Select List of Publications
Recent Release - Shakespeare, Computers, and the Mystery of Authorship
- Hugh Craig, University of Newcastle, New South Wales
- Arthur F. Kinney, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Contributors: Hugh Craig, Arthur F. Kinney, Philip Palmer, Timothy Irish Watt
Craig, Kinney and their collaborators confront the main unsolved mysteries in Shakespeare's canon through computer analysis of Shakespeare's and other writers' styles. In some cases their analysis confirms the current scholarly consensus, bringing long-standing questions to something like a final resolution. In other areas the book provides more surprising conclusions: that Shakespeare wrote the 1602 additions to The Spanish Tragedy, for example, and that Marlowe along with Shakespeare was a collaborator on Henry VI, Parts 1 and 2. The methods used are more wholeheartedly statistical, and computationally more intensive, than any that have yet been applied to Shakespeare studies. The book also reveals how word patterns help create a characteristic personal style. In tackling traditional problems with the aid of the processing power of the computer, harnessed through computer science, and drawing upon large amounts of data, the book is an exemplar of the new domain of digital humanities.
Hugh Craig, A. F. Kinney, Philip Palmer and Timothy Irish Watt (forthcoming 2009) Shakespeare, Computers and the Mystery of Authorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
John Burrows (1987) Computation into Criticism: A Study of Jane Austen's Novels and an Experiment in Method, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
John Burrows (2009) 'The Authorship of Two Sets of Anti-Federalist Papers: A Computational Approach', in Michael P. Zuckert and Derek A. Webb (ed.), The Anti-Federalist Writings of the Melancton Smith Circle, Indianapolis, Liberty Fund, pp. 397-419.
John Burrows (2005) Jane Austen, invited contribution to (edd) D.A. Cruse, Franz Hundsnurcher, et. al. Lexikologie, Lexicology. Ein internationals Handbuch zur Natur und Strucktur von Worten and Wortschatzen, Berlin, de Gruyter, vol. ii, 1474-7.
Hugh Craig (2004) A Stylistic Analysis and Authorship Studies. A Companion to the Digital Humanities. Edd. Susan Schreibman et al. Blackwell, Oxford, 273-288. Available here
John Burrows (2004) Textual Analysis. A Companion to Digital Humanities. Edd. Susan Schreibman et al. Blackwell, Oxford, 323-47. Available here
John Burrows (2003) Computational Stylistics: a Sketch of our Present Strengths and Limitations. Computing Arts 2001. Ed. Creagh Cole, University of Sydney in association with the Australian Academy of the Humanities, Sydney, 169-79.
Hugh Craig (2003) A Computation into criticism, 1987-2001. Computing Arts 2001. Ed. Creagh Cole, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Canberra, 123-31.
Hugh Craig (1999) Jonsonian chronology and the styles of "A Tale of a Tub". Presenting Ben Jonson: Text, History, Performance. Ed. Martin Butler, Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke. 210-32.
Wayne McKenna, John Burrows, Alexis Antonia (1999) Beckett's "Molloy": Computational Stylistics and the Meaning of Translation. Variété: Perspectives in French Literature, Society and Culture. Studies in Honour of Kenneth Raymond Dutton. Ed. Marie Ramsland. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, 79-92.
John Burrows & H. Love (1999) Did Aphra Behn write "Caesar's Ghost"? The Culture of the Book: Essays presented to Wallace Kirsop. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne, 148-72.
John Burrows (1999) A Computational Approach to the Rochester Canon: an Appendix. The Complete Works of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. Ed. Harold Love. Clarendon, Oxford, 681-95.
John Burrows (1999) Computers and the Idea of Authorship. Reprinted by invitation in Fotis Jannidis. Rückkehr des Autors. Zur Erneuerung eines umstrittenen Begriffs. Edd. Gerhard Lauer, et al. Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen, 133-44.
John Burrows (1997) Style. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. Edd. Edward Copeland and Juliet McMaster, University Press, Cambridge, 189-210.
John Burrows (1996) A Strange and Self-Abuse? The Authorship of "A Panyegyric on the Reverend Dean Swift", Imperfect Apprehensions: Essays in Honour of G.A. Wilkes. Ed. Geoffrey Little, Challis Press, Sydney, 115-32.
John Burrows (1996) Tiptoeing into the Infinite: Testing for Evidence of National Differences in the Language of English Narrative. Research in Humanities Computing '92. Edd. Susan Hockey and Nancy Ide. Clarendon, Oxford, 1-33.
John Burrows (1995) Computers and the Idea of Authorship. The Humanities and a Creative Nation: Jubilee Essays. Ed. Deryck Schreuder, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Canberra, 89-108.
John Burrows (1992) Computers and the Study of Literature, in Christopher Butler (ed.), Computers and Written Texts: an Applied Perspective, Blackwell, Oxford, 167-204.
John Burrows (1992) Fossicking about the Territory: Testing for Specimens of an Australian Narrative Dialect, in Margaret Harris & Elizabeth Webby (ed.), Reconnoitres: Essays in Honour of G. A. Wilkes, Sydney University Press/Oxford University Press, 36-53, 241-9.
Referred Journal Articles
Peter Anstey and John Burrows, 'John Locke, Thomas Sydenham, and the Authorship of Two Medical Documents,' Electronic British Library Journal (2009), article 3. Available here
Hugh Craig, Osvaldo A. Rosso and Pablo Moscato (2009) "Shakespeare and Other English Renaissance Authors as Characterized by Information Theory Complexity Quantifiers." Physica A, 388: 916-26.
John Burrows (2009) 'Mulgrave, Dryden, and An Essay upon Satire', in Superior in his Profession: Essays in Memory of Harold Love, Script and Print, 33, 76-91.
Lesley Wallace, Alexis Antonia and Hugh Craig. "What's in a name: Was John Curtin 'Vigilant'? analysing style to determine authorship". History Australia, Vol. 6, 2009. Available here
Alexis Antonia and Ellen Jordan, (2008) “Who Wrote the Women’s Movement Articles in The Saturday Review?” Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, 4.3. Available here
Hugh Craig, (2008) "'Speak, That I May See Thee': Shakespeare Characters and Common Words." Shakespeare Survey, 61: 281-88.
Timothy Raylor and John Burrows, (2007) The Authorship of 'Lady Katherine Howard's Voyage and Enterteynement', English Manuscript Studies. Vol. 16, pp.232-49.
Ellen Jordan, Hugh Craig and Alexis Antonia, (2006) The Bronte Sisters and the 'Christian Remembrancer: a Pilot Study in the Use of the 'Burrows Method' to Identify the Authorship of unsigned Articles in the Nineteenth Century Periodical Press. Victorian Periodicals Review. Vol. 39, no.1, Spring, pp.21-45.
John Burrows (2007) All the way through: Testing for Authorship in Difference Strata. Literary and Linguistic Computing. Vol. 22, pp.27-47.
John Burrows & Anthony Hassall (2006) Sarah and Henry Fielding and the Authorship of The history of Ophelia, Script and Print. Vol. 30, pp.69-102.
John Burrows (2005) Who wrote Shamela? Verifying the Suthorship of a Parodic Text. Literary and Lingustis Computing, 20, 437-50.
John Burrows (2005) Andrew Marvell and the 'Painter Satires': A Computational Approach to their Authorship. Modern Language Review; 100, 281-97.
Hugh Craig (2005) (guest editor) Papers from Computing Arts 2004 @ Newcastle. Literary and Linguistic Computing 20.4.
John Burrows (2003) Questions of authorship: Attribution and Beyond, the Roberto Busa Award Lecture (2001), Computers and the Humanities 37, 5-32.
John Burrows (2002) "Delta": a Measure of Stylistic Difference and a Guide to Likely Authorship. Literary and Linguistic Computing 17, 267-87.
Hugh Craig (2002) Common-words frequencies, Shakespeare's style, and the Elegy by W.S.. Early Modern Literary Studies 8. Available here
John Burrows (2002) The Englishing of Juvenal: Computational Stylistics and Translated Texts. Style 36, 677-99.
John Burrows & Hugh Craig (2001) Lucy Hutchinson and the Authorship of Two Seventeenth-Century Poems: a Computational Approach. The Seventeenth Century 16, 259-82.
Hugh Craig (2001) An image of the times: Ben Jonson's revision of "Every Man in his Humour". English Studies 82, 14-33.
Hugh Craig (2000) Grammatical modality in English plays from the 1580s to the 1640s. English Literary Renaissance 30, 32-54.
Hugh Craig (2000) Is the author really dead? An empirical study of the authorship in English Renaissance drama. Empirical Studies in the Arts. 18.2, 119-34.
Hugh Craig (1999) Authorial attribution and computational stylistics: if you can tell authors apart, have you learned anything about them? Literary and Linguistic Computing. 14, 103-13.
Hugh Craig (1999) Contrast and change in the idiolects of Ben Jonson characters. Computers and the Humanities. 33, 221-40.
Hugh Craig (1999) The weight of numbers: common words and Jonson's dramatic style. Ben Jonson Journal. 6, 243-59.
Wayne McKenna, John Burrows & Alexis Antonia (1999) Beckett's Trilogy: Computational Stylistics and the Nature of Translation. RISSH. 35, 151-71.
John Burrows & H. Love (1999) Attribution Tests and the Editing of Seventeenth-century Poetry. Yearbook of English Studies. 29, 151-75.
John Burrows & H. Love (1998) The Role of Stylistics in Attribution: Thomas Shadwell and "The Giants' War". Eighteenth-Century Life. 22, 18-30.
Lucy Sussex & John Burrows (1997) Whodunit? Literary Forensics and the Crime Writing of James Skipp Borlase and Mary Fortune. Bulletin of the Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand. xxi, 73-106.
John Burrows (1996) Numbering the Streaks of the Tulip? Reflections on a Challenge to the Use of Statistical Methods in Computational Stylistics. Computers in the Humanities Working Papers. Available here
John Burrows & Hugh Craig, (1994) Lyrical Drama and the "Turbid Mountebanks": Styles of Dialogue in Romantic and Renaissance Tragedy, Computers and the Humanities, 28, 1-24.
John Burrows, Alexis Antonia & L. Burnard (compilers) (1992) The Complete Works of Jane Austen, Electronic Edition, Oxford Electronic Text Library. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
John Burrows (1992) Not unless you ask nicely: The Interpretative Nexus between Analysis and Information, Literary and Linguistic Computing, vii, 91-110.
John Burrows (1991) I Lisp'd in Numbers: Fielding, Richardson, and the Appraisal of Statistical Evidence, The Scriblerian, xxxiii, 234-41.
John Burrows & A. J. Hassall, (1988) "Anna Boleyn" and the Authenticity of Fielding's Feminine Narratives’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, xxi, 427-53.
John Burrows (1989) "A Vision" as a Revision?, Eighteenth-Century Studies, xxii, 551-65.
John Burrows (1989) "An Ocean where each Kind ...": Statistical Analysis and some Major Determinants of Literary Style, Computers and the Humanities, xxiii, 309-21.
John Burrows & A.J. Hassall (1988) "Anna Boleyn" and the Authenticity of Fielding's Feminine Narratives. Eighteenth-Century Studies, xxi, 427-53.
John Burrows (1987) Word-Patterns and Story-Shapes: the Statistical Analysis of Narrative Style’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, ii, 61-70.
John Burrows (1986) Modal Verbs and Moral Principles: an Aspect of Jane Austen’s Style’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, i, 9-23.
John Burrows (1986) The Reciprocities of Style: Literary Criticism and Literary Statistics’, Essays and Studies, ns xxxix, 78-93.
John Burrows (1983) "Nothing out of the Ordinary Way": Differentiation of Character in the Twelve Most Common Words of "Northanger Abbey", "Mansfield Park", and "Emma", British Journal for Eighteenth-Century
Studies, vi, 17-41.
(1987) London Review of Books, 25 June 1987, 11-13;
(1987) Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 Oct. 1987, 32;
(1987) and, in a general review-article, ibid., 6 Nov. 1987, viii;
(1988) British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, xii, 100-01;
(1988) Cambridge Quarterly, xvii, 376-81;
(1988) Notes and Queries, xxxv, 542-3;
(1989) Review of English Studies, xl, 429-30;
(1990) AUMLA, 73, 230-5.
Major citations of Book:
(1987) Park Honan, Jane Austen: Her Life, London, p.418;
(1988) Susan Hockey, ‘Austen Analysed, Dante Dissected’, Oxford Today, i 18-19;
(1991) Thomas N. Corns, ‘Computers in the Humanities: Methods and Applications in the Study of English Literature’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, vi, 127-8.
(1993) Thomas B. Horton, ‘Frequent Words, Authorship and Characterization in Jacobean Drama’, in Susan Hockey and Nancy B. Ide (ed.), Research in Humanities Computing '90, Oxford. Machine-readable edition
Appendices to Publications
Some publications by members and associates of the Centre result from the analysis of data sets which are not usefully published as part of a printed paper. Some readers, however will want to examine these source data in more detail and to aid this, data sets will, when appropriate be published here on the web.
John Burrows and Hugh Craig, Table of word-frequencies for Figure 6 of "Lucy Hutchinson and the authorship of two seventeenth-century poems: a computational approach", (The Seventeenth Century, forthcoming 2001). The data are now available as a Microsoft Excel workbook: hutchdata56s73w.xls
Hugh Craig, "Common-words frequencies, Shakespeare's style, and the *Elegy* by W. S." *Early Modern Literary Studies*. Forthcoming 2002.
Raw counts of the 219 word-variables in the 106 texts used in this study are available as an Excel workbook: 219_wordvariables_in_106_texts.xls.
Hugh Craig and Arthur F Kinney, 'Marlowe and Dido Queene of Carthage', submitted to Notes and Queries.
- Hugh Craig, 'A and an in English plays, 1580-1639', in Texas Studies in Literature and Language
- Hugh Craig, 'From Persephone to High Elves: defining the typical and the aberrant in a corpus of modern British fiction', submitted to Modern fiction studies
- Hugh Craig, 'George Chapman, John Davies of Hereford, William Shakespeare, and A Lover's Complaint', submitted to Shakespeare Quarterly
- Alexis Antonia, Hugh Craig and Jack Elliott, 'Language chunking, data sparseness, and the value of a long marker list: explorations with word n-grams and authorial attribution,' submitted to Literary and Linguistic Computing