Informality

Article 36
Article 36

Where the parties fail to make a contract in written form as provided for by laws or administrative regulations or as agreed by the parties, but a party has already performed the major obligations and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract shall be considered as executed.

Article 37
If, in making a contract in the form of a contract instrument, a party has already performed the major obligations pending the signature or seal and the other party has accepted the performance, the contract shall be considered as executed.

Article 2.101 (ex art. 5.101) - Conditions for the Conclusion of a Contract 63
Article 2.101 (ex art. 5.101) - Conditions for the Conclusion of a Contract 63

(1) A contract is concluded if: 64
(a) the parties intend to be legally bound, and 65
(b) they reach a sufficient agreement 66 without any further requirement. 67
(2) A contract need not be concluded or evidenced in writing nor is it subject to any other requirement as to form. The contract may be proved by any means, including witnesses. 68

CHAPTER 5 – THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS

§ 110 Classes of Contracts Covered

(1) The following classes of contracts are subject to a statute, commonly called the Statute of Frauds, forbidding enforcement unless there is a written memorandum or an applicable exception:
(a) a contract of an executor or administrator to answer for a duty of his decedent (the executor administrator provision);
(b) a contract to answer for the duty of another (the suretyship provision);
(c) a contract made upon consideration of marriage (the marriage provision);
(d) a contract for the sale of an interest in land (the land contract provision);
(e) a contract that is not to be performed within one year from the making
thereof (the one-year provision).
(2) The following classes of contracts, which were traditionally subject to the Statute of Frauds, are now governed by Statute of Frauds provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code:
(a) a contract for the sale of goods for the price of $ 500 or more (Uniform Commercial Code § 2-201);
(b) a contract for the sale of securities (Uniform Commercial Code § 8-319);
(c) a contract for the sale of personal property not otherwise covered, to the extent of enforcement by way of action or defense beyond $ 5,000 in amount or value of remedy (Uniform Commercial Code § 1-206).
(3) In addition the Uniform Commercial Code requires a writing signed by the debtor for an agreement which creates or provides for a security interest in personal property or fixtures not in the possession of the secured party.
(4) Statutes in most states provide that no acknowledgment or promise is sufficient evidence of a new or continuing contract to take a case out of the operation of a statute of limitations unless made in some writing signed by the party to be charged, but that the statute does not alter the effect of any payment of principal or interest.
(5) In many states other classes of contracts are subject to a requirement of a writing.

Topic 1 - The Executor-Administrator Provision

§ 111 Contract of Executor or Administrator

A contract of an executor or administrator to answer personally for a duty of his decedent is within the Statute of Frauds if a similar contract to answer for the duty of a living person would be within the Statute as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

Topic 2 - The Suretyship Provision

§ 112 Requirement of Suretyship
A contract is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another unless the promisee is an obligee of the other's duty, the promisor is a surety for the other, and the promisee knows or has reason to know of the suretyship relation.

§ 113 Promises of the Same Performance for the Same Consideration
Where promises of the same performance are made by two persons for a consideration which inures to the benefit of only one of them, the promise of the other is within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another, whether or not the promise is in terms conditional on default by the one to whose benefit the consideration inures, unless
(a) the other is not a surety for the one to whose benefit the consideration inures or
(b) the promises are in terms joint and do not create several duties or joint and several duties; or
(c) the promisee neither knows nor has reason to know that the consideration does not inure to the benefit of both promisors.

§ 114 Independent Duty of Promisor
A contract to perform or otherwise to satisfy all or part of a duty of a third person to the promisee is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another if, by the terms of the promise when it is made, performance thereof can involve no more than
(a) the application of funds or property held by the promisor for the purpose, or
(b) performance of any other duty owing, irrespective of his promise, by the promisor to the promisee, or
(c) performance of a duty which is either owing, irrespective of his promise, by the promisor to the third person, or which the promisee reasonably believes to be so owing.

§ 115 Novation
A contract that is itself accepted in satisfaction of a previously existing duty of a third person to the promisee is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

§ 116 Main Purpose; Advantage to Surety
A contract that all or part of a duty of a third person to the promisee shall be satisfied is not within the Statute of Frauds as a promise to answer for the duty of another if the consideration for the promise is in fact or apparently desired by the promisor mainly for his own economic advantage, rather than in order to benefit the third person. If, however, the consideration is merely a premium for insurance, the contract is within the Statute.

§ 117 Promise to Sign a Written Contract of Suretyship
A promise to sign a written contract as a surety for the performance of a duty owed to the promisee or to sign a negotiable instrument for the accommodation of a person other than the promisee is within the Statute of Frauds.

§ 118 Promise to Indemnify a Surety
A promise to indemnify against liability or loss made to induce the promisee to become a surety is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

§ 119 Assumption of Duty by Another
A contract not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another when made is not brought within it by a subsequent promise of another person to assume performance of the duty as principal obligor.

§ 120 Obligations on Negotiable Instruments
(1) An obligation on a negotiable instrument or a guaranty written on the instrument is not within the Statute of Frauds.
(2) A promise to pay a negotiable instrument, made by a party to it who has been or may be discharged by the holder's failure or delay in making presentment or giving notice of dishonor or in making protest, is not within the Statute of Frauds.

§ 121 Contract of Assignor or Factor
(1) A contract by the assignor of a right that the obligor of the assigned right will perform his duty is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.
(2) A contract by an agent with his principal that a purchaser of the principal's goods through the agent will pay their price to the principal is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

§ 122 Contract to Buy a Right From the Obligee
A contract to purchase a right which the promisee has or may acquire against a third person is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

§ 123 Contract to Discharge the Promisee's Duty
A contract to discharge a duty owed by the promisee to a third person is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract to answer for the duty of another.

Topic 3 - The Marriage Provision

§ 124 Contract Made Upon Consideration of Marriage
A promise for which all or part of the consideration is either marriage or a promise to marry is within the Statute of Frauds, except in the case of an agreement which consists only of mutual promises of two persons to marry each other.

Topic 4 - The Land Contract Provision

§ 125 Contract to Transfer, Buy, or Pay for an Interest in Land
(1) A promise to transfer to any person any interest in land is within the Statute of Frauds.
(2) A promise to buy any interest in land is within the Statute of Frauds, irrespective of the person to whom the transfer is to be made.
(3) When a transfer of an interest in land has been made, a promise to pay the price, if originally within the Statute of Frauds, ceases to be within it unless the promised price is itself in whole or in part an interest in land.
(4) Statutes in most states except from the land contract and one-year provisions of the Statute of Frauds short-term leases and contracts to lease, usually for a term not longer than one year.

§ 126 Contract to Procure Transfer or to Act as Agent
(1) A contract to procure the transfer of an interest in land by a person other than the promisor is within the Statute of Frauds.
(2) A contract to act as agent for another in endeavoring to procure the transfer of any interest in land by someone other than the promisor is not within the Statute of Frauds as a contract for the sale of an interest in land.

§ 127 Interest in Land
An interest in land within the meaning of the Statute is any right, privilege, power or immunity, or combination thereof, which is an interest in land under the law of property and is not "goods" within the Uniform Commercial Code.

§ 128 Boundary and Partition Agreements
(1) A contract between owners of adjoining tracts of land fixing a dividing boundary is within the Statute of Frauds but if the location of the boundary was honestly disputed the contract becomes enforceable notwithstanding the Statute when the agreed boundary has been marked or has been recognized in the subsequent use of the tracts.
(2) A contract by joint tenants or tenants in common to partition land into separate tracts for each tenant is within the Statute of Frauds but becomes enforceable notwithstanding the Statute as to each tract when possession of it is taken in severalty in accordance with the agreement.

§ 129 Action in Reliance; Specific Performance
A contract for the transfer of an interest in land may be specifically enforced notwithstanding failure to comply with the Statute of Frauds if it is established that the party seeking enforcement, in reasonable reliance on the contract and on the continuing assent of the party against whom enforcement is sought, has so changed his position that injustice can be avoided only by specific enforcement.

Topic 5 - The One-Year Provision

§ 130 Contract Not to Be Performed Within a Year
(1) Where any promise in a contract cannot be fully performed within a year from the time the contract is made, all promises in the contract are within the Statute of Frauds until one party to the contract completes his performance.
(2) When one party to a contract has completed his performance, the one-year provision of the Statute does not prevent enforcement of the promises of other parties.

Topic 6 - Satisfaction of the Statute by a Memorandum

§ 131 General Requisites of a Memorandum
Unless additional requirements are prescribed by the particular statute, a contract within the Statute of Frauds is enforceable if it is evidenced by any writing, signed by or on behalf of the party to be charged, which
(a) reasonably identifies the subject matter of the contract,
(b) is sufficient to indicate that a contract with respect thereto has been made between the parties or offered by the signer to the other party, and
(c) states with reasonable certainty the essential terms of the unperformed promises in the contract.

§ 132 Several Writings
The memorandum may consist of several writings if one of the writings is signed and the writings in the circumstances clearly indicate that they relate to the same transaction.

§ 133 Memorandum Not Made as Such
Except in the case of a writing evidencing a contract upon consideration of marriage, the Statute may be satisfied by a signed writing not made as a memorandum of a contract.

§ 134 Signature
The signature to a memorandum may be any symbol made or adopted with an intention, actual or apparent, to authenticate the writing as that of the signer.

§ 135 Who Must Sign Where a memorandum of a contract within the Statute is signed by fewer than all parties to the contract and the Statute is not otherwise satisfied, the contract is enforceable against the signers but not against the others.

§ 136 Time of Memorandum A memorandum sufficient to satisfy the Statute may be made or signed at any time before or after the formation of the contract.

§ 137 Loss or Destruction of a Memorandum The loss or destruction of a memorandum does not deprive it of effect under the Statute.

Topic 7 - Consequences of Non-Compliance

§ 138 Unenforceability Where a contract within the Statute of Frauds is not enforceable against the party to be charged by an action against him, it is not enforceable by a set-off or counterclaim in an action brought by him, or as a defense to a claim by him.

§ 139 Enforcement by Virtue of Action in Reliance
(1) A promise which the promisor should reasonably expect to induce action or forbearance on the part of the promisee or a third person and which does induce the action or forbearance is enforceable notwithstanding the Statute of Frauds if injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise. The remedy granted for breach is to be limited as justice requires.
(2) In determining whether injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise, the following circumstances are significant:
(a) the availability and adequacy of other remedies, particularly cancellation and restitution;
(b) the definite and substantial character of the action or forbearance in relation to the remedy sought;
(c) the extent to which the action or forbearance corroborates evidence of the making and terms of the promise, or the making and terms are otherwise established by clear and convincing evidence;
(d) the reasonableness of the action or forbearance;
(e) the extent to which the action or forbearance was foreseeable by the promisor.

§ 140 Defense of Failure to Perform The Statute of Frauds does not invalidate defenses based on the plaintiff's failure to perform a condition of his claim or defenses based on his present or prospective breach of the contract he seeks to enforce.

§ 141 Action for Value of Performance Under Unenforceable Contract
(1) In an action for the value of performance under a contract, except as stated in Subsection (2), the Statute of Frauds does not invalidate any defense which would be available if the contract were enforceable against both parties.
(2) Where a party to a contract which is unenforceable against him refuses either to perform the contract or to sign a sufficient memorandum, the other party is justified in suspending any performance for which he has not already received the agreed return, and such a suspension is not a defense in an action for the value of performance rendered before the suspension.

§ 142 Tort Liability for Acts Under Unenforceable Contract Where because of the existence of a contract conduct would not be tortious, unenforceability of the contract under the Statute of Frauds does not make the conduct tortious if it occurs without notice of repudiation of the contract.

§ 143 Unenforceable Contract as Evidence The Statute of Frauds does not make an unenforceable contract inadmissible in evidence for any purpose other than its enforcement in violation of the Statute.

§ 144 Effect of Unenforceable Contract as to Third Parties Only a party to a contract or a transferee or successor of a party to the contract can assert that the contract is unenforceable under the Statute of Frauds.

§ 145 Effect of Full Performance Where the promises in a contract have been fully performed by all parties, the Statute of Frauds does not affect the legal relations of the parties.

§ 146 Rights of Competing Transferees of Property
(1) Where a contract to transfer property or a transfer was unenforceable against the transferor under the Statute of Frauds but subsequently becomes enforceable, the contract or transfer has whatever priority it would have had aside from the Statute of Frauds over an intervening contract by the transferor to transfer the same property to a third person.
(2) If the third person obtains title to the property by an enforceable transaction before the prior contract becomes enforceable, the prior contract is unenforceable against him and does not affect his title.

§ 147 Contract Containing Multiple Promises
(1) Where performance of the promises in a contract which subject it to the Statute of Frauds is exclusively beneficial to one party, that party by agreeing to forego the performance may render the remainder of the contract enforceable, but this rule does not apply to a contract to transfer property on the promisor's death.
(2) Where the promises in a contract which subject it to the Statute have become enforceable or where the duty to perform them has been discharged by performance or otherwise, the Statute does not prevent enforcement of the remaining promises.
(3) Except as stated in this Section, where some of the unperformed promises in a contract are unenforceable against a party under the Statute of Frauds, all the promises in the contract are unenforceable against him.

§ 148 Rescission by Oral Agreement Notwithstanding the Statute of Frauds, all unperformed duties under an enforceable contract may be discharged by an oral agreement of rescission. The Statute may, however, apply to a contract to rescind a transfer of property.

§ 149 Oral Modification
(1) For the purpose of determining whether the Statute of Frauds applies to a contract modifying but not rescinding a prior contract, the second contract is treated as containing the originally agreed terms as modified. The Statute may, however, apply independently of the original terms to a contract to modify a transfer of property.
(2) Where the second contract is unenforceable by virtue of the Statute of Frauds and there has been no material change of position in reliance on it, the prior contract is not modified.

§ 150 Reliance on Oral Modification Where the parties to an enforceable contract subsequently agree that all or part of a duty need not be performed or of a condition need not occur, the Statute of Frauds does not prevent enforcement of the subsequent agreement if reinstatement of the original terms would be unjust in view of a material change of position in reliance on the subsequent agreement.

Article 158. Form of Transactions Article 158. Form of Transactions

1. Transactions shall be concluded orally or in writing (simple or notarial form). 
2. A transaction which may be concluded orally shall be considered concluded also in the instance when the will to conclude the transaction is manifest from the behavior of the person. 
3. Silence shall be deemed to be an expression of will to conclude a transaction in the instances provided for by law or by agreement of the parties. 
Article 159. Oral Transactions 
1. A transaction for which the written (simple or notarial) form has not been established by law or by agreement of the parties may be concluded orally. 
2. Unless otherwise established by agreement of the parties, all transactions performed during their conclusion may be concluded orally, except for transactions for which a notarial form has been established and transactions the failure to comply with the simple written form of which entails their invalidity.
3. Transactions in pursuance of a contract concluded in writing may, by agreement of the parties, be concluded orally unless this is contrary to the law, other legal acts, and a contract. 
Article 160. Written Form of Transaction
1. A transaction in written form must be concluded by means of drawing up a document reflecting the content thereof and signed by the person or persons concluding the transaction, or by persons duly authorized by them. Bilateral (multilateral) transactions may be concluded by means established by Article 434(2) and (3) of this Code. A law, other legal acts or an agreement between the parties may establish additional requirements to which the form of a transaction must conform (conclusion on a letterhead of a specified form, affixing of seal, etc.) and provide for consequences for the failure to comply with these requirements. If such consequences have not been provided, the consequences specified for the failure to comply with the simple written form of a transaction shall apply (Article 162[1]).
2. The use when concluding transactions of a facsimile reproduction of a signature with the help of mechanical or other copying devices, as well as electronic-digital signature, or other analog of a signature in one's own hand shall be permitted in the instances and procedure provided for by law, other legal acts, or by agreement of the parties.
3. If a citizen as a consequence of physical defect, disease, or illiteracy cannot sign in his own hand, then at his request another citizen may sign the transaction. The signature of the latter must be certified by a notary or other official entitled to perform such a notarial act, specifying the reasons for which the person concluding the transaction could not sign it in his own hand. However, when concluding the transactions specified in Article 185(4) of this Code and granting powers of attorney to conclude them, the signature of the signer of the transaction may also be certified by the organization employing the citizen who cannot sign in his own hand or by the administration of the inpatient treatment institution in which he is situated for care.

Article 161. Transactions Concluded in Simple Written Form 

1. There must be concluded in simple written form, except for transactions requiring notarial certification: 1) transactions of legal persons between themselves and with citizens; 2) transactions of citizens between themselves for an amount exceeding no less than ten times the minimum wage established by law, and irrespective of the transaction amount in the instances provided for by law.

2. Compliance with the simple written form shall not be required for the transactions which in accordance with Article 159 of this Code may be concluded orally.

Article 162. Consequences of Failure to Comply with Simple Written Form of Transaction 

1. The failure to comply with the simple written form of a transaction shall deprive the parties of the right to refer, in the event of a dispute, to witness testimony in confirmation of the transaction and its conditions, but shall not deprive them of the right to give written and other evidence.

2. In the instances expressly specified in a law or in the agreement of the parties the failure to comply with the simple written form of a transaction shall entail its invalidity.

3. The failure to comply with the simple written of a foreign economic transaction shall entail its invalidity.


Article 163. Notarially Certified Transactions

1. The notarial certification of a transaction shall be performed by means of an endorsement of certification written on the document corresponding to the requirements of Article 150 of this Code by a notary or other official entitled to perform such a notarial act

 2. Notarial certification shall be obligatory: 

 1) in the instances specified in a law; 

 2) in the instances provided for by agreement of the parties, even if such form is not required by the law for these transactions. 

Article 164. State Registration of Transactions
Article 164. State Registration of Transactions 

1. Transactions with land and other real estate shall be subject to State registration in the instances and according to the procedure provided for by Article 131 of this Code and by the law on the registration of rights to real estate and transactions with it.

 2. State registration of specified types of transactions with real estate may be established by a law.

Article 165. Consequences of Failure to Comply with Notarial Form of Transaction and Requirement for Registration Thereof
Article 165. Consequences of Failure to Comply with Notarial Form of Transaction and Requirement for Registration Thereof 

1. The failure to comply with the notarial form and in the instances established by a law, with the requirement concerning State registration of a transaction shall entail its invalidity. Such a transaction shall be considered null and void.

2. If one party has wholly or partially performed a transaction requiring notarial certification, and the other party evades such certification of the transaction, the court shall have the right at the demand of the party which performed the transaction to deem the transaction to be valid. In this event, subsequent notarial certification of the transaction shall not be required.

3. If a transaction requiring State registration has been concluded in the proper form but one of the parties evades the registration thereof, the court shall have the right at the demand of the other party to render a decision concerning registration of the transaction. In this event, the transaction shall be registered in accordance with the court decision.

4. In the instances provided for by points 2 and 3 of this Article the party which unjustifiably evades notarial certification or State registration of a transaction must compensate the other part for losses caused by the delay in concluding or registering the transaction. 

Article 434. The Form of the Contract Article 434. The Form of the Contract 

1. The contract may be concluded in any form, stipulated for making the deals, unless the law stipulates a definite form for the given kind of contracts. If the parties have agreed to conclude the contract in a definite form, it shall be regarded as concluded after the agreed form has been rendered to it, even if the law does not require such form for the given kind of contracts. 

2. The contract in written form shall be concluded by compiling one document, signed by the parties, and also by way of exchanging the documents by mail, telegraph, teletype, telephone, by the electronic or any other type of the means of communication, which makes it possible to establish for certain that the document comes from the party by the contract. 

3. The written form of the contract shall be regarded as observed, if the written offer to conclude the contract has been accepted in conformity with the order, stipulated by Item 3, Article 438 of the present Code.

Article 452. The Procedure for the Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract
Article 452. The Procedure for the Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract

1. The agreement on the amendment or on the cancellation of the contract shall be legalized in the same form as the contract itself, unless otherwise following from the law, from the other legal acts, from the contract or from the customs of the business turnover.

2. The claim for the amendment or for the cancellation of the contract may be filed by the party with the court only after it has received the refusal from the other party in response to its proposal to amend or to cancel the contract, or in case of its non-receipt of any response within the term, indicated in the proposal or fixed by the law or by the contract, and in the absence thereof - within a 30-day term.