Available in 2022
Course code



10 units


3000 level

Course handbook


This course gives an introduction to probability and statistical inference. This is applied to the least squares adjustment of survey and levelling networks as well as to the estimation of the precision of the computed coordinates or heights. In addition, the application of least squares modelling to various areas of relevance to Surveyors is dealt with.



  • Semester 1 - 2022

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of the course students will be able to:

1. Translate a problem requiring the adjustment of field data to an analytical form

2. Apply appropriate solution techniques for the adjustment of field data

3. Solve adjustment problems with least squares techniques

4. Evaluate the outcome of least squares adjustments

5. Evaluate the precision of the adjustment outcomes

6. Apply statistical concepts to surveying computations


  • Statistics applied to surveying.
  • Sampling distributions, confidence intervals, statistical tests.
  • Least squares adjustment by the condition and parametric methods.
  • Applications of least squares to simple problems.
  • Propagation of variance.
  • Absolute and relative error ellipses.
  • Pre-analysis of surveys, industrial applications of least squares, computer packages.

Assumed knowledge

Content covered in courses MATH1110, MATH1120, SURV1200 or SURV2210.

Assessment items

Written Assignment: Assignment 1

Written Assignment: Assignment 2

Written Assignment: Assignment 3

Formal Examination: Final examination

Contact hours


Computer Lab

Face to Face On Campus 1 hour(s) per Week for Full Term

Field Study

Face to Face On Campus 4 hour(s) per Week for 1 Weeks


Face to Face On Campus 3 hour(s) per Week for Full Term

NOTE: The above distribution of contact hours may alter on a weekly basis and will be confirmed in the course outline handed to students in Week 1.


Face to Face On Campus 1 hour(s) per Week for Full Term

The University of Newcastle acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands within our footprint areas: Awabakal, Darkinjung, Biripai, Worimi, Wonnarua, and Eora Nations. We also pay respect to the wisdom of our Elders past and present.