Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith

Conjoint Professor

School of Medicine and Public Health

Career Summary

Biography

Research Expertise
Together with my extensive epidemiological methodological experience, I have substantial experience conducting, analysing, interpreting and publishing on a range of areas of epidemiology. Environmental issues include arsenic, air pollution, disinfection by-products in drinking water, radiofrequency electromagnetic energy, solar ultraviolet radiation, effect of military service, and a range of infectious diseases associated with environmental factors (including listeriosis, tetanus, rabies, diarrhoeal and respiratory episodes). I also have considerable experience in biostatistics, nutritional and ophthalmic and sensory epidemiology, and cardiovascular disease, along with substantial activities in ageing, in childrens health, indigenous health, diabetes, asthma, physical activity, international health, and research in illicit drug use. In addition I am working in the areas of genetic and molecular epidemiology, and the health consequences of the built and industrial environment.

Teaching Expertise
Postgraduate coursework: I am Director of the Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. I am responsible for coordinating the entire Graduate Diploma and Masters coursework components, and for convening all the Clinical Epidemiology postgraduate teaching. These courses are offered both on campus and by distance learning. I also teach into five of the courses regularly (Epi A, Epi B, Nutritional Epi, Clinical Epi and Research Protocol Design). Research Higher Degree Students: I currently co-supervise three PhD students - topics include: Treatment for Anorexia (Mel Hart); Diabetes prevention in indigenous communities (Jo Gwynn); Molecular aspects of dementia (Mark McEvoy); Undergraduate: I currently teach public health in the Undergraduate Medical program at the University of Newcastle. This involves teaching into years 1,2 and 5 of the Bachelor of Medicine course, and co-ordinating the Longitudinal Task in Year 5. Previous teaching commitments. I was program convenor, Graduate Diploma in Public Health program, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health (NCEPH), Australian National University, from 1996-2001, and taught Introductory and advanced epidemiology courses. From 1992 to 1994 I taught into both the undergraduate and postgraduate public health programs at the University of Sydney. Not counting current PhD students, I have co-supervised ten PhD students who have now graduated (Nb: co-supervision mandatory at Centres I have worked at since 1995) Dr Parker Magin - Skin disease and psychosocial factors Vicki Flood, Nutritional Epidemiology folate and B12; Dr Hasnat Milton , Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh; Dr Kamalini Lokuge, Diarrhoea in Bangladesh; Marion Currie, Post-natal Depression. Dr Leslee Roberts, Randomised controlled trial of infection control interventions on diarrhoea and respiratory infection in child care. Dr Chris Kelman, Health Outcomes and Implantable Devices: a record-linkage historical cohort study. Dr Jie Jin Wang, Impact of Sensory Impairment on independent living of older Australians. Dr Geetha Ranmuthugala, Disinfection by-products in drinking water and bladder micronuclei. Dr Robyn Lucas, Biomarkers of Social Disadvantage. I also act as an examiner, having marked 4 PhD and 2 Masters theses for University of Sydney; 1 PhD thesis for Queensland Institute of Technology; 1 PhD thesis for Monash University; 2 Masters theses for Australian National University; 3 PhD and 2 Masters theses for University of Newcastle.

Administrative Expertise
" Director, Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and " PHERP Director, University of Newcastle (2003-2007) " Director, Newcastle Institute of Public Health (2002-2005) " Director, The Health and Social Research Project: Risks and Benefits of Arsenic Mitigation Programs in Bangladesh " Director, Hunter Cohort Project " Member, Hunter Medical Research Institute Council Executive (2002-2005) " Member, Institute for Health Research (IHR) Scientific and Program Advisory Committee " Member, IHR 45 and up Steering Committee " Member, IHR 45 and up Methods Committee " Member, NHMRC Panel 5A (2003-2006) " Member NHMRC Panel 5C 2007 " Member, Review Panel, JDRF/NHMRC Special Program Grants in Type 1 diabetes (2006-7) " Member, Advisory Group, Drug Policy Modelling Program " Member, Advisory Group, Food Standards Australia and New Zealand

Qualifications

  • PhD, University of Sydney
  • Bachelor of Medicine, University of Newcastle
  • Master of Public Health, University of Sydney
  • Bachelor of Mathematics, University of Newcastle

Keywords

  • Epidemiology

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified 50
110399 Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified 50

Professional Experience

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
Fellow Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine
Australia
1/01/1997 - 1/05/2002 Senior Fellow Australian National University
Australia

Membership

Dates Title Organisation / Department
Panel Member - Public Health Group NHMRC Committee - Public Health Group
Australia
Panel Member - JDF/NHMRC Special Projects in Diabetes NHMRC Committee
Australia
Director - Newcastle Institute of Public Health Newcastle Institute of Public Health
Australia
24/07/2015 Member, Executive - Hunter Medical Research Council Hunter Medical Research Council
Australia
Scientific Committee Member - IHR 45 and up Study IHR 45 and up Study
Australia
1/01/1200 -  Advisory Group - Drug Policy Modelling Program Drug Policy Modelling Program
Australia
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (2 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2012 Magin PJ, Adams J, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Topical and oral complementary and alternative medicine in acne: A consideration of context', Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine: An International Reader, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire 63-70 (2012) [B2]
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2006 Hasnat MA, Smith WT, Dear K, Caldwell B, Sim M, Ng J, 'Arsenic mitigation : drinking water options in Bangladesh', Managing Arsenic in the Environment : from soil to human health, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood 355-362 (2006) [B1]
Co-authors Milton Hasnat

Journal article (199 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Wang JJ, Fong CSU, Burlutsky G, Cugati S, Tan AG, Rochtchina E, et al., 'Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration 4 to 5 Years after Cataract Surgery', Ophthalmology, 123 1829-1830.e1 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.02.003
Citations Scopus - 2
2016 Kabir MI, Rahman MB, Smith W, Lusha MAF, Milton AH, 'Climate change and health in Bangladesh: A baseline cross-sectional survey', Global Health Action, 9 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Md Iqbal Kabir et al. Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate chan... [more]

© 2016 Md Iqbal Kabir et al. Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study usin g multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years' stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD±77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65-2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00-32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16-11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35-8.46), respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be beneficial to minimise climate change attributed health burden of Bangladesh.

DOI 10.3402/gha.v9.29609
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2016 Kabir MI, Rahman MB, Smith W, Lusha MAF, Azim S, Milton AH, 'Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 16 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-2930-3
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2016 Land MA, Wu JHY, Selwyn A, Crino M, Woodward M, Chalmers J, et al., 'Effects of a community-based salt reduction program in a regional Australian population', BMC Public Health, 16 (2016)
DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3064-3
Citations Scopus - 5
2015 Nowson C, Lim K, Grimes C, O Halloran S, Land MA, Webster J, et al., 'Dietary salt intake and discretionary salt use in two general population samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014', Nutrients, 7 10501-10512 (2015)

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the ... [more]

© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt.

DOI 10.3390/nu7125545
Citations Scopus - 9
2015 Capon A, Rolfe M, Gillespie J, Smith W, 'Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues', AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 39 56-62 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/1753-6405.12349
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2015 Khanam MA, Lindeboom W, Razzaque A, Niessen L, Smith W, Milton AH, 'Undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension among the adults in rural Bangladesh', Journal of Hypertension, 33 2399-2406 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000712
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2015 Capon A, Gillespie J, Rolfe M, Smith W, 'Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: A cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes', BMC Public Health, 15 1-13 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1795-1
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 5
2015 Kabir MI, Rahman MB, Smith W, Lusha MAF, Milton AH, 'Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial', PLOS ONE, 10 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0134993
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2014 Wang JJ, Buitendijk GHS, Rochtchina E, Lee KE, Klein BEK, Van Duijn CM, et al., 'Genetic susceptibility, dietary antioxidants, and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration in two populations', Ophthalmology, 121 667-675 (2014) [C1]

Objective To examine effect modification between genetic susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dietary antioxidant or fish consumption on AMD risk. Design P... [more]

Objective To examine effect modification between genetic susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dietary antioxidant or fish consumption on AMD risk. Design Pooled data analysis of population-based cohorts. Participants Participants from the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS). Methods Dietary intakes of antioxidants (lutein/zeaxanthin [LZ], ß-carotene, and vitamin C), long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and zinc were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. The AMD genetic risk was classified according to the number of risk alleles of CFH (rs1061170) or ARMS2 (rs10490924) as low (no or 1 risk allele) or high (=2 risk alleles). Interactions between dietary intake and genetic risk levels were assessed. Associations between dietary intake and AMD risk were assessed comparing the highest with the 2 lower intake tertiles by genetic risk subgroups using discrete logistic regression, conducted in each study separately and then using pooled data. Participants without AMD lesions at any visit were controls. We adjusted for age and sex in analyses of each cohort sample and for smoking status and study site in pooled-data analyses. Main Outcome Measures All 15-year incident late AMD cases were confirmed by chief investigators of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, BMES, and RS. Intergrader reproducibility was assessed in an early AMD subsample, with 86.4% agreement between BMES and RS graders, allowing for a 1-step difference on a 5-step AMD severity scale. Results In pooled data analyses, we found significant interaction between AMD genetic risk status and LZ intake (P = 0.0009) but nonsignificant interactions between genetic risk status and weekly fish consumption (P = 0.05) for risk of any AMD. Among participants with high genetic risk, the highest intake tertile of LZ was associated with a > 20% reduced risk of early AMD, and weekly consumption of fish was associated with a 40% reduced risk of late AMD. No similar association was evident among participants with low genetic risk. No interaction was detected between ß-carotene or vitamin C and genetic risk status. Conclusions Protection against AMD from greater LZ and fish consumption in persons with high genetic risk based on 2 major AMD genes raises the possibility of personalized preventive interventions. ©2014 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.10.017
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 27
Co-authors Liz Holliday, John Attia
2014 Islam MR, Attia J, Alauddin M, McEvoy M, McElduff P, Slater C, et al., 'Availability of arsenic in human milk in women and its correlation with arsenic in urine of breastfed children living in arsenic contaminated areas in Bangladesh.', Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 13 1-10 (2014) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Milton Hasnat, Catherine Deste, Patrick Mcelduff, John Attia, Roseanne Peel, Mark Mcevoy
2014 McEvoy M, Schofield P, Smith W, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Memory Impairment is Associated with Serum Methylarginines in Older Adults', CURRENT ALZHEIMER RESEARCH, 11 97-106 (2014) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Peter Schofield, John Attia, Roseanne Peel, Mark Mcevoy
2014 Land M-A, Jeffery P, Webster J, Crino M, Chalmers J, Woodward M, et al., 'Protocol for the implementation and evaluation of a community-based intervention seeking to reduce dietary salt intake in Lithgow, Australia', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 14 (2014)
DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-14-357
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2014 Land M-A, Webster J, Christoforou A, Johnson C, Trevena H, Hodgins F, et al., 'The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 11 (2014)
DOI 10.1186/1479-5868-11-47
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 17
2014 Land M-A, Webster J, Christoforou A, Praveen D, Jeffery P, Chalmers J, et al., 'Salt intake assessed by 24 h urinary sodium excretion in a random and opportunistic sample in Australia', BMJ OPEN, 4 (2014)
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003720
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 18
2013 McEvoy MA, Schofield P, Smith W, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Serum methylarginines and incident depression in a cohort of older adults', Journal of Affective Disorders, 151 493-499 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.033
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Brian Kelly, Peter Schofield, Mark Mcevoy, Kerry Inder, Roseanne Peel, John Attia
2013 Merritt TD, Cretikos MA, Smith W, Durrheim DN, 'The health of Hunter Valley communities in proximity to coal mining and power generation, general practice data, 1998-2010.', N S W Public Health Bull, 24 57-64 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB12109
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Merrifield A, Schindeler S, Jalaludin B, Smith W, 'Health effects of the September 2009 dust storm in Sydney, Australia: did emergency department visits and hospital admissions increase?', ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 12 (2013)
DOI 10.1186/1476-069X-12-32
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 16
2013 Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, Baur LA, Louie JCY, Smith W, Mitchell P, 'Carbohydrate nutrition and development of adiposity during adolescence', Obesity, 21 1884-1890 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/oby.20405
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2013 McEvoy MA, Schofield PW, Smith WT, Agho K, Mangoni AA, Soiza RL, et al., 'Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults', PLOS ONE, 8 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0058390
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Peter Schofield, Mark Mcevoy, Roseanne Peel, John Attia
2013 Capon A, Smith W, Gillespie JA, 'Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy maker's and practitioner's guide.', New South Wales public health bulletin, 23 217-227 (2013)

Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet ... [more]

Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development.

Citations Scopus - 3
2012 Gopinath B, Flood VM, Wang JJ, Smith WT, Rochtchina E, Louie JCY, et al., 'Carbohydrate nutrition is associated with changes in the retinal vascular structure and branching pattern in children', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 1215-1222 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 18
2012 Broome RA, Smith WT, 'The definite health risks from cutting power outweigh possible bushfire prevention benefits', Medical Journal of Australia, 197 440-441 (2012) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2012 Wang JJ, Fong CS-U, Rochtchina E, Cugati S, De Loryn T, Kaushik S, et al., 'Risk of age-related macular degeneration 3 years after cataract surgery: Paired eye comparisons', Ophthalmology, 119 2298-2303 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 14
2012 Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, Baur LA, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Influence of high glycemic index and glycemic load diets on blood pressure during adolescence', Hypertension, 59 1272-1277 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 15
2012 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Goode SM, Paterson NE, 'Reliability of skin-type self-assessment: Agreement of adolescents' repeated Fitzpatrick skin phototype classification ratings during a cohort study', Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 26 1396-1399 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2012 Holliday EG, Maguire JM, Evans T-J, Koblar SA, Jannes J, Sturm J, et al., 'Common variants at 6p21.1 are associated with large artery atherosclerotic stroke', Nature Genetics, 44 1147-1153 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 86Web of Science - 80
Co-authors Christopher Levi, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark Mcevoy, Liz Holliday, Rodney Scott, Pablo Moscato, Roseanne Peel, Mark Parsons, John Attia, Lisa Lincz
2012 Schaffer A, Muscatello D, Broome R, Corbett S, Smith W, 'Emergency department visits, ambulance calls, and mortality associated with an exceptional heat wave in Sydney, Australia, 2011: A time-series analysis', Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 11 (2012)

Background: From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ... [more]

Background: From January 30-February 6, 2011, New South Wales was affected by an exceptional heat wave, which broke numerous records. Near real-time Emergency Department (ED) and ambulance surveillance allowed rapid detection of an increase in the number of heat-related ED visits and ambulance calls during this period. The purpose of this study was to quantify the excess heat-related and all-cause ED visits and ambulance calls, and excess all-cause mortality, associated with the heat wave. Methods. ED and ambulance data were obtained from surveillance and administrative databases, while mortality data were obtained from the state death registry. The observed counts were compared with the average counts from the same period from 2006/07 through 2009/10, and a Poisson regression model was constructed to calculate the number of excess ED visits, ambulance and deaths after adjusting for calendar and lag effects. Results: During the heat wave there were 104 and 236 ED visits for heat effects and dehydration respectively, and 116 ambulance calls for heat exposure. From the regression model, all-cause ED visits increased by 2% (95% CI 1.01-1.03), all-cause ambulance calls increased by 14% (95% CI 1.11-1.16), and all-cause mortality increased by 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22). Those aged 75 years and older had the highest excess rates of all outcomes. Conclusions: The 2011 heat wave resulted in an increase in the number of ED visits and ambulance calls, especially in older persons, as well as an increase in all-cause mortality. Rapid surveillance systems provide markers of heat wave impacts that have fatal outcomes. © 2012 Schaffer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

DOI 10.1186/1476-069X-11-3
Citations Scopus - 38
2011 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Watson AB, Goode SM, 'Correlation and agreement of self-assessed and objective skin disease severity in a cross-sectional study of patients with acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema', International Journal of Dermatology, 50 1486-1490 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.04883.x
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 18
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2010 Hasnat MA, Shahidullah SM, Smith WT, Hossain KS, Hasan Z, Ahmed KT, 'Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: A case-control study in Bangladesh', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7 2811-2821 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.3390/ijerph7072811
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2010 Hasnat MA, Smith WT, Rahman B, Ahmed B, Shahidullah SM, Hossain Z, et al., 'Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among reproductive aged women of rural Bangladesh', Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 22 110-117 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1177/1010539509350913
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2010 Marks GB, Ezz W, Aust N, Toelle BG, Xuan W, Belousova E, et al., 'Respiratory health effects of exposure to low-NOx unflued gas heaters in the classroom: A double-blind, cluster-randomized, crossover study', Environmental Health Perspectives, 18 1476-1482 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1289/ehp.1002186
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 15
2010 McEvoy MA, Smith WT, D'Este CA, Duke JM, Peel R, Schofield PW, et al., 'Cohort Profile: The Hunter Community Study', International Journal of Epidemiology, 39 1452-1463 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/ije/dyp343
Citations Scopus - 72Web of Science - 73
Co-authors John Attia, Roseanne Peel, Mddah01, Rodney Scott, Mark Mcevoy, Peter Schofield, Ben Ewald, Julie Byles, Catherine Deste
2010 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Goode SM, 'Acne's relationship with psychiatric and psychological morbidity: Results of a school-based cohort study of adolescents', Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24 58-64 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03354.x
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2010 Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Webb KL, Wang JJ, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: A 10-year cohort study', European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64 503-613 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1038/ejcn.2010.34
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 24
2010 Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Smith W, Mitchell P, 'The effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on age-related hearing loss: The blue mountains hearing study', Ear and Hearing, 31 277-282 (2010)

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the temporal association between smoking or alcohol consumption and hearing loss, and to confirm previously published cross-sectional associati... [more]

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the temporal association between smoking or alcohol consumption and hearing loss, and to confirm previously published cross-sectional associations. Design: The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss conducted in a defined suburban area, west of Sydney. Hearing loss was measured in 2956 participants (aged 50+ yrs) and was defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz > 25 dB HL in the better ear (bilateral hearing loss). Alcohol consumption and smoking status were measured using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) that compared the chances of having hearing loss in participants who did or did not smoke or consume alcohol, after adjusting for other factors previously reported to be associated with hearing loss. Results: The prevalence of hearing loss at baseline was 33.0% (N = 929) and the 5-year incidence of hearing loss was 17.9% (N = 156). Cross-sectional analysis demonstrated a significant protective association between the moderate consumption of alcohol ( > 1 but =2 drinks/day) and hearing function in older adults (compared with nondrinkers), OR 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.98). Current smokers not exposed to occupational noise had a significantly higher likelihood of hearing loss after adjusting for multiple variables, OR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.64). A formal likelihood ratio test demonstrated that the interaction between smoking and noise exposure was not significant (p = 0.23). When the joint effects of alcohol consumption and smoking on hearing were explored, there was a trend for alcohol to have a protective relationship with hearing loss in smokers, but this was not statistically significant. However, the 5-year incidence of hearing loss was not predicted by either smoking or alcohol consumption. Conclusions: This study confirms previously reported associations between alcohol consumption or smoking and prevalent hearing loss, but these were not demonstrated in temporal data. Other risk factors could confer greater vulnerability or cause the initial damage to hearing. Future large population-based studies, exploring the influence of other risk factors on the development of age-related hearing loss are warranted. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

DOI 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181c8e902
Citations Scopus - 43
2010 Gwynn JD, Hardy LL, Wiggers JH, Smith WT, D'Este CA, Turner N, et al., 'The validation of a self-report measure and physical activity of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34 S57-S65 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00555.x
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 11
Co-authors John Attia, Catherine Deste, Josephine Gwynn, John Wiggers
2009 Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Klein R, Klein BEK, Joshi T, et al., 'Combined effects of complement factor H genotypes, fish consumption, and inflammatory markers on long-term risk for age-related macular degeneration in a cohort', American Journal of Epidemiology, 169 633-641 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/aje/kwn358
Citations Scopus - 48Web of Science - 40
2009 Flood VM, Gopinath B, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Re: 'Red meat and chicken consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration'', American Journal of Epidemiology, 170 531-532 (2009) [C3]
DOI 10.1093/aje/kwp183
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2009 Pham TQ, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P, Smith WT, Wang JJ, 'Sunlight-related factors and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 16 136-141 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/09286580701299395
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2009 Fong CSU, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Schneider J, Jakobsen KB, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Survey effect on use of eye care by older persons with correctable visual impairment', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 16 249-253 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/09286580902863072
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2009 Rose K, Morgan I, Smith W, Mitchell P, 'Author reply', Ophthalmology, 116 1230 (2009)
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.02.014
2009 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading G, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'The psychological sequelae of psoriasis: Results of a qualitative study', Psychology, Health and Medicine, 14 150-161 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/13548500802512294
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 26
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2009 Ewald BD, Duke JM, Thakkinstian A, Attia JR, Smith WT, 'Physical activity of older Australians measured by pedometry', Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28 127-133 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2009.00372.x
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Ben Ewald, John Attia
2008 Flood VM, Smith WT, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, 'Assembling a nutrient database for a large cohort study: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Food Australia, 60 37-40 (2008) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
2008 Kaushik S, Wang JJ, Flood V, Liew G, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Frequency of fish consumption, retinal microvascular signs and vascular mortality', Microcirculation, 15 27-36 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/10739680701411080
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 15
2008 Xing C, Sivakumaran TA, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Joshi T, Smith WT, et al., 'Complement factor H polymorphisms, renal phenotypes and age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Genes and Immunity, 9 231-239 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1038/gene.2008.10
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 35
2008 Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Liew G, Tan AG, Wong TY, Leeder SR, et al., 'The long-term relation among retinal arteriolar narrowing, blood pressure, and incident severe hypertension', American Journal of Epidemiology, 168 80-88 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/aje/kwn100
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 35
2008 Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith WT, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Saw S-M, 'Myopia, lifestyle, and schooling in students of chinese ethnicity in Singapore and Sydney', Archives of Ophthalmology, 126 527-530 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/archopht.126.4.527
Citations Scopus - 172Web of Science - 142
2008 Tan JSL, Wang JJ, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 115 334-341 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.03.083
Citations Scopus - 195Web of Science - 180
2008 Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip J, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children', Ophthalmology, 115 1279-1285 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.12.019
Citations Scopus - 403Web of Science - 348
2008 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading G, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Experiences of appearance-related teasing and bullying in skin diseases and their psychological sequelae: Results of a qualitative study', Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 22 430-436 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00547.x
Citations Scopus - 46Web of Science - 36
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2008 Banks E, Redman S, Jorm L, Armstrong B, Bauman A, Beard J, et al., 'Cohort profile: The 45 and up study', International Journal of Epidemiology, 37 941-947 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/ije/dym184
Citations Scopus - 254Web of Science - 218
Co-authors Julie Byles
2008 Lucas RM, McMichael AJ, Armstrong BK, Smith WT, 'Estimating the global disease burden due to ultraviolet radiation exposure', International Journal of Epidemiology, 37 654-667 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/ije/dyn017
Citations Scopus - 128Web of Science - 110
2008 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Watson AB, Goode SM, 'A cross-sectional study of psychological morbidity in patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in specialist dermatology and general practices', Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 22 1435-1444 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2008.02890.x
Citations Scopus - 33Web of Science - 23
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2007 Burns CM, Broom DH, Smith WT, Dear K, Craft PS, 'Fluctuating awareness of treatment goals among patients and their caregivers: a longitudinal study of a dynamic process', Supportive Care in Cancer, 15 187-196 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00520-006-0116-8
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 21
2007 Hasnat MA, Smith WT, Dear K, Ng J, Sim M, Ranmuthugala G, et al., 'A Randomised intervention trial to assess two arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh', Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 42 1897-1908 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/10934520701567197
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2007 Kifley A, Liew G, Wang JJ, Kaushik S, Smith WT, Wong TY, Mitchell P, 'Long-term effects of smoking on retinal microvascular caliber', American Journal of Epidemiology, 166 1288-1297 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/aje/kwm255
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 27
2007 Tan JSL, Mitchell P, Kifley A, Flood V, Smith WT, Jie JW, 'Smoking and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: The Blue Mountains eye study', Archives of Ophthalmology, 125 1089-1095 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/archopht.125.8.1089
Citations Scopus - 73Web of Science - 63
2007 Cugati S, Cumming RG, Smith WT, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, 'Visual impairment, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and long-term mortality - The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Archives of Ophthalmology, 125 917-924 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/archopht.125.7.917
Citations Scopus - 63Web of Science - 62
2007 Ip J, Robaei D, Rochtchina E, Rose K, Smith W, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, 'Can information on the purpose of spectacle use and age at first use predict refractive error type?', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 14 88-92 (2007)

Purpose: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of predicting refractive error type using information from a four-item questionnaire on the purpose of spectacle use and age at ... [more]

Purpose: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of predicting refractive error type using information from a four-item questionnaire on the purpose of spectacle use and age at first use. Methods: The Sydney Myopia Study examined 1,740 year 1 (78.9% response) and 2,353 year 7 students (75.3% response) from a random cluster sample of 34 primary and 21 secondary schools across Sydney. Parents of participants completed a four-item questionnaire that sought data on parental spectacle use, age at first use, and purpose of use (for clear distant vision, close work, or both). Prescriptions were obtained for 720 of 3,209 (22%) parents (73% of those approached) for validation. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff age for spectacle use in myopia classification. Results: Using the ROC curve, a cutoff age of 30 years at first spectacle use produced the highest accuracy in determining myopia. We combined information on the purpose for using spectacles (for distant and near vision) and age of first use at 30 years or younger to determine myopia, otherwise hyperopia. Validated against prescriptions, the sensitivity and specificity of these predictions were 0.89 and 0.83, respectively, for myopia. The specificity was 0.92 for hyperopia and 0.80 for astigmatism, though corresponding sensitivities were lower at 0.23 and 0.46, respectively. Conclusions: In a sample of the parents of Sydney Myopia Study participants, information on the purpose of spectacle use with an age-at-first-use criterion can identify myopic refractive error with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. This four-item questionnaire may assist future epidemiological studies of screening for myopia. Copyright © 2007 Informa Healthcare.

DOI 10.1080/09286580600943481
Citations Scopus - 8
2007 Duke JM, McEvoy MA, Sibbritt DW, Guest M, Smith WT, Attia JR, 'Vibrotactile threshold measurement for detecting peripheral neuropathy: Defining variability and a normal range for clinical and research use', Diabetologia, 50 2305-2312 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00125-007-0813-y
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 17
Co-authors John Attia, Mark Mcevoy
2007 Ip JM, Huynh SC, Robaei D, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith WT, et al., 'Ethnic differences in the impact of parental myopia: Findings from a population-based study of 12-year-old Australian children', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48 2520-2528 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1167/iovs.06-0716
Citations Scopus - 67Web of Science - 59
2007 Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Lee AJ, Chia EM, Smith WT, Cumming RG, Mitchell P, 'Ten-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Maculopathy. The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 114 92-98 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.07.017
Citations Scopus - 160
2007 Tan JSL, Mitchell P, Smith WT, Wang JJ, 'Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Long-term Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 114 1143-1150 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.09.033
Citations Scopus - 135Web of Science - 127
2007 Liew G, Wong TY, Mitchell P, Newall P, Smith WT, Wang JJ, 'Retinal microvascular abnormalities and age-related hearing loss: The Blue Mountains hearing study', Ear and Hearing, 28 394-401 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3180479388
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 17
2006 Abhayaratna WP, Smith WT, Becker NG, Marwick TH, Jeffery IM, McGill DA, 'Prevalence of heart failure and systolic ventricular dysfunction in older Australians: the Canberra Heart Study', Medical Journal of Australia, 184 151-154 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 71Web of Science - 73
2006 Cugati S, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Tan AG, Smith WT, Wang JJ, 'Cataract Surgery and the 10-Year Incidence of Age-Related Maculopathy: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 113 2020-2025 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.05.047
Citations Scopus - 96Web of Science - 82
2006 Liew G, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, Smith WT, Wong TY, Wang JJ, 'Regular aspirin use and retinal microvascular signs: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Journal of Hypertension, 24 1329-1335 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.hjh.0000234113.33025.33
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 13
2006 Wang JJ, Smith WT, Cumming RG, Mitchell P, 'Variables determining perceived global health ranks: Findings from a population-based study', Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 35 190-197 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 16
2006 Thakkinstian A, Han PY, McEvoy MA, Smith WT, Hoh J, Magnusson K, et al., 'Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between complementary factor HY402H polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration', Human Molecular Genetics, 15 2784-2790 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddl220
Citations Scopus - 163Web of Science - 149
Co-authors John Attia, Mark Mcevoy
2006 Magin PJ, Adams J, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Topical and oral CAM in acne: A review of the empirical evidence and a consideration of its context', Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 14 62-76 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ctim.2005.10.007
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 22
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2006 Flood VM, Smith WT, Webb KL, Rochtchina E, Anderson VE, Mitchell P, 'Prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in an older Australian population', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 30 38-41 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2006.tb00084.x
Citations Scopus - 26Web of Science - 22
2006 Abhayaratna WP, Marwick TH, Smith WT, Becker NG, 'Characteristics of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in the community: an echocardiographic survey', Heart, 92 1259-1264 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1136/hrt.2005.080150
Citations Scopus - 174Web of Science - 156
2006 Wang JJ, Liew G, Wong TY, Smith WT, Klein R, Leeder SR, Mitchell P, 'Retinal vascular calibre and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death', Heart, 92 1583-1587 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1136/hrt.2006.090522
Citations Scopus - 120Web of Science - 113
2006 Hasnat MA, Rahman H, Smith WT, Shrestha R, Dear K, 'Water consumption patterns in rural Bangladesh: Are we underestimating total arsenic load?', Journal of Water and Health, 4 431-436 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.2166/wh.2006.010
Citations Scopus - 22
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2006 Leeder SR, Mitchell P, Liew G, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Wang JJ, 'Low hemoglobin, chronic kidney disease, and risk for coronary heart disease-related death: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 17 279-284 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1681/ASN.2005050553
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 15
2006 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading GS, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema: results of a qualitative study of patients' experiences and perceptions', Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12 451-457 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1089/acm.2006.12.451
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 23
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2006 Caldwell BK, Smith WT, Lokuge K, Ranmuthugala G, Dear K, Hasnat MA, et al., 'Access to Drinking-water and Arsenicosis in Bangladesh', Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 24 336-345 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2006 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading G, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'The causes of acne: a qualitative study of patient perceptions of acne causation and their implications for acne care', Dermatology Nursing, 18 344-349, 370 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2006 Abhayaratna WP, Marwick TH, Becker NG, Jeffery IM, McGill DA, Smith WT, 'Population-based detection of systolic and diastolic dysfunction with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide', American Heart Journal, 152 941-948 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.05.007
Citations Scopus - 40Web of Science - 36
2006 Thakkinstian A, Bowe SJ, McEvoy MA, Smith WT, Attia JR, 'Association between apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration: A HuGE review and meta-analysis', American Journal of Epidemiology, 164 813-822 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/aje/kwj279
Citations Scopus - 64Web of Science - 53
Co-authors Mark Mcevoy, John Attia
2006 Chua B, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Dietary fatty acids and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy', Archives of Ophthalmology, 124 981-986 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/archopht.124.7.981
Citations Scopus - 96Web of Science - 79
2006 Flood V, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith WT, 'Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary intake and age related macular degeneration (letter)', British Journal of Ophthalmology, 90 927-928 (2006) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2006 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading G, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris: Results of a qualitative study', Canadian Family Physician, 52 978-979 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 64
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2005 Ojaimi E, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith WT, Martin FJ, Kifley A, et al., 'Distribution of ocular biometric parameters and refraction in a population-based study of Australian children', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46 2748-2754 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1167/iovs.04-1324
Citations Scopus - 109Web of Science - 81
2005 Ojaimi E, Morgan IG, Robaei D, Rose KA, Smith WT, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P, 'Effect of stature and other anthropometric parameters on eye size and refraction in a population-based study of Australian children', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46 4424-4429 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1167/iovs.05-0077
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 33
2005 Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading GS, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Patients' perceptions of isotretinoin, depression and suicide--a qualitative study', Australian Family Physician, 34 795-797 (2005) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2005 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Watson A, 'A systematic review of the evidence for 'myths and misconceptions' in acne management: diet face-washing and sunlight', Family Practice, 22 62-70 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/fampra/cmh715
Citations Scopus - 57Web of Science - 36
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2005 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, 'Isotretinoin, depression and suicide: a review of the evidence', British Journal of General Practice, 55 134-138 (2005) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 45Web of Science - 33
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2005 Ojaimi E, Rose KA, Smith WT, Morgan IG, Martin FJ, Mitchell P, 'Methods for a population-based study of myopia and other eye conditions in school children: The Sydney Myopia Study', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 12 59-69 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/09286580490921296
Citations Scopus - 134Web of Science - 129
2005 Caldwell BK, Smith WT, Caldwell JC, Mitra SN, 'Trends in water usage and knowledge of arsenicosis in Bangladesh: findings from successive national surveys', Population, Space and Place, 11 211-223 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/psp.367
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
2005 Craft PS, Burns CM, Smith WT, Broom DH, 'Knowledge of treatment intent among patients with advanced cancer: a longitudinal study', European Journal of Cancer Care, 14 417-425 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2005.00601.x
Citations Scopus - 33Web of Science - 25
2005 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Wong TY, Smith WT, Klein R, Leeder SR, 'Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke and stroke mortality', Neurology, 65 1005-1009 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1212/01.wnl.0000179177.15900.ca
Citations Scopus - 132Web of Science - 123
2005 Milton AH, Smith WT, Rahman B, Hasan Z, Kulsum U, Dear K, et al., 'Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh', Epidemiology, 16 82-86 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.ede.0000147105.94041.e6
Citations Scopus - 152Web of Science - 132
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2004 Tomany SC, Wang JJ, Leeuwen RV, Klein R, Mitchell P, Vingerling JR, et al., 'Risk Factors for Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pooled findings from 3 Continents', American Journal of Opthalmology, 111 1280-1287 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.11.010
Citations Scopus - 399Web of Science - 351
2004 Lokuge KM, Smith WT, Caldwell B, Dear KB, Milton AH, 'The Effect of Arsenic Mitigation Interventions on Disease Burden in Bangladesh', Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 1172-1177 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1289/ehp.6866
Citations Scopus - 51
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2004 Chia E-M, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Cumming RR, Mitchell P, 'Impact of Bilateral Visual Impairment on Health-Related Quality of Life: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', investigative opthalmology and visual science, 45 71-76 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1167/iovs.03-0661
Citations Scopus - 152Web of Science - 129
2004 Smith WT, Wang JJ, Wong TY, Rochtchina E, Klein R, Leeder S, Mitchell P, 'Retinal arteriolar narrowing is associated with 5-year incident severe hypertension- The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Hypertension, 44 442-447 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1161/01.HYP.0000140772.40322.ec
Citations Scopus - 139Web of Science - 126
2004 Morgan IG, Rose KA, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Re: Evidence for an 'epidemic' of myopia', Annals Academy of Medicine, 33 541-543 (2004) [C3]
Citations Web of Science - 2
2004 Milton HA, Hasan Z, Shahidullah SM, Sharmin S, Jakariya MD, Rahman M, et al., 'Association between nutritional status and arsenicosis due to chronic arsenic exposure in Bangladesh', International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 14 99-108 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/0960312042000209516
Citations Scopus - 61Web of Science - 54
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2004 Burns CM, Dixon T, Smith WT, Craft PS, 'Patients with advanced cancer and family caregivers' knowledge of health and community services: a longitudinal study', Health and Social Care in the Community, 12 488-503 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2004.00520.x
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 12
2004 Burns CM, Craft PS, Lange K, Smith WT, Broom D, 'Factors predicting correct knowledge of treatment intent amongst patients with advanced cancer and their family caregivers. A report from a longitudinal study', PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, 13 S26-S27 (2004)
2004 Wang JJ, Jakobsen KB, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Refractive status and the 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Clinical and Experimental Opthalmology, 32 255-258 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2004.00813.x
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 13
2004 Flood VM, Smith WT, Webb KL, Mitchell P, 'Issues in assessing the validity of nutrient data obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire: folate and vitamin B12 examples', Public Health Nutrition, 7 751-756 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1079/PHN2004604
Citations Scopus - 50Web of Science - 49
2004 Connor LH, Albrecht GA, Higginbotham HN, Freeman SR, Smith WT, 'Environmental change and Human health in Upper Hunter communities of New South Wales, Australia', EcoHealth, 1 SU47-SU58 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s10393-004-0053-2
Co-authors Nick Higginbotham
2004 Ranmuthugala G, Milton AH, Smith WT, Ng JC, Sim M, Dear K, Caldwell BK, 'Intervention trial to assess arsenic exposure from food crops in Bangladesh', Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 59 209-212 (2004) [C1]
DOI 10.3200/aeoh.59.4.209-212
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2004 Park DJ, Congdon NG, Morgan IG, Rose KA, Smith W, Mitchell P, et al., 'Re: Evidence for an "epidemic" of myopia (multiple letters)', Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 33 541-544 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 1
2003 Wang JJ, Jakobsen K, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Five-year incidence of age-related maculopathy in relation to iris, skin or hair colour, and skin sun sensitivity: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 317-321 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1046/j.1442-9071.2003.00659.x
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15
2003 Wang JJ, Foran S, Smith WT, Mitchell P, 'Risk of age-related macular degeneration in eyes with macular drusen or hyperpigmentation: The Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort', Archives of Ophthalmology, 121 658-663 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1001/archopht.121.5.658
Citations Scopus - 114Web of Science - 104
2003 Wang JJ, Klein R, Smith WT, Kelian BEK, Tomany S, Mitchell P, 'Cataract surgery and the 5-year incidence of late-stage age-related maculopathy: Pooled findings from the Beaver Dam and Blue Mountains eye studies', Ophthalmology, 110 1960-1967 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/s0161-6420(03)00816-9
Citations Scopus - 170Web of Science - 140
2003 Caldwell BK, Caldwell JC, Mitra SN, Smith WT, 'Searching for an optimum solution to the Bangladesh arsenic crisis', Social Science & Medicine, 56 2089-2096 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00203-4
Citations Scopus - 46
2003 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith WT, Gillies M, Billson F, 'Systemic use of anti-inflammatory medications and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 10 37-48 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1076/opep.10.1.37.13776
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 20
2003 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Smith W, 'Visual impairment and nursing home placement in older Australians: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 10 3-13 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1076/opep.10.1.3.13773
Citations Scopus - 67Web of Science - 73
2003 Burns CM, Dixon T, Broom D, Smith WT, Craft PS, 'Family caregiver knowledge of treatment intent in a longitudinal study of patients with advanced cancer', SUPPORTIVE CARE IN CANCER, 11 629-637 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00520-003-0501-5
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 19
2003 Ranmuthugala G, Pillotto L, Smith W, Vimalasiri T, Dear K, Douglas R, 'Chlorinated drinking water and micronuclei in urinary bladder epithelial cells', Epidemiology, 14 617-622 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1097/01.ede.0000082374.08684.0d
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 12
2003 Caldwell BK, Caldwell JC, Mitra SN, Smith WT, 'Tubewells and arsenic in Bangladesh: Challenging a public health success story', International Journal of Population Geography, 9 23-38 (2003) [C1]
DOI 10.1002/ijpg.271
Citations Scopus - 32
2002 Salim SM, Smith W, Barmmer G, 'Telephone reminders are a cost-effective way to improve responses in postal health surveys', J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002 Feb;56(2):115-8., 115-118 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 17
2002 Rose KA, Smith W, Wang JJ, Manzi F, Webb K, Mitchell P, 'Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.', Ophthalmology, 109 2272-2278 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 83Web of Science - 73
2002 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Foran S, Smith W, 'Five-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology 109:1092-1097, 2002, 1092-1097 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 169Web of Science - 169
2002 Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith W, Mitchell P, 'High heritability of myopia does not preclude rapid changes in prevalence.', Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 30 168-172 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 43Web of Science - 38
2002 Salim SM, Smith W, Barmmer G, 'The effect of timing when seeking permission to access personal health services utilization records.', Ann Epidemiol. 2002 Jul;12(5):326-, (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9
2002 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Smith W, Leeder SR, 'Smoking and the five year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.', Archives of Opthalmology, 120 1357-1363 (2002) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 120Web of Science - 109
2001 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Simpson JM, Cumming RG, Smith W, 'Visual Impairment, Age-related Cataract and Mortality.', Archives of Opthalmology, 118 1186-1190 (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 147Web of Science - 140
2001 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, Cumming RG, Leeder SR, 'Incidence of Nursing Home Placement in a Defined Community', Medical Journal of Australia, (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 47Web of Science - 39
2001 Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Smith W, 'Low Thiamine Intake and Risk of Cataract: Author''s Reply.', Ophthalmology, 108 (2001) [C1]
2001 Smith W, Assink J, Klein R, Mitchell P, De Jong PTVM, Klein BEK, et al., 'Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: Pooled findings from three continents.', Ophthalmology, 108 697-704 (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 626Web of Science - 575
2001 Flood VM, Webb KL, Bantick JM, Mitchell P, Smith W, Macintyre R, et al., 'Folate fortification: Potential impact on folate intake in an older population.', European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55 793-800 (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 13
2001 Rose KA, Smith W, Morgan IG, Mitchell P, 'The increasing prevalence of myopia: Implications for Australia', Clinical and Experimental Ohthalmology, 29 116-120 (2001) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 79Web of Science - 74
2001 Smith W, Broom D, 'Can Abortion Trigger Cancer?', Controversies in medicine Australian Doctor, 18 (2001) [C1]
2001 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, Cumming RG, Leeder SR, 'Incidence of nursing home placement in a defined community', Medical Journal of Australia, 174 271-275 (2001) [C3]
2001 Sindhusake D, Mitchell P, Smith W, Golding M, Newall P, Hartley D, Rubin G, 'Validation of self-reported hearing loss. The blue mountainshearing study', International Journal of Epidemiology, 30 1371-1378 (2001)

Purpose. Large-scale epidemiological studies have often used self-report to estimate prevalence of age-related hearing loss. However, few large population-based studies have valid... [more]

Purpose. Large-scale epidemiological studies have often used self-report to estimate prevalence of age-related hearing loss. However, few large population-based studies have validated self-report against measured hearing loss. Our study aimed to assess the performance of a single question and a brief hearing handicap questionnaire in identifying individuals with hearing loss, against the gold standard of puretone audiometry. Methods. We examined 2015 residents, aged 55-99 years, living in the west of Sydney, Australia, who participated in the Blue Mountains Hearing Study during 1997-1999. Audiologists administered a comprehensive questionnaire, including the question: 'Do you feel you have a hearing loss?' The Shortened Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE-S) was also administered during the hearing examination, which included pure-tone audiometry. The single question and HHIE-S were compared with measured losses at levels > 25, > 40 and > 60 decibels hearing level (dBHL) to indicate mild, moderate and marked hearing impairment, for pure-tone averages (PTA) of responses to 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Results. The single question yielded reasonable sensitivity and specificity for hearing impairment, and was minimally affected by age and gender. HHIE-S scores > 8 had lower sensitivity but higher specificity and positive predictive value. The HHIE-S performed slightly better in younger than older subjects and performed better for moderate hearing impairment. Conclusions. In this older population with a high prevalence of hearing loss (39.4%), both a question about hearing and the HHIE-S appeared sufficiently sensitive and specific to provide reasonable estimates of hearing loss prevalence. Both could be recommended for use in epidemiologic al studies that aim to assess the magnitude of the burden caused by age-related sensory impairment but cannot measure hearing loss by audiometry.

Citations Scopus - 192
2000 Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Dietary sodium intake and cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', American Journal of Epidemiology, 151 624-626 (2000)

A population-based cross-sectional study (n = 2,873) was conducted near Sydney, Australia, from January 1992 to January 1994 to assess the relation between dietary sodium intake a... [more]

A population-based cross-sectional study (n = 2,873) was conducted near Sydney, Australia, from January 1992 to January 1994 to assess the relation between dietary sodium intake and risk of cataract. Photographs of subjects' lenses were graded for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Dietary sodium intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The study found that higher sodium intakes were associated with greater risk of posterior subcapsular cataract (p for trend = 0.006). The adjusted relative risk was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4) for subjects in the highest versus the lowest quintile of sodium intake. These findings suggest that a high- salt diet may increase the risk of posterior subcapsular cataract.

Citations Scopus - 20
2000 Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, 'Dietary fat and fish intake and age-related maculopathy', Archives of Ophthalmology, 118 401-404 (2000)

Objective: To assess whether dietary intake of fat or fish is associated with age-related maculopathy (ARM) prevalence: Design: Cross-sectional, urban population-based study. Part... [more]

Objective: To assess whether dietary intake of fat or fish is associated with age-related maculopathy (ARM) prevalence: Design: Cross-sectional, urban population-based study. Participants: People (N = 3654) aged 49 years or older. Main Outcome Measures: Subjects with ARM were identified from masked grading of retinal photographs. A 145-item self-administered, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was completed adequately by 88.8% of participants and was used to assess intakes of dietary fat and fish. Results: A higher frequency of fish consumption was associated with decreased odds of late ARM (odds ratio for frequency of consumption more than once per week compared with less than once per month, 0.5). Subjects with higher energy-adjusted intakes of cholesterol were significantly more likely to have late ARM, with an increased risk for late ARM for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake (odds ratio, 2.7). Conclusion: The amount and type of dietary fat intake may be associated with ARM.

Citations Scopus - 149
2000 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Vision and low self-rated health: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 41 49-54 (2000)

PURPOSE. To assess the relationship between reduced vision and low self- rating of global health, after taking into account many other related factors. METHODS. The Blue Mountains... [more]

PURPOSE. To assess the relationship between reduced vision and low self- rating of global health, after taking into account many other related factors. METHODS. The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 residents aged =49 years (82.4% response) in an area west of Sydney, Australia. Presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) were measured before and after refraction using a LogMAR chart. During a face-to-face interview, self-rated health was assessed by asking: 'For someone of your age, how would you rate your overall health?: excellent, good, fair, or poor.' Information about demography, socioeconomic status, need for assistance in daily living activities, medical history, and health risk behaviors was also collected. Logistic regression analyses were performed after dichotomizing self-rated health as poor or fair (low) versus good or excellent. RESULTS. Among persons without visual impairment (defined from best-corrected VA in the better eye), 24.5% rated their health as either poor or fair, compared with 35.5% and 48.8% of persons with mild or moderate-to-severe visual impairment, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression models that included 17 other related factors, reduced vision was statistically, significantly associated with lower self-rated health in persons aged < 80 years. For each one-line (5 letter) reduction in best-corrected VA, there was 20% increased likelihood of low self-rated health, after adjustment for other factors found associated with self-rated health (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.3). In persons aged 80 years or older, reduced vision had no impact on global health rating. CONCLUSIONS. Decreased vision was found to have an independent impact on global health ranking by persons younger than age 80 years, but not by older persons in this population. Taking into account many other factors affecting perceived health, people younger than age 80 years who see well are also more likely to say that they feel well!.

Citations Scopus - 77
2000 Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Diet and cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 107 450-456 (2000)

Purpose: To investigate relationships between a wide range of macro- and micronutrients, including antioxidant vitamins, and the three main types of cataract in older people. Desi... [more]

Purpose: To investigate relationships between a wide range of macro- and micronutrients, including antioxidant vitamins, and the three main types of cataract in older people. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants: Two thousand nine hundred people aged 49 to 97 years living in an urban community near Sydney, Australia. Testing: Food frequency questionnaires and lens photography. Main Outcome Measure: Lens photographs were graded for presence and severity of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Results: Higher intakes of protein, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin were associated with reduced prevalence of nuclear cataract. After adjusting for multiple known cataract risk factors, the odds ratios for those in the highest intake quintile groups compared to those in the lowest intake quintiles were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.8) for protein, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9) for vitamin A, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.9) for niacin, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.9) for thiamin, and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9) for riboflavin. Intake of polyunsaturated fats was associated with reduced prevalence of cortical cataract. No nutrients were associated with posterior subcapsular cataract. Conclusions: The nucleus of the lens is particularly sensitive to nutrient deficiencies. Protein, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, and riboflavin protected against nuclear cataract in this study. (C) 2000 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(99)00024-X
Citations Scopus - 99
2000 Jalaludin BB, Chey T, O'Toole BI, Smith WT, Capon AG, Leeder SR, 'Acute effects of low levels of ambient ozone on peak expiratory flow rate in a cohort of Australian children', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 29 549-557 (2000)
DOI 10.1093/ije/29.3.549
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 24
2000 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Smith W, 'Risk factors and significance of finding asymptomatic retinal emboli', Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 28 13-17 (2000)

Purpose: To assess the prevalence rates for asymptomatic retinal emboli among both younger and older individuals, with single and multiple potential risk factors, in order to aler... [more]

Purpose: To assess the prevalence rates for asymptomatic retinal emboli among both younger and older individuals, with single and multiple potential risk factors, in order to alert clinicians to the probability of finding retinal emboli in patients with varying characteristics. Methods: In all, 3654 people aged 49-97 attending the Blue Mountains Eye Study had a detailed eye examination which included retinal photographs of the central and peripheral retinal fields. Retinal emboli were identified during masked photographic grading and definite cases were adjudicated. Results: Retinal emboli were found in 51 subjects (1.4% of the population); these included 1.1% of people aged 49-69 years (middle-aged subjects) and 2.0% of people aged more than 70 years (older subjects). Risk factors identified were male sex, increasing age, hypertension, current smoking, history of any vascular event (angina, myocardial infarct, stroke) or history of vascular surgery. Among middle-aged subjects, current smoking and history of hypertension or a vascular event were significantly associated with emboli (odds ratios (OR) 2.3-3.1), while in older subjects, history of vascular surgery was related (OR 4.7). The highest prevalence of emboli (5.5%) was found in people who reported a history of hypertension and also smoked (OR 6.0). Among hypertensive men who smoked, emboli were present in 7.6%. Conclusions: This study indicates that although asymptomatic retinal emboli are relatively infrequent in the general older population, these lesions are surprisingly common in people (particularly men) with multiple risk factors. Ophthalmologists could routinely screen for emboli and consider alerting the patients' general practitioners to review vascular risk factors.

DOI 10.1046/j.1442-9071.2000.00218.x
Citations Scopus - 22
1999 Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR, 'Lack of effect from antioxidants for age-related macular degeneration', Evidence-Based Eye Care, 1 50-51 (1999)
1999 Mitchell P, Chapman S, Smith W, ''Smoking is a major cause of blindness'', Medical Journal of Australia, 171 173-174 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 38
1999 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, Cumming RG, Attebo K, 'Impact of visual impairment on use of community support services by elderly persons: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 40 12-19 (1999)

Purpose. To estimate the impact of visual impairment in older Australians on the use of community support services. Methods. In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 3654 people aged 49 o... [more]

Purpose. To estimate the impact of visual impairment in older Australians on the use of community support services. Methods. In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 3654 people aged 49 or older were examined-82.4% of eligible residents in an area west of Sydney, Australia. Presenting and best- corrected visual acuities were measured using a LogMAR chart. Subjects were categorized as having visual impairment if their better eye read 40 or fewer letters (20/40 or worse). Interview data included marital and other socioeconomic status measures, living status (alone or with spouse or other person), use of community support services, reliance on regular help from nonspouse family members or friends, and perceived ability to go out alone. Results. After adjusting for age, gender, education, living status, walking disability, and health-related factors, for each one-line (five-letter) decrease in best-corrected visual acuity, there was a corresponding increase in reliance on community support services (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence intervals, [CI] 1.07-1.28) or combined community and family support (OR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32). Visually impaired persons were three times as likely to use regular support services provided by the municipality (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8-5.1). A similar increased reliance on regular help from community, nonspouse family members, or friends was found. Visually impaired persons were also much more likely to state that they thought they were unable to go out alone (OR 6.2; 95% CI, 2.6-14.3). The findings were similar when presenting visual acuity was used to define visual impairment or after subjects with walking disabilities were excluded. Visual impairment seemed to have a greater effect on use of community support services in women than in men. Conclusions. After adjustment was made for confounding factors, visual impairment was found to affect significantly and negatively the independence of elderly people, particularly older women. Presenting visual acuity closely approximated best-corrected visual acuity in its impact on the use of community support services.

Citations Scopus - 104
1999 Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR, 'Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 106 761-767 (1999)

Objective: To assess associations between the stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and dietary intake of carotene, vitamin C, retinol, and zinc. Design: Cross-sectional, popula... [more]

Objective: To assess associations between the stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and dietary intake of carotene, vitamin C, retinol, and zinc. Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study. Participants: A total of 3654 subjects 49 years of age and older from a defined area, west of Sydney, Australia, participated. A total of 2900 participants (79.4%) completed accurate food records. Intervention: Masked grading of stereoscopic macular photographs, detailed interviewer-administered questionnaire, and 145-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Late ARM and early ARM were diagnosed from photographic grading. Results: The authors found no statistically significant associations between ARM and dietary intake of either carotene, zinc, or vitamins A or C, either from diet or supplements or from the combined intake from diet and supplements. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were calculated comparing highest to lowest dietary intake quintiles. For late ARM, the odds ratios were carotene, 0.7 (range, 0.3-2.0); vitamin A, 1.2 (range, 0.5-3.3); vitamin C, 1.3 (range, 0.5-3.4); and zinc, 1.0 (range, 0.4- 2.8). For early ARM, the odds ratios were carotene, 0.7 (range, 0.4-1.1); vitamin A, 1.2 (range, 0.7-2.0); vitamin C, 0.9 (range, 0.5-1.4); and zinc, 0.8 (range, 0.5-1.3). No significant trends were apparent. Adjustment for energy intake also showed no associations between these antioxidants and ARM. Further, no associations were found between increasing intake of foods high in antioxidant vitamins and decreasing prevalence of either late or early ARM. Conclusions: The authors found no associations between ARM and dietary antioxidants, either from diet alone or including supplements, or from selected foods, in the Blue Mountains Eye Study population.

Citations Scopus - 84
1999 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Use of eye care services by older Australians: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 27 294-300 (1999)

Purpose: To assess utilization of eye care services in an older Australian population. Methods: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 permanent residents aged 49 years or old... [more]

Purpose: To assess utilization of eye care services in an older Australian population. Methods: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 permanent residents aged 49 years or older from two New South Wales postcode areas. At interview, we collected information about past attendance to eye care practitioners, demographic and socio-economic status variables and past medical and eye history. Full-time optometric and part-time ophthalmic services were available in this community. Results: Almost all participants (99%) had seen either an ophthalmologist or optometrist in the past, with 62, 27, 7 and 3% having last attended in the last 2, 2-5, 5-10 and > 10 years, respectively. Among those participants (2251) who had been seen in the last 2 years, 50.2% (1131) last saw an ophthalmologist, 48.6% (1094) last saw an optometrist and 26 (1.2%) could not state whom they saw. After adjusting for age and sex, factors statistically significantly associated with attending an ophthalmologist included older age, female gender, higher socio-economic status, moderate to high myopia and presence of systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension) or any significant eye pathology. Factors statistically significantly associated with attending an optometrist were younger age, living alone, not currently married, being able to go out alone, having better presenting visual acuity, hyperopia and absence of diabetes or significant eye pathology, including moderate to high myopia. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicate that whether people use eye care services and whom they visit is mainly driven by need factors. Although there was considerable overlap, this study found relatively appropriate utilization of eye care services by this population.

DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1606.1999.00227.x
Citations Scopus - 22
1999 Smith W, Mitchell P, Lazarus R, 'Carrots, carotene and seeing in the dark', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 27 200-203 (1999)

Should older people eat more carrots, or at least increase their carotene intake to prevent loss of night vision? Participants in the Blue Mountains Eye Study were asked about the... [more]

Should older people eat more carrots, or at least increase their carotene intake to prevent loss of night vision? Participants in the Blue Mountains Eye Study were asked about their ability to see in the dark. Nutrient and food intake were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between self-reported poor night vision and estimated nutrient intake were investigated using logistic regression. Poor night vision among women was associated with higher beta-carotene (P for trend = 0.03) and total vitamin A intake (P for trend = 0.048). Increased consumption of carrots, but no other food high in beta-carotene, was associated with significant increased reporting of poor night vision among women (P for trend = 0.04). While carrot intake may protect against difficulty in seeing at night, it is probable that people attributing poor driving ability to their vision may be eating more carrots in the hope of reversing this decline.

DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1606.1999.00187.x
Citations Scopus - 2
1999 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, Leeder S SR, 'Factors associated with use of community support services in an older Australian population', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23 147-153 (1999)

Objective: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with use of community support services in a representative older Australian population. Methods: The Blue Mountains Eye... [more]

Objective: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with use of community support services in a representative older Australian population. Methods: The Blue Mountains Eye Study surveyed 3654 people aged = 49 years, 82.4% of eligible residents from an area west of Sydney during 1992-94. Questions about use of community support services were asked during face-to-face interview. Information on marital and living status, socio-economic status measures, past medical history and self-ranked health status were also collected. Results: 186 (5.4%) persons including 124 women (6.3%) and 62 men (4.2%) reported regular use of community support services, including Meals-on-Wheels (n = 52), Home Care (n = 147) or visits from a community nurse (n = 63). All three services were used by 17 persons and two services by 42 persons. There was a marked age-related increase in use of services from 1.8% in persons aged < 60 years to 25.3% in persons aged 80+ years. Factors significantly associated with use of community services in a multivariate model were: age (OR 1.7 per age decade), living alone (OR 2.5), walking disability (OR 4.1), visual impairment (OR 3.0) stroke history (OR 2.2), arthritis history (OR 1.8), low perceived health status (OR 1.7), cancer history (OR 1.7) and a history of any falls in the past 12 months (OR 1.6). Conclusions: Our study has found a wide range of health-related factors that impact on the use of community support services, particularly conditions causing difficulty in walking. Implications: These data may assist health planners in identifying target populations for the provision of community support services.

Citations Scopus - 50
1999 Webb KL, Schofield WN, Lazarus R, Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, 'Prevalence and socio-demographic predictors of dietary goal attainment in an older population', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23 578-584 (1999)

Objective: To describe the measured dietary intakes acid anthropometry of a large, free-living population of middle-aged and older Australians who participated in the Australian B... [more]

Objective: To describe the measured dietary intakes acid anthropometry of a large, free-living population of middle-aged and older Australians who participated in the Australian Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics associated with attainment or non-attainment of dietary goals. Method: Anthropometry and dietary intakes were compared with current population dietary goals and Recommended Dietary Intakes for 2873 people 179% of eligible residents) aged = 49 years who participated in the BMES. Nutrient intakes were measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Nutrients for which mean intakes deviated most from nutrition goals included: percentages of energy from total and saturated fat, carbohydrate and alcohol (men), as well as absolute intakes of calcium, zinc and fibre. More than half the men (60%) and women (54%) were overweight or obese. Several micronutrient goals were more likely to be met in households where the respondents and/or their spouses were independent. Married men were more likely to meet goals for fibre and iron, but less likely to meet the goal for cholesterol. Several goals were more likely to be met by men and women who had qualifications after leaving school, those with higher job status and non-pensioners, suggesting an socio-economic status dimension. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that over- rather than under-nutrition is more prevalent among community-dwelling older people, although under-nutrition should not be overlooked. Particular sub-groups that are less likely to meet some dietary goals may require targeting in community nutrition interventions.

Citations Scopus - 11
1999 Jalaludin BB, Smith MA, Chey T, Orr NJ, Smith WT, Leeder SR, 'Risk factors for asthma deaths: A population-based, case-control study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23 595-600 (1999)

Objectives: To investigate risk factors for death from asthma using a case-control study design with two control groups. Methods: Cases (n = 42) comprised subjects aged 10-59 year... [more]

Objectives: To investigate risk factors for death from asthma using a case-control study design with two control groups. Methods: Cases (n = 42) comprised subjects aged 10-59 years who died from asthma. Two control groups were selected: a random sample of asthmatics from the community (n = 132) and age and sex matched patients recently admitted to hospital for asthma (n = 89). We obtained information from proxies of cases and controls, and their general practitioners, by a structured telephone survey. Matched and unmatched logistic regression analyses were used to determine odds ratios for risk factors for asthma deaths. Results: Compared to community controls, important risk factors for asthma deaths included indicators of asthma severity, use of three or more groups of asthma medications, more extensive use of health services for asthma, poor compliance with asthma medications and regularly missing hospital and general practitioner appointments for asthma. Compared to hospital controls, risk factors for asthma deaths were previous visits to emergency department for asthma, knowledge about asthma medications and regularly missing general practitioner appointments. Conclusions: In this study, severity of asthma, increased health service utilisation and suboptimal asthma self-management were associated with increased risks for asthma death. Implications: People with severe asthma or poorly controlled asthma have a greater risk of dying from their asthma. Both clinicians and non-clinicians managing asthma should regularly assess the appropriateness of management to prevent deaths.

Citations Scopus - 29
1998 Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, Wang JJ, 'Plasma fibrinogen levels, other cardiovascular risk factors, and age- related maculopathy: The blue mountains eye study', Archives of Ophthalmology, 116 583-587 (1998)

Objective: To assess the relationship between stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipid and... [more]

Objective: To assess the relationship between stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipid and plasma fibrinogen levels, smoking, cardiovascular events, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Design: A cross-sectional study of 3654 subjects from a defined geographic area identified subjects with late age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and early ARM from the masked grading of retinal photographs. The history, physical examination findings, and fasting blood samples provided data on possible risk factors. Logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and possible confounders, and 2-way analysis of variance were used to assess associations. Results: The only factors significantly associated with ARM included the 2 established risk factors, smoking and family history of ARMD (odds ratios, 4.1 and 4.2, for late ARMD, respectively), and the 2 variables, body mass index (odds ratio, 1.78 for obese compared with normal body mass index for early ARM) and plasma fibrinogen level (odds ratio, 6.7 for a fibrinogen level of > 4.5 g/L [highest quartile] compared with a fibrinogen level of < 3.4 g/L [lowest quartile] for late ARMD). Conclusions: These findings support the concepts that associations exist between plasma fibrinogen levels and late ARMD, a body mass index outside the normal range, and early ARM, and between the family history and smoking and any ARM. We found no other significant associations with any history of cardiovascular disease or other risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Citations Scopus - 224
1998 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Currie J, Cumming RG, Smith W, 'Prevalence and vascular associations with migraine in older Australians', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 28 627-632 (1998)

Background: Migraine is a common disorder with recently described vascular associations, yet there are few Australian population-based data describing migraine prevalence. Aims: T... [more]

Background: Migraine is a common disorder with recently described vascular associations, yet there are few Australian population-based data describing migraine prevalence. Aims: To assess the prevalence and vascular associations with lifetime past history of typical migraine headache in a representative sample of older Australians. Methods: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 permanent residents aged 49 or older living in two postcode areas, west of Sydney (82.4% participation) during 19924. A structured interview was administered, including questions about past or present history of typical migraine. The diagnosis was consistent with International Headache Society criteria. Results: A lifetime past history of typical migraine was given by 17% of participants, including 22% of women and 10% of men, a female:male ratio of 2.3:1. A marked trend for declining lifetime migraine frequency with increasing age was found for both sexes. Modest statistically significant associations were found with vascular disease history, after multivariate adjustment, which included vascular risk factors. These associations were stronger in men than in women. Among men, typical migraine was significantly associated with history of angina, odds ratio (OR) 2.0, acute myocardial infarction (OR 1.9) and stroke (OR 2.2). Among women, statistically significant associations were present only with history of myocardial infarct (OR 1.8). Conclusions: These data indicate similar prevalence rates for lifetime typical migraine history in a representative sample of older Australians, compared to recent US and Canadian populations. Modest, statistically significant associations between typical migraine and past history of vascular disease were found, with the strongest associations found in men.

Citations Scopus - 34
1998 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, Cumming RG, 'Bilateral involvement by age related maculopathy lesions in a population', British Journal of Ophthalmology, 82 743-747 (1998)

Aims - To describe the influences of age and sex on the frequency of bilateral age related macular degeneration (AMD) and age related maculopathy (ARM) lesions. Methods - The Blue... [more]

Aims - To describe the influences of age and sex on the frequency of bilateral age related macular degeneration (AMD) and age related maculopathy (ARM) lesions. Methods - The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 older Australians, 82% of permanent residents living in an area west of Sydney. Stereo macular photographs were graded for AMD (neovascuiar maculopathy and geographic atrophy) and early ARM lesions (soft drusen, reticular drusen, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation). Results - Among 230 gradable cases of AMD or early ARM, 183 (80%) were bilateral. For AMD, 39/69 cases (57%) were bilateral, while for early ARM, 123/161 cases (77%) had signs in both eyes. Of the individual lesions, reticular drusen (91%) and indistinct soft drusen (79%) were most frequently present in both eyes. Geographic atrophy was bilateral in 56%, neovascular AMD in 40%, and distinct soft drusen in 47%, while hyperpigmentation was bilateral in 38% and hypopigmentation in only 28% of cases. A consistent age related increase in bilateral distribution was observed for most lesions. After adjusting for effects of age, current smoking, and AMD family history AMD and ARM component lesions, except for soft drusen, were more frequently bilateral in women. This sex difference was significant only for neovascular AMD, odds ratio 7.7 (95% confidence intervals 1.3-46.7). An AMD family history was more frequently reported in cases with bilateral involvement. Conclusions - This study has documented differences in the age related bilaterality of individual ARM components with higher bilateral rates for reticular or indistinct soft drusen compared with other lesions. The increased bilaterality of most ARM lesions among women is likely to contribute to the increased age adjusted risk of AMD blindness found in women.

Citations Scopus - 46
1998 Tsang CW, Lazarus R, Smith W, Mitchell P, Koutts J, Burnett L, 'Hematological indices in an older population sample: Derivation of healthy reference values', Clinical Chemistry, 44 96-101 (1998)

Factors affecting hematological values were explored, and healthy reference values were estimated from a cross-sectional survey of a population (n = 4433), ages 49 years or more, ... [more]

Factors affecting hematological values were explored, and healthy reference values were estimated from a cross-sectional survey of a population (n = 4433), ages 49 years or more, residing permanently in a defined geographic region. Nursing home residents were excluded. Details of medication use and medical history were obtained by interview, and participants were asked to return after an overnight fast for blood sampling. The participation rate was 82.4%, of whom 88.4% provided a fasting blood sample. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte counts were higher in men, whereas platelet counts were higher in women. Statistical associations between each hematological index and smoking, alcohol intake, use of certain drugs, chronic disease, and high creatinine values were tested by unpaired t- tests. Separate reference groups were defined for each hematological index by excluding subjects with any of the factors found to be of importance. The resulting reference values are particularly appropriate for evaluating hematological test results in older individuals.

Citations Scopus - 37
1998 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Refractive error and age-related maculopathy: The blue mountains eye study', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 39 2167-2171 (1998)

PURPOSE. To assess associations between refractive error (hyperopia, myopia, and spherical equivalent [SEq]) and age-related maculopathy (ARM) in an older population. METHODS. A p... [more]

PURPOSE. To assess associations between refractive error (hyperopia, myopia, and spherical equivalent [SEq]) and age-related maculopathy (ARM) in an older population. METHODS. A population-based survey examined 3654 people aged 49 years or older, 82% of whom were permanent residents in an area west of Sydney, Australia. Participants had a detailed eye examination, including standardized refraction and stereo macular photographs. ARM was diagnosed from blinded photographic grading. Autorefractor measurements and subjective refraction were used to assess SEq refractive error for each eye in diopters. Mean SEq of the two eyes was used to define emmetropia, myopia, and hyperopia in each person. RESULTS. After known ARM risk factors (age, sex, ARM family history, current smoking) had been adjusted for, no association was found between mean SEq (two eyes) and late ARM (odds ratio [OR] , 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.1), However, a statistically significant increased risk of early ARM was found for each diopter of increase in mean SEq (OR, 1.1; CI, 1.0-1.2). In logistic regression models, moderate to high hyperopia was significantly associated with increased early ARM risk (OR, 2.0; CI, 1.2-3.4). When a generalized estimating equation model (GEE), which assessed the relationship at eye level while accounting for the correlation between the two eyes, was used, this association was marginally insignificant (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.9-1.9). No significant associations were found between myopia and any ARM stage with either model. CONCLUSIONS. These population-based data suggest a weak association between hyperopia and early ARM.

Citations Scopus - 52
1998 Attebo K, Mitchell P, Cumming R, Smith W, Jolly N, Sparkes R, 'Prevalence and cause of amblyopia in an adult population', Ophthalmology, 105 154-159 (1998)

Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence, causes, and associations with amblyopia in a defined older population. Design: In a population-based study, 3654 persons 49... [more]

Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence, causes, and associations with amblyopia in a defined older population. Design: In a population-based study, 3654 persons 49 years of age or older from an area west of Sydney, Australia, underwent a detailed eye examination and history, including objective and subjective refraction, cover testing, and retinal and lens photography. Amblyopia was diagnosed in eyes with reduced best-corrected visual acuity in the absence of any other cause. Results: Amblyopia was diagnosed in 118 participants, or 3.2% of the population using a visual acuity criterion of 20/30 or less and 2.9% using a visual acuity criterion of 20/40 or less. Using a two-line visual acuity difference between the eyes, the amblyopia prevalence was 2.6% and 2.5%, respectively, for the above criteria. The underlying amblyogenic causes assessed were anisometropia (50%), strabismus (19%), mixed strabismus and anisometropia (27%), and visual deprivation (4%). The visual acuity of the amblyopic eye was 20/200 or worse (19%), 20/80 to 20/160 (19%), 20/40 to 20/63 (52%), and 20/30 (11%). No statistically significant associations were found between amblyopia and gender or eye affected. The most frequent pattern of strabismus was esotropia, whereas hypermetropia was the most frequent refractive error in amblyopic eyes. The mean age at diagnosis was earlier for strabismic an mixed amblyopia (7.4 years) than for anisometropic amblyopia (12.7 years). Conclusion: This study has provided prevalence and cases of amblyopia in an older population. Amblyopia is a frequent cause of lifelong unilateral visual impairment.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)91862-0
Citations Scopus - 235
1998 Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, 'Iris color, skin sun sensitivity, and age-related maculopathy: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 105 1359-1363 (1998)

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess relationships between age-related maculopathy (ARM) and iris color, skin sun sensitivity, and other sunlight-related factors. Des... [more]

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess relationships between age-related maculopathy (ARM) and iris color, skin sun sensitivity, and other sunlight-related factors. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants: The Blue Mountains Eye Study performed a detailed eye examination of 3654 residents living in the Blue Mountains area, west of Sydney, Australia. Main Outcome Measures: Subjects with late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD), early ARM, and large drusen (=125 µm diameter) were identified using masked grading of retinal photographs. Iris color was graded using standard photographs, and interviewers collected questionnaire data on sunlight-related factors. Logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, AMD family history, and current smoking, was used to assess associations. Results: Blue iris color was significantly associated with an increased risk of both late AMD (odds ratio [OR], 1.69) and early ARM (OR, 1.45). An increased risk of late AMD, but not early ARM, was associated with both high (OR, 2.54) and low (OR, 2.18) skin sun sensitivity, as assessed using the Fitzpatrick sun-sensitivity scale. These associations remained after adjusting for the presence of sun-related skin damage. Neither history (or treatment) of skin cancer lesions, signs of sun-induced skin damage, or number of severe sunburns was associated with either late AMD or early ARM. Conclusions: Blue iris color was associated with an increased risk of both late AMD and early ARM in this population. Abnormal skin sensitivity to sunlight was also associated with an increased risk of late AMD.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)98013-7
Citations Scopus - 129
1998 Healey PR, Mitchell P, Smith W, Jie JW, 'Optic disc hemorrhages in a population with and without signs of glaucoma', Ophthalmology, 105 216-223 (1998)

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associations of optic disc hemorrhage in a well-defined older Australian population. Design: The study design was a pop... [more]

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associations of optic disc hemorrhage in a well-defined older Australian population. Design: The study design was a population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants: A total of 3654 persons 49 years of age or older, representing 88% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney, participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Participants underwent a detailed eye examination. The diagnosis of optic disc hemorrhage was made from masked photographic grading; disc hemorrhages were subclassified as flame or blot in shape. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed from matching visual field loss and optic disc rim thinning. Results: The overall prevalence of disc hemorrhage in either or both eyes was 1.4%. Disc hemorrhage prevalence was higher in women (odds radios [OR], 1.9; confidence interval [CI] , 1.0-3.5) and increased with age (OR, 2.2 per decade; CI, 1.7-2.8 per decade). The overall prevalence in subjects with open-angle glaucoma was 13.8% (8% in high- pressure glaucoma and 25% in low-pressure glaucoma) and 1.5% in subjects with ocular hypertension. Disc hemorrhages were associated with increasing intraocular pressure (OR, 1.7 per 5 mmHg; CI, 1.3-2.3 per 5 mmHg), pseudoexfoliation (OR, 3.5; CI, 1.1-11.8), diabetes (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.4-6.3), and increasing systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.1 per 10 mmHg; CI, 1.0-1.3) after adjusting for age and gender. Among subjects without open-angle glaucoma, disc hemorrhages were more frequent in eyes with larger vertical cup-disc ratios and in subjects with a history of typical migraine headache (OR, 2.2; CI, 1.1 -4.6). No associations were found among subjects with a history of vascular events, smoking, regular aspirin use, or myopia. Conclusions: Disc hemorrhage prevalence in this population is higher than that in the two previous population-based reports. Although the strong association of disc hemorrhage with open-angle glaucoma was confirmed (particularly low-pressure glaucoma), most disc hemorrhages (70%) were found in participants without definite signs of glaucoma.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)92704-X
Citations Scopus - 109
1998 Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, Attebo K, 'Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in an older community: The blue mountains eye study', Ophthalmology, 105 406-411 (1998)

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a defined older Australian population. Design: A total of 3654 persons ... [more]

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a defined older Australian population. Design: A total of 3654 persons 49 years of age or older, 88% of permanent residents from an urban area west of Sydney, underwent a detailed eye examination. This included detailed medical history, Zeiss stereo retinal photography, fasting blood glucose, and other blood factors. The diagnosis of DR was made clinically and from photographic grading in persons with a history or biochemical evidence of diabetes. Results: Diabetes was present in 7% (95% confidence interval, 6.2-7.8) of the population. Signs of DR were found in 82 participants (2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.8). The prevalence was 1.7% in persons younger than 60 years of age, 2.4% in persons 60 to 69 years of age, 2.7% in persons 70 to 79 years of age, and 2.3% in persons 80 years of age or older. There was no significant gender difference in prevalence. After adjusting for age, gender, and the duration since diagnosis of diabetes, higher blood glucose was related to the finding of moderate- to-severe retinopathy (Wisconsin levels 4-7) compared to milder retinopathy (Wisconsin levels 1.5-3). No association was found between the presence of any retinopathy and blood glucose, a history of hypertension or elevated blood pressure, body-mass index, blood lipids, creatinine, or coagulation factors. Conclusions: This Australian study has found similar prevalence rates for DR to a recent U.S. population-based study but lower rates for vision-threatening retinopathy than from clinic-based reports. Previous reports of a relationship between advanced retinopathy and blood glucose were supported. Other than diabetes duration and insulin treatment, no other associations with retinopathy were found.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)93019-6
Citations Scopus - 142
1998 Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, Cumming RG, Leeder SR, Burnett L, 'Diabetes in an older Australian population', Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 41 177-184 (1998)

Purpose: To describe the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes using new fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria, and vascular associations with diabetes his... [more]

Purpose: To describe the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes using new fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria, and vascular associations with diabetes history in a representative sample of older Australians attending the population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study. Methods: 3654 people aged 49 years or older, representing 88% of permanent residents in two postcode areas west of Sydney, underwent a detailed medical and eye examination. This included history of diabetes, vascular events and vascular risk factors. Fasting pathology tests, including glucose, were obtained for 88% of these subjects. Results: A diabetes history was given by 217 people (5.9%), including 7.0% of men and 5.2% of women. Elevated FPG (= 7.0 mmol/l) was found in a further 66 people (2.2% of persons who had FPG performed) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (FPG = 6.1 mmol/l and < 7.0 mmol/l) was found in a further 127 people (4.2%). History of diabetes was associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, elevated mean blood pressure and serum triglycerides, and lower mean serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Statistically significant associations were found between diabetes history and history of angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, gout and thyroid disease, after adjusting for age and sex using logistic regression. The vascular relationships with diabetes were stronger among people who currently smoked. Conclusions: This study has found similar diabetes prevalence to recently published Australian National Health Survey findings. Strong cross- sectional associations between diabetes history and vascular events and increased prevalence of vascular risk factors among older subjects with diabetes emphasise the need to address vascular risk factors in this group.

DOI 10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00079-5
Citations Scopus - 16
1998 Smith W, Mitchell P, 'Family history and age-related maculopathy: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 26 203-206 (1998)

Purpose: To assess the associations between stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and reported family history of this eye disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 3654 subje... [more]

Purpose: To assess the associations between stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and reported family history of this eye disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 3654 subjects from a defined geographical area west of Sydney (NSW, Australia) identified subjects with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and early ARM from masked detailed grading of retinal photographs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided data on family history of ARM. Logistic regression was used to assess associations, adjusting for other known risk factors. Results: A family history of ARM was significantly associated with both late AMD (odds ratio (OR) 3.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-11.46) and early ARM (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.04- 4.55). The association was highest for neovascular AMD. Conclusions: These findings provide persuasive evidence that a stated family history of ARM is an important risk factor for ARM.

Citations Scopus - 60
1998 Smith W, Mitchell P, Reay EM, Webb K, Harvey PWJ, 'Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in older people', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 22 456-463 (1998)

This study assesses the validity and reproducibility of a 145-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a representative older population aged 63 to 80. Semi-qu... [more]

This study assesses the validity and reproducibility of a 145-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a representative older population aged 63 to 80. Semi-quantitative FFQs were completed by 89% of 3654 residents attending a community-based eye study in Sydney, Australia. The FFQ's validity was assessed against three, four-day weighed food records (WFRs) completed four months apart by 79 people. A further 152 subjects completed a repeat FFQ about a year after the baseline FFQ, of whom 131 completed a second repeat FFQ about six weeks later. Both short and long-term reproducibility of the FFQ were assessed using data from these subjects. Comparison of the FFQ with the average of the three, four-day weighed food records resulted in energy-adjusted Spearman correlations above 0.5 for most of the nutrients. The proportion of subjects correctly classified to within one quintile category for each nutrient intake ranged from 57% for zinc to 82% for vitamin C, with most nutrients correctly classified within one quintile for about 70% of subjects. Quadratic weighted kappas were reasonable, between 0.3 and 0.5 for most nutrients. The FFQ was highly reproducible in the short term, with correlations for most nutrients about 0.70 to 0.80 and acceptably reproducible in the longer term, with correlations mostly 0.60 to 0.70. The results verify that it is possible to use relatively simple, but comprehensive, self-administered FFQs to study nutrient exposures in large-scale epidemiological studies of the elderly and to expect reasonably high FFQ response rates.

Citations Scopus - 112
1997 Smith W, Mitchell P, Rochester C, 'Serum beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, and age-related maculopathy: The blue mountains eye study', American Journal of Ophthalmology, 124 838-840 (1997)

PURPOSE: To assess associations between serum beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, and age-related maculopathy. METHODS: We studied 156 subjects with age-related maculopathy matched f... [more]

PURPOSE: To assess associations between serum beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, and age-related maculopathy. METHODS: We studied 156 subjects with age-related maculopathy matched for age, sex, and month of blood collection to 156 control subjects without age-related maculopathy. Subjects were identified from the Blue Mountains Eye Study: those with late age- related macular degeneration and early age-related maculopathy using examination and grading of retinal photographs, and control subjects without age-related maculopathy randomly sampled from the study population. RESULT: Neither serum alpha tocopherol nor beta carotene was significantly associated with age-related maculopathy. CONCLUSION: These findings provide no evidence of a protective association between serum alpha tocopherol or beta carotene and age-related maculopathy.

Citations Scopus - 34
1997 Mitchell P, Jie JW, Smith W, 'Association of pseudoexfoliation syndrome with increased vascular risk', American Journal of Ophthalmology, 124 685-687 (1997)

PURPOSE: To examine vascular associations with pseudoexfoliation syndrome in view of the widespread elastosis now demonstrated in this disorder that affects many tissues, includin... [more]

PURPOSE: To examine vascular associations with pseudoexfoliation syndrome in view of the widespread elastosis now demonstrated in this disorder that affects many tissues, including vessel walls. METHODS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in an area west of Sydney, Australia. Of 4433 eligible persons aged 49 years or older, 3,654 (82.4%) participated. Signs of pseudoexfoliation were graded clinically, after excluding 108 people who had bilateral cataract surgery. RESULTS: Pseudoexfoliation was present in 81 (2.3%) of 3546 participants aged 49 years or older. The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation increased with age and was higher in women and in people with glaucoma. Pseudoexfoliation was statistically significantly associated with a history of angina or hypertension or a combined history of angina, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke. CONCLUSION: Slit-lamp signs of pseudoexfoliation may identify individuals with an increased vascular risk.

Citations Scopus - 228
1997 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Li W, Leeder SR, Smith W, 'Prevalence of asymptomatic retinal emboli in an Australian urban community', Stroke, 28 63-66 (1997)

Background and Purpose: Because no population-based estimates are available for asymptomatic retinal emboli, we aimed to assess prevalence and associations of this sign in a defin... [more]

Background and Purpose: Because no population-based estimates are available for asymptomatic retinal emboli, we aimed to assess prevalence and associations of this sign in a defined older Australian urban population. Methods: A total of 3654 persons aged 49 years or older, representing 82% of residents in an urban area west of Sydney, underwent a detailed eye examination that included medical history, stereo retinal photography, and fasting blood tests including lipids. Retinal emboli were diagnosed clinically and from photographic grading and classified as cholesterol, platelet-fibrin, or calcific in type. Results: Asymptomatic retinal emboli were found in 51 participants (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0% to 1.8%). The prevalence was 0.8% in persons aged < 60 years, 1.4% for those aged 60 to 69 years, 2.1% for those aged 70 to 79 years, and 1.5% for those aged 80 years or older. Men had a significantly higher prevalence (2.2%) of retinal emboli than women(0.8%, P < .001) after adjustment for age (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.8). Forty-one emboli (80%) were cholesterol type, 7 (14%) were platelet-fibrin, and 3 (6%) were calcific. Significant associations were found after age-sex adjustment, with hypertension (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8), a combined history of vascular disease (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.4), past vascular surgery (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 8.5), and current (OR, 2.2: 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.2) or any (OR, 2.6: 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.3) smoking history. These associations persisted after multivariate analysis. There were no significant associations with diabetes, obesity, or fasting blood test findings. Conclusions: This study provides accurate prevalence rates for asymptomatic retinal emboli in the elderly and confirms associations with hypertension, smoking, and vascular disease.

Citations Scopus - 43
1997 Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Healey PR, 'Open-angle glaucoma and diabetes: The Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia', Ophthalmology, 104 712-718 (1997)

Purpose: The authors explore the relationship between diabetes and open- angle glaucoma in a defined older Australian population. Methods: Three thousand six hundred fifty-four pe... [more]

Purpose: The authors explore the relationship between diabetes and open- angle glaucoma in a defined older Australian population. Methods: Three thousand six hundred fifty-four people 49 to 96 years of age, living west of Sydney, underwent a detailed eye examination. This included automated perimetry, stereo optic disc photographs, and applanation tonometry; in addition, fasting plasma glucose levels were ascertained. Glaucoma was diagnosed if matching visual field and optic disc cupping were present, without reference to intraocular pressure (IOP) level. Ocular hypertension (OH) was diagnosed if IOP in either eye was =22 mm and glaucomatous disc and visual field changes were absent. Results: Glaucoma prevalence was increased in people with diabetes, diagnosed from history or elevated fasting plasma glucose level (5.5%), compared with those without diabetes (2.8%; age-gender adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.18-3.79). Ocular hypertension was also more common in people with diabetes (6.7%), compared with those without diabetes (3.5%; OR 1.86, CI 1.09-3.20). Diabetes was present in 13.0% of people with glaucoma, compared with 6.9% of those without glaucoma. This increase was highest for previously diagnosed glaucoma cases (18.7%; OR 2.82, CI 1.35-5.87). However, in 67% of such cases, glaucoma was diagnosed before the diabetes. For those not receiving glaucoma treatment, IOP was consistently slightly higher in people with diabetes, with the age-gender adjusted mean IOP 0.6 mm higher. Conclusions: The significant and consistent association between diabetes and glaucoma found in our study, which appeared independent of the effect of diabetes on IOP, suggests that there is a real association between these two diseases.

Citations Scopus - 241
1997 Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Jie JW, Chang A, 'Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes: The blue mountains eye study, Australia', Ophthalmology, 104 1033-1040 (1997)

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a defined older Australian population and to assess their influence on... [more]

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a defined older Australian population and to assess their influence on visual acuity. Methods: Three thousand six hundred fifty-four persons 49 years of age or older, representing 88% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney, underwent a detailed eye examination, including stereo retinal photography. Epiretinal membranes were diagnosed clinically and from photographic grading. Results: Signs of epiretinal membranes ware found in 243 participants (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1, 7. 6), bilateral in 31%. The prevalence was 1.9% in persons younger than 60 years of age, 7.2% in persons 60 to 69 years of age, 11.6% in persons 70 to 79 years of age, and 9.3% in persons 80 years of age and older, with slightly higher rates in women. Two stages were identified: an early form without retinal folds, termed 'cellophane macular reflex' present in 4.8%, and a later stage with retinal folds, termed 'preretinal macular fibrosis' (PMF), found in 2.2% of the population. Preretinal macular fibrosis, but not cellophane macular reflex, had a small, significant effect on visual acuity. Preretinal macular fibrosis was significantly associated with diabetes, after age-gender adjustment, in subjects without signs of diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4, 7.2). Preretinal macular fibrosis also was associated with increased fasting plasma glucose (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1, 1.3). Epiretinal membranes were found in 16.8% of persons who had undergone cataract surgery in one or both eyes (including PMF in 3.7%), in 16.1% of retinal vein occlusion cases (PMF in 12.5%), both significantly higher rates then in subjects without these conditions (P < 0.0001), and in 11% of persons with diabetic retinopathy (PMF in 3.6%), not significantly higher (P = 0.17). Conclusions: This study has documented the frequency and mild effect on vision of epiretinal membranes in an older population. Diabetes was associated significantly with idiopathic cases, whereas well-known associations with past cataract surgery and retinal disease were confirmed.

Citations Scopus - 173
1997 Jie JW, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Is there an association between migraine headache and open-angle glaucoma? Findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 104 1714-1719 (1997)

Objective: To determine whether an association exists between migraine headache history and open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participant... [more]

Objective: To determine whether an association exists between migraine headache history and open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants: Subjects were 3654 people aged 49 or older; 82% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney participated. Intervention: All participants underwent an interview and a detailed eye examination, including automated perimetry and stereo optic disc photography. Main Outcome Measures: Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in subjects with matching typical glaucomatous visual field defects and pathologic optic disc cupping, independent of intraocular pressure level. The diagnosis of migraine history (typical or nontypical) was based on participant responses to specific questions, consistent with International Headache Society criteria. Results: Open-angle glaucoma prevalence increased exponentially with age, with rates of 0.4%, 1.3%, 4.7%, and 11.4% among persons aged less than 60 years, between 60 and 69 years, between 70 and 79 years, and 80 years or older, respectively. The frequency of reporting a past history of typical migraine headache declined with increasing age, with rates of 23.1%, 16.2%, 12.8%, and 10.4% for corresponding age groups. For all age groups combined, there was no significant association between typical migraine headache and OAG (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] , 0.8-2.2), after multivariate adjustment. However, after stratifying into 10-year age groups, increased odds for OAG were found for people giving a history of typical migraine headache and aged 70-79 years (OR, 2.5; 95% CI 1.2-5.2), after adjusting for variables found associated with glaucoma. This association was marginally stronger for high-pressure OAG cases (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6). Conclusions: These data suggest the possibility of an association between history of typical migraine headache and OAG, which could be modified by age.

Citations Scopus - 107
1997 Healey PR, Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, 'Relationship between cup-disc ratio and optic disc diameter: The blue mountains eye study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 25 (1997)

Purpose: To determine the effects of optic disc size on vertical cup- disc ratio in subjects free of glaucoma and other optic nerve disease. Methods: Data were collected from 3654... [more]

Purpose: To determine the effects of optic disc size on vertical cup- disc ratio in subjects free of glaucoma and other optic nerve disease. Methods: Data were collected from 3654 people, 49 years of age or older, living in the Blue Mountains, west of Sydney (NSW, Australia). Examinations performed included subjective refraction and Zeiss colour stereo optic disc photographs. Eye and camera magnification effects were corrected. Results: Mean vertical disc diameter was 1.51 mm (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.504- 1.516 mm) and the mean vertical cup-disc ratio was 0.43 (95% Cl 0.425- 0.435). Both parameters were distributed unimodally. The cup-disc ratio was strongly associated with disc diameter. Controlling for other variables, cup- disc ratio increased 0.270 (95% Cl 0.250-0.290) per mm increase in disc diameter. Conclusions: Vertical optic disc diameter and cup-disc ratio are distributed near normally in older Australians. Optic discs with larger vertical diameters have considerably greater vertical cup-disc ratios.

Citations Scopus - 41
1997 Attebo K, Mitchell P, Cumming R, Smith W, 'Knowledge and beliefs about common eye diseases', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 25 283-287 (1997)

Purpose: To ascertain the level of knowledge of common causes of blindness in an adult Australian population and to relate this to use of eye care services. Methods: A population-... [more]

Purpose: To ascertain the level of knowledge of common causes of blindness in an adult Australian population and to relate this to use of eye care services. Methods: A population-based study of common eye diseases in an urban population aged 49 years or older was conducted. The questions were concerned with the awareness and knowledge of and the ability to describe three common eye diseases, namely cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Results: Awareness of cataract (98%) and glaucoma (93%) were high in this population, but awareness of AMD was low (20%). Among people who were aware of the target eye disease, only 29% showed some knowledge of glaucoma, 26% showed some knowledge of AMD and 20% showed some knowledge of cataract; this was also low in people who had previous eye treatment, such as cataract surgery. Knowledge was related to education level, occupational prestige and knowledge of other eye diseases. After excluding people with a previous eye disease diagnosis, those people who were aware and had some knowledge of eye disease accessed eyecare services more frequently. Conclusions: Knowledge of common eye diseases is generally lacking. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in Australia, yet only 20% of the present study population had heard of it. As there are often no early symptoms for glaucoma, community awareness of this disease and the need for screening of people at risk may allow timely diagnosis and more effective therapy before advanced visual field loss has occurred. An informed public is more likely to present earlier with visual symptoms before irreversible visual loss has occurred and is more likely to comply better with recommended therapy.

Citations Scopus - 61
1997 Smith W, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, 'Gender, oestrogen, hormone replacement and age-related macular degeneration: Results from the blue mountains eye study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology, 25 (1997)

Purpose: To determine whether females have a higher age-specific age- related maculopathy prevalence than males; whether there is an increased risk of age-related macular degenera... [more]

Purpose: To determine whether females have a higher age-specific age- related maculopathy prevalence than males; whether there is an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with early menopause; and whether there is a decreased risk of AMD with use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods: Pooled data from three study populations that have used similar AND diagnostic criteria were used to answer the first hypothesis: the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), the Rotterdam study of the elderly, and the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES). The BMES population was used to answer the second and third hypotheses. This population included residents aged 49 or older with 2072 women participating, of whom 1899 postmenopausal women answered questions about menopause, menarche and HRT. AMD was diagnosed from graded retinal photographs using modified international criteria. Results: The overall pooled odds ratio (OR) for association between sex and AMD revealed a significant increase in AMD prevalence among females compared with males, adjusting for 10-year age categories, OR = 1.15 (1.10-1.21), with no significant heterogeneity between studies. A significant decrease in the odds of early AMD with increasing years from menarche to menopause was observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that females may have a higher risk of AMD. The significant decrease in early AMD with increasing years from menarche to menopause supports the concept that a shorter duration of oestrogen production may increase risk of AMD.

Citations Scopus - 112
1997 Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Healey PR, 'Open-angle glaucoma and diabetes. The blue mountains eye study Australia', Community Eye Health Journal, 10 62 (1997)

Purpose: The authors explore the relationship between diabetes and open-angle glaucoma in a defined older Australian population. Methods: Three thousand six hundred and fifty-four... [more]

Purpose: The authors explore the relationship between diabetes and open-angle glaucoma in a defined older Australian population. Methods: Three thousand six hundred and fifty-four people, 49 to 96 years of age, living west of Sydney, underwent a detailed eye examination. This included automated perimetry, stereo optic disc photographs, and applanation tonometry; in addition, fasting plasma glucose levels were ascertained. Glaucoma was diagnosed if matching visual field and optic disc cupping were present, without reference to intraocular pressure (IOP) level. Ocular hypertension (OH) was diagnosed if IOP in either eye was 322 mm and glaucomatous disc and visual field changes were absent. Results: Glaucoma prevalence was increased in people with diabetes, diagnosed from history or elevated fasting plasma glucose level (5.5%), compared with those without diabetes (2.8%; age-gender adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence intervals [Cl] 1.18-3.79). Ocular hypertension was also more common in people with diabetes (6.7%), compared with those without diabetes (3.5%; OR 1.86, Cl 1.09-3.20). Diabetes was present in 13.0% of people with glaucoma, compared with 6.9% of those without glaucoma. This increase was highest for previously diagnosed glaucoma cases (16.7%; OR 2.82, Cl 1.35-5.87). However, in 67% of such cases, glaucoma was diagnosed before the diabetes. For those not receiving glaucoma treatment, IOP was consistently slightly higher in people with diabetes, with the age-gender adjusted mean IOP 0.6 mm higher. Conclusion: The significant and consistent association between diabetes and glaucoma found in our study, which appeared independent of the effect of diabetes on IOP, suggests that there is a real association between these two diseases. © International Centre for Eye Health,.

1997 Healey PR, Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, 'The influence of age and intraocular pressure on the optic cup in a normal population', Journal of Glaucoma, 6 274-278 (1997)

Purpose: To determine the effects of age and intraocular pressure (IOP) on optic cup and neural rim size, and cup-disc ratio in a well defined population free from apparent glauco... [more]

Purpose: To determine the effects of age and intraocular pressure (IOP) on optic cup and neural rim size, and cup-disc ratio in a well defined population free from apparent glaucoma and other optic nerve disease. Methods: Data were collected on 3654 people, 49 years or older, living in the Blue Mountains, west of Sydney. Examination included subjective refraction and Zeiss colour stereo (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) optic disc photographs. Magnification effects of the eye and camera were corrected. After excluding subjects with optic nerve diseases, data from 6579 normal phakic eyes of 3358 subject (91.9% of those examined) were used. Results: Adjusted for optic disc size and IOP, cup diameter increased 0.01 mm, cup-disc ratio increased 0.01, and neural rim width decreased 0.01 mm for every decade of age increase. Adjusted for age and optic disc size, cup diameter increased 0.01 mm, cup-disc ratio increased 0.04, and neural rim width decreased 0.07 mm for every 10 mmHg increase in IOP. The IOP-related increase in cup-disc ratio amounted to 9.5% of the mean per 10 mmHg, while the age related increase was 1.9% of the mean. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that there is an age-related loss of tissue from the neuroretinal rim. However the mean change between the ages of 50 and 90 years is very small. The association between increasing IOP and smaller neural rim width could suggest a causal relationship. However, it is also plausible that IOP and optic cup size are both determined by other unmeasured factors.

Citations Scopus - 33
1997 Smith W, Mitchell P, Attebo K, Leeder S, 'Selection bias from sampling frames: Telephone directory and electoral roll compared with door-to-door population census: Results from the Blue Mountains Eye Study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21 127-133 (1997)

Many Australian public health research studies use the telephone directory or the electoral roll as a sampling frame from which to draw study subjects. The sociodemographic, disea... [more]

Many Australian public health research studies use the telephone directory or the electoral roll as a sampling frame from which to draw study subjects. The sociodemographic, disease-state and risk-factor characteristics of subjects who could be recruited using only the telephone directory or only the electoral roll sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of subjects who would have been missed using only these sampling frames, respectively. In the first phase of the Blue Mountains Eye Study we interviewed and examined 2557 people aged 49 and over living in a defined postcode area, recruited from a door-to-door census. This represented a participation rate of 80.9 per cent and a response rate of 87.9 per cent. The telephone directory was searched for each subject's telephone number and the electoral roll was searched for each subject. Subject characteristics for those who were present in each of these sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of those subjects not included in the sampling frames. The telephone directory listed 2102 (82.2 per cent) of the subjects, and 115 (4.5 per cent) had no telephone connected. The electoral roll contained 2156 (84.3 per cent) of the subjects, and 141 subjects (5.5 per cent) could not be found in either the electoral roll or the telephone directory. Younger subjects, subjects who did not own their own homes and subjects born outside of Australia were significantly less likely to be included in either of these sampling frames. The telephone directory was also more likely to exclude subjects with higher occupational prestige, while the electoral roll was more likely to exclude unmarried persons and males. Researchers using the telephone directory and electoral roll to select subjects for study should be aware of the potential selection bias these sampling frames incur and need to take care when generalising their findings to the wider community.

Citations Scopus - 33
1996 Han F, Sali S, Smith WT, 'Response of underground multiconductor cable systems to external fields illumination', IEE PROCEEDINGS-SCIENCE MEASUREMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, 143 137-142 (1996)
DOI 10.1049/ip-smt:19960125
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 7
1996 Smith W, Mitchell P, 'Alcohol intake and age-related maculopathy', American Journal of Ophthalmology, 122 743-745 (1996)

PURPOSE: To assess associations between alcohol intake and age-related maculopathy. METHODS: A population-based study of 3,654 subjects identified cases of late age-related macula... [more]

PURPOSE: To assess associations between alcohol intake and age-related maculopathy. METHODS: A population-based study of 3,654 subjects identified cases of late age-related macular degeneration, early age-related maculopathy, and any large drusen (larger than 125 µm) by examination and grading of retinal photographs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided data on alcohol intake. RESULTS: Neither total alcohol intake nor intake of beer specifically was significantly associated with age-related maculopathy, although a significant positive association was found between consumption of spirits and early age-related maculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide little evidence that alcohol is causally associated with age-related maculopathy.

Citations Scopus - 39
1996 Mitchell P, Smith W, Chang A, 'Prevalence and associations of retinal vein occlusion in Australia: The blue mountains eye study', Archives of Ophthalmology, 114 1243-1247 (1996)

Objective: To determine the prevalence and associations of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in a defined older Australian population. Design: Participants (N =3654; age, =49 years), r... [more]

Objective: To determine the prevalence and associations of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in a defined older Australian population. Design: Participants (N =3654; age, =49 years), representing 88% of the permanent residents from an area west of Sydney, Australia, underwent a detailed eye examination, including stereophotography (Zeiss). The diagnosis of RVO was made clinically and from photographic grading. Results: Signs of RVO were found in 59 participants (1.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.9). The prevalence for each age-specific participant was as follows: 0.7%, younger than 60 years; 1.2%, 60 to 69 years; 2.1%, 70 to 79 years; and 4.6%, 80 years or older. There was no significant sex difference in prevalence. Branch RVO was observed in 41 subjects (69.5%); of this number, 10 subjects had branch RVO outside the vascular arcade or in the nasal fundus and 3 subjects developed new vessels. Hemispheric RVO was found in 3 subjects (5.1%), and central RVO was observed in 15 (25%); RVO was bilateral in 3 subjects (5.1%). Visual acuity was affected most in the people with central RVO, with a visual acuity of 20/200 or less in 60% compared with 14% among the people with branch RVO. Retinal vein occlusion was the fifth most frequent cause of unilateral blindness in this population. Significant associations with RVO were found with glaucoma, hypertension, stroke, and angina. Conclusions: This study emphasizes RVO as an important cause of unilateral visual loss in an older population. The proportion of the 3 vein occlusion sites shows some differences from those of clinic-based reports and suggests a likely selection bias in previous clinic studies.

Citations Scopus - 322
1996 Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, 'Smoking and age-related maculopathy: The blue mountains eye study', Archives of Ophthalmology, 114 1518-1523 (1996)

Objective: To assess the associations between stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and current, past, and passive smoking. Methods: A cross- sectional study of 3654 subjects fro... [more]

Objective: To assess the associations between stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and current, past, and passive smoking. Methods: A cross- sectional study of 3654 subjects from a defined geographic area west of Sydney, Australia, identified subjects with late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and early ARM by ocular examination and detailed grading of retinal photographs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided data about smoking history for subjects and spouses. Logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex, and 2-way analysis of variance were used to assess associations. Results: Current tobacco smoking was significantly associated with late AMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.92), including neovascular AMD (OR, 3.20) and geographic atrophy (OR, 4.54), and early ARM (OR, 1.75). Having ever smoked was significantly associated with late AMD (OR, 1.83) but not early ARM. Passive smoking was associated with increased but insignificant odds for late AMD. The risk was slightly higher among women compared with men for most exposure categories. Conclusions: These findings provide convincing evidence that smoking may be causally associated with ARM. The strongest risk was found for current smokers, suggesting potential benefits of targeting education to older people who are current smokers and have signs of early ARM.

Citations Scopus - 194
1996 Heath TC, Smith W, Capon AG, Hanlon M, Mitchell P, 'Tetanus immunity in an older Australian population', Medical Journal of Australia, 164 593-596 (1996)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness in older Australians of the current tetanus vaccination program. Design: A cross-sectional survey of tetanus immunity (enzyme immunoassay ... [more]

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness in older Australians of the current tetanus vaccination program. Design: A cross-sectional survey of tetanus immunity (enzyme immunoassay of serum samples) in an older population in New South Wales. Self-reported history of tetanus vaccination was compared with serologically measured immunity. Participants: 430 randomly selected adults, 49 years of age and older, from the Blue Mountains Eye Study population. Results: Fifty-two per cent (95% confidence interval [Cl], 47%-57%) of adults 49 years of age and older had protective levels of tetanus antitoxin ( > 0.15 IU/mL). There was a significant decline in the prevalence of immunity with increasing age (¿ 2 for linear trend, P = 0.036), and women were less likely to be immune regardless of their age (Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratio, 0.65; Cl, 0.43-0.92). Thirty-five per cent (95% Cl, 31%-40%) of all participants reported that they had been vaccinated in the preceding 10 years. Although self-reported tetanus vaccination history was associated with tetanus immunity, it was neither sensitive nor specific as a test for immunity. Conclusions: About half the adults 49 years of age and older in the Blue Mountains area of New South Wales do not have protective levels of tetanus antitoxin because of inadequate vaccination coverage in this age group. Vaccination history is not a reliable indicator of tetanus immunity and a system is needed for accurate recording of adult vaccination.

Citations Scopus - 27
1996 Wine S, Mitchell P, Smith W, Wang JJ, 'Prevalence and associations of diabetic retinopathy in an older Australian community: The blue mountains eye study', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37 (1996)

Purpose: To determine prevalence and associations of diabetic retinopathy in a defined older Australian population. Methods: 3.654 people aged 49 or older, representing 88% of per... [more]

Purpose: To determine prevalence and associations of diabetic retinopathy in a defined older Australian population. Methods: 3.654 people aged 49 or older, representing 88% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney had a detailed eye examination, including history, Zeiss stereo retinal photography and fasting pathology including plasma glucose. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed clinically and from photographic grading in persons with a history or biochemical evidence of diabetes (fasting plasma glucose = 7.8 mmol/1). Results: 217 people (5.9%) gave a past history of diabetes with undiagnosed diabetes found in a further 1.1%. Signs of diabetic retinopathy were found in 82 people (32.0% of those with diabetes). Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was found in 4 participants (1.6%) and diabetic maculopathy in 16 people (6.3%). Any retinopathy was found in 75% of the 4 cases of IDDM, in 34 6% of 213 cases of NIDDM and in 15.4% of the 39 cases with undiagnosed NIDDM. Early non-proliferative signs (Wisconsin levels 15-30 in the worse eye) accounted for 66% of retinopathy cases, moderate to severe non-proliferative retinopathy (levels 40-50) for 28% and proliferative retinopathy (levels 60-70) for 6%. Retinopathy was significantly related to the known duration of diabetes. After adjusting for duration and age in logistic regression analyses, there was no significant relation of retinopathy to sex, plasma glucose, hypertension, body-mass index, family history, serum creatinine, lipids or plasma fibrinogen in this population. Conclusions: This study has found a similar overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy to previous clinic-based studies, though lower rates for vision-threatening retinopathy. The findings are close to those from the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Wisconsin.

1996 Chang A, Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Wang JJ, 'Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes: Blue, mountains eye study', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 37 (1996)

Purpose: To determine prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a defined older Australian population and assess influence on visual acuity. Methods: 3,654 people age... [more]

Purpose: To determine prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a defined older Australian population and assess influence on visual acuity. Methods: 3,654 people aged 49 or older, 88% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney had a detailed eye examination, including stereo photography. Epiretinal membranes were diagnosed clinically and from photographic grading. Results: Signs of epiretinal membranes were found in 243 participants (7.0%, 95% Cl 6.1,7.6), bilateral in 31%. The prevalence was 1.9% in people aged < 60, 7.2% for ages 60-69, 11.6% for ages 70-79 and 9.3% for ages 80+ with no significant sex difference. Two stages were identified; an earlier form without retinal folds, termed "cellophane macular reflex" (CMR) present in 4.8% and a later stage with retinal folds, termed "preretinal macular fibrosis" (PMF), found in 2.2% of the population. PMF, but not CMR, had a significant effect on visual acuity. An association was found with diabetes, after age-sex adjustment, in people without signs of diabetic retinopathy (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4, 7.2), and with fasting plasma glucose (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1 3). Epiretinal membranes were present in 16.8% of people who had undergone cataract surgery in one or both eyes (including PMF in 3.7%), in 16.1% of people with signs of a retinal vein occlusion (PMF in 12.5%) and in 11.0% of people with diabetic retinopathy (PMF in 3.6%). Conclusions: This study emphasises the frequency of epiretinal membranes in the older population and their mild effect on vision. Diabetes was the only significant systemic association found in idiopathic cases, while previously recorded associations with past cataract surgery and retinal disease were confirmed.

1996 Mitchell P, Smith W, Attebo K, Healey PR, 'Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma in Australia: The blue mountains eye study', Ophthalmology, 103 1661-1669 (1996)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in an Australian community whose residents are 49 years of age or... [more]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in an Australian community whose residents are 49 years of age or older. Subjects: There were 3654 persons, representing 82.4% of permanent residents from an area west of Sydney, Australia, who were examined. The population was identified by a door-to- door census of all dwellings and by closely matched findings from the national census. Methods: All participants received a detailed eye examination, including applanation tonometry, suprathreshold automated perimetry (Humphrey 76-point test), and Zeiss stereoscopic optic disc photography. Glaucoma suspects were asked to return for full threshold fields (Humphrey 30-2 test), gonioscopy, and repeat tonometry. Results: A 5-point hemifield difference on the 76-point test was found in 616 persons (19% of people tested). Humphrey 30-2 tests were performed on 336 glaucoma suspects (9.2% of population), of whom 125 had typical glaucomatous field defects. Two hundred three persons had enlarged or asymmetric cup-disc ratios (=0.7 in 1 or both eyes or a cup-disc ratio difference of =0.3). Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed when glaucomatous defects on the 30-2 test matched the optic disc changes, without regard to the intraocular pressure level. This congruence was found in 87 participants (2.4%), whereas an additional 21 persons (0.6%) had clinical signs of open-angle glaucoma but incomplete examination findings. Open-angle glaucoma was thus found in 108 persons, a prevalence of 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] , 2.5-3.6), of whom 49% were diagnosed previously. An exponential rise in prevalence was observed with increasing age. Ocular hypertension, defined as an intraocular pressure in either eye greater than 21 mmHg, without matching disc and field changes, was present in 3.7% of this population (95% CI, 3.1-4.3), but there was no significant age-related increase in prevalence. The prevalence of glaucoma was higher in women after adjusting for age (odds ratio, 1.5; CI, 1.0-2.2). There was no sex difference in the age-adjusted prevalence of ocular hypertension. Conclusions: These data provide detailed age and sex-specific prevalence rates for open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in an older Australian population.

Citations Scopus - 594
1996 Attebo K, Mitchell P, Smith W, 'Visual acuity and the causes of visual loss in Australia: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 103 357-364 (1996)

Background: The Blue Mountains Eye Study is a population-based study of vision and the causes of visual impairment and blindness in a well-defined urban, Australian population 49 ... [more]

Background: The Blue Mountains Eye Study is a population-based study of vision and the causes of visual impairment and blindness in a well-defined urban, Australian population 49 years of age and older. Methods: The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity was measured before and after refraction in 3647 persons, representing an 88% response rate in two postcode areas in the Blue Mountains area, west of Sydney. Results: Refraction improved visual acuity by one or more lines in 45% of participants and by three or more lines in 13%. Visual impairment (visual acuity 20/40 or worse in the better eye) was found in 170 participants (4.7%). Mild visual impairment (Snellen equivalent 20/40 to 20/60 in the better eye) was found in 3.4%, moderate visual impairment (20/80 to 20/160 in the better eye) in 0.6%, and severe visual impairment or blindness (20/200 or worse in the better eye) in 0.7%. Visual impairment increased with age from 0.8% of persons 49 to 54 years of age to 42% of persons 85 years of age or older. Visual impairment was significantly more frequent in females at all ages. Among persons with severe visual impairment, 79% were female. After adjusting for age, females were less likely to achieve 20/20 best-corrected visual acuity than males (odds ratio, 0.57; confidence interval, 0.48-0.66). After adjusting for age and sex, no association was found between visual acuity and socioeconomic status. Age-related macular degeneration was the cause of blindness in 21 of the 24 persons with corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Conclusion: Increasing age and female sex were independent predictors of visual impairment.

Citations Scopus - 632
1996 Smith MA, Leeder SR, Jalaludin B, Smith WT, 'The asthma health outcome indicators study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 20 69-75 (1996)

Health outcomes have become an important public health policy focus in Australia. The New South Wales Health Department&apos;s Health Outcomes Program includes asthma as one of it... [more]

Health outcomes have become an important public health policy focus in Australia. The New South Wales Health Department's Health Outcomes Program includes asthma as one of its priority areas. This study combined a survey of a non-random sample of 14 asthma researchers and clinicians and the results of a literature review to determine the current status and validity of outcome indicators used in relation to asthma. A written questionnaire was used to present individual patient, clinical trial, school intervention and public health scenarios, and respondents were asked to nominate asthma outcome indicators they would use in each scenario as well as their estimate of the indicators' validity. The results provide a critical appraisal of a variety of asthma outcome indicators with regard to their repeatability, and their concurrent and predictive validity.

Citations Scopus - 7
1995 McIntyre PB, Chey T, Smith WT, 'The impact of vaccination against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in the Sydney region', Medical Journal of Australia, 162 245-248 (1995)

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease relative to rates of Hib vaccination in a well defined population. Design and subjects... [more]

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease relative to rates of Hib vaccination in a well defined population. Design and subjects: Cases of invasive Hib disease were identified by active laboratory surveillance for the period 1989-1994, and retrospectively for 1985-1987. Vaccination rates were determined by telephone interview of families with children aged 0-4 years, identified in a random telephone directory sample of 4000 households. The receipt and time of vaccination were validated from general practitioner records for a 50% subsample of children. Setting: Sydney Statistical Division, with a population of 263 758 children aged 0-4 years in 1990. Results: Hib vaccination rates were relatively low before the introduction of government-funded vaccination programs in May 1993, especially for children under 18 months for whom multiple doses are required. Rates rose from fewer than 9% (95% CI, 4%-13%) in May 1993 to 48% (CI, 40%-56%) in August 1993 for children under 18 months, and from 31% (CI, 26%-36%) to 45% (CI, 40%-51%) for children aged 19-60 months. The age-specific incidence of Hib disease was inversely related to the vaccination rate. Forecasting of Hib disease incidence by the Box-Jenkins method showed that from September 1993, when about a 50% vaccine uptake was achieved in the eligible age group, overall incidence was substantially lower than expected. Conclusions: These data provide good evidence that the decrease in Hib disease incidence in 1993-1994 is an effect of vaccination, and not annual or seasonal variation. The impact of Hib vaccination appears to have been greater than would be expected from protection of vaccinated children alone. Invasive Hib disease is likely soon to become a rare cause of serious childhood infection in Australia.

Citations Scopus - 20
1995 Mitchell P, Smith W, Attebo K, Wang JJ, 'Prevalence of Age-related Maculopathy in Australia: The Blue Mountains Eye Study', Ophthalmology, 102 1450-1460 (1995)

Purpose: To examine the prevalence of age-related maculopathy (drusen and retinal pigmentary abnormalities) and end-stage age-related macular degeneration lesions (neovascular mac... [more]

Purpose: To examine the prevalence of age-related maculopathy (drusen and retinal pigmentary abnormalities) and end-stage age-related macular degeneration lesions (neovascular maculopathy or geographic atrophy) in a defined older Australian urban population. Subjects: All noninstitutionalized residents 49 years of age or older who were identified in a door-to-door census of two postcode areas west of Sydney, Australia. Methods: All participants received a detailed eye examination, including stereoscopic photographs of each macula. Two trained graders used the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System to assess the presence and severity of typical lesions. Results: A marked age-related increase in all typical lesions of age-related maculopathy and macular degeneration was observed. End-stage age-related macular degeneration was present in 1.9% of the population, rising from 0% among people younger than 55 years of age to 18.5% among those 85 years of age or older. Soft drusen were found in 13.3% of people, with distinct drusen more frequent than indistinct soft drusen. Retinal pigmentary abnormalities were found in 12.6% of people. For end-stage lesions and soft drusen, females had higher age-specific prevalence rates than males, whereas retinal pigmentary abnormalities were more frequent in males, although most of these differences were not significant. Prevalence rates for all lesions were lower (statistically significant for retinal pigmentary abnormalities and soft drusen) than for the United States Beaver Dam Eye Study which examined a similar population. Conclusions: These data provide detailed prevalence rates for most components of ARM in an Australian population and reinforce the Beaver Dam Eye Study findings for the relative age-specific frequency of age-related macular degeneration components. © 1995, American Academy of Ophthalmology, Inc. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0161-6420(95)30846-9
Citations Scopus - 796
1995 Smith W, Chey T, Jalaludin B, Salkeld G, Capon T, 'Increasing response rates in telephone surveys: A randomized trial', Journal of Public Health Medicine, 17 33-38 (1995)

Background. Sampling frames and mode of contact and administration of questionnaires are important factors contributing to response rates and selection bias in population-based re... [more]

Background. Sampling frames and mode of contact and administration of questionnaires are important factors contributing to response rates and selection bias in population-based research. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether contact by mail before contact by telephone increases response rate, and to assess the concurrent validity of telephone surveys for collecting health research and service data. Methods. Two thousand households were randomly selected from electronic white pages. Half were randomly allocated to receive or not to receive an explanatory letter before telephone contact. Interviewers were blinded to whether a household received a letter. Respondents aged 18 years or over were randomly selected from within each household using a Kish grid and interviewed by telephone. Results. The overall response rate was 68 per cent [confidence interval (CI) 66-70] . The response rate of those who received the letter was 76 per cent (CI 73-79), and of those who did not receive the letter was 60 per cent (CI 56-63). Use of the Kish grid to select randomly a respondent decreased the response rate by less than 10 per cent. The internal validity of the data was as follows: in a 10 per cent sub-sample, the Kish grid had been correctly applied in 93 per cent of households, and in 99 per cent of households the exclusion criteria had been correctly adhered to. The external validity was as follows: comparisons with data obtained from the same reference population using similar instruments administered face-to-face revealed no meaningful or significant differences in population estimates. Conclusions. Mail-out before telephone contact greatly increases response rates at low cost. Telephone surveys can yield valid, useful data for health research and service evaluation.

Citations Scopus - 44
1994 SMITH MA, JALALUDIN B, LEEDER SR, SMITH WT, 'ISNT ONE INSTITUTIONAL ETHICS COMMITTEES APPROVAL ENOUGH', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 160 662-662 (1994)
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 5
1994 Tattersall M, Langlands A, Smith W, Irwig L, 'Undergraduate education about cancer - A survey of clinical oncologists and clinicians responsible for cancer teaching in Australian medical schools', Cancer Forum, 18 24-27 (1994)

Undergraduate cancer education in Australian medical schools is not integrated and there is little evidence of change in content or structure in recent years in spite of major cha... [more]

Undergraduate cancer education in Australian medical schools is not integrated and there is little evidence of change in content or structure in recent years in spite of major changes in knowledge about cancer epidemiology and cancer biology, and in cancer management. A recent survey of graduating students/interns from all Australian medinal schools revealed a disturbing variability in experience and lack of important knowledge. There was evidence of substantial differences in knowledge of, and rating of teaching between the different disciplines involved in cancer control and cancer management. To examine possible reasons for this, we surveyed cancer clinicians and teachers of oncology in the undergraduate curriculum at Australian medical schools. We asked them the same questions of knowledge as the students, and also to comment on the type and emphasis of teaching desirable in the medical students' cancer curriculum. The results indicate not only that the survey instrument was seen to be relevant, but also that some of the bias and misinformation detected in the student experiences may be attributed to attitude, knowledge and differences of opinion of the teachers. The results highlight the need for an integrated cancer curriculum to inform graduates about an illness which will be diagnosed in more than a quarter of the Australian population.

1994 Chapman S, Smith W, 'Practitioners' forum', American Journal of Health Promotion, 8 328-330 (1994)
Citations Scopus - 8
1994 JEFFS D, NOSSAR V, BAILEY F, SMITH W, CHEY T, 'Retention and use of personal health records: A population-based study', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 30 248-252 (1994)

A parent-held record has been issued to all children born in New South Wales (NSW), Australia since 1988. Five years after its introduction, an evaluation was undertaken to determ... [more]

A parent-held record has been issued to all children born in New South Wales (NSW), Australia since 1988. Five years after its introduction, an evaluation was undertaken to determine its retention rate over time, rate of documentation of immunization status and other important child health information, and its perceived usefulness to parents. The cross-sectional study comprised an interviewer administered questionnaire to 622 households derived from a stratified random sample of 25 local government areas, representative of 73% of all households containing children under 5 years of age in NSW. A concurrent postal survey assessed the attitudes and use of the Personal Health Record (PHR) among a stratified random sample of 911 health care providers. Results showed that the PHR was well retained, with 89% claimed retention at 4 years, and over 78% of parents able to produce the record for inspection at interview. Of the records examined, 91% had at least one immunization recorded while 68% had a complete regimen documented by age 4 years. Overall, 93% of parents expressed satisfaction with the PHR, while 64% of all health care providers also felt that the PHR was ¿beneficial to the health care children received¿, although only 53% of these used it regularly to record their findings. It is concluded that the PHR currently issued in NSW is well retained and valued by parents, and used by and useful to a range of health professionals. Copyright © 1994, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved

DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1754.1994.tb00627.x
Citations Scopus - 19
1994 Smith WT, Webb KL, Heywood PF, 'The implications of underreporting in dietary studies', Australian Journal of Public Health, 18 311-314 (1994)

Abstract: Dietary data from the Western Sydney Dietary Survey 1989-90 (n = 512) was used to investigate: 1. the prevalence and predictors of underreporting of energy intake, 2. t... [more]

Abstract: Dietary data from the Western Sydney Dietary Survey 1989-90 (n = 512) was used to investigate: 1. the prevalence and predictors of underreporting of energy intake, 2. the effects on results of excluding data from underreporters for analysis of mean nutrient intakes, and 3. the proportion of energy intake supplied by macronutrients and proportions of subjects who met dietary goals. The proportion whose measured energy intakes from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) were below cut-points for biologic plausibility was 28.5 per cent; it was higher for subjects who had BMI > 25 and were female. Point estimates for mean intakes of energy and nutrients were all greater when data from underreporters were excluded, but nutrient intakes expressed as percentages of energy intake remained largely unchanged. Increases in estimated mean population intake for each nutrient ranged from 7 per cent to 14 per cent for males, and 12 per cent to 17 per cent for females. Estimates of the percentages of the sample who did not meet dietary goals were significantly lower for a number of nutrients when underreporters were excluded. We conclude that: 1. results expressed as a percentage of energy intake are not affected by the exclusion of energy underreporters, and 2. estimates of the proportion of populations meeting some nutrient goals and associations between diet and disease are likely to change meaningfully and significantly with the exclusion of data from underreporters. 1994 Public Health Association of Australia

DOI 10.1111/j.1753-6405.1994.tb00250.x
Citations Scopus - 26
1993 Smith W, Leeder SR, 'Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome: How well prepared is Australian public health?', Medical Journal of Australia, 158 8-10 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 1
1993 Chapman S, Wai LW, Smith W, 'Self-exempting beliefs about smoking and health: Differences between smokers and ex-smokers', American Journal of Public Health, 83 215-219 (1993)

Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of self-exempting or cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs about smoking and health. Such beliefs may hold imp... [more]

Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of self-exempting or cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs about smoking and health. Such beliefs may hold important implications for the content and targeting of health promotion campaigns. Methods. A survey of smokers and ex- smokers was conducted in western Sydney, Australia. Six hypotheses were tested. Results. The principal findings were (1) that 27.9% of smokers and 42.1% of ex-smokers agreed that smokers were more likely than non-smokers to get five smoking-related diseases; (2) that for 11 of 14 beliefs tested, more smokers than ex-smokers agreed to a statistically significant degree; (3) that the median number of such beliefs agreed to by smokers was five, compared with three for ex-smokers; (4) that for only 5 of 14 beliefs was agreement expressed by more precontemplative smokers than smokers contemplating or taking action to quit; (5) that more than one in four smokers, despite agreeing that smokers are more likely than non-smokers to get five diseases, nonetheless maintain a set of self-exempting beliefs. Conclusions. Fewer smokers than ex-smokers accept that smoking causes disease, and smokers also maintain more self-exempting beliefs. Becoming an ex-smoker appears to involve shedding such beliefs in addition to accepting information about the diseases caused by smoking.

Citations Scopus - 129
1993 Chapman S, Smith W, Mowbray G, Hugo C, Egger G, 'Quit and win smoking cessation contests: How should effectiveness be evaluated?', Preventive Medicine, 22 423-432 (1993)

Background. In societies where there are both multiple influences on smoking cessation and a downward secular cessation trend, the attribution of cessation effects to particular i... [more]

Background. In societies where there are both multiple influences on smoking cessation and a downward secular cessation trend, the attribution of cessation effects to particular interventions poses challenging evaluation problems. Quit smoking lotteries are gaining popularity as mass-reach smoking cessation strategies. Most published evaluations of the lotteries have reported impressive cessation rates within samples of entrants. However, none has considered the possibility that the lotteries merely concentrate a secular quitting trend around a researched event or whether they increase the cessation rate of the whole community from which entrants derive. Results. Results from a lottery run in a smoking population (n = 101,277) are presented. of the 1,167 people who entered, 29.2% self-reported being smoke- free at 4 months. These results are considered against a prediction that the campaign might increase the cumulative background 4-month quit rate (708/101,277 or 0.7%) by a minimum of 10%. Conclusion. It is concluded that such a realistic hope, even if achieved, could in practice never be measured. Implications for evaluating the impact of discrete health promotion evaluations in large communities are discussed in terms of the dilemmas posed by the case study. © 1993 Academic Press.

DOI 10.1006/pmed.1993.1035
Citations Scopus - 27
1993 Tattersall MHN, Langlands AO, Smith W, Irwig L, 'Undergraduate education about cancer. A survey of clinical oncologists and clinicians responsible for cancer teaching in Australian medical schools', European Journal of Cancer, 29 1639-1642 (1993)

Undergraduate cancer education in Australian medical schools is not integrated and there is little evidence of change in content or structure in recent years in spite of major cha... [more]

Undergraduate cancer education in Australian medical schools is not integrated and there is little evidence of change in content or structure in recent years in spite of major changes in knowledge about cancer epidemiology and cancer biology, and in cancer management. A recent survey of graduating students/interns from all Australian medical schools revealed a disturbing variability in experience and lack of important knowledge. There was evidence of substantial differences in knowledge of, and rating of teaching between the different disciplines involved in cancer control and cancer management. To examine possible reasons for this, we surveyed cancer clinicians and teachers of oncology in the undergraduate curriculum at Australian medical schools. We asked them the same questions of knowledge as the students, and also to comment on the type and emphasis of teaching disirable in the medical students' cancer curriculum. The results indicate not only that the survey instrument was seen to be relevant, but also that some of the bias and misinformation detected in the student experiences may be attributed to attitude, knowledge and differences of opinion of the teachers. The results highlight the need for an integrated cancer curriculum to inform graduates about an illness which will be diagnosed in more than a quarter of the Australian population. © 1993.

DOI 10.1016/0959-8049(93)90314-6
Citations Scopus - 20
1993 BELL JC, WHITEHEAD P, CHEY T, SMITH W, CAPON AG, JALALUDIN B, 'The epidemiology of incomplete childhood immunization: An analysis of reported immunization status in outer western Sydney', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 29 384-388 (1993)

We surveyed parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in 1992 in outer western Sydney and the Blue Mountains. Using parents&apos; reports, we determined the prevalence of immun... [more]

We surveyed parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in 1992 in outer western Sydney and the Blue Mountains. Using parents' reports, we determined the prevalence of immunization uptake for children starting school, compared the prevalence of immunization uptake among Catholic, government and independent schools, and identified immunization providers. We also documented parental beliefs about immunization and their influence on immunization status, and identified risk factors for incomplete immunization. Nearly 89% of children were reported to be fully immunized. Immunization status did not vary significantly among the different types of school. General practitioners provided 84% of all immunizations and local councils 11%. Incomplete immunization was associated with more negative beliefs in immunization, with post-secondary education and with families who do not speak English at home. Reminder letters had little effect on immunization status. Copyright © 1993, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved

DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1754.1993.tb00540.x
Citations Scopus - 17
1993 Marks GC, Smith WT, Harvey PWJ, Stickney EK, Webb KL, Heywood P, 'Dietary assessment¿where is it going?', Australian Journal of Public Health, 17 174-175 (1993)
DOI 10.1111/j.1753-6405.1993.tb00129.x
Citations Scopus - 4
1992 BEK MD, SMITH WT, LEVY MH, SULLIVAN E, RUBIN GL, 'RABIES CASE IN NEW-SOUTH-WALES, 1990 - PUBLIC-HEALTH ASPECTS', MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 156 596-& (1992)
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 4
1992 Jalaludin B, Smith W, 'Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) [18]', Medical Journal of Australia, 156 744 (1992)
1991 Smith W, Tattersall M, Irwig L, Langlands A, Gordon J, 'New medical graduates' career goals [3]', Medical Journal of Australia, 155 644-645 (1991)
Citations Scopus - 1
1991 Smith WT, Tattersall MHN, Irwig LM, Langlands AO, 'Undergraduate education about cancer', European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, 27 1448-1453 (1991)

The quality, quantity and balance of undergraduate cancer teaching in Australian Medical Schools were investigated by a survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, of recent ... [more]

The quality, quantity and balance of undergraduate cancer teaching in Australian Medical Schools were investigated by a survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, of recent graduates from all Australian medical schools. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and a response rate of 84% (389 respondents) was achieved. The results revealed substantial differences in knowledge, experience in, and rating of teaching between the medical, surgical, radiotherapeutic and palliative components of cancer management. The proportions of graduates who had never attended radiotherapy and palliative care clinics or units (42.3% and 49.9%, respectively) were more than double the proportion who had never attended medical and surgical cancer clinics or units (17.5% and 10.9%, respectively). More than twice as many graduates rated their instruction in the palliative management of cancer as poor or very poor (29.4%) compared with those rating their instruction as poor or very poor in both cancer prevention (8.4%) and treatment for cure (14.6%). The respondents displayed a considerable lack of knowledge about radiotherapy treatment options, and reported a lack of perceived competence in doing cervical smears. Their answers to questions about 5-year survival of selected cancers, about the existence of screening tests validly shown to reduce mortality, and the ages at which breast and cervical cancers are likely to develop all revealed worrying levels of incorrect knowledge. There was some important disturbing variation in levels of knowledge, experience and rating of cancer instruction between states and between universities. © 1991.

DOI 10.1016/0277-5379(91)90029-D
Citations Scopus - 38
Show 196 more journal articles

Conference (13 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2010 Ng J, Shraim A, Huang SH, Milton AH, Smith W, Ranmuthugala G, et al., 'Evaluation of two drinking water intervention trials in Bangladesh', Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, As 2010 - 3rd International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment (2010) [E1]
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2009 Flood VM, McGregor K, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, 'Diet quality, alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality', Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (2009) [E3]
2008 Flood V, Gwynn JD, Louie JC-Y, Turner N, Cochrane J, Cochrane S, et al., 'Mean nutrient intake and foods contributing to selected nutrients amongt children aged 10 to 12 years: Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project', National Nutrition Networks Conference, Good Tucker - Good Health. Abstracts (2008) [E3]
Co-authors Josephine Gwynn, John Wiggers
2008 Gwynn JD, Turner N, Cochrane J, Smith WT, Wiggers JH, 'Validity of short nutrition questions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children aged 10 to 12 years using multiple 24-hour recalls: Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project', National Nutrition Networks Conference, Good Tucker - Good Health. Abstracts (2008) [E3]
Co-authors Josephine Gwynn, John Wiggers
2008 Louie JC-Y, Everingham C, Turner N, Cochrane J, Gwynn JD, Smith WT, et al., 'Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load among children aged 10 to 12 years: many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project', National Nutrition Networks Conference, Good Tucker - Good Health. Abstracts (2008) [E3]
Co-authors Josephine Gwynn, John Wiggers
2007 Magin PJ, Pond CD, Smith WT, Watson AB, Goode SM, 'Psychological morbidity in patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2007) [E3]
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2007 Abhayaratna WP, Nikolic G, Smith WT, Becker NH, 'Population-based screening of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction using 12-lead electrocardiography and natriuretic peptides', Heart, Lung and Circulation (2007) [E3]
DOI 10.1016/j.hlc.2007.06.052
2007 Smith WT, 'Statistics for epidemiological studies', The Aging Eye: 2007 ARVO Annual Meeting. Abstracts (2007) [E3]
2007 Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Smith WT, Klein R, Klein BEK, et al., 'Complement factor H, smoking, dietary fish consumption and age-related macular degeneration: population-based findings', The Aging Eye: 2007 ARVO Annual Meeting. Abstracts (2007) [E3]
2006 Ng JC, Hasnat MA, Smith WT, Dear K, Caldwell B, Sim M, et al., 'Assessment of two arsenic-contaminated drinking water mitigation interventions in Bangladesh (Poster presentation)', Abstracts of the EUROTOX 2006/6 CTDC Congress - 43rd Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology & 6th Congress of Toxicology in Developing Countries (published in Toxicology Letters 164S (2006)) (2006) [E3]
Co-authors Milton Hasnat
2004 Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Wong TY, Smith WT, Leeder S, Klein R, 'Gender difference in the relation of retinal arteriolar narrowing to the risk of coronary heart disease', Abstracts of the 44th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention (2004) [E3]
2003 McGrath PA, Kucera RS, Smith WT, 'Computer Simulation of Introductory Neurophysiology', Advances in Physiology Education (2003) [E1]
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 3
2003 Connor LH, Albrecht GA, Higginbotham N, Freeman SR, Smith WT, 'Environmental Change and Human Health: A Pilot study in Upper Hunter Communities', The Airs Waters Places Transdisciplinary Conference on Ecosystem Health in Australia (2003) [E1]
Show 10 more conferences

Report (2 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2014 Gwynn JD, Blunden SV, Turner N, Flood V, Attia J, Smith W, et al., 'Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project: An Aboriginal community governed program of research and health promotion for children. Final Report August 2014', NSW MInistry of Health (2014) [R1]
Co-authors John Wiggers, Josephine Gwynn, John Attia, Catherine Deste
2014 Gwynn JD, Blunden SV, Turner N, Flood V, Attia J, Smith W, et al., 'Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project: An Aboriginal community governed program of research and health promotion for children. Short Report.', NSW MInistry of Health, 27 (2014) [R1]
Co-authors John Wiggers, Josephine Gwynn, Catherine Deste, John Attia
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 23
Total funding $5,866,872

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20111 grants / $20,000

Risk Reduction of Climate Change Impact on Health Sector through Finding out Adaptive Measures on the Context of Bangladesh $20,000

Funding body: CCHPU Climate Change and Health Promotion (Bangladesh)

Funding body CCHPU Climate Change and Health Promotion (Bangladesh)
Project Team Dr Md. Iqbal Kabir, Doctor Milton Hasnat, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2011
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1100689
Type Of Funding International - Competitive
Category 3IFA
UON Y

20081 grants / $701,224

Genes and environment in the risk of early age-related macular degeneration: a population-based case-control study$701,224

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Professor John Attia, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Professor Pablo Moscato
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2008
Funding Finish 2010
GNo G0189168
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

20074 grants / $98,386

Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Project - Glycemic Index Analysis and LGA collaboration$50,708

Funding body: Department of Health

Funding body Department of Health
Project Team Doctor Josephine Gwynn, Professor John Wiggers, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Program
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0188162
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

Healthy Airways and Obstructive Lung Disease (HAROLD)$20,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Professor Lisa Wood, Professor John Attia, Professor Regina Berretta, Professor Pablo Moscato
Scheme Project Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0187246
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

Hewlett Packard 7890 series gas chromatograph with accessories$20,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Professor Lisa Wood, Conjoint Professor Peter Wark, Conjoint Professor Peter Gibson, Professor Jodie Simpson, Doctor Vanessa Murphy, Laureate Professor Paul Foster, Professor Phil Hansbro, Conjoint Associate Professor Vicki Clifton, Professor Clare Collins, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Professor John Attia
Scheme Equipment Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0188191
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

The impact of Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine on Cognition in a population-based cohort$7,678

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Associate Professor Mark McEvoy, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Conjoint Professor Peter Schofield, Professor John Attia
Scheme Pilot Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0187872
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20065 grants / $2,671,894

Public Health Education and Research Program (PHERP)$2,022,851

Funding body: Department of Health

Funding body Department of Health
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Public Health Education and Research Program (PHERP)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2006
Funding Finish 2010
GNo G0186144
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

The impact of Anticholinergic activity, apolipoprotein E and high-affinity choline transporter genotype on cognition in a population-based co-hort: a pilot study$15,500

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Associate Professor Mark McEvoy, Conjoint Professor Peter Schofield, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Doctor Janine Duke, Professor John Attia
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2006
Funding Finish 2006
GNo G0186170
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

The impact of Anticholinergic Activity on cognition in a population-based cohort$10,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Conjoint Professor Peter Schofield, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Conjoint Professor Ian Whyte, Conjoint Professor David Sibbritt, Associate Professor Mark McEvoy
Scheme Near Miss Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2006
Funding Finish 2006
GNo G0186077
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

Joint JSEE/ISEA International Conference on Enviromental Epidemiology, La Villette Conference Centre, Paris 2-6 September 2006$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2006
Funding Finish 2006
GNo G0186790
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20055 grants / $1,554,970

A type-2 Diabetes Prevention Program for primary school aged rural Indigenous children$1,497,370

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Doctor Josephine Gwynn, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Dr Michael Booth, Professor John Wiggers, Mr L Clay, Ms Robin Roberts
Scheme Healthy Start to Life for Aboriginal & Torres Strait Children
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2009
GNo G0184019
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Prevalence and risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes$30,000

Funding body: Diabetes Australia

Funding body Diabetes Australia
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Professor John Attia, Conjoint Associate Professor Julia Lowe, Doctor Janine Duke
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0185002
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

The effect of physical activity on independent living, disease outcomes and health service utilisation among community dwelling older patients$13,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Doctor Janine Duke, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0184893
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

Kryos Cryogenic vessel controller with 240L automatic-filling Liquid Nitrogen pressure vessel$9,600

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Equipment Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0185472
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: A case-contral study in Bangladesh$5,000

Funding body: International Atomic Energy Agency

Funding body International Atomic Energy Agency
Project Team Doctor Milton Hasnat, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Coordinated Research Project
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0185433
Type Of Funding International - Non Competitive
Category 3IFB
UON Y

20044 grants / $164,728

Development of measures of physical activity and food habits for use among indigenous rural children$95,000

Funding body: Telstra Foundation

Funding body Telstra Foundation
Project Team Doctor Josephine Gwynn, Mr L Clay, Professor John Wiggers, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Community Development Fund
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0182949
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Prevention program for Aboriginal & Non-Aboriginal rural children$40,000

Funding body: Diabetes Australia

Funding body Diabetes Australia
Project Team Doctor Josephine Gwynn, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Professor John Wiggers
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2004
GNo G0183184
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

Psychological and social monitoring of Hunter environmental change.$15,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Associate Professor Nick Higginbotham, Professor Linda Connor, Conjoint Professor Glenn Albrecht, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith, Doctor Craig Dalton
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2004
GNo G0183538
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

Sanyo VIP Series Ultra Low Temperature Upright Freezer$14,728

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Equipment Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2004
GNo G0184282
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

20033 grants / $655,670

Sensory Impairment: causes, impacts and interventions.$446,670

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Centres of Research Excellence - Centres of Population Health Research Excellence
Role Lead
Funding Start 2003
Funding Finish 2007
GNo G0183590
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Research Fellows in Epidemiology$195,000

Funding body: Vicent Fairfax Family Foundation

Funding body Vicent Fairfax Family Foundation
Project Team Professor Julie Byles, Professor John Attia, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2003
Funding Finish 2005
GNo G0182726
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

Relating Ecological and Human Distress Syndromes: a Pilot Investigation in Upper Hunter Communities Exposed to Large Scale Industrial and Mining Activity$14,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Associate Professor Nick Higginbotham, Professor Linda Connor, Conjoint Professor Glenn Albrecht, Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2003
Funding Finish 2003
GNo G0182454
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed16
Current0

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2016 PhD Use of Adaptive Measures to Reduce the Impact of Climate Change on the Health Sector in Bangladesh PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2016 PhD Study on Rising Burden of Hypertension in Bangladesh PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2014 PhD Availability of Arsenic in Breast Milk, Effect of Chronic Arsenic Exposure on Type2 Diabetes, Hypertension in Adults and on Children's Nutritional Status in Bangladesh PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2014 PhD The Role of L-Arginine and Methylated-Arginines in Health and Disease PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2012 PhD The Food and Nutrient Intake and Physical Activity of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Non-Indigenous Rural Children PhD (Behavioural Science), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2007 PhD Psychological Sequelae of Skin Disease: Acne, Psoriasis and Atopic Eczema PhD (General Practice), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2007 PhD Prevalence of Heart Failure Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Principal Supervisor
2006 PhD A randomised intervention to assess arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Principal Supervisor
2005 PhD Arsenic mitigation interventions and disease burden in Bangladesh Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Principal Supervisor
2005 PhD Post-natal depression Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Co-Supervisor
2005 PhD Folate and B12 fortification Public Health Not Elswr Classi, University of Sydney Co-Supervisor
2004 PhD Biomarkers of social disadvantage Accounting, Australian National University Co-Supervisor
2002 PhD Health outcomes and implnatable devices: a Record linkage study Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Principal Supervisor
2002 PhD Disinfection by-products in drinking water and bladder micro-nuclei Accounting, Australian National University Co-Supervisor
2000 PhD Impact of sensory impairment on independent living of older Australians Public Health Not Elswr Classi, University of Sydney Co-Supervisor
2000 PhD Randomised controlled trail of infection control interventions on diarrhoea and respiratory infection in child careolder Australians Public Health Not Elswr Classi, Australian National University Co-Supervisor
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Conjoint Professor Wayne Smith

Position

Conjoint Professor
School of Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Email wayne.smith@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 9816 0426
Fax (02) 9816 0377

Office

Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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