Article 307. Concept of Obligation and Grounds for Its Arising
1. By virtue of an obligation one person (the debtor) shall be obliged to perform a specified action to the benefit of another person (the creditor), namely: to transfer property, fulfil a job, pay money, and the like, or to retain from a specified action, whereas the creditor shall have the right to demand from the creditor the fulfillment of his duty.
2. Obligation shall arise from a contract, as a consequence of the causing of harm, or from other grounds specified in this Code.
Article 313. Discharge of the Obligation by the Third Person see also Termination Parties Mandatory Obligations
1. The discharge of the obligation may be imposed by the debtor upon the third person, unless the debtor's duty to discharge the obligation in person follows from the law, from the other legal acts, from the terms of the obligation or from its substance. In this case the creditor shall be obliged to accept the discharge, offered by the third person instead of by the debtor.
2. The third person, undergoing the threat of losing his right to the property of the debtor (the right of the lease, of the mortgage, etc.) as a result of the creditor's turning the penalty onto this property, may at his own expense satisfy the creditor's claim without obtaining the debtor's consent. In this case, the rights of the creditor by the obligation shall pass to the third person in conformity with Articles 382-387 of the present Code.
Article 401. The Grounds of Responsibility for the Violation of the Obligation see also Termination Validity
1. The person, who has not discharged the obligation or who has discharged it in an improper way, shall bear responsibility for this, if it has happened through his fault (an ill intention or carelessness on his part), with the exception of the cases, when the other grounds of the responsibility have been stipulated by the law or by the contract. The person shall be recognized as not guilty, if, taking into account the extent of the care and caution, which has been expected from him in the face of the nature and the terms of the circulation, he has taken all the necessary measures for properly discharging the obligation.
2. The absence of the guilt shall be proven by the person, who has violated the obligation.
3. Unless otherwise stipulated by the law or by the contract, the person, who has failed to discharge, or has discharged in an improper way, the obligation, while performing the business activity, shall bear responsibility, unless he proves that the proper discharge has been impossible because of a force-majeure, i.e., because of the extraordinary circumstances, which it was impossible to avert under the given conditions. To such kind of circumstances shall not be referred, in particular, the violations of obligations on the part of the debtor's counter-agents, or the absence on the market of commodities, indispensable for the discharge, or the absence of the necessary means at the debtor's disposal.
4. An agreement on eliminating or limiting the liability for an intentional violation of the obligation, concluded at an earlier date, shall be insignificant.
Article 402. The Debtor's Responsibility for His Employees see also Parties
The actions of the debtor's employees, involved in the discharge of his obligation, shall be regarded as those of the debtor himself. The debtor shall be answerable for these actions, if they have caused the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation.
Article 403. The Debtor's Responsibility for the Actions of the Third Persons see also Termination Parties
The debtor shall be answerable for an improper discharge of the obligation by the third persons, on whom the discharge of the obligation has been imposed, unless it has been laid down by the law that the responsibility shall be borne by the third person, who has been an immediate discharger.
Article 404. The Creditor's Guilt see also Termination
1. If the non-discharge or an improper discharge of the obligation has occurred through the fault of both parties, the court shall correspondingly reduce the scope of the debtor's responsibility. The court shall also have the right to reduce the scope of the debtor's responsibility, if the creditor has intentionally or through carelessness contributed to the increase of the losses, caused by the non-discharge or by an improper discharge, or if he has not taken reasonable measures to reduce them.
2. The rules of Item 1 of the present Article shall also be correspondingly applied in the cases, when the debtor, by force of the law or of the contract, bears responsibility for the non-discharge or for an improper discharge of the obligation regardless of whether he is, or is not, at fault.
Article 405. The Debtor's Delay
1. The debtor, who has failed to discharge the obligation on time, shall be answerable to the creditor for the losses, inflicted by the delay, and also for the consequences of the discharge having accidentally become impossible during the period of the delay.
2. If, because of the debtor's delay, the discharge has lost all interest for the creditor, he shall have the right to refuse to accept the discharge and to claim the compensation of the involved losses.
3. The debtor shall not be regarded as guilty of the delay during the period of time, when the obligation could not have been discharged because of the creditor's delay.
Article 406. The Creditor's Delay
1. The creditor shall be regarded as guilty of the delay, if he has refused to accept the proper discharge, offered to him by the debtor, or if he has not performed the actions, stipulated by the law, by the other legal acts, or by the contract, or those stemming from the customs of the business turnover or from the substance of the obligation, before the performance of which the debtor could not have discharged his obligation. The creditor shall also be regarded as guilty of the delay in the cases, pointed out in Item 2 of Article 408 of the present Code.
2. The creditor's delay shall give to the debtor the right to the compensation of losses, caused to him by the said delay, unless the creditor proves that the delay has occurred through the circumstances, for which neither he himself, nor the persons, to whom, by force of the law, of the other legal acts or of the creditor's commission, the acceptance of the discharge has been entrusted, are answerable.
3. The debtor shall not be obliged to pay the interest by the pecuniary obligation over the period of the creditor's delay.