China, European Union, USA, Russia

This is a Concordance of 4 codified statements of general contract law:

  • Contract Law of the People's Republic of China Part 1 (CLPRC)
  • The Principles of European Contract Law (PECL)
  • Restatement (Second) of Contracts (REST)
  • Civil Code of the Russian Federation Chapters 1, 9-10, 21-29 (CCRF)

These codes state or represent the general contract law of China, Europe, United States of America, and Russia. All rules in these codes that affect contracts in general (of all types) are included in this Concordance. We have used English translations of CPRC and CCRF available on the internet.

We have arranged the rules in eight parts under eight headings:

  • General Provisions
  • Formation
  • Parties
  • Validity
  • Agreed obligations
  • Mandatory obligations
  • Termination
  • Remedies

The Concordance is a work in progress. We invite other scholars to use it or adapt it for their own purposes, on condition of acknowledgment. Comments or questions can be sent to

Download Concordance project document