Dr Darren Woodhouse
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
School of Engineering (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
- PhD (Electrical & Computer Eng), University of Newcastle
- Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical), University of Newcastle
- Bachelor of Mathematics, University of Newcastle
- English (Mother)
Fields of Research
|400802||Electrical circuits and systems||30|
|400805||Electrical energy transmission, networks and systems||50|
|370602||Electrical and electromagnetic methods in geophysics||20|
|Title||Organisation / Department|
|Casual Academic||University of Newcastle
School of Engineering
|Dates||Title||Organisation / Department|
As the Technical Director at Safearth Darren's role is to facilitate programs which allow staff to fully engage in a multi-disciplinary business, by developing teamwork and project management as well as problem-solving skills. The Technical Director uses the skills of the various subject matter experts within the company to develop knowledge and skills within the company appropriate to present and future business needs.
|14/2/2011 - 31/1/2020||
The Safearth Consulting business allowed Darren to develop expertise in all areas related to earthing, including design, audit and test in sectors including power generation and delivery, heavy industry, telecommunications, defence and rail, as well as conducting several forensic investigations.
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment - The University of Newcastle (Australia)
|Course Coordinator||18/2/2007 - 3/7/2009|
For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.
Journal article (9 outputs)
Sparre T, Woodhouse D, 'Finite Duration Uninsulated Conductor Rating', IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 36 2687-2693 (2021)
The current a conductor can carry for short durations can be significantly greater than under steady state conditions. In power system applications short duration events are usual... [more]
The current a conductor can carry for short durations can be significantly greater than under steady state conditions. In power system applications short duration events are usually associated with faults, typically lasting for 100 ms up to a few seconds. Power systems use these differences in current levels to discriminate between normal and abnormal operational conditions. High magnitude short duration currents, such as those which occur during power system faults, can significantly heat conductors, potentially resulting in damage or destruction. Specifying minimum conductor sizes potentially subject to these conditions requires an understanding of the physical effects resulting from the consequential stresses, particularly the heating. This paper investigates the established approach to rating these conductors, which uses an equation based on an adiabatic system. This equation, Onderdonk's equation, is demonstrated to have four identifiable limitations. Novel analytical solutions are proposed for two of the four limitations, being skin effect and cooling resulting in an improved equation for rating conductors for high magnitude short duration currents.
Pawlik B, Woodhouse DJ, Summers TJ, 'Propagation Along a Thin Insulated Conductor Parallel to Interfacing Homogeneous Half-Spaces', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, 62 2065-2075 (2020) [C1]
Pawlik B, Woodhouse D, Summers TJ, 'Propagation Along Thin Conductors Parallel to Interfacing Homogeneous Half-Spaces (vol 60, pg 266, 2018)', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, 60 2076-2076 (2018)
Pawlik B, Woodhouse D, Summers TJ, 'Propagation Along Thin Conductors Parallel to Interfacing Homogeneous Half-Spaces', IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 60 266-275 (2018) [C1]
Griffiths I, Woodhouse DJ, 'A Calculation Framework for Quantifying the Probability of Ventricular Fibrillation of Rare Events', IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, 32 2052-2059 (2017)
Bastian MB, Carman WD, Woodhouse DJ, 'Real-time monitoring of substation ground potential rise and grounding system impedance using power system faults', IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 51 5298-5304 (2015)
Grounding system engineers and power utility owners have a duty of care to ensure that substation grounding systems continue to meet their safety performance requirements over the... [more]
Grounding system engineers and power utility owners have a duty of care to ensure that substation grounding systems continue to meet their safety performance requirements over the operational lifetime of the installation. Changes to power system or third-party assets associated with an installation, as well as environmental factors such as temperature or moisture level fluctuations, can cause variation in a grounding system's performance. To perform a grounding system assessment, engineers must select a suitable set of fault scenarios on which to base their assessments. However, the relative risk level of hazards produced by a ground fault (GF) depends on that proportion of the fault current that passes to ground through the local grounding of the installation and the duration of the event. The consideration of all hazards posed by a single installation is thus physically and theoretically an expensive proposition, particularly for installations with complex grounding systems. An electronic recording system is proposed to capture the characteristics of power system ground potential rise (GPR) events during GFs. This system allows the failure of critical grounding system components to be highlighted as indicated by a substantial change in the measured impedance. The system also establishes the GPR event frequency, allowing the probabilistic nature of GFs associated with an installation to be assessed. This paper provides an explanation of the GPR monitoring rationale and a methodology for implementing such a system, and typical results are shown from trials undertaken in recent years.
Nichols P, Woodhouse DJ, Yarnold J, 'The effects of earth potential rise on surge arrester specification in specially bonded cable systems', Australian Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 6 261-270 (2009) [C1]
Woodhouse DJ, Middleton RH, 'Consistency in Ground Potential Rise estimation utilizing Fall of Potential method data', IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 20 1226-1234 (2005) [C1]
Woodhouse DJ, Middleton RH, 'Assessment of analysis techniques used in determining grounding system potential rise from the fall of potential method', Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference, 2 1153-1158 (2000)
The prevalent method used to determine the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) of an earthing or grounding system is to perform a Fall of Potential (FOP) test undertaken during an groundi... [more]
The prevalent method used to determine the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) of an earthing or grounding system is to perform a Fall of Potential (FOP) test undertaken during an grounding system current injection test. Determining the test GPR requires analysis of FOP test data due to the FOP response's non-conservative asymptotic behaviour. This paper assesses achievable tolerance by FOP test analysis including recognised and alternative methods. Susceptibility to voltage and distance measurement noise is examined by application to an grounding system model to establish minimum error bounds and method estimation variation on GPR estimates. The applicability of the FOP test 'rule of thumb' termination condition, to take three to four readings beyond the 'knee' of the FOP response, is also examined. In particular, the question of whether appropriate information is gathered when this condition is met is discussed.
|Show 6 more journal articles|
Conference (23 outputs)
Pawlik B, Griffiths I, Woodhouse D, 'Probability of coincidence: Exposure to power system earth faults using poisson patterns', 2018 Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2018 - Proceedings (2018)
Since the shift in the industry to a risk based assessment process the probability of coincidence has become a major input for determining the requirements of an earthing system d... [more]
Since the shift in the industry to a risk based assessment process the probability of coincidence has become a major input for determining the requirements of an earthing system design. Coincidence probability quantifies the chance someone is exposed to a voltage hazard resulting from an earth fault, but is easily misunderstood and consequently incorrectly calculated.This paper provides a comprehensive derivation of novel expressions for the probability of coincidence between an earth fault and an exposed individual by extending the works of Gilbert and Pollak on Poisson processes. The expressions attained herein are compared to those published in EG-0 which have subsequently been adopted by various Australian Standards. Limits for the application of the present theory of probability of coincidence are established that presently don't exist. Suggestions for further improvements to the expressions for the probability of coincidence derived herein are provided.
Woodhouse D, Woloszyn P, Barnes G, 'Considerations when designing or assessing separation between telecommunications and power system assets', 2018 Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2018 - Proceedings (2018)
Since 2012 the ENA Earthing Working group has been working towards improving the way power utilities and telecommunication businesses address the power coordination (POCO) issue. ... [more]
Since 2012 the ENA Earthing Working group has been working towards improving the way power utilities and telecommunication businesses address the power coordination (POCO) issue. The dominant solution used to resolve the POCO conundrum is to cite the requirement of current telecommunication standards to maintain a 15m separation between power system earths and telecommunication assets. There are times when this approach has been shown to be ineffectual as a hazard risk reduction mechanism, and in comparison to other possible controls this choice equates to a wasteful use of available resources.A draft POCO Guide has been produced, including input from the telecommunications industry, which discusses how the approach to telecommunications coordination should be addressed by all parties through the adoption of quantified risk. The Guide addresses the need for hazard mitigation measures which have real impact on the hazards and risks posed to workers, the public and to the industries involved.
Pawlik B, Woodhouse DJ, Summers TJ, 'Power system earth return impedance and the complex ground return plane approximation', Melbourne, VIC, Australia (2017) [E1]
Woodhouse D, Bale M, Palmer S, Tocher W, 'An evolution in cost effective power utility grounding asset management: Plan, design, build, assess & operate', Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference (2016)
Grounding systems are critical plant for the correct operation of major power installations, particularly major substations. As the average age of major substations in a utility&a... [more]
Grounding systems are critical plant for the correct operation of major power installations, particularly major substations. As the average age of major substations in a utility's franchise increases, the likelihood that an assessment of the condition of a grounding system will be initiated. Whether or not the grounding system needs to be assessed in line with the substations age is often debated. However, the evidence is that the driving factors behind an assessment of a grounding system's aging or condition, is dependent on factors different to that of the remainder of the plant. Assessing the condition of a ground requires the execution of an appropriate regime of tests, conducted over the lifetime of the ground, and in some cases over the lifetime of the associated HV asset. Maximizing the knowledge gleaned from the information contained in these measurements is the art of the specialist, which distinguishes them from then infrequent practitioner.
Woodhouse DJ, Palmer SJ, Bale MJ, 'A definitive assessment of the use of primary clearing times for safety criteria targets', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
Earthing by its nature is particularly open to speculation, opinion and contention. One such point of contention is whether primary or backup clearing times should be used in the ... [more]
Earthing by its nature is particularly open to speculation, opinion and contention. One such point of contention is whether primary or backup clearing times should be used in the preparation of appropriate safety criteria. As humans become increasingly susceptible to ventricular fibrillation the longer the heart current duration, the use of back up clearing times often leads to significantly lower allowable touch voltages (and higher associated costs in achieving compliance). On the other hand using primary protection clearing times for the protection of people, while using back up clearing times for the protection of equipment, seems ill balanced. This paper investigates and presents the case for and against the use of primary clearing times, including a quantified risk based assessment.
Bastian MB, Carman WD, Woodhouse DJ, 'A network asset based probabilistic model of ground potential rise and touch voltage hazard profiles at MV substations', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
A probabilistic model for predicting the expected touch voltage hazard profiles at HV/MV substations is presented. The model uses readily available asset information to analyse th... [more]
A probabilistic model for predicting the expected touch voltage hazard profiles at HV/MV substations is presented. The model uses readily available asset information to analyse the MV network fed from the HV/MV substation. Probabilistic profiling of the expected magnitude, frequency and duration of typical ground faults on a given distribution network, provides quantitative information for use in determining the actual risk profile for the assets. This in turn helps asset owners demonstrate that they meet their duty of care in relation to ground fault related hazards. The model is applied to two example substations, generating a probabilistic profile for ground fault current, ground potential rise and the expected hazard ratio of expected touch voltages in relation to IEEE80 safety criteria across the range of simulated faults. The model output profiles for each HV/MV substation are then compared against profiles derived from seven years of recorded ground potential rise events during real ground faults.
Woodhouse DJ, Griffiths I, 'The probability of ventricular fibrillation due to step voltage hazards', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
In this paper the authors build on the findings of previous works to explore the risk due to step voltage hazards. Of particular interest is a correction to work published by Wang... [more]
In this paper the authors build on the findings of previous works to explore the risk due to step voltage hazards. Of particular interest is a correction to work published by Wang. The outcome is significant as it appears to indicate that the Wang result was significantly conservative and the corrected results are somewhat confronting. The same calculation framework is used to derive step voltage time curves which represent a constant probability of ventricular fibrillation and can be used as a component of the risk level assessment. Again the results were found to be confronting, motivating the authors to explore other physiological effects outside of ventricular fibrillation for establishing appropriate levels of risk for step voltages. The outcome of that work has produced a novel recommendation for a establishing step voltage safety criteria and an insight into further research which will further clarify the risk posed by step voltages.
Sebire P, Woodhouse DJ, Tocher WJV, 'Effective management of earth potential rise through alternative installation strategies for counterpoise conductors', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
Earthing systems must be designed to provide adequate performance and safety for the life of the asset. However, a major issue encountered with older substations in Australia is w... [more]
Earthing systems must be designed to provide adequate performance and safety for the life of the asset. However, a major issue encountered with older substations in Australia is where MEN encroachment related voltage hazards occur. Touch voltages between the substation EPR and the relatively low potential of the encroaching MEN are difficult to correct with traditional earthing methods. Newer substations can also incur such encroachments, particularly when established in rural growth areas. Earthing designs under such circumstances may therefore be required to be dynamic and scalable. This paper presents two case studies in which the innovative use of the oft-thought traditional counterpoise conductor has contributed to effective management of EPR through a number of stages of development of the substation and surrounding infrastructure. The paper will focus on utilising counterpoise conductors in the management of EPR at both 'Brownfield' and 'Greenfield' substations by considering transfer hazards, touch voltage hazards, compliance with telecommunications assets and commonly ignored mutual coupling benefits between fault current carrying conductors and the counterpoise. The issues, concepts and opportunities discussed may offer additional strategies to those from various industries with a role in either the detailed design, commissioning testing and specification and ongoing management of earthing systems.
Woodhouse DJ, Tocher WJV, Bale MJ, 'How does current flow in the ground?', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
One of the most exotic concepts in the field of earthing is the ability of the earth to conduct electricity. Its sheer size means that the impedances produced by the passage of cu... [more]
One of the most exotic concepts in the field of earthing is the ability of the earth to conduct electricity. Its sheer size means that the impedances produced by the passage of current through the soil are very low. Large earthing systems in low soil resistivity areas can produce very small earthing system impedances. What is not as well appreciated is that an overhead conductor using an earth return path to complete a circuit, such as is the case during a phase to earth fault, incurs an additional impedance due to the passage of current through the earth. This paper explores the analogous condition of current flow in a homogeneous conductor and the distribution of current within that conductor due to the impact of skin effect. The earth fault current distribution is constrained by the magnetic forces produced by the current in the earth and the excitation current, being the insulated earth fault current carrying conductor, located either above the ground or within the earth. The earth fault currents distribute in a manner unexpected by many, but with direct impact on transmission line easements and the manner in which transmission impedances are calculated.
Tocher WJV, Palmer SJ, Woodhouse DJ, 'Modelling zone-substation-secondary earth fault scenarios with application to compliance with probabilistic safety criteria methods', Down to Earth Conference, DTEC 2016 (2016)
Since the publication of the earthing guideline, ENA EG-0, the electrical industry response has been a mix of enthusiasm, resistance and compulsion to accept and implement the saf... [more]
Since the publication of the earthing guideline, ENA EG-0, the electrical industry response has been a mix of enthusiasm, resistance and compulsion to accept and implement the safety criteria methods proposed. In the large part it has been acknowledged as a positive improvement as the most thorough and modern treatment of earthing system risk analysis. While the risk based safety methods proposed in EG-0 appear functional with regard the assessment of substation primary faults, there is little doubt that assessment of Zone-Substation-Secondary risks appear higher than previously thought, particularly when compared to traditional methods. This paper proposes a method of modelling and evaluating a zone substation distribution network in order to better calculate the earthing risk zone substation assets create for individuals living within the influence of the installations. Moreover, the methods proposed give light to a possible solution to the conundrum surrounding any earthing system risk analysis where multiple fault scenarios exist.
Woodhouse D, McLagan I, Palmer S, 'Effective use of continuity testing to assess grounding system integrity', 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC 2015 - Conference Proceedings (2015)
While continuity based testing is a relatively well accepted method for assessing the integrity of a grounding grid, no specific continuity based test has distinguished itself wit... [more]
While continuity based testing is a relatively well accepted method for assessing the integrity of a grounding grid, no specific continuity based test has distinguished itself with practitioners at large. Why this continues to be the case is not completely understood but it is likely a combination of ignorance of more effective procedures and the availability of better instrumentation. This paper reviews the various continuity based methods used for integrity testing and the characteristics required of a test procedure to make it effective at assessing integrity. This is considered primarily due to a lack of review of the various methods and instrumentation available to perform integrity testing. Accurate measurement of resistance in the electrically noisy environment of a power substation is a difficult task. In the case of grounding grid measurements, not only are the noise levels quite high but the resistances to be measured are relatively small, and the absolute significance of a specific measurement can be obscure. In practice the context of any given measurement is crucial to determining the significance of the measurement. While continuity testing can be performed at any power installation this paper concentrates specifically on the integrity assessment of a major substation. Most power utility substations are of a reasonable size, typically a few thousand square meters of real estate, which usually defines the extent of the grounding system and hence the extent of the integrity testing. This paper identifies the obstacles to performing an accurate measurement of resistance in the noisy environment of a power substation, establishing measurement targets and specific instances of poor integrity.
Woodhouse DJ, Tocher WJV, 'The impact of transition points on overhead line earthing system performance', CIGRE Session 45 - 45th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2014 (2014)
A current trend in the construction of substations, at least in Australia, is to use underground cable circuits to exit substations due to the high density that underground circui... [more]
A current trend in the construction of substations, at least in Australia, is to use underground cable circuits to exit substations due to the high density that underground circuits can be packed. In the already electrically congested volume in the immediate vicinity of the substation this construction practice may be the only way of supplying the number of necessary circuits. The significant cost differential between equivalent overhead and underground lines motivates utilities to construct and use overhead lines as soon as the electrical plant density becomes sufficiently sparse for their construction to be feasible. Further to this, ongoing pressure on power utilities, through increasing land prices and town planning statutes, has forced the adoption of technologies such as GIS to facilitate the use of ever smaller substation footprints. In turn these factors have led to the rife use of HV transition points as a means of providing the necessary circuit density across the substation field interface to connect the circuits terminating in the substation to the field. Little do the substation designers appear to realise the challenges transition points pose to the earthing engineer and why they are the silent earthing system adversaries to modern style HV power reticulation methods. This paper demonstrates why these asset locations become earthing 'hotspots' and then discusses some methods that might equip the designer to manage the prevailing risks. Our conclusion, with regard construction and maintenance practices for lines, is that when lines are designed in ignorance of these effects the risk level can quickly increase 10 fold.
Foyster JE, Summers TJ, Woodhouse DJ, Palmer S, 'Design and construction of a power electronics based current injection unit to improve the accuracy of earthing system tests', 2013 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, AUPEC 2013, Hobart, Tasmania (2013) [E1]
Griffiths I, Woodhouse D, Palmer S, 'Use of finite probabalistic modelling to establish earthing hazard limits', IET Conference Publications (2013)
Safety criteria for earthing related hazards have historically been derived using deterministic processes. To quantify the risk associated with these hazards the current trend is ... [more]
Safety criteria for earthing related hazards have historically been derived using deterministic processes. To quantify the risk associated with these hazards the current trend is to base safety criteria on probabilistic processes. This paper examines how the selection of probability distribution functions used to derive the criteria can impact the outcome, particularly as these events are low probability with high consequence.
Woodhouse DJ, 'On the theoretical basis of Carson's equations', 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), Auckland, NZ (2012) [E1]
Woodhouse DJ, 'Comparison of the performance of sparsely screened and coaxial HV cables', 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), Auckland, NZ (2012) [E1]
Nichols P, Woodhouse D, Yarnold J, 'The effects of earth potential rise on surge arrester specification in specially bonded cable systems', 2008 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, AUPEC 2008 (2008)
Surge arrester specification is of vital importance for the protection of any underground cable system. This paper outlines additional considerations for arrester specification in... [more]
Surge arrester specification is of vital importance for the protection of any underground cable system. This paper outlines additional considerations for arrester specification in specially bonded cable systems. In particular, the paper addresses the effect of earth potential rise on arresters in mid point bonded extensions to fully crossbonded cable sections, under a single line to ground fault conditions. A steady state model has been developed to determine the standing steady state voltages impressed on the arreseters in the mid point bonded section. The model has been compared with simulations in EMTP-RV and verified using field tests.
Woodhouse DJ, Carman WD, Wakeman P, 'Australian snowy mountains hydro scheme earthing system safety assessment', PowerCon 2000 - 2000 International Conference on Power System Technology, Proceedings (2000)
The task of determining the condition of the earthing in the Upper Tumut generation system, was undertaken as part of the Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric Authority's (SMHEA) s... [more]
The task of determining the condition of the earthing in the Upper Tumut generation system, was undertaken as part of the Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric Authority's (SMHEA) safety risk assessment and asset condition monitoring programme. The testing programme  to ascertain performance under earth fault and lightning conditions had to overcome considerable physical difficulties as well as the restrictions of 'close' proximity injection loops. The application of software , test instrumentation and testing procedures developed within Australia in collaboration between Energy Australia, Newcastle University, and SMHEA, to obtain real solutions are described in this paper. Also discussed are condition assessment processes that complement the current injection testing programme. This paper also provides a summary of the minimum requirements of an earthing system injection test to satisfactorily assess the condition of complex electrical power system installations.
Carman WD, Woodhouse DJ, 'Performance evaluation of series impedance insulation used as earthing system safety mitigation measures', PowerCon 2000 - 2000 International Conference on Power System Technology, Proceedings (2000)
High resistivity surfacing materials such as crushed rock and bitumen, are often used to limit electric shock hazards for utility operators and maintenance staff, as well as the p... [more]
High resistivity surfacing materials such as crushed rock and bitumen, are often used to limit electric shock hazards for utility operators and maintenance staff, as well as the public. Certain safety codes also make allowance for the likelihood that utility operators and the public will be wearing footwear. This paper evaluates the performance of series impedance insulation used as earthing system safety mitigation measures. Data gathered as part of a detailed R&D programme, undertaken by the Safearth Engineered Solution team within Energy Australia, is discussed with respect to the performance of surface layers and footwear, and their effect upon electrical installation safety profiles under earthfault conditions. Guidelines for improved performance specifications are developed based upon test results and application requirements.
Carman WD, Woodhouse DJ, 'Probabilistic assessment of risk associated with mobile telephone antennas on HV towers', Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Transmission and Distribution Construction and Live Line Maintenance, ESMO (2000)
Mobile telephone base stations sited beneath or adjacent to HV towers require significant risk management consideration. The paper examines the level of shock hazard associated wi... [more]
Mobile telephone base stations sited beneath or adjacent to HV towers require significant risk management consideration. The paper examines the level of shock hazard associated with people moving near a HV tower, and determines the sensitivity of the risk to a range of parameters which might be expected to have significant impact upon the various shock scenarios. High resistivity surfacing materials, such as crushed rock and bitumen, are often used to limit electric shock hazards for utility operators and maintenance staff, as well as the public. This paper evaluates the performance of series impedance insulation used as a earthing system safety mitigation measure. Investigations have been made into the impact of probabilistic aspects of the shock scenario. Interference theory and Monte Carlo simulation techniques are used to statistically appraise the actual level of safety afforded by various safety criteria when compared with the benchmark body current criteria.
|Show 20 more conferences|
Number of supervisions
|Commenced||Level of Study||Research Title||Program||Supervisor Type|
|2018||PhD||Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Along Conductors Parallel to Interfacing Homogeneous Half Spaces||PhD (Electrical Engineering), College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle||Co-Supervisor|
Dr Darren Woodhouse
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
School of Engineering
College of Engineering, Science and Environment
School of Engineering
College of Engineering, Science and Environment
Electrical and Computer Engineering