Article 401. The Grounds of Responsibility for the Violation of the Obligation see also Validity Remedies
1. The person, who has not discharged the obligation or who has discharged it in an improper way, shall bear responsibility for this, if it has happened through his fault (an ill intention or carelessness on his part), with the exception of the cases, when the other grounds of the responsibility have been stipulated by the law or by the contract. The person shall be recognized as not guilty, if, taking into account the extent of the care and caution, which has been expected from him in the face of the nature and the terms of the circulation, he has taken all the necessary measures for properly discharging the obligation.
2. The absence of the guilt shall be proven by the person, who has violated the obligation.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract, the person, who has failed to discharge, or has discharged in an improper way, the obligation, while performing the business activity, shall bear responsibility, unless he proves that the proper discharge has been impossible because of a force-majeure, i.e., because of the extraordinary circumstances, which it was impossible to avert under the given conditions. To such kind of circumstances shall not be referred, in particular, the violations of obligations on the part of the debtor's counter-agents, or the absence on the market of commodities, indispensable for the discharge, or the absence of the necessary means at the debtor's disposal.
4. An agreement on eliminating or limiting the liability for an intentional violation of the obligation, concluded at an earlier date, shall be insignificant.
Article 416. Termination of the Obligation Because of the Impossibility to Discharge It
1. The obligation shall be terminated because of the impossibility to discharge it, caused by the circumstance, for which neither of the parties is answerable.
2. In case of the impossibility for the debtor to discharge the obligation because of the faulty actions of the creditor, the latter shall not have the right to claim the return of what he has discharged by the obligation.
Article 417. Termination of the Obligation on the Grounds of an Act, Issued by the State Body
1. If as a result of an act, issued by the state body, the discharge of the obligation has become impossible in full or in part, the obligation shall be terminated in full or in the corresponding part. The parties, which have suffered losses as a result of this, shall have the right to claim their compensation in conformity with Articles 13 and 16 of the present Code.
2. In case the act, issued by the state body, on whose grounds the obligation has been terminated, is recognized as invalid in conformity with the established procedure, the obligation shall be restored, unless otherwise following from the agreement between the parties or from the substance of the obligation and unless its discharge has lost all interest for the creditor.
Article 418. Termination of the Obligation with the Citizen's Death
1. The obligation shall be terminated with the death of the debtor, if it cannot be discharged without the debtor's personal participation, or if it is indissolubly linked with the debtor's personality in any other way.
2. The obligation shall be terminated with the death of the creditor, if its discharge is intended personally for the creditor, or if the obligation is indissolubly linked with the creditor's personality in any other way.
Article 419. Termination of the Obligation with the Liquidation of the Legal Entity
The obligation shall be terminated with the liquidation of the legal entity (the debtor or the creditor), with the exception of the cases, when the law or the other legal acts impose the discharge of the obligation of the liquidated legal entity upon the other person (by the claims for the compensation of the harm, caused to the life or to the health, etc.).
Article 451. The Amendment and the Cancellation of the Contract Because of an Essential Change of Circumstances
1. An essential change of the circumstances, from which the parties have proceeded when concluding the contract, shall be the ground for its amendment or cancellation, unless otherwise stipulated by the contract or following from its substance. The change of the circumstances shall be recognized as essential, if they have changed to such an extent that in case the parties could have wisely envisaged it, the contract would not have been concluded by them or would have been concluded on the essentially different terms.
2. If the parties have failed to reach an agreement on bringing the contract into correspondence with the essentially changed circumstances or on its cancellation, the contract may be cancelled, and on the grounds, stipulated by Item 4 of the present Article, it may be amended by the court upon the claim of the interested party in the face of the simultaneous existence of the following conditions:
- at the moment of concluding the contract, the parties have proceeded from the fact that no such change of the circumstances will take place;
- the change of the circumstances has been called forth by the causes, which the interested party could not overcome after they have arisen, while displaying the degree of care and circumspection, which have been expected from it by the nature of the contract and by the terms of the circulation;
- the execution of the contract without amending its provisions would so much upset the balance of the property interests of the parties, corresponding to the contract, and would entail such a loss for the interested party that it would have been to a considerable extent deprived of what it could have counted upon when concluding the contract;
- neither from the customs of the business turnover, nor from the substance of the contract does it follow that the risk, involved in the change of the circumstances, shall be borne by the interested party.
3. In case of the cancellation of the contract because of the essentially changed circumstances, the court shall, upon the claim of any one of the parties, define the consequences of the cancellation of the contract, proceeding from the need to justly distribute the expenses, borne by them in connection with the execution of this contract, between the parties.
4. The amendment of the contract in connection with an essential change of the circumstances shall be admitted by the court decision in extraordinary cases, when the cancellation of the contract contradicts the public interests, or if it entails the losses for the parties, considerably exceeding the expenses, necessary for the execution of the contract on the terms, amended by the court.