X-ray diffraction (XRD)

X‐ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is applicable only to crystalline materials and is most often used to determine the identity of phases or compounds in a sample. Most samples are powders, but the XRDs in the EMX are also able to analyse solid samples and thin films (glancing incidence). XRD is also useful in determining texture and stress in a material and can be used to help determine unit cell parameters and to solve unknown crystal structures. One of the EMX XRDs has a heating stage that allows analysis of phase changes occurring at various temperatures (up to 1600°C) and under vacuum, air or inert gas conditions.

Sample restrictions

Samples can be in the form of powders, solids or deposits on films or slides. ‘Normal’ powder samples require approximately the same volume as a two dollar coin and the powder should be as fine as flour. Solids may be up to 10 x 10 x 10cm and weigh up to 1 kg. There must be a flat surface for analysis.



  • 45 position sample changer
  • HTK16 heating stage (1600°C), operable under air, inert gas and vacuum
  • MPSS multi‐purpose sample stage
  • Cu anode tube
  • Monochromator for Cu radiation
  • Automatic slits on incident and diffracted beam sides
  • Eulerian cradle for stress and texture analysis plus associated software
  • PixCel 1D detector
  • X‐Ray lens for incident beam and Cu radiation
  • Collimator for Cu radiation

Analysis types

  • Phase identification for powders and solids
  • Stress analysis
  • Texture analysis
  • Heating experiments under air, vacuum or inert gas

Panalytical XPert PRO XRD

Specifications RHS

  • 15 position sample changer
  • MPSS sample stage
  • Co anode tube
  • X’Celerator and Proportional detectors
  • X‐Ray mirror for Co radiation
  • Monochromator for Co radiation
  • Collimator for Co radiation

Analysis types

  • Phase identification for powders and solids
  • Glancing incidence analysis/ thin film analysis
  • low angle scans


ALL users of XRD equipment must complete an X‐ray safety course run by the university X‐Ray Safety Advisor before commencing work with the XRD instruments. The test at the end of the course must be passed and the certificate provided to EMX unit staff.

The University of Newcastle acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands within our footprint areas: Awabakal, Darkinjung, Biripai, Worimi, Wonnarua, and Eora Nations. We also pay respect to the wisdom of our Elders past and present.