236 Claims for Damages for Total and for Partial Breach
1. A claim for damages for total breach is one for damages based on all of the injured party's remaining rights to performance.
2. A claim for damages for partial breach is one for damages based on only part of the injured party's remaining rights to performance.
243 Effect of a Breach by Non-Performance As Giving Rise to a Claim for Damages for Total Breach
1. With respect to performances to be exchanged under an exchange of promises, a breach by non-performance gives rise to a claim for damages for total breach only if it discharges the injured party's remaining duties to render such performance, other than a duty to render an agreed equivalent under § 240.
2. Except as stated in Subsection (3), a breach by non-performance accompanied or followed by a repudiation gives rise to a claim for damages for total breach.
3. Where at the time of the breach the only remaining duties of performance are those of the party in breach and are for the payment of money in installments not related to one another, his breach by non-performance as to less than the whole, whether or not accompanied or followed by a repudiation, does not give rise to a claim for damages for total breach.
4. In any case other than those stated in the preceding subsections, a breach by non- performance gives rise to a claim for total breach only if it so substantially impairs the value of the contract to the injured party at the time of the breach that it is just in the circumstances to allow him to recover damages based on all his remaining rights to performance.
244 Effect of Subsequent Events on Duty to Pay Damages
A party's duty to pay damages for total breach by non-performance is discharged if it appears after the breach that there would have been a total failure by the injured party to perform his return promise.
Topic 2 - Enforcement by Award of Damages
346 Availability of Damages
1. The injured party has a right to damages for any breach by a party against whom the contract is enforceable unless the claim for damages has been suspended or discharged.
2. If the breach caused no loss or if the amount of the loss is not proved under the rules stated in this Chapter, a small sum fixed without regard to the amount of loss will be awarded as nominal damages.
347 Measure of Damages in General
Subject to the limitations stated in §§ 350-53, the injured party has a right to damages based on his expectation interest as measured by
- the loss in the value to him of the other party's performance caused by its failure or deficiency, plus
- any other loss, including incidental or consequential loss, caused by the breach, less
- any cost or other loss that he has avoided by not having to perform.
348 Alternatives to Loss in Value of Performance
1. If a breach delays the use of property and the loss in value to the injured party is not proved with reasonable certainty, he may recover damages based on the rental value of the property or on interest on the value of the property.
2. If a breach results in defective or unfinished construction and the loss in value to the injured party is not proved with sufficient certainty, he may recover damages based on
- the diminution in the market price of the property caused by the breach, or
- the reasonable cost of completing performance or of remedying the defects if that cost is not clearly disproportionate to the probable loss in value to him.
3. If a breach is of a promise conditioned on a fortuitous event and it is uncertain whether the event would have occurred had there been no breach, the injured party may recover damages based on the value of the conditional right at the time of breach.
349 Damages Based on Reliance Interest
As an alternative to the measure of damages stated in § 347, the injured party has a right to damages based on his reliance interest, including expenditures made in preparation for performance or in performance, less any loss that the party in breach can prove with reasonable certainty the injured party would have suffered had the contract been performed.
350 Avoidability as a Limitation on Damages
1. Except as stated in Subsection (2), damages are not recoverable for loss that the injured party could have avoided without undue risk, burden or humiliation.
2. The injured party is not precluded from recovery by the rule stated in Subsection (1) to the extent that he has made reasonable but unsuccessful efforts to avoid loss.
351 Unforeseeability and Related Limitations on Damages
1. Damages are not recoverable for loss that the party in breach did not have reason to foresee as a probable result of the breach when the contract was made.
2. Loss may be foreseeable as a probable result of a breach because it follows from the breach
- in the ordinary course of events, or
- as a result of special circumstances, beyond the ordinary course of events, that the party in breach had reason to know.
3. A court may limit damages for foreseeable loss by excluding recovery for loss of profits, by allowing recovery only for loss incurred in reliance, or otherwise if it concludes that in the circumstances justice so requires in order to avoid disproportionate compensation.
352 Uncertainty as a Limitation on Damages
Damages are not recoverable for loss beyond an amount that the evidence permits to be established with reasonable certainty.
353 Loss Due to Emotional Disturbance
Recovery for emotional disturbance will be excluded unless the breach also caused bodily harm or the contract or the breach is of such a kind that serious emotional disturbance was a particularly likely result.
354 Interest as Damages
1. If the breach consists of a failure to pay a definite sum in money or to render a performance with fixed or ascertainable monetary value, interest is recoverable from the time for performance on the amount due less all deductions to which the party in breach is entitled.
2. In any other case, such interest may be allowed as justice requires on the amount that would have been just compensation had it been paid when performance was due.
355 Punitive Damages
Punitive damages are not recoverable for a breach of contract unless the conduct constituting the breach is also a tort for which punitive damages are recoverable.
356 Liquidated Damages and Penalties. See also Validity
1. Damages for breach by either party may be liquidated in the agreement but only at an amount that is reasonable in the light of the anticipated or actual loss caused by the breach and the difficulties of proof of loss. A term fixing unreasonably large liquidated damages is unenforceable on grounds of public policy as a penalty.
2. A term in a bond providing for an amount of money as a penalty for non-occurrence of the condition of the bond is unenforceable on grounds of public policy to the extent that the amount exceeds the loss caused by such non-occurrence.