Framework

Proposed Framework

Resilience framework

Framework Components

Antecedents
  • Antecedents are the events that must happen prior to the occurrence of the concept, they represent the “baggage” that an individual brings to the environment that they work in.
  • Within resilience research, a necessary requirement is the experience of a risk or adversity that carries a significant threat for the development of a negative outcome.
  • The context of the adversity could be biological, psychological, economic or social and covering areas such as stress
Protective factors
  • Protective factors are defined as operating to protect those at risk from the effects of the risk factors.
  • Protective factors may be individual or environmental they contribute to positive outcomes regardless of the risk status, i.e. community, school, family, peers and individual.
Protective factors have been identified across three levels:
  1. individual (e.g. psychological, neurobiological)
  2. social (e.g. family cohesion, parental support)
  3. community/society (e.g. support systems generated through social and political capital, institutional and economic factors)
Risk Factors
  • Risk factors do not predict a particular negative outcome with absolute certainty, they only expose individuals to circumstances associated with a higher incidence of that outcome.
  • Risk factors stem from multiple life stressors, i.e. a single traumatic event or cumulative stress from a number of individual and environmental factors.
Consequences
  • Consequences are the end-points that occur as a result of the antecedents and attributes of resilience.
Four consequences of resilience have emerged:
  1. integration physically and/or psychologically in context
  2. the development of personal control in context
  3. psychological adjustment
  4. personal growth in the wake of disruption

Existing models of resilience

Figure 1. Antecedents, defining attributes and consequences of resilience (2007)

Figure 1. An ecological model of risk and protective factors. Reproduced by kind permission of the Mental Health Foundation of Australia from their online project 'Embrace the future' (2009).

Figure 1. An ecological model of risk and protective factors. Reproduced by kind permission of the Mental Health Foundation of Australia from their online project 'Embrace the future' (2009)

Figure 1. Evolution of the construct of resilience (2004)

Evolution of the construct of resilience

Figure 1. Predictors and moderators of adolescent psychosocial resilience (2007).

Predictors and moderators of adolescent psychosocial resilience (2007)

Note. All statistics are significant, standardised Betas.

Figure 3. Example of the layers of resources and assets that facilitate resilience (2011).

Windle 2011

From A. Sacker, personal communication, September 2009; adapted from Dahlgren & Whitehead, 1991, with permission.