Day of Game Injury Identification and Assessment
i. Match Play Video Review and Analysis
This research program has reviewed match play video of head impact events, head injury assessments, and medically diagnosed concussions in professional rugby league and rugby union. This ongoing research program aims to review and refine the video signs of concussion as an adjunct tool for the medical professional to assist in the management of game day incidents.
i. Gardner AJ, Kohler R, McDonald W, Tucker R, Fuller GW, & Makdissi M. (2018). The use of sideline video review to facilitate management decisions following head trauma in Super Rugby. Sports Medicine – Open, in press.
ii. Gardner AJ, Howell DR, Iverson GL. (2018). A video review of multiple concussion signs in National Rugby League match play. Sports Med Open, 4, 5.
iii. Gardner AJ, Howell DR, Levi CR, & Iverson GL. (2017). Evidence of Concussion Signs in National Rugby League Match Play: A Video Review and Validation Study. Sports Medicine – Open, 3(1):26.
iv. Gardner AJ, Levi CR, & Iverson GL. (2017). Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion: A Method for Conducting a Standardised Video Analysis of Concussion in Rugby League. Sports Medicine – Open, 3:26.
v. Gardner AJ, Kohler RMN, Levi CR, & Iverson GL. (2017). Usefulness of Video Review of Possible Concussions in National Youth Rugby League. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(1):71-75.
vi. Gardner AJ, Iverson GL, Stanwell P, Moore T, Ellis J, & Levi CR. (2016). A Video Analysis of Use of the New 'Concussion Interchange Rule' in the National Rugby League. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(4):267-273.
vii. Gardner AJ, Iverson GL, Quinn T, Makdissi M, Levi CL, Shultz SR, Wright D, & Stanwell P. (2015). A preliminary video analysis of concussion in the National Rugby League. Brain Injury, 29(10): 1182–1185.
ii. Impact Sensor Validation
This research program is examining the use of impact sensors to quantify the extent and quantity of impacts that occur during match play, and validate the tool as a possible adjunct tool for the identification of possible concussion in match play. This research program will conduct:
- Video verification research examining direct head impacts
- Peak accelerations associated with medically diagnosed concussions
- Associations between peak acceleration thresholds and cumulative exposure and visible signs of concussion on video
- Comparison of acceleration thresholds associated with direct head impacts and indirect head impacts
i. Carey L, Stanwell P, Terry DP, McIntosh AS, Caswell SV, Iverson GL, & Gardner AJ. (2019). Verifying head impacts recorded by a wearable sensor using video footage in rugby league: A preliminary study. Sports Medicine – Open, 5(1):9.
iii. Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) Research
The SCAT is a tool that has been universally adopted as a clinical support tool for day of game and subsequent assessment, of an athlete suspected of having sustained a concussion. Our research program has evaluated the performance of fatigued athletes on the SCAT, and evaluated video signs, day of game SCAT performance and subsequent medical diagnosis of concussion. We are continuing to be involved in collaborative work on the SCAT and conduct our own research looking at day of game performance, baseline performance, and serial use of the SCAT.
i. Chung Pin Yong JP, Howell DR, Meehan WP, Iverson GL, & Gardner AJ.(2018). Effects of Exercise on Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition Performance in Amateur Female Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, in press.
ii. Gardner AJ, Wojtowicz M, Terry D, Levi CR, Zafonte R, & Iverson GL. (2017). Video and Clinical Screening of Australian National Rugby League Players Suspected of Sustaining Concussion, Brain Injury, in press.
iii. Lee JH, Howell DR, Meehan WP, Iverson GL, & Gardner AJ.(2017). Effects of Exercise on Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition Performance in Professional Athletes. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(9):2325967117727261.
iv. Cognitive Assessment Validation Research
The clinical validation program is focused on creating a normative database, while also examining construct validity (convergent and divergent validity), and test retest reliability (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) of a number of unique tools in an attempt to advance the sensitivity of detecting subtle cognitive deficits in concussed athletes, and to track their cognitive recovery over time.