drop-tower tests have been identified. The product-size distribution, on which the standard strength indices for these tests are based, and the breakage rate constants are shown to depend on a number of factors other than the strength of the lumps. The standard indices and rate constants are meaningful only in a comparative context and for events whose loading mechanism is similar. The results are used in combination with fracture mechanics theory to explain why different tumble-drum standards have been found to be not fully consistent. A more meaningful measure of strength could be the parameters of the Weibull function, i.e. scatter and average strength. © The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 1997.

1997 Yang L, Loo CE, 'Structure of sinters from complex Chinese iron ores.', Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ) International, 37 449-457 (1997) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
1996 Loo CE, Mackey L, England BM, 'Behaviour of magnesia bearing minerals during iron ore sintering', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 105 175-189 (1996) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
1996 Dukino RD, Swain MV, Loo CE, Bristow MJ, 'Mechanical properties of three Australian iron ores', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 105 164-174 (1996) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
1996 Loo CE, Penny GC, Witchard D, 'Effective sintering of iron ore blends containing porous ores at low moisture contents', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 105 22-36 (1996) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 13
1995 Loo CE, Matthews LT, England BM, Yang CY, Yin JY, 'Sintering reactions between a complex Chinese iron ore concentrate and Australian ores', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 104 70-80 (1995) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 4
1995 Dukino RD, Swain MV, Loo CE, Bristow NJ, England BM, 'Fracture behaviour of three Australian iron ores', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 104 11-19 (1995) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 5
1994 Loo CE, Witchard D, Penny GC, 'Improving the sintering performance of ore blends containing Yandi pisolite ore', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 103 135-146 (1994) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 7
1994 Loo CE, Bristow NJ, 'The mechanism of low-temperature reduction degradation of iron ore sinters', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 103 126-134 (1994) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 15
1994 Loo CE, Teo CS, 'Sintering properties of Yandi ore', Kang T'ieh/Iron and Steel (Peking), 29 1-7, 34 (1994)

Studies were carried out to examine the effect of adding pisolitic limonite (Yandi) into an Australian iron ore blend, among which Yandi has higher porosity. The porosity increase... [more]

Studies were carried out to examine the effect of adding pisolitic limonite (Yandi) into an Australian iron ore blend, among which Yandi has higher porosity. The porosity increases further after dehydration, resulting in the formation of an extreme porous structure composed of fine hematite grains. This unique structure has a significant effect on the sintering properties of the blend. Pilot-scale sintering studies and plant trials showed that the productivity, sinter reductibility and low-temperature reduction size-degradation rate would change obviously when the Yandi content in the blend is more than 15%.

Citations Scopus - 2
1992 Loo CE, Williams RP, Matthews LT, 'Influence of material properties on the high-temperature zone reactions in sintering of iron ore.', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 101 7-16 (1992) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 26
1992 Loo CE, Matthews LT, 'The assimilation of large ore and flux particles in iron ore sintering', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 101 105-118 (1992) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 13
1992 Loo CE, Matthews LT, Ostwald J, 'Sintering mechanism of a Western Australian pisolitic limonite', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 101 129-138 (1992) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 10
1992 BRISTOW NJ, LOO CE, 'SINTERING PROPERTIES OF IRON-ORE MIXES CONTAINING TITANIUM', ISIJ INTERNATIONAL, 32 819-828 (1992)
DOI 10.2355/isijinternational.32.819
Citations Web of Science - 18
1992 Bristow NJ, Loo CE, 'Sintering of ore mixes containing titanium', Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ) International, 32 819-828 (1992) [C1]
1992 Teo CS, Mikka R, Loo CE, 'Positioning coke particles in iron ore sintering', Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ) International, 32 1047-1057 (1992) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 19
1991 Loo CE, 'The role of coke size in the sintering of a hematite ore blend', Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 18 33-40 (1991) [C1]
1991 Loo CE, 'The influence of a pisolitic limonite on the sintering of an Australian ore blend', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 100 127-134 (1991) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 12
1990 Yang L, Loo CE, Ostwald J, 'The formation of complex calcium ferrite bonding phases from magnetite during sintering', Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 99 80-86 (1990) [C1]
1988 Loo CE, Wan KT, Howes VR, 'Mechanical properties of natural and synthetic mineral phases in sinters having varying reduction degradation indices', Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 15 279-285 (1988) [C1]
1987 Loo CE, Slechta J, 'The effect of pendular flocculation on the filtration of fine coal', International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, 5 109-120 (1987) [C1]
1985 Loo CE, Bridgwater J, 'Theory of thermal stresses and deposit removal', Powder Technology, 42 55-65 (1985) [C1]
Show 57 more journal articles

Conference (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2013 Loo CE, 'Changes in sintering parameters and sinter quality with increasing Australian ore levels', The Fifth Baosteel Biennial Academic Conference, Shanghai (2013) [E3]
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 10
Total funding $15,235,495

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20152 grants / $8,500,000

Ironmaking Research Collaboration$6,000,000

Funding body: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd

Funding body BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd
Project Team Doctor Alan Broadfoot, Professor Mark Jones, Professor Bob Loo, Doctor Merrick Mahoney
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo G1500069
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

Subproject 1 - Ironmaking Research Collaboration$2,500,000

Funding body: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd

Funding body BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd
Project Team Professor Bob Loo
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo GS150001
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

20133 grants / $5,773,780

ARC Research Hub for Advanced Technologies for Australian Iron Ore$3,273,780

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding body ARC (Australian Research Council)
Project Team Laureate Professor Kevin Galvin, Emeritus Professor Alan Roberts, Professor Bob Loo, Dr Benjamin Ellis, Mr Gregory Elphick, Mr Taavi Orupold, Mrs Lisa Allen
Scheme Industrial Transformation Research Hubs
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1400313
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

ARC Research Hub for Advanced Technologies for Australian Iron Ore$1,500,000

Funding body: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd

Funding body BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd
Project Team Laureate Professor Kevin Galvin, Emeritus Professor Alan Roberts, Professor Bob Loo, Dr Benjamin Ellis, Mr Gregory Elphick, Mr Taavi Orupold, Mrs Lisa Allen
Scheme Industrial Transformation Research Hub Partner funding
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1400793
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

ARC Research Hub for Advanced Technologies for Australian Iron Ore$1,000,000

Funding body: BHP Billiton Iron Ore Pty Ltd

Funding body BHP Billiton Iron Ore Pty Ltd
Project Team Laureate Professor Kevin Galvin, Emeritus Professor Alan Roberts, Professor Bob Loo, Dr Benjamin Ellis, Mr Gregory Elphick, Mr Taavi Orupold, Mrs Lisa Allen
Scheme Industrial Transformation Research Hub Partner funding
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1400794
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

20122 grants / $330,000

Sinter Modelling$280,000

Funding body: BHP Billiton Limited

Funding body BHP Billiton Limited
Project Team Professor Bob Loo
Scheme Research Project
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1200737
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

Softening-Melting Project$50,000

Funding body: BlueScope Steel

Funding body BlueScope Steel
Project Team Professor Bob Loo
Scheme Research Collaboration Agreement
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1101185
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20113 grants / $631,715

Enhancing the position of Australian iron ores through understanding and altering the coalescence phenomenon during sintering$300,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding body ARC (Australian Research Council)
Project Team Professor Bob Loo, Associate Professor John Lucas, Professor Geoffrey Evans, Mr Juha Heikkinen, Dr Daniel Maldonado
Scheme Linkage Projects
Role Lead
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2011
GNo G1000571
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Enhancing the position of Australian iron ores through understanding and altering the coalescence phenomenon during sintering$181,715

Funding body: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd

Funding body BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd
Project Team Professor Bob Loo, Associate Professor John Lucas, Professor Geoffrey Evans, Mr Juha Heikkinen, Dr Daniel Maldonado
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2011
GNo GS100009
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

Enhancing the position of Australian iron ores through understanding and altering the coalescence phenomenon during sintering$150,000

Funding body: BlueScope Steel

Funding body BlueScope Steel
Project Team Professor Bob Loo, Associate Professor John Lucas, Professor Geoffrey Evans, Mr Juha Heikkinen, Dr Daniel Maldonado
Scheme Linkage Projects Partner funding
Role Lead
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2011
GNo G1000709
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed2
Current4

Current Supervision

Commenced Research Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2014 Material Type and Voidage Distribution in a Sintering Bed
Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2012 Iron Ore Sintering Coalescence Mechanism
Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2010 Fundamental factors controlling iron ore sinter quality
Engineering & Related Technolo, Unknown
Co-Supervisor
2007 Numerical modelling of the iron ore sintering process
Engineering & Related Technolo, Unknown
Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Research Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2009 Fundamental Factors Influencing Coke Strength
Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
1997 Application of fracture mechanics to ironmaking materials
Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney
Co-Supervisor
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News

BHP Billiton continues funding for ironmaking research

BHP Billiton continues funding for ironmaking research

February 5, 2015

BHP Billiton has provided generous funding of $6m over 5 years for continuation of the research undertaken by the Centre for Ironmaking Materials Research.

Iron ore

$3.2m ARC funding

June 13, 2014

The University of Newcastle has been awarded $3.2 million from the Australian Research Council (ARC) to establish a new research hub, in collaboration with industry, dedicated to future-proofing Australia's iron ore production and exports.

Professor Bob Loo

Position

Professor
Centre for Ironmaking Materials Research
School of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Contact Details

Email bob.loo@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 40339142
Mobile 0400130559

Office

Building NIER
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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