Dr Karen Kerr

Dr Karen Kerr

Senior Lecturer

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy (Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology)

Career Summary

Biography

Background - PhD in Pharmacology and Diploma in Pharmacy.

Research Expertise

Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly.

Our research focuses on inappropriate prescribing in the elderly in general and more specifically looks at two areas.

  1. The first area looks at the summative effects of anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and amitriptyline on cognitive function in the elderly. The effects  of sedatives and opiates on cognition is also of interest.  We are investigating the effects of changes in anticholinergic load on cognition over time, as well as on other clinical outcomes such as depression and physical quality of life. This area is especially relevant given the increasing aging population, incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease and polypharmacy.  We have found that the summative adverse effects of lower level anticholinergic drugs is having a significant impact on patient health.
  2. The second area looks at the co-prescription of drugs that are either inhibitors or inducers of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes with other drugs that are substrates for these enzymes.  This situation may result in drugs being prescribed at doses that will either not be therapeutically effective or will result in high blood concentrations of a particular drug with potentially fatal or severe adverse effects.  As CYP drug-drug interactions are more common in patients on higher numbers of medications, particular vigilance is required at the time of prescribing and dispensing medications for elderly patients with multiple conditions.

Factors affecting smooth muscle contractility

Premature birth remains a major unsolved problem that affects some 15% of births internationally and is increasing in incidence. A range of methods including organ bath studies, live cell imaging, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology are used to elucidate the various cell signaling pathways that contribute to the contractility of the mouse myometrium in response to various autacoids, neurotransmitters and hormones.

Collaborations

Professor Dimity Pond, Conjoint Professor Parker Magin,
Associate Professor David Newby, School of Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine



Qualifications

  • PhD, Monash University
  • Bachelor of Science, Rhodes University
  • Diploma in Pharmacy, Technikon Witwatersrand - South Africa
  • Bachelor of Science (Honours), University of Witwatersrand

Keywords

  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Pharmacology

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111599 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences not elsewhere classified 60
110399 Clinical Sciences not elsewhere classified 20
111699 Medical Physiology not elsewhere classified 20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Senior Lecturer University of Newcastle
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Australia

Invitations

Speaker

Year Title / Rationale
2010 Dr Karen Kerr
Organisation: Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Description: Invited to give a talk on 'Interstitial cells of Cajal in the mouse reproductive tract' at the 2nd National Symposium on Advances in Gastrointestinal & Urogenital Research, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Sept 3rd (2010).
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2007 Candenas ML, Pennefather JN, Kerr KP, Perez-Hernandez N, Pinto FM, 'Tachykinins and smooth muscle function', New Frontiers in Smooth Muscle Biology and Physiology, Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India 383-411 (2007) [B1]

Journal article (34 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Mate KE, Kerr KP, Pond D, Williams EJ, Marley J, Disler P, et al., 'Impact of Multiple Low-Level Anticholinergic Medications on Anticholinergic Load of Community-Dwelling Elderly With and Without Dementia', Drugs and Aging, 32 159-167 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s40266-014-0230-0
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Karen Mate, Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2014 Gravina FS, Van Helden DF, Kerr KP, De Oliveira RB, Jobling P, 'Phasic contractions of the mouse vagina and cervix at different phases of the estrus cycle and during late pregnancy', PLoS ONE, 9 (2014) [C1]

© 2014 Gravina et al. Conclusions/Significance: Cervical smooth muscle strips taken from mice in estrus, metestrus or late pregnancy were generally spontaneously active. Vaginal ... [more]

© 2014 Gravina et al. Conclusions/Significance: Cervical smooth muscle strips taken from mice in estrus, metestrus or late pregnancy were generally spontaneously active. Vaginal smooth muscle strips were normally quiescent but could be induced to exhibit phasic contractions independent on phase of the estrus cycle or late pregnancy. Spontaneous cervical or TEA-induced vaginal phasic contractions were not mediated by ICs or intracellular Ca2+ stores. Given that vaginal smooth muscle is normally quiescent then it is likely that increases in hormones such as oxytocin, as might occur through sexual stimulation, enhance the effectiveness of such pacemaking until phasic contractile activity emerges. Methodology/Principal Findings: Vaginal and cervical contractions were measured in vitro, as was the distribution of c-Kit and vimentin positive interstitial cells (ICs). Cervical smooth muscle was spontaneously active in estrus and metestrus but quiescent during proestrus and diestrus. Vaginal smooth muscle was normally quiescent but exhibited phasic contractions in the presence of oxytocin or the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride. Spontaneous contractions in the cervix and TEA-induced phasic contractions in the vagina persisted in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a blocker of the SERCA that refills intracellular SR Ca2+ stores, but were inhibited in low Ca2+ solution or in the presence of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channels. ICs were found in small numbers in the mouse cervix but not in the vagina. Background/Aims: The pacemaker mechanisms activating phasic contractions of vaginal and cervical smooth muscle remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate properties of pacemaking in vaginal and cervical tissues by determining whether: 1) functional pacemaking is dependent on the phase of the estrus cycle or pregnancy; 2) pacemaking involves Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-dependent intracellular Ca2+ stores; and 3) c-Kit and/or vimentin immunoreactive ICs have a role in pacemaking.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0111307
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Phillip Jobling, Dirk Vanhelden
2014 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Magin PJ, Marley J, Stocks NP, Disler P, Pond CD, 'The prevalence of co-prescription of clinically relevant CYP enzyme inhibitor and substrate drugs in community-dwelling elderly Australians', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTICS, 39 383-389 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/jcpt.12163
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Parker Magin, Dimity Pond, Karen Mate
2013 Lam M, Kerr KP, Exintaris B, 'Involvement of Rho-Kinase Signaling Pathways in Nerve Evoked and Spontaneous Contractions of the Guinea Pig Prostate', JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, 189 1147-1154 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.220
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2013 Hughes V, Denham S, Bannantine JP, Chianini F, Kerr K, May L, et al., 'Interferon gamma responses to proteome-determined specific recombinant proteins: Potential as diagnostic markers for ovine Johne's disease', Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 155 197-204 (2013)

Johne's disease (JD), or paratuberculosis is a fatal enteritis of animals caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). There may be a long ... [more]

Johne's disease (JD), or paratuberculosis is a fatal enteritis of animals caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). There may be a long subclinical phase with no signs of clinical disease.Diagnosis of JD is problematic and no test can reliably detect sub-clinical disease. Th1 responses to Map are believed to be activated first with a later switch to Th2 responses and progression to clinical disease. Detection of a cell-mediated response, indicated by interferon gamma (IFN-¿) produced in response to mycobacterial antigens, may give an early indication of infection. Crude extracts of Map (PPDj) have been used to detect the cell-mediated response, but more specific, quantifiable antigens would improve the test.Thirty Map-specific proteins were screened for their ability to raise a cell-mediated response in subclinically infected sheep. Four proteins were selected and tested using blood from subclinical animals and controls from a JD-free flock. Three proteins elicited IFN-¿ levels which were higher in the subclinical group than in the control group, two were statistically significant. Thus these proteins have the ability to discriminate groups of infected and uninfected animals and may have use in diagnosis of JD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.06.015
Citations Scopus - 8
2011 Lam M, Kerr KP, Ventura S, Exintaris B, 'Extracellular Ca2+ entry and mobilization of inositol trisphosphate-dependent Ca2+ stores modulate histamine and electrical field stimulation induced contractions of the guinea-pig prostate', Pharmacological Research, 64 235-241 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.phrs.2011.04.009
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2011 Gravina FS, Jobling P, Kerr KP, De Oliveira R, Parkington HC, Van Helden DF, 'Oxytocin depolarizes mitochondria in isolated myometrial cells', Experimental Physiology, 96 949-956 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058388
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Phillip Jobling, Dirk Vanhelden
2010 Gravina FS, Parkington HC, Kerr KP, De Oliveira R, Jobling P, Coleman HA, et al., 'Role of mitochondria in contraction and pacemaking in the mouse uterus', British Journal of Pharmacology, 161 1375-1390 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00949.x
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Phillip Jobling, Dirk Vanhelden
2010 Kerr K, Wheelhouse N, Livingstone M, Anderson IE, Entrican G, McKeever D, Longbottom D, 'Inflammatory cytokine responses in a pregnant mouse model of Chlamydophila abortus infection', Veterinary Microbiology, 144 392-398 (2010)

Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) is the aetiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA). The highly elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis fact... [more]

Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) is the aetiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA). The highly elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) and low-level expression of interferon-gamma (IFN¿) that are detected in C. abortus-infected placentas have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OEA. Late-term abortions similar to those occurring in sheep have also been observed in mouse models of C. abortus infection. Since mouse studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the immunological responses to chlamydial infections and serve as a good model for rapidly assessing candidate vaccines for OEA, we investigated local expression of TNFa and IFN¿ in infected mice. At various time points over the course of infection mice were sacrificed, serum samples obtained for serum antibody and cytokine analyses, and livers and placental tissues were removed and fixed to determine C. abortus colonisation and cytokine expression. Immunostaining for C. abortus was significantly greater in placenta compared to liver (P < 0.001), whereas local IFN¿ expression was lower and TNFa expression was absent in the placenta compared with the liver across all time points. Serum concentrations of both IFN¿ and TNFa increased throughout pregnancy in infected mice. These data suggest that a protective systemic inflammatory immune response controls maternal C. abortus infection but not placental/fetal infection in mice. In contrast to sheep, murine placental TNFa expression does not correlate with C. abortus infection, suggesting that the immunopathogenesis of chlamydial abortion differs in these species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.01.025
Citations Scopus - 3
2008 Patak E, Pennefather JN, Gozali M, Candenas L, Kerr K, Exintaris B, et al., 'Functional characterisation of hemokinin-1 in mouse uterus', European Journal of Pharmacology, 601 148-153 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.10.036
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
2007 Chetty N, Coupar IM, Chess-Williams R, Kerr KP, 'Demonstration of 5-HT3 receptor function and expression in the mouse bladder', Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 375 359-368 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00210-007-0173-7
Citations Scopus - 12
2006 Kerr KP, 'The effect of histamine on field-stimulated contractions of the guinea-pig prostate', Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 373 237-244 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s00210-006-0061-6
Citations Scopus - 4
2005 Kerr K, Entrican G, McKeever D, Longbottom D, 'Immunopathology of Chlamydophila abortus infection in sheep and mice', Research in Veterinary Science, 78 1-7 (2005)

Chlamydophila abortus targets the placenta, causing tissue damage, inflammation and abortion (enzootic abortion of ewes). It is one of the main infectious causes of abortion in ew... [more]

Chlamydophila abortus targets the placenta, causing tissue damage, inflammation and abortion (enzootic abortion of ewes). It is one of the main infectious causes of abortion in ewes, resulting in major economic losses to agricultural industries worldwide. Although ruminants and pigs are the principal hosts, humans are also susceptible to infection. Control of disease requires a host inflammatory response, which is likely to contribute to pathology and abortion. Mouse models have been widely used to provide insight into the role of specific immune cells in controlling infection and disease. The use of such model systems for investigating the mechanisms of abortion, latency, persistence, and immunity to reinfection will result in the identification of novel vaccine control strategies for sheep. © Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.rvsc.2004.08.004
Citations Scopus - 21
2005 Wildblood LA, Kerr K, Clark DAS, Cameron A, Turner DG, Jones DG, 'Production of eosinophil chemoattractant activity by ovine gastrointestinal nematodes', Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 107 57-65 (2005)

Eosinophilia is a well documented feature of helminth infections but the precise nature of the interaction between parasite and eosinophil remains an enigma. This paper describes ... [more]

Eosinophilia is a well documented feature of helminth infections but the precise nature of the interaction between parasite and eosinophil remains an enigma. This paper describes experiments demonstrating that ruminant gastrointestinal trichostrongyles produce potent chemoattractant activity for ovine bone marrow-derived eosinophils in vitro. This activity was initially identified as a constituent of whole worm extracts of third and fourth larval (L3, L4), and adult stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta, and adult Haemonchus contortus. Similar activity was detected in excretory/secretory (E/S) material derived from live T. circumcincta L3. Subsequently, by adapting the assay technique to incorporate live worms directly into the system, it was shown that L3 of both T. circumcincta and H. contortus produced eosinophil chemoattractant activity. In contrast, neither whole worm extracts, or E/S preparations from mixed stages of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contained eosinophil chemoattractant activity, and there was no evidence of chemoattractant production by live C. elegans. The results described are challenging to the traditional dogma that eosinophils are host-protective effector cells, and raise the intriguing possibility that ovine nematodes actively encourage recruitment of eosinophils. Local eosinophil-mediated mucosal damage, comparable to that seen in the asthmatic lung, may then provide a permissive local microenvironment for the parasite. Moreover, if they prove important for pathogenicity, nematode chemoattractants could offer future potential as novel therapeutic targets. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.03.010
Citations Scopus - 16
2003 March JB, Kerr K, Lema B, 'Rapid detection of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC capsular polysaccharide-specific antigen detection latex agglutination test', Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 10 233-240 (2003)

A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunog... [more]

A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 10 3 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and "Mycoplasma mycoides" cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using "known" CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to "antibody eclipsing" by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment.

DOI 10.1128/CDLI.10.2.233-240.2003
Citations Scopus - 6
2002 Dillon C, Creer A, Kerr K, Kümin A, Dickson C, 'Basolateral targeting of ERBB2 is dependent on a novel bipartite juxtamembrane sorting signal but independent of the C-terminal ERBIN-binding domain', Molecular and Cellular Biology, 22 6553-6563 (2002)

ERBB2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase present on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia and has important functions in organ development and tumorigenesis. Using mutagenic ... [more]

ERBB2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase present on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia and has important functions in organ development and tumorigenesis. Using mutagenic analyses and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, we have investigated the signals that regulate basolateral targeting of ERBB2. We show that basolateral delivery of ERBB2 is dependent on a novel bipartite juxtamembrane sorting signal residing between Gin-692 and Thr-701. The signal shows only limited sequence homology to known basolateral targeting signals and is both necessary and sufficient for correct sorting of ERBB2. In addition we demonstrate that this motif can function as a dominant basolateral targeting signal by its ability to redirect the apically localized P75 neurotrophin receptor to the basolateral membrane domain of polarized epithelial cells. Interestingly, LLC-PK1 cells, which are deficient for the µ1B subunit of the AP1B adaptor complex, missort a large proportion of ERBB2 to the apical membrane domain. This missorting can be partially corrected by the introduction of µ1B, suggesting a possible role for AP1B in ERBB2 endosomal trafficking. Furthermore, we find that the C-terminal ERBIN binding domain of ERBB2 is not necessary for its basolateral targeting in MDCK cells.

DOI 10.1128/MCB.22.18.6553-6563.2002
Citations Scopus - 30
2002 Kerr KP, 'The guinea-pig oesophagus is a versatile in vitro preparation for pharmacological studies', Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 29 1047-1054 (2002)

1. The isolated oesophagus of the guinea-pig is a useful preparation that can be used as an alternative to the phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations that have been used traditional... [more]

1. The isolated oesophagus of the guinea-pig is a useful preparation that can be used as an alternative to the phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations that have been used traditionally in the determination of the actions of drugs and toxins at the neuromuscular junction. The guinea-pig isolated oesophagus can also provide information about effects at ganglionic nicotinic receptors, which are not present in the diaphragm preparations. 2. The muscularis externa of the body of the oesophagus consists exclusively of striated muscle fibres. The myenteric plexus is found between the outer longitudinally arranged layer and the inner circular layer. The muscularis mucosae contains smooth muscle fibres arranged longitudinally. 3. The vagal nerves are comprised of special vagal efferents that innervate the striated muscle fibres directly and 'parasympathetic' vagal fibres that synapse in the myenteric ganglia and, subsequently, affect the smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae. Thus, both striated and smooth muscle responses to vagal nerve stimulation can be studied. In addition, afferent neurons run in the vagus. 4. Studies using various isolated oesophageal preparations have been reviewed. These consist of the whole oesophagus (including striated muscle, myenteric plexus and smooth muscle), the isolated mucosal layer (striated muscle and the myenteric plexus both absent) and the whole oesophagus with the vagus nerve attached. Comparative studies of the effects of drugs acting directly on the muscularis mucosae and/or indirectly via the intramural plexuses can be performed using the whole oesophagus and the isolated mucosal layer. 5. The use of the guinea-pig isolated vagus nerve-oesophagus preparation allows potency determinations for both neuromuscular and ganglion blockade of various non-depolarizing muscle relaxants to be performed simultaneously under identical conditions. Furthermore, the phenomenon of fade, a waning of tetanic tension during the stimulation period, can be studied. 6. A potential application of this preparation is the simultaneous screening of the constituents of snake venoms for activity at the neuromuscular junction and/or the ganglion. It is also suggested that new calcium channel blockers could be screened in this preparation because different voltage-sensitive calcium channels are involved in neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic cholinergic neuroeffector sites.

DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03774.x
Citations Scopus - 4
2001 Revest JM, Spencer-Dene B, Kerr K, De Moerlooze L, Rosewell I, Dickson C, 'Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb acts upstream of Shh and Fgf4 and is required for limb bud maintenance but not for the induction of Fgf8, Fgf10, Msx1, or Bmp4', Developmental Biology, 231 47-62 (2001)

Mice deficient for FgfR2-IIIb were generated by placing translational stop codons and an IRES-LacZ cassette into exon IIIb of FgfR2. Expression of the alternatively spliced recept... [more]

Mice deficient for FgfR2-IIIb were generated by placing translational stop codons and an IRES-LacZ cassette into exon IIIb of FgfR2. Expression of the alternatively spliced receptor isoform, FgfR2-IIIc, was not affected in mice deficient for the IIIb isoform. FgfR2-IIIb -/- IacZ mice survive to term but show dysgenesis of the kidneys, salivary glands, adrenal glands, thymus, pancreas, skin, otic vesicles, glandular stomach, and hair follicles, and agenesis of the lungs, anterior pituitary, thyroid, teeth, and limbs. Detailed analysis of limb development revealed an essential role for FgfR2-IIIb in maintaining the AER. Its absence did not prevent expression of Fgf8, Fgf10, Bmp4, and Msx1, but did prevent induction of Shh and Fgf4, indicating that they are downstream targets of FgfR2-IIIb activation. In the absence of FgfR2-IIIb, extensive apoptosis of the limb bud ectoderm and mesenchyme occurs between E10 and E10.5, providing evidence that Fgfs act primarily as survival factors. We propose that FgfR2-IIIb is not required for limb bud initiation, but is essential for its maintenance and growth. © 2001 Academic Press.

DOI 10.1006/dbio.2000.0144
Citations Scopus - 207
2001 Revest JM, Suniara RK, Kerr K, Owen JJT, Dickson C, 'Development of the thymus requires signaling through the fibroblast growth factor receptor R2-IIIb', Journal of Immunology, 167 1954-1961 (2001)

Mice deficient for fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)R2-IIIb show a block in thymic growth after embryonic day 12.5, a stage that just precedes its detection in thymic epithelial cell... [more]

Mice deficient for fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)R2-IIIb show a block in thymic growth after embryonic day 12.5, a stage that just precedes its detection in thymic epithelial cells. Fgf7 and Fgf10, the main ligands for FgfR2-IIIb, are expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the thymic epithelial primordium, and Fgf10-deficient mice also exhibit impaired thymic growth. Hence, Fgf signaling is essential for thymic epithelial proliferation. In addition to the proliferative block, most thymic epithelial cells fail to progress from an immature cytokeratin 5-positive to a cytokeratin 5-negative phenotype. Nevertheless, sufficient epithelial cell differentiation occurs in the severely hypoplastic thymus to allow the development of CD4/CD8-double-positive thymocytes and a very small number of single-positive thymocytes expressing TCRs.

Citations Scopus - 164
2001 Kerr KP, Mitchelson F, Coupar IM, 'The phalloid organ, orgasm and sperm competition in a polygynandrous bird: The red-billed buffalo weaver (Bubalornis niger)', Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 50 474-482 (2001)

The buffalo weavers, Bubalornis spp., are unique amongst birds in possessing a phalloid organ, a phallus-like structure anterior to the cloaca. We studied the red-billed buffalo w... [more]

The buffalo weavers, Bubalornis spp., are unique amongst birds in possessing a phalloid organ, a phallus-like structure anterior to the cloaca. We studied the red-billed buffalo weaver Bubalornis niger, to determine whether the phalloid organ has evolved in response to sperm competition. The phalloid organ was significantly longer in males that were resident at nests than in non-resident males, and among resident males was significantly longer in those males with a harem than in those without. Red-billed buffalo weavers bred colonially and had either a cooperatively polygynandrous (usually two unrelated males and several females) or a polygynous (one male and several females) mating system. Cooperative polygynandry provided females with the opportunity to copulate with more than one male and paternity analyses using DNA fingerprinting revealed that 63% of 16 multiple-offspring broods, comprising 43 offspring, had multiple sires, which included both nestowning males and extra-group males. Sperm competition was therefore intense. Observations and experiments with buffalo weavers in captivity revealed that the phalloid organ was not intromittent during copulation, but functioned as a stimulatory organ which necessitated protracted copulation in order to induce male 'orgasm' and ejaculation, a feature apparently unique to this species.

DOI 10.1007/s002650100384
Citations Scopus - 12
2000 Kerr KP, Thai B, Coupar IM, 'Tachykinin-induced contraction of the guinea-pig isolated oesophageal mucosa is mediated by NK

1. The tachykinin receptor present in the guinea-pig oesophageal mucosa that mediates contractile responses of the muscularis mucosae has been characterized, using functional in v... [more]

1. The tachykinin receptor present in the guinea-pig oesophageal mucosa that mediates contractile responses of the muscularis mucosae has been characterized, using functional in vitro experiments. 2. The NK 1 receptor-selective agonist, [Sar 9 (O 2 )Met 11 ]SP and the NK 3 receptor-selective agonists, [MePhe 7 ]-NKB and senktide, produced no response at submicromolar concentrations. The NK 2 receptor-selective agonists, [Nle 10 ]-NKA(4-10), and GR 64,349 produced concentration-dependent contractile effects with pD 2 values of 8.20±0.16 and 8.30±0.15, respectively. 3. The concentration-response curve to the non-selective agonist, NKA (pD 2 =8.13±0.04) was shifted significantly rightwards only by the NK 2 receptor-selective antagonist, GR 159,897 and was unaffected by the NK 1 receptor-selective antagonist, SR 140,333 and the NK 3 receptor-selective antagonist, SB 222,200. 4. The NK 2 receptor-selective antagonist, GR 159,897, exhibited an apparent competitive antagonism against the NK 2 receptor-selective agonist, GR 64,349 (apparent pK(B) value=9.29±0.16) and against the non-selective agonist, NKA (apparent pK(B) value=8.71±0.19). 5. The NK 2 receptor-selective antagonist, SR 48,968 exhibited a non-competitive antagonism against the NK 2 receptor-selective agonist, [Nle 10 ]-NKA(4-10). The pK(B) value was 10.84±0.19. 6. It is concluded that the guinea-pig isolated oesophageal mucosa is a useful preparation for studying the effects of NK 2 receptor-selective agonists and antagonists as the contractile responses to various tachykinins are mediated solely by NK 2 receptors.

Citations Scopus - 10
2000 Kerr KP, Mitchelson F, Coupar IM, 'Tachykinins play a minor role in mediating the third phase of the contractile response to vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig oesophagus', Neuropeptides, 34 12-17 (2000)

The aim of this study was to determine whether tachykinin receptors might be involved in the mediation of the atropine- and capsaicin-sensitive third phase of a triphasic contract... [more]

The aim of this study was to determine whether tachykinin receptors might be involved in the mediation of the atropine- and capsaicin-sensitive third phase of a triphasic contractile response to vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus. The third phase was inhibited 23.3 ± 1.7% (P < 0.001, n = 5) and 30.8 ± 9.0% (P < 0.05, n = 5) by the NK 3 receptor antagonist, SR 142 801 (0.1 and 1 µM respectively). SR 142 801 (0.1 and 1 µM) had no significant effect on the response to a submaximal concentration of acetylcholine (0.1 mM, n = 4). The third phase was not significantly affected by NK 1 or NK 2 receptor antagonists. Thus, in the guinea-pig oesophagus, it appears that while NK 1 and NK 2 receptors are not involved, NK 3 receptors play a minor role in mediating a contractile response when afferent neurones are excited by vagal nerve stimulation. (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

DOI 10.1054/npep.1999.0780
Citations Scopus - 5
1998 Macdonald PM, Kerr K, 'Mutational analysis of an RNA recognition element that mediates localization of bicoid mRNA', Molecular and Cellular Biology, 18 3788-3795 (1998)

Localization signals are RNA regulatory elements that direct the localization of mRNAs to subcellular sites. Localization signals presumably function by mediating RNA recognition ... [more]

Localization signals are RNA regulatory elements that direct the localization of mRNAs to subcellular sites. Localization signals presumably function by mediating RNA recognition events through which the mRNA becomes associated with the localization machinery. At present little is known about individual RNA recognition events, which in turn has limited progress in identifying the trans-acting binding factors involved in these events. Here we describe a detailed characterization of the RNA elements required for the RNA recognition event, event A, that initiates localization of bicoid mRNA in the Drosophila ovary. One element is a helix in which nucleotide identities are not important, suggesting that it plays a primarily structural role. Immediately adjacent to the helix is a recognition domain in which the identities of some, but not all, nucleotides are important for function. Comparison of two related but different RNAs that both support recognition event A further defines the important features of the recognition domain.

Citations Scopus - 66
1997 Kerr KP, Mitchelson F, Coupar IM, 'Tachykinin receptors in the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus: A complex system', British Journal of Pharmacology, 120 1021-1028 (1997)

1. The tachykinin receptors mediating contraction of isolated longitudinal strips of the guinea-pig oesophageal body were characterized with substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) a... [more]

1. The tachykinin receptors mediating contraction of isolated longitudinal strips of the guinea-pig oesophageal body were characterized with substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) as well as the analogues, [Sar 9 ,Met(O 2 ) 11 ]SP, [Nle 10 ]NKA(4-10) and [MePhe 7 ]NKB, selective for NK 1 , NK 2 and NK 3 , receptors, respectively. Experiments were performed both in the absence and presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, captopril (1 µM), thiorphan (1 µM) and amastatin (20 µM), in order to determine whether membrane bound proteases are important in the metabolism of tachykinins in this preparation. 2. All agonists produced concentration-dependent contractile effects. The presence of the peptidase inhibitors shifted the concentration-response curves of SP, [Nle 10 ]NKA(4-10) and [MePhe 7 ]NKB significantly leftwards and the concentration-response curve of NKB was shifted significantly rightwards. However, the EC 50 values were significantly different only for [Nle 10 ]NKA(4-10) and NKB. 3. In the presence of the peptidase inhibitors, the EC 50 values of the selective agonists, [MePhe 7 ]NKB (0.6 nM) and [Nle 10 ]NKA(4-10) (66 nM) indicated the presence of both tachykinin NK 3 and NK 2 receptors. [MePhe 7 ]NKB produced less than 50% of the maximal response obtained with the other agonists. Since [Sar 9 ,Met(O 2 ) 11 ]SP produced a small response in the nanomolar concentration range in about 30% of the preparations tested, it is possible that some NK 1 receptors were also present. 4. Assuming competitive antagonism, the NK 2 -selective antagonist SR 48,968 (30 nM) gave apparent pK(B) values of 8.13 and 8.65 for [Nle 10 ]NKA(4-10) in the absence and presence of peptidase inhibitors, respectively, supporting the presence of NK 2 receptors. 5. The NK 3 -selective antagonist SR 142,801 (0.1 µM), suppressed responses to low (0.1-10 nM) concentrations of [MePhe 7 ]NKB. These contractile responses to [MePhe 7 ]NKB were also abolished by atropine (0.6 µM) suggesting that this response was mediated via cholinergic nerves. 6. It is concluded that the guinea-pig oesophagus is a complex system which has both NK 2 and NK 3 receptors and possibly some NK 1 receptors as well.

DOI 10.1038/sj.bjp.0701001
Citations Scopus - 11
1997 Macdonald PM, Kerr K, 'Redundant RNA recognition events in bicoid mRNA localization', RNA, 3 1413-1420 (1997)

A cis-acting signal in the 3&apos; UTR of the Drosophila bicoid mRNA directs both the transport of the mRNA from the nurse cells to the oocyte and its anterior localization within... [more]

A cis-acting signal in the 3' UTR of the Drosophila bicoid mRNA directs both the transport of the mRNA from the nurse cells to the oocyte and its anterior localization within the oocyte. Here we demonstrate that the signal mediates redundant RNA recognition events, A and B, that initiate largely overlapping programs of mRNA localization during oogenesis. Recognition event A requires a region encompassing stem-loops IV/V of the predicted secondary structure, and can be eliminated by a single nucleotide mutation. Localization initiated through event B begins slightly later in oogenesis, and requires sequences that have not been narrowly defined. Using forms of the 3' UTR lacking this RNA recognition redundancy, we reexamine the roles of the swallow, staufen, and exuperantia genes, which are all required for normal bicoid mRNA localization. Our results reveal that exuperantia first becomes essential for localization at a time when well-defined microtubule tracks between the nurse cells and oocyte disappear. Thus, exuperantia may specifically facilitate a form of nurse cell-to-oocyte mRNA transport not dependent on the microtubule tracks.

Citations Scopus - 60
1996 Smibert CA, Wilson JE, Kerr K, Macdonald PM, 'smaug protein represses translation of unlocalized nanos mRNA in the Drosophila embryo', Genes and Development, 10 2600-2609 (1996)

nanos mRNA, which encodes the localized component of the Drosophila posterior body patterning determinant, is normally translated only at the posterior pole of the embryo, where t... [more]

nanos mRNA, which encodes the localized component of the Drosophila posterior body patterning determinant, is normally translated only at the posterior pole of the embryo, where the mRNA is concentrated. Here we identify two similar cis-acting sequences in the nanos mRNA 3' untranslated region that mediate translational repression. These sequences bind an embryonic protein of 135 kD, smaug, and we refer to them as smaug recognition elements (SREs). Analysis of point mutations in the SREs reveals a strong correlation between smaug binding and translational repression; mutants unable to bind smaug in vitro are not repressed translationally in vivo, whereas mutants that do bind smaug remain repressed translationally. These results strongly suggest that smaug acts in translational repression of unlocalized nanos mRNA. Translational repression is essential, as embryos expressing a nanos mRNA with mutated SREs develop with anterior body patterning defects and die, despite correct localization of the RNA.

Citations Scopus - 156
1995 KERR KP, MITCHELSON F, COUPAR IM, 'Vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig oesophagus', Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 154 213-220 (1995)

Vagal nerve stimulation of the isolated guinea-pig oesophagus resulted in a triphasic contractile response which was abolished by tetrodotoxin. The mechanisms for each of the thre... [more]

Vagal nerve stimulation of the isolated guinea-pig oesophagus resulted in a triphasic contractile response which was abolished by tetrodotoxin. The mechanisms for each of the three responses were investigated. The first response was abolished by the neuromuscular blocking drug, tubocurarine, and was unaffected by atropine. The second response to vagal nerve stimulation was abolished by the ganglion blocking drug, hexamethonium, and by tubocurarine at a higher concentration than that required to block the first response. The second response was also abolished by atropine and was enhanced by physostigmine. It was concluded that this response was due to preganglionic stimulation of smooth muscle. ¿-Conotoxin GVIA selectively inhibited the third response. This response was resistant to the neuromuscular and ganglion blocking drugs yet was abolished by atropine and was enhanced by physostigmine. This implicates the involvement of cholinergic neurones activated independently of nicotinic ganglionic receptors. The third response was also selectively abolished by capsaicin and enhanced by thiorphan. Contractile responses resulting from exogenous substance P were abolished by atropine and tetrodotoxin and enhanced by physostigmine. These findings suggest that the third response may be mediated by the action of a substance P-like neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings which subsequently activate cholinergic neurones. © 1995 Scandinavian Physiological Society

DOI 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1995.tb09903.x
Citations Scopus - 19
1995 KERR KP, STEVENSON JE, MITCHELSON F, 'Simultaneous Comparison of Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists on Three Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors', Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 47 1002-1006 (1995)

The relative potencies of several nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonists in producing tetanic fade and reduction of striated muscle contraction were investigated in the isolated guin... [more]

The relative potencies of several nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonists in producing tetanic fade and reduction of striated muscle contraction were investigated in the isolated guinea-pig oesophagus as well as the guinea-pig and rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Contractile smooth muscle responses to vagal stimulation, which involves ganglionic activation, were also measured simultaneously with striated muscle responses in the oesophagus. The relative potency for inhibiting the response of oesophageal smooth muscle to vagal stimulation (20 Hz) was trimetaphan > mecamylamine > hexamethonium > tubocurarine > pancuronium. For oesophageal striated muscle, production of tetanic fade at 100 Hz and reduction in peak tetanic tension at 20 or 100 Hz showed a similar relative potency; pancuronium > tubocurarine > mecamylamine > trimetaphan > hexamethonium and similar results were obtained in the guinea-pig diaphragm for the antagonists investigated (pancuronium, tubocurarine and mecamylamine). In the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, production of tetanic fade at 50 Hz and reduction in twitch or tetanic tension all showed the relative potency; tubocurarine > pancuronium > mecamylamine > trimetaphan > hexamethonium. These findings indicate differences in the nicotinic cholinoceptor subtypes involved in vagal ganglionic responses and those in tetanic fade. 1995 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

DOI 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1995.tb03286.x
Citations Scopus - 8
1995 Macdonald PM, Leask A, Kerr K, 'exl Protein specifically binds BLE1, a bicoid mRNA localization element, and is required for one phase of its activity', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92 10787-10791 (1995)

Localization of mRNAs, a crucial step in the early development of some animals, has been shown to be directed by cis-acting elements that presumably interact with localization fac... [more]

Localization of mRNAs, a crucial step in the early development of some animals, has been shown to be directed by cis-acting elements that presumably interact with localization factors. Here we identify a protein, exl, that binds to BLE1, an RNA localization element from the Drosophila bicoid mRNA. Using mutations in BLE1, we demonstrate a correlation between in vitro exl binding and one phase of in vivo localization directed by BLE1, implicating exl in that localization event. Furthermore, the same phase of localization is disrupted in exuperantia mutants, suggesting that exl and exuperantia proteins interact. Identification of a protein that binds specifically to an mRNA localization element and acts in mRNA localization opens the way for a biochemical analysis of this process.

DOI 10.1073/pnas.92.23.10787
Citations Scopus - 36
1995 Kim-Ha J, Kerr K, Macdonald PM, 'Translational regulation of oskar mRNA by Bruno, an ovarian RNA-binding protein, is essential', Cell, 81 403-412 (1995)

Oskar (osk) protein directs the deployment of nanos (nos), the posterior body-patterning morphogen in Drosophila. To avoid inappropriate activation of nos, osk activity must appea... [more]

Oskar (osk) protein directs the deployment of nanos (nos), the posterior body-patterning morphogen in Drosophila. To avoid inappropriate activation of nos, osk activity must appear only at the posterior pole of the oocyte, where the osk mRNA becomes localized during oogenesis. Here, we show that translation of osk mRNA is, and must be, repressed prior to its localization; absence of repression allows osk protein to accumulate throughout the oocyte, specifying posterior body patterning throughout the embryo. Translational repression is mediated by an ovarian protein, bruno, that binds specifically to bruno response elements (BREs), present in multiple copies in the osk mRNA 3'UTR. Addition of BREs to a heterologous mRNA renders it sensitive to translational repression in the ovary. © 1995.

DOI 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90393-3
Citations Scopus - 339
1994 Luk SKS, Kilpatrick M, Kerr K, Macdonald PM, 'Components acting in localization of bicoid mRNA are conserved among Drosophila species', Genetics, 137 521-530 (1994)

Substantial insights into basic strategies for embryonic body patterning have been obtained from genetic analyses of Drosophila melanogaster. This knowledge has been used in evolu... [more]

Substantial insights into basic strategies for embryonic body patterning have been obtained from genetic analyses of Drosophila melanogaster. This knowledge has been used in evolutionary comparisons to ask if genes and functions are conserved. To begin to ask how highly conserved are the mechanisms of mRNA localization, a process crucial to Drosophila body patterning, we have focused on the localization of bcd mRNA to the anterior pole of the embryo. Here we consider two components involved in that process: the exuperantia (exu) gene, required for an early step in localization; and the cis-acting signal that directs bcd mRNA localization. First, we use the cloned D. melanogaster exu gene to identify the exu genes from Drosophila virilis and Drosophila pseudoobscura and to isolate them for comparisons at the structural and functional levels. Surprisingly, D. pseudoobscura has two closely related exu genes, while D. melanogaster and D. virilis have only one each. When expressed in D. melanogaster ovaries, the D. virilis exu gene and one of the D. pseudoobscura exu genes can substitute for the endogenous exu gene in supporting localization of bcd mRNA, demonstrating that function is conserved. Second, we reevaluate the ability of the D. pseudoobscura bcd mRNA localization signal to function in D. melanogaster. In contrast to a previous report, we find that function is retained. Thus, among these Drosophila species there is substantial conservation of components acting in mRNA localization, and presumably the mechanisms underlying this process.

Citations Scopus - 13
1993 Macdonald PM, Kerr K, Smith JL, Leask A, 'RNA regulatory element BLE1 directs the early steps of bicoid mRNA localization', Development, 118 1233-1243 (1993)

Deployment of the bicoid morphogen gradient in early Drosophila embryos requires the prelocalization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior pole of the egg. This anterior localization is ... [more]

Deployment of the bicoid morphogen gradient in early Drosophila embryos requires the prelocalization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior pole of the egg. This anterior localization is mediated by a cis-acting localization signal contained within the 3' untranslated region of the bicoid mRNA. Here we use a series of bicoid transgenes carrying small deletions in the 3' untranslated region to survey for functional elements that constitute the localization signal. We identify and characterize one essential element, BLE1, which specifically directs the early steps of localization. In addition, we find that many deletions within the bicoid mRNA 3' untranslated region impair but do not prevent localization. One such deletion specifically interferes with a later step in localization. Thus the bicoid mRNA localization signal appears to consist of multiple different elements, each responsible for different steps in the localization process.

Citations Scopus - 94
1992 Gard PR, Paul Fawcett J, Kerr KP, James Neale T, 'Effects of steroid hormones and immunosuppressant drugs on defences against uterine microbial contamination in the rat', Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 34 31-35 (1992)

This study used rats as a mammalian model to investigate the effects of steroid hormones and immunosuppressant drugs on uterine microflora. It was shown that prednisolone acetate ... [more]

This study used rats as a mammalian model to investigate the effects of steroid hormones and immunosuppressant drugs on uterine microflora. It was shown that prednisolone acetate predisposed to uterine contamination unlike oestradiol, ciclosporin and cyclophosphamide. It therefore appears that the leucocyte component of the immune system does not normally play a role in preventing bacterial colonization of the uterus and that prednisolone is producing its effect via some other mechanism, possibly an effect on cervical mucus. © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel.

DOI 10.1159/000292721
Citations Scopus - 2
1991 Gard PR, Fawcett JP, Kerr KP, 'Reduction of salbutamol-induced drinking by putative and proven antidepressants', European Journal of Pharmacology, 197 217-219 (1991)

Salbutamol-induced drinking was determined in rats after 4 days of twice daily treatment with the conventional and putative antidepressants desipramine, clenbuterol or salbutamol.... [more]

Salbutamol-induced drinking was determined in rats after 4 days of twice daily treatment with the conventional and putative antidepressants desipramine, clenbuterol or salbutamol. Drinking was also determined 21 h after a single dose of the abovementioned drugs. Both chronic and acute administration of the drugs resulted in a significant reduction in the salbutamol-induced fluid intake. The results suggest that these drugs decrease ß 2 -adrenoceptor activity, but that repeated administration is not a prerequisite for the effect. © 1991.

DOI 10.1016/0014-2999(91)90525-U
Citations Scopus - 1
Show 31 more journal articles

Conference (30 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Biswas M, Daneshi N, Dias T, Rasiah R, Mate K, Holliday E, et al., 'Prevalence of drug and gene interactions for cardiovascular drugs in older Australians' (2016)
Co-authors David Newby, Liz Milward, Liz Holliday, Rohan Rasiah, Karen Mate, John Attia
2016 Martin K, Johnstone D, Dosen P, Graham R, van Helden D, Kerr KP, et al., 'Assessment of cardiac functional changes in response to iron loading mouse models of genetic haemochromatosis' (2016)
Co-authors Derek Laver, Liz Milward, Dirk Vanhelden
2016 Martin K, Johnstone D, Dosen P, Graham R, Van Helden D, Kerr KP, et al., 'Cardiac iron loading and pacemaker activity in two mouse models of genetic haemochromatosis' (2016)
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden, Liz Milward, Derek Laver
2016 Martin K, Johnstone D, Dosen P, Graham R, Liu J, Van helden D, et al., 'Increased iron loading in mouse models of genetic haemochromatosis and the assessment of cardiac function' (2016)
Co-authors Liz Milward, Dirk Vanhelden, Derek Laver
2016 Martin K, Johnstone D, Graham R, Van Helden D, Kerr KP, Hollins S, et al., 'Alterations in cardiac iron status, electrophysiological responses and transcript levels in mouse models of dietary and genetic iron loading' (2016)
Co-authors Derek Laver, Liz Milward, Dirk Vanhelden
2016 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Barnett M, Pond D, Magin P, 'The effect of anticholinergic load over time in community-dwelling elderly Australians' (2016)
Co-authors Karen Mate, Parker Magin
2015 Daneshi N, Graham M, Holliday E, Schneider J, Kerr KP, Rasiah R, et al., 'Clinically actionable pharmacogenomic variants in community-dwelling older Australians.', ASMR XXIII NSW Scientific Meeting: Programme and Abstracts (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Liz Milward, Rodney Scott, Jennifer Schneider, John Attia, Rohan Rasiah, Liz Holliday
2015 Baldwin M, Martin K, Kerr KP, Bower C, Van Helden D, Johnstone D, Milward AE, 'Heart iron accumulation and altered sinoatrial node response in a Tfr2mut mouse model of the iron disorder haemochromatosis' (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Liz Milward, Dirk Vanhelden
2015 Baldwin M, Kerr KP, Bower C, Van Helden D, Johnstone D, Milward AE, Martin K, 'Altered sinoatrial node response and iron accumulation in the hearts of a Tfr2mut mouse model of the iron overload disorder haemochromatosis.' (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden, Liz Milward
2015 Martin K, Johnstone D, Graham R, Van Helden D, Kerr KP, Hollins S, et al., 'The effects of iron loading on electrophysiological responses and transcript levels in dietary or genetic mouse models.' (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden, Derek Laver, Liz Milward
2015 Biswas M, Daneshi N, Rasiah R, Mate K, Holliday E, Attia J, et al., 'Prevalence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrate-inhibitor interactions in patients on clopidogrel and frequency of CYP2C19*2 gene variants', Australasian Pharmaceutical Science Association (APSA)- Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists (ASCEPT) Joint Scientific Meeting. Book of Poster Abstracts (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Rohan Rasiah, Karen Mate, Liz Milward, John Attia, Liz Holliday
2015 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Prince B, Pond D, Magin PJ, 'Effects of general practitioner education on the prescription of anticholinergic medications.' (2015) [E3]
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Karen Mate, Parker Magin
2014 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Williams E, Pond D, Magin PJ, 'Factors associated with a high anticholinergic burden in elderly Australians with and without dementia', ASCEPT-MPGPCR Joint Scientific Meeting (2014) [E3]
Co-authors Dimity Pond, Karen Mate, Parker Magin
2013 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Williams E, Pond D, Magin PJ, 'Anticholinergic load in community dwelling elderly Australians with dementia', ASCEPT Annual Scientific Meeting (2013) [E3]
Co-authors Karen Mate, Parker Magin, Dimity Pond
2012 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Pond CD, Magin PJ, Stocks N, Marley JE, Disler P, 'Prescribing in the elderly - cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme inhibitors and substrates', ASCEPT-APSA 2012 Oral Abstracts (2012) [E3]
Co-authors Karen Mate, Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2012 Mate KE, Kerr KP, Pond CD, Magin PJ, 'Potentially inappropriate medications in the elderly - A case study', Symposium Program. Interprofessional Education for Quality Use of Medicines (2012) [E3]
Co-authors Karen Mate, Dimity Pond, Parker Magin
2012 Kerr KP, Mate KE, Pond CD, Magin PJ, 'An ACE inhibitor and a Sartan - Is there a place for this combination? A real-life case study for students in the health professions', Symposium Program. Interprofessional Education for Quality Use of Medicines (2012) [E3]
Co-authors Parker Magin, Karen Mate, Dimity Pond
2010 Gravina FS, Van Helden DF, De Oliveira R, Kerr KP, Jobling P, 'Relaxant effects of methanandamide unmasked by indomethacin in the mouse uterus', Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology (ASCEPT) Annual Scientific Meeting, Melbourne, 2010 (2010) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden, Phillip Jobling
2009 Gravina FS, Kerr KP, Sandow S, De Oliveira R, Parkington H, Imtiaz MS, Van Helden DF, 'Intracellular calcium stores in mouse uterus: SR and Mitochondria', Journal of Physiological Sciences (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden
2009 Lam MH-S, Kerr KP, Exintaris B, 'Investigation of internal Ca2+ release in spontaneous electrical activity and histamine-induced contractions in the guinea-pig prostate', Proceedings of the XXXVI International Congress of Physiological Sciences (IUPS2009) Function of Life: Elements and Integration (2009) [E3]
2009 Gravina FS, Jobling P, Kerr KP, De Oliveira R, Van Helden DF, 'Identification of cannabinoid receptor 1 and the effect of methanandamide on uterine contractions of the mouse uterus', 1st National Symposium on Advances in Urogenital and Gut Research (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden, Phillip Jobling
2009 Hollins SL, Johnstone DM, Graham R, Van Helden DF, Kerr KP, Laver DR, et al., 'Cardiac gene expression in mouse models of iron loading disorders', 2009 International Biolron Society Meeting: Program Book (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Liz Milward, Derek Laver, Dirk Vanhelden, Rodney Scott
2009 Kerr KP, Jobling P, Gravina FS, Van Helden DF, 'Contractility of the lower uterus and upper vagina in the mouse', 43rd ASCEPT Annual Scientific Meeting: Proceedings (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Phillip Jobling, Dirk Vanhelden
2009 Hollins SL, Johnstone DM, Van Helden DF, Kerr KP, Laver DR, Metelerkamp KM, et al., 'Cardiac gene expression in mouse models of iron loading', ASMR XVII NSW Scientific Meeting: Programme and Abstracts (2009) [E3]
Co-authors Liz Milward, Dirk Vanhelden, Derek Laver, Rodney Scott
2008 Lam MH, Kerr KP, Exintaris B, 'Investigation of internal Ca2+ store release through histamine and phenylephrine-induced contractions in the guinea-pig prostate', Proceedings of the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress 2008 (2008) [E3]
2008 Gravina FS, Kerr KP, De Oliveira R, Parkington H, Imtiaz MS, Van Helden DF, 'Effects of the mitochondrial inhibitors CCCP, rotenone and CGP37157 on spontaneous contractions in the mouse uterus', Proceedings of the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress 2008 (2008) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden
2008 Gravina FS, Kerr KP, Sandow S, De Oliveira R, Parkington HC, Imtiaz MS, Van Helden DF, 'Uterine spontaneous contractions in the estrous cycle and the effect of mitochondrial inhibitors', Proceedings of the Australian Physiological Society (2008) [E3]
Co-authors Dirk Vanhelden
2001 Spencer-Dene B, Dillon C, Fantl V, Kerr K, Petiot A, Dickson C, 'Fibroblast growth factor signalling in mouse mammary gland development', Endocrine-Related Cancer (2001)

Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and their receptors are important intercellular signalling molecules involved in many aspects of animal development. The aberrant expression of th... [more]

Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and their receptors are important intercellular signalling molecules involved in many aspects of animal development. The aberrant expression of the Fgfs or the inappropriate activation of their cell surface receptors have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we describe the evidence that as well as playing a critical role in the formation of the mammary primordia during embryogenesis, signalling by Fgfs is necessary for optimal lobuloalveolar development of the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy.

DOI 10.1677/erc.0.0080211
Citations Scopus - 11
2000 Kerr KP, 'Effects of tachykinin receptor agonists and antagonists on the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus', Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology (2000)

1. Vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus produced a triphasic tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive contractile response. The third phase, which was resistant to ga... [more]

1. Vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus produced a triphasic tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive contractile response. The third phase, which was resistant to ganglion blocking drugs, was selectively abolished by capsaicin, suggesting the involvement of one or more neuropeptides released from afferent neurons. Receptors on cholinergic neurons were subsequently activated because the response was atropine sensitive. Contractile responses resulting from exogenous substance P were abolished by atropine and TTX and enhanced by physostigmine. These findings suggest that the third phase may be mediated by the action of a substance P-like neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings that subsequently activated cholinergic neurons. 2. The tachykinin receptors in the body of the guinea-pig oesophagus were characterized by determining the relative agonist potencies of natural tachykinins as well as tachykinin receptor-selective analogues. Antagonist affinities were also determined. The results indicated the presence of both NK 2 and NK 3 receptors. In addition, the effects of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors (captopril, thiorphan and amastatin) on responses to various tachykinins and synthetic analogues were determined. The results indicate that one or more peptidases are present in this preparation. 3. Experiments using various tachykinin receptor antagonists were performed to determine whether the activation of tachykinin receptors played a role in the mediation of the third phase of the response to vagal nerve stimulation. While this response was unaffected by NK 1 and NK 2 receptor-selective antagonists, it was only partially inhibited (23%) by the NK 3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. Thus, in the guinea-pig oesophagus, it appears that NK 3 receptors play only a minor role in mediating a contractile response when afferent neurons are excited by vagal nerve stimulation.

DOI 10.1046/j.1440-1681.2000.03364.x
Citations Scopus - 6
1990 Gard PR, Kerr KP, 'Behavioural evidence of beta
DOI 10.1016/0014-2999(90)92420-N
Citations Scopus - 3
Show 27 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 4
Total funding $30,033

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20152 grants / $28,194

The impact of changes in the anticholinergic load of medication regimens on the cognitive status and quality of life of people with dementia.$26,694

Funding body: The Mason Foundation

Funding body The Mason Foundation
Project Team Doctor Karen Mate, Doctor Karen Kerr, Professor Dimity Pond, Conjoint Professor Parker Magin
Scheme Medical and Scientific Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2015
GNo G1400836
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Non Commonwealth
Category 1NS
UON Y

ACSEPT and BPS Joint Scientific Meeting, Hong Kong China, 19-21 May 2015$1,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Doctor Karen Kerr
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2015
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1500286
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20131 grants / $999

ASCEPT Annual Scientific Meeting (Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologist and Toxicologists), Melbourne Australia, 1-4 December 2013$999

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Doctor Karen Kerr
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2013
GNo G1301095
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20121 grants / $840

Joint ASCEPT - APSA Conference - Medication and Safety, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, 2 - 5 December 2012$840

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine

Funding body University of Newcastle - Faculty of Health and Medicine
Project Team Doctor Karen Kerr
Scheme Travel Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1201070
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed1
Current3

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.45

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2014 PhD Assessment of Potential Drug and Gene Interactions from High-Throughput Genotyping Data in a Community Cohort of Older Australians PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2014 PhD Genomic Factors Influencing Individual Disease or Drug Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis PhD (Pharmacy), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2013 PhD The Feasibility and Value of Holistic Systems-Based Approaches to Personalised, Patient-Centred Healthcare in Modern Pharmacy PhD (Medical Genetics), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2011 PhD Contractile Properties of the Female Reproductive Tract PhD (Human Physiology), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
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Dr Karen Kerr

Position

Senior Lecturer
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Focus area

Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology

Contact Details

Email karen.kerr@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4921 6572
Mobile 0423788656
Fax (02) 4921 7903

Office

Room MS125
Building Medical Sciences
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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