An English-Awabakal Dictionary

by David Andrew Roberts

Pronounciations

Thelkeld 1834

A -- pronounced as the English pronounce a in the words are, far, tart; as, ba, the verb to be, accidental (1834: 1)
B -- pronounced as ill the English words be, crab (1834: 2)
D -- as heard in deed, if used at all by the natives (1834: 2)
E -- pronounced as slender a in fate, or e in where (1834: 1)
I -- pronounced as the short i in thin, tin (1834: 1)
K -- as heard in Kirk, King (1834: 2)
L -- as heard in Lord, Ell (1834: 2)
M -- as heard in Man, Embark (1834: 2)
N -- as heard in Nun, No (1834: 2)
O -- pronounced as in English, No (1834: 1)
P -- as heard in Pea, pip, pipe (1834: 2)
R -- as heard in rogue, rough, Rome, whenever used it cannot he pronounced too roughly; when double, each letter must be heard distinctly (1834: 2)
T -- as heard in tea (1834: 2)
U - pronounced as oo in the words cool, cuckoo (1834: 1)
W -- as heard in war (1834: 2)
Y -- as heard in yard (1834: 2)

Fraser 1892

A -- the sound of this letter is the same as heard in Eng. ah! (1892: 201)
A -- retains the long sound, especially when accented as in ban; a sounds shorter than a (1892: 201)
Ai -- sounds as i in Eng. `nigh' (1892: 201)
B -- is sounded as in Eng. ' be.' In many instances it is difficult to ascertain whether the sound be b or p, or a compound sound of both letters (1892: 202)
Ba -- sounds as Eng. `bah' ! (1892: 202)
Bai -- is sounded as Eng. `by' (1892: 202)
Bal, ban -- are sounded as Eng. `marl, barn,' omitting the r (1892: 202)
Bau -- sounded as Eng. ,`bough' (1892: 202)
Be -- is sounded as Eng. `bay' (1892: 202)
Bu -- sounds as Eng. `bull'; (1892: 204)
-buŸ -- sounds as Eng. `bung.' (1892: 204)
BúŸ -- sounds as in Eng. 'boon, but with the strong nasal ng instead of the n; (1892: 204)
Bukk -- sounds as Eng. `buck.' (1892: 204)
Bçm -- for its sound cf.* (1892: 205)
Bum -- is sounded as Eng. 'boom.' (1892: 205)
Bçn -- for the sound cf.* (1892: 205)
Bun -- is sounded as Eng. `boon.' (1892: 205)
C -- There is no sibilant sound in the language, consequently there is no c soft, or s, or z in the native alphabet. These letters, therefore, occur only in words of foreign origin introduced into the aboriginal tongue. The hard sound of c, as in Eng. `cubit,' would be represented by the letter k. The letter ƒ (C) represents the sound of ch., as in Eng. ' church.' (1892: 206)
D -- has a middle sound betwixt t and d; it often confounds the sounds of d and t. D is used in foreign words, while t belongs to the language The aborigines do not pronounce the Eng. v or f, generally substituting b for v, and p for f (1892: 206)
E -- sounds as a in Eng. `may.' (1892: 206)
F -- The sound of f is not found in the native language; when it is introduced by foreign words, the aborigines pronounce it p. eg. ParthiŸ -- Eng., farthing; PurloŸ -- Eng., furlong; Pipåty - Eng., fifty (1892: 207)
G -- is always the English g hard (1892: 207)
G sounds as ng in Eng. 'bung', it has the nasal sound of ng in the English alphabet. The sound is invariably the same whether at the beginning, the middle, or the end of a word, and cannot be too strongly nasalised (1892: 208)
Ge -- rhymes with the Eng. `nay,' sounding strongly the nasal ng at the beginning. (1892: 210)
H -- The aborigines seldom sound h as an initial aspirate; consequently the letter h is not much used in the language, save in words of foreign extraction. (1892: 210)
I (i) -- sounds as e in Eng. `eat.' (1892: 211)
I (í) -- sounds as ee in Eng. 'e'en. (1892: 211)
J -- Other tribal dialects have the palatals j and æ, but this Awabakal has not; in it j occurs only in imported words [Fraser] (1892: 211)
K is sounded as in Eng. `Kate.' (1892: 211)
Ka is sounded as in Eng. 'cart.' (1892: 212)
Kai -- rhymes with Eng. `eye.' (1892: 212)
Kain -- sounds as Eng. `kine.' (1892: 212)
Kan -- is sounded as Eng. `can'. (1892: 213)
Kau -- sounds as Eng, `cow.' (1892: 214)
Ke -- sounds as ca in Eng. `care.' (1892: 215)
-ke?-an interrogative particle. (1892: 215)
Ki -- sounds as Eng. `key.' (1892: 215)
Kurr -- sounds as Eng. 'cur.' (1892: 221)
L -- pronounced as Eng, `ell.' (1892: 221)
La -- is sounded as in Eng. 'large.' (1892: 221)
Le -- rhymes with Eng. `lay.' (1892: 221)
Lo -- sounds as Eng. `lo'! (1892: 222)
Man -- sounds as Eng. `man.' (1892: 222)
-mau -- rhymes with Eng. `cow.'(1892: 223)
Me -- sounds as in Eng. 'may.'(1892: 223)
Mi -- is sounded as Eng. `me.'(1892: 223)
Mín -- sounds as Eng. `mien.' (1892: 223)
Minn -- sounds as in Eng. 'mint.' (1892: 223)
Mu -- sounds as in Eng. 'moon.' (1892: 225)
MuŸ -- rhymes with Eng. bung.' (1892: 225)
Mum -- for its sound cf. * (1892: 225)
Mur -- sounds as mur in Eng, `murder,' but the r is rougher (1892: 226)
Mur -- sounds as Eng. 'moor'; cf.* (1892: 226)
-man -- as a particle, denotes the present tense of the verb causative. (1892: 222)