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Professor Robert Melchers

ARC DORA Fellow

School of Engineering (Civil Engineering)

In the Pipeline

Professor Robert Melchers’ research on marine corrosion at the University of Newcastle is leading the way towards safer, more resilient offshore engineering and construction.

Professor Rob Melchers

Marine corrosion is known to be aggressive, but how aggressive it can be under long-term exposures is the critical question for the safety and economics of much industrial infrastructure, including harbour, coastal and offshore oil industry facilities.  

Throughout the world, hundreds of thousands of kilometres of submarine pipelines cross the ocean floor. Every year they are used to transport hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous materials – particularly oil and gas – thus, the integrity of this infrastructure is critical.  

Professor Melchers’ research contributes to creating a better understanding of the corrosion of steel in marine environments. In particular, it addresses a big issue for the water industry worldwide; the corrosion of mooring chains and wire rope for offshore platforms, and the exterior corrosion of cast iron water pipes. In 2006 the International Ship Structures Committee adopted Melchers' corrosion models for the condition assessment of aged ship structures.  

His research throws new light on the influence of bacteria and water pollution in relation to the severity of corrosion. Mathematical models have been developed for general corrosion and offered completely new interpretations of the statistics of maximum pit depth, which is especially important for pipelines, as any leak can be disastrous. These mathematical models also help to predict when corrosion may occur, allowing for efficient planning of resources.  

With the world becoming increasingly reliant on concrete sea structures to meet its energy and resources needs, Professor Melchers and his team are also investigating corrosion of reinforced concrete in the marine environment. Reinforced concrete is used in the construction of advanced marine structures such as offshore drilling platforms, superspan bridges and undersea tunnels.  

In conjunction with all the leading Water Authorities in Australia, Professor Melchers is developing a model for the loss of concrete on the inside walls of concrete sewer pipes. Used in almost all major cities, these pipes are increasingly at risk. The water industry is very concerned about their remaining life and is keen to hear about innovations to make them less prone to failure. The mathematical models developed so far will help to resolve this issue.  

The Australian Research Council recently awarded Professor Melchers $1.1 million in Discovery Project Funding.  This includes the award of a prestigious ‘DORA’ (Discovery Outstanding Researcher Award), one out of only 17 awarded nationally.  This funding will further his investigations into the more fundamental aspects of marine corrosion.  

Bacterial and microbiological activity is known to contribute to seawater corrosion. However, recent findings have observed very aggressive corrosion also under sterile and apparently benign conditions. No theory to explain these observations currently exists.  Melchers has proposed the hypothesis that in certain circumstances second-phase constituents of steels will facilitate autocatalytic corrosion under anoxic conditions. His new research project explores the mechanisms and conditions likely to be involved.  

A leading structural engineering academic in Australia, Professor Melchers was the founding editor of the Australian Journal of Structural Engineering. He was also a founding Principal of AMOG Consulting Pty Ltd in 1991, which now has offices in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth and Houston.

Professor Melchers’ research into structural reliability and corrosion modelling of steel and concrete structures has won him many international awards and invitations to contribute to international research projects. In 2013 he was awarded the Engineers Australia John Connell Medal, presented annually to a structural engineer who has made a significant national and international contribution to the profession.

Professor Melchers’ academic record is outstanding. He has received two five-year Australian Professorial Fellowships from the Australian Research Council, has published four books, over 200 refereed journal papers and numerous conference papers and reports.

Professor Melchers has managed to blend a highly successful academic career while still being a leader in industry and in the profession, through Engineers Australia.

Professor Rob Melchers

In the Pipeline

Professor Robert Melchers’ research on marine corrosion at the University of Newcastle is leading the way towards safer, more resilient offshore engineering and

Read more

Career Summary

Biography

Research Expertise

Structural engineering risk and reliability analyses, Probabilistic modelling of engineering systems, Corrosion and deterioration modeling & Investigation of structural failures.


Qualifications

  • PhD, University of Cambridge - UK
  • Bachelor of Engineering (Honours), Monash University
  • Master of Engineering Science, Monash University
  • Diploma in Education, Monash University

Keywords

  • Civil Engineering
  • Corrosion
  • Probabilistic modelling
  • Structural Engineering

Fields of Research

CodeDescriptionPercentage
090506Structural Engineering75
091207Metals and Alloy Materials15
091499Resources Engineering and Extractive Metallurgy not elsewhere classified10

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2014 - ProfessorUniversity of Newcastle
School of Engineering
Australia

Academic appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2009 - 1/06/2015Fellow APF (ARC)
ARC - Discovery - Projects (including Australian Professorial Fellowships, Queen Elizabeth II Fellowships, and Australian Postdoctoral Fellowships))
University of Newcastle
School of Engineering
Australia
1/01/2004 - 1/12/2008Fellowship APF
ARC - Discovery - Projects (including Australian Professorial Fellowships, Queen Elizabeth II Fellowships, and Australian Postdoctoral Fellowships))
ARC (Australian Research Council)
1/01/2003 - Membership - Academy of Technological Sciences and EngineeringATSE (Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering)
1/01/2000 - Member (Ministerial appointment - renewed twice)Nuclear Safety Committee, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (Federal Government regulator)
Australia
1/01/1990 - Editor - Structural Safety (Elsevier, USA) Structural Safety (Elsevier, USA)
United States

Membership

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
Member - Independent Technical Review Committee (dealing with technical problems with the Collins Class submarines [Classified - Secret])Department of Defence
Australia
1/01/2006 - Member - Korean Journal of Civil Engineering (Korean Society of Civil Engineers)Korean Journal of Civil Engineering (Korean Society of Civil Engineers)
Korea, Republic of
1/01/2005 - Regional Editor - Ships and Offshore StructuresShips and Offshore Structures
Australia
1/01/1998 - Member - Reliability Engineering and System Safety (Elsevier, USA) Reliability Engineering and System Safety
United States
1/01/1998 - Editor - Australian Journal of Structural EngineeringAustralian Journal of Structural Engineering
Australia
1/01/1993 - 31/12/2003PresidentInternational Civil Engineering Risk and Reliability Association (ICERRA)
Australia
1/01/1988 - Member - Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (Springer, Germany)Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
Germany
1/01/1987 - Member - Civil and Environmental Engineering Systems (Gordon & Breach, UK) Civil and Environmental Engineering Systems
United Kingdom
1/01/1985 - Member - Executive Committee for IASSARInternational Association for Structural Safety and Reliability (IASSAR)
Australia

Awards

Research Award

YearAward
2007Visiting Research Fellow
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (4 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2008Paik JK, Melchers RE, Condition Assessment of Aged Structures, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 535 (2008) [A3]
CitationsScopus - 38
2007Melchers RE, Hough R, Modeling Complex Engineering Structures, ASCE, Reston, VA, 359 (2007) [A3]
2003Stewart MG, Melchers RE, Probabilistic Risk Assessment Of Engineering Systems, Tuttle-Mori Agency Inc, Tokyo, 251 (2003) [A4]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1999Melchers RE, Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, 431 (1999) [A1]
Show 1 more book

Chapter (8 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2011Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic methods for service life estimation of civil engineering structures', Service life estimation and extension of civil engineering structures, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK 179-192 (2011) [B1]
2008Melchers RE, 'Corrosion wastage in aged structures', Condition Assessment of Aged Structures, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom 77-106 (2008) [B1]
CitationsScopus - 3
2008Melchers RE, 'Reliability of aged land-based structures', Condition Assessment of Aged Structures, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom 352-363 (2008) [B1]
2007Melchers RE, Hough R, 'Structural Modeling: An Overview', Modeling Complex Engineering Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia 1-9 (2007) [B1]
2007Melchers RE, Guan X-L, 'Complex Structural Analysis and Structural Reliability', Modeling Complex Engineering Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia 313-340 (2007) [B1]
2006Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic models for corrosion in structural reliability assessment', Recent developments in reliability-based civil engineering, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore 141-164 (2006) [B1]
2005Melchers RE, 'Reliability Analysis', Structural Safety And Its Quality Assurance, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia 46-66 (2005) [B1]
2005Melchers RE, Beck AT, 'Time-Variant Reliability', Engineering Design Reliability Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton Ch 18 (2005) [B1]
Show 5 more chapters

Journal article (297 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2015Melchers RE, 'Using models to interpret data for monitoring and life prediction of deteriorating infrastructure systems', STRUCTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, 11 63-72 (2015)
DOI10.1080/15732479.2013.879317Author URL
2015Melchers RE, 'Using models to interpret data for monitoring and life prediction of deteriorating infrastructure systems', Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 11 63-72 (2015)

For environmental and for economic reasons, there is increased emphasis on extending the life of existing infrastructure and to design new infrastructure for longer, safe and effective service lives. Increasing use is being made of monitoring of performance and estimation of long-term reliability and safety, allowing also for the likelihood of long-term deterioration. To obtain optimal decision outcomes, reliance should be placed not only on data but also on accumulated scientific and engineering knowledge. In engineering, this is embodied in mathematical models. Ideally, these are of good quality, calibrated to ¿real world¿ data and have prediction capabilities. Recently, developed models of this type are described for the corrosion of steel in marine environments and simplified to models suitable for engineering applications. An example is given of the prediction of the expected corrosion loss and of the likely future rate of corrosion for a mild steel structural element exposed to temperate seawater.

DOI10.1080/15732479.2013.879317
2015Comanescu I, Melchers RE, Taxén C, 'Corrosion and durability of offshore steel water injection pipelines', Ships and Offshore Structures, (2015)

Carbon steel pipelines are widely used for injection of sea and other waters into oil and gas wells so as to increase the rate of recovery, particularly from mature fields. Internal corrosion usually is mild. However, cases of very aggressive channelling corrosion along the bottom of the pipeline have been observed. Practical experience and anecdotal observations have attributed this to microbiologically influenced corrosion even though extensive use is made of preventative measures including biocides, oxygen scavengers, corrosion and scale inhibitors, and pipeline pigging. Interpretation of data and observations for five water injection pipelines, made available by industry, indicate that microbiologically influenced corrosion may play a part in causing channelling corrosion but that the most likely cause is under-deposit corrosion under pipe debris that settles during periods of pipeline shut-downs and low water velocity.

DOI10.1080/17445302.2015.1014249
2015Melchers RE, 'Bi-modal trends in the long-term corrosion of copper and high copper alloys', Corrosion Science, 95 51-61 (2015)

The evolution of corrosion loss and maximum pit depth of copper and copper alloys exposed for long periods of time in natural and industrial environments is shown to be more consistent with a bi-modal functional form than with the classical power law. Data from several long-term exposure test programs supports this proposition. The bi-modal behaviour signals a change from mainly cathodic oxygen reduction to a subsequent transitory corrosion process that may be modelled as involving pitting under earlier copper corrosion products. Possible reasons for some data sets showing decreasing maximum pit depths with increasing exposure time are discussed.

DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2015.02.001
2015Rajabipour A, Melchers RE, 'Capacity of pitting corroded pipes under hydrogen assisted cracking', International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (2015)

Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry when subject to corrosion pitting may fail as a result of internal pressure and metal cracking influenced by hydrogen embrittlement. The progressive shape of the crack, including at the instant of failure, is predicted under increasing internal pressure. It is proposed that when hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) is involved the shape of the crack front may be estimated from a parallel numerical analyses in the absence of HAC. The theory for this is outlined and an example given.

DOI10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.05.077
2015Melchers RE, 'Time Dependent Development of Aluminium Pitting Corrosion', ADVANCES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, (2015)
DOI10.1155/2015/215712Author URL
2014Melchers RE, 'Microbiological and abiotic processes in modelling longer-term marine corrosion of steel', Bioelectrochemistry, 97 89-96 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.bioelechem.2013.07.002Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2014Wells T, Melchers RE, 'An observation-based model for corrosion of concrete sewers under aggressive conditions', CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, 61-62 1-10 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.cemconres.2014.03.013Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 2
2014Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Long-term corrosion of mild steel in natural and uv-treated coastal seawater', Corrosion, 70 804-818 (2014) [C1]

Highly polished coupons (25 by 25 by 1.5 mm) sourced from the same steel sheet were continuously immersion-exposed either to natural coastal seawater or to seawater from the same source subjected to filtration and UV irradiation to eliminate microbiologically influenced corrosion as much as possible. This was continued for 943 days (2.6 years). Dissolved oxygen levels were very similar in both environments. On average the UV-treated seawater was 2°C warmer, but all coupons exposed to it showed less localized corrosion than those exposed to natural seawater. The typical topographical difference was about 60% as measured by surface roughness parameter Sa. Mass losses in UV-treated seawater were about 10% higher than in natural seawater, but after temperature correction were similar to natural seawater for the first year and tended to be lower subsequently. At all exposure periods the rusts in UV-treated seawater were less voluminous than the rusts in natural seawater. Eventually they also contained a higher proportion of magnetite. © 2014, NACE International.

DOI10.5006/1122
CitationsScopus - 1
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2014Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, Usher KM, 'Localized corrosion of steel sheet piling', Corrosion Science, 79 139-147 (2014) [C1]

When steel sheet piling suffers accelerated low water corrosion the webs and flange-web regions of individual piles often perforate first, for reasons not fully understood. To investigate this, samples of the cross-sections of typical U and Z profile sheet piling were exposed to natural seawater for 1, 2 and 3. years. They showed localized corrosion in the central region and also near the flange-web junctions. These locations were found to have more material defects and segregation and show composition differences. It is proposed these observations are linked to localized sheet pile perforation after long exposure to seawater. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2013.10.038
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2014Melchers RE, 'Long-term immersion corrosion of steels in seawaters with elevated nutrient concentration', Corrosion Science, (2014) [C1]

Data from a variety of field exposure programs is used to quantify the effect of concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) on long-term seawater immersion corrosion loss of structural steels. A linear correlation model that asymptotes the long-term part of the previously proposed bi-modal corrosion loss model is used. It allows for average seawater temperature. Model parameters and their variability are determined and reported. The model permits prediction of long-term corrosion loss in nutrient polluted waters of known average temperature. An example shows that anthropological pollution of seawater potentially is a major hazard for corrosion of steel infrastructure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2013.12.009
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2014Melchers RE, 'Bi-modal trend in the long-term corrosion of aluminium alloys', Corrosion Science, 82 239-247 (2014) [C1]

A wide range of literature data including in situ immersion, tidal, coastal atmospheric and industrial exposures is used to show that the trend for longer term corrosion of aluminium alloys is nearly always more consistent with a bi-modal model than with the classical power-law function. It is proposed the bi-modal characteristic results from the accumulation of corrosion products causing localised anoxic conditions. These permit a change from predominantly cathodic oxygen reduction to hydrogen ion reduction under anoxic autocatalytic conditions within pits. This mechanism is consistent with established theory for pitting corrosion in aluminium. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2014.01.019
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2014Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Extreme value analysis for assessing structural reliability of welded offshore steel structures', Structural Safety, 50 9-15 (2014) [C1]

Natural deterioration of mild steel exposed to marine environment compromises the long-term integrity, serviceability and safety of new and existing infrastructure and increases the risk of structural failure. Welded structures are known to be prone to even higher risks as a result of adverse effects of pitting corrosion in weld-heated areas. A bi-modal model has been shown recently to be a better description for the long-term development of the maximum depth of pits. Also, the statistics of pit depth have been shown to be better represented, for long term exposures, by the Frechet extreme value distribution. Both new developments present challenges for structural reliability analysis. Herein a linearization is used to represent long-term development of pit depth. It is shown that data for maximum pit depths can be separated into those with Gumbel statistics and those for which a Frechet distribution is more appropriate. An example is given for the reliability analysis of a welded pipeline subjected to localized corrosion. The effect of random variable uncertainty is assessed using a sensitivity study. Results show the considerable influence on the probability of failure of pit diameter and the parameters describing the pitting corrosion model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI10.1016/j.strusafe.2014.03.007
CitationsScopus - 1
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2014Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'External Corrosion of Carbon Steel Pipeline Weld Zones', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING, 24 68-74 (2014) [C1]
Author URL
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2014Melchers RE, 'Bi-modal trends in the long-term corrosion of copper and high copper alloys', Corrosion Science, (2014)

The evolution of corrosion loss and maximum pit depth of copper and copper alloys exposed for long periods of time in natural and industrial environments is shown to be more consistent with a bi-modal functional form than with the classical power law. Data from several long-term exposure test programs supports this proposition. The bi-modal behaviour signals a change from mainly cathodic oxygen reduction to a subsequent transitory corrosion process that may be modelled as involving pitting under earlier copper corrosion products. Possible reasons for some data sets showing decreasing maximum pit depths with increasing exposure time are discussed.

DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2015.02.001
2014Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Corrosion of steel piling in seawater harbours', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Maritime Engineering, 167 159-172 (2014) [C1]

Unexpectedly high levels of corrosion of sheet and other steel piling were observed in UK harbours during the 1980s, and a phenomenon termed ¿accelerated low water corrosion¿ (ALWC) caused considerable concern about the structural safety of harbour quays and facilities. This paper shows that the severity of corrosion of steel piling both in the tidal zone and in the immersion zone is correlated with the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the local seawater. In the lower tidal zone this is consistent with the thinning of piles associated with ALWC. Previously it has been shown that in the horizontal direction the ALWC phenomenon is associated with material variability. Models are developed to allow the prediction of expected average corrosion loss both in the immersion zone and for the lower tidal zone (the ALWC effect) as a function of DIN, water temperature and exposure period. Data are presented to show the relatively low beneficial effect of changes in steel composition. It is concluded that for long-term protection against corrosion reliance must be placed on protective and preventive measures.

DOI10.1680/maen.13.00011
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Melchers RE, Rootsey R, Stuetz R, Keller J, Yuan Z, 'Taking control of odours and corrosion in sewers', Water: Journal of the Australian Water Association, 40 89-94 (2013) [C3]
2013Melchers RE, 'Influence of dissolved inorganic nitrogen on accelerated low water corrosion of marine steel piling', Corrosion, 69 95-103 (2013) [C1]

Accelerated low water corrosion (ALWC) is the term given to unusually high levels of corrosion immediately below the low water level in seawater exposures of steel piling. It has been associated with microbiologically influenced corrosion but conclusive evidence is lacking. Using published data for the corrosion of steel piles exposed for periods up to 27 years at various U.S. harbor and other locations, it is shown that the severity of ALWC is correlated with the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, a critical nutrient for microbiological (bacterial) activity in seawater. This was shown previously for short-term exposures and establishes that ALWC is indeed microbiologically influenced. It also provides a means of assessing the likelihood of long-term risk of occurrence of ALWC. © 2013, NACE International.

DOI10.5006/0728
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2013Melchers RE, 'Long-term corrosion of cast irons and steel in marine and atmospheric environments', CORROSION SCIENCE, 68 186-194 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2012.11.014Author URL
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 8
2013Rajabipour A, Melchers RE, 'A numerical study of damage caused by combined pitting corrosion and axial stress in steel pipes', CORROSION SCIENCE, 76 292-301 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2013.07.002Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2013Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'Performance of 45-year-old corroded prestressed concrete beams', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS, 166 547-559 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1680/stbu.11.00016Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2013Melchers RE, 'Human intervention and the safety of complex structural systems', Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 30 211-220 (2013) [C1]

Structural reliability theory based on probability provides a systematic, logical and consistent means to make estimates of the safety of complex structural systems. However, its application currently leaves it open to criticism that its predictions do not necessarily compare with reality and with accepted risk criteria in other contexts. Herein, it is proposed that this is because applications have not dealt satisfactorily with the issues of human error and particularly human intervention in the management of loads and resistances. Probability-based models for loads can be modified to include the influence of human intervention such as through including the effect of the degree of enforcement of regulatory requirements. Similarly, the standard of enforcement of minimum standards of material quality should be added to probability-based models for resistances. This is relevant particularly for the assessment and prediction of the future reliability and safety of existing structures. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

DOI10.1080/10286608.2013.853750
2013Melchers RE, Chernov BB, 'Corrosion of mild steel in elevated temperature hard freshwater', CORROSION ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 48 130-135 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1179/1743278212Y.0000000043Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2013Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Accelerated low water corrosion of steel piling in harbours', CORROSION ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 48 496-505 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1179/1743278213Y.0000000103Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Long term localised corrosion of marine steel piling welds', Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, 48 469-474 (2013) [C1]

Localised or pitting corrosion can be detrimental for steel pipes and containment structures, since wall perforation may cause system failure. Herein maximum pit depth quantification and its development with time are considered for samples taken from longitudinal welds on 33-year-old tubulars exposed in Newcastle Harbour. Relationships between pit depth and material metallurgy and corrosion properties were investigated by means of standard macro-etching, rest potential and zero resistance ammetry techniques. It is considered that the observed results are the result of the lack of homogeneity at the corrosion interface caused by differences in grain size, grain structure and the potential for pitting to occur preferentially along boundaries. The results are compared to measurements for longitudinal welds obtained previously on samples of API X56 Spec 5L pipe exposed in similar waters for up to 3?5 years, showing a reasonable degree of consistency between the two sets of data. The reasons for this are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

DOI10.1179/1743278212Y.0000000073
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2013Melchers RE, 'Microbiological and abiotic processes in modelling longer-term marine corrosion of steel', Bioelectrochemistry, (2013) [C1]

Longer term exposure of mild steel in natural (biotic) waters progresses as a bimodal function of time, both for corrosion mass loss and for pit depth. Recent test results, however, found this also for immersion in clean fresh, almost pure and triply distilled waters. This shows chlorides or microbiological activity is not essential for the electrochemical processes producing bimodal behaviour. It is proposed that the first mode is aerobic corrosion that eventually produces a non-homogeneous corroded surface and rust coverage sufficient to allow formation of anoxic niches. Within these, aggressive autocatalytic reduction then occurs under anoxic abiotic conditions, caused by sulfide species originating from the MnS inclusions typical in steels. This is consistent with Wranglen's model for abiotic anoxic crevice and pitting corrosion without external aggressive ions. In biotic conditions, metabolites from anaerobic bacterial activity within and near the anoxic niches provides additional (sulfide) species to contribute to the severity of corrosion. Limited observational evidence that supports this hypothesis is given but further investigation is required to determine all contributor(s) to the cathodic current for the electrochemical reaction. The results are important for estimating the contribution of microbiological corrosion in infrastructure applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.bioelechem.2013.07.002
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 3
2012Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Corrosion of long vertical steel strips in the marine tidal zone and implications for ALWC', Corrosion Science, 65 26-36 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 12
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Melchers RE, 'Modeling and prediction of long-term corrosion of steel in marine environments', International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 22 257-263 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 1
2011Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'The effects of corrosion on 45-year-old pre-stressed concrete bridge beams', Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 7 101-108 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1080/15732471003588411
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 4
2011Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Pitting corrosion in pipeline steel weld zones', Corrosion Science, 53 4026-4032 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2011.08.005
CitationsScopus - 27Web of Science - 17
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2011Melchers RE, 'Investigation of the failure of the Newcastle Workers Club', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 11 163-176 (2011) [C1]
2010Melchers RE, 'Estimating uncertainty in maximum pit depth from limited observational data', Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, 45 240-248 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1179/147842209X12489567719581
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 1
2010Melchers RE, 'Transient early and longer term influence of bacteria on marine corrosion of steel', Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, 45 257-261 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1179/174327809X397857
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 2
2010Melchers RE, Paik JK, 'Effect of flexure on rusting of ship's steel plating', Ships and Offshore Structures, 5 25-31 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1080/17445300902990614
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2010Melchers RE, Chernov BB, 'Corrosion loss of mild steel in high temperature hard freshwater', Corrosion Science, 52 449-454 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2009.10.002
2010Melchers RE, Ahammed M, Jeffrey RJ, Simundic G, 'Statistical characterization of surfaces of corroded steel plates', Marine Structures, 23 274-287 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.marstruc.2010.07.002
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 10
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed, Robert Jeffrey, Goran Simundic
2010Melchers RE, 'Carbonates, carbonation and the durability of reinforced concrete marine structures', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 10 215-226 (2010) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4
2009Melchers RE, 'Validity and quality of deterioration models for structural reliability assessment', Structural Longevity, 1 17-36 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.3970/sl.2009.001.017
2009Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Reinforcement corrosion initiation and activation times in concrete structures exposed to severe marine environments', Cement and Concrete Research, 39 1068-1076 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.07.003
CitationsScopus - 18Web of Science - 11
2009Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Effect of vertical length on corrosion of steel in the tidal zone', Corrosion, 65 695-702 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3319096
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 7
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2009Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Reinforcement corrosion in concrete exposed to the North Sea for more than 60 years', Corrosion, 65 554-566 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3319158
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 4
2009Melchers RE, Paik JK, 'Effect of tensile strain on the rate of marine corrosion of steel plates', Corrosion Science, 51 2298-2303 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2009.06.010
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2009Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion of vertical mild steel strips in seawater', Corrosion Science, 51 2291-2297 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2009.06.020
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 11
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2009Melchers RE, Li CQ, Davison MA, 'Observations and analysis of a 63-year-old reinforced concrete promenade railing exposed to the North Sea', Magazine of Concrete Research, 61 233-243 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1680/macr.2007.00093
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 6
2009Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'A convenient approach for estimating time-dependent structural reliability in the load space', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 24 467-472 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2009.01.003
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 4
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2008Melchers RE, 'Rejoinder', Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 25 71-76 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1080/10286600701632144
2008Melchers RE, 'Development of new applied models for steel corrosion in marine applications including shipping', Ships and Offshore Structures, 3 135-144 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1080/17445300701799851
CitationsScopus - 29
2008Paik JK, Thayamballi AK, Melchers RE, 'Some recent developments in corrosion assessment and management for steel ships and offshore structures', Marine Technology and SNAME News, 45 94-100 (2008) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2008Paik JK, Melchers RE, 'Preface', Condition Assessment of Aged Structures, (2008)
DOI10.1016/B978-1-84569-334-3.50021-8
2008Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Modeling of long-term corrosion loss and pitting for chromium-bearing and stainless steels in seawater', Corrosion, 64 143-154 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3280683
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, 'Discussion on 'Stochastic modeling of pitting corrosion: A new model for initiation and growth of multiple pits'', Corrosion Science, 50 1518-1519 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2008.01.017
CitationsScopus - 3
2008Gudze MT, Melchers RE, 'Operational based corrosion analysis in naval ships', Corrosion Science, 50 3296-3307 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2008.08.048
CitationsScopus - 23Web of Science - 17
2008Melchers RE, 'A new interpretation of the corrosion loss processes for weathering steels in marine atmospheres', Corrosion Science, 50 3446-3454 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2008.09.003
CitationsScopus - 19Web of Science - 17
2008Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'The critical involvement of anaerobic bacterial activity in modelling the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in marine environments', Electrochimica Acta, 54 80-85 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.electacta.2008.02.107
CitationsScopus - 54Web of Science - 25
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, Li CQ, Lawanwisut W, 'Probabilistic modeling of structural deterioration of reinforced concrete beams under saline environment corrosion', Structural Safety, 30 447-460 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.strusafe.2007.02.002
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 14
2008Melchers RE, 'Extreme value statistics and long-term marine pitting corrosion of steel', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 23 482-488 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2007.09.003
CitationsScopus - 34Web of Science - 19
2008Li C-Q, Yang Y, Melchers RE, 'Prediction of reinforcement corrosion in concrete and its effects on concrete cracking and strength reduction', ACI Materials Journal, 105 3-10 (2008) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 10
2008Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Probablistic models for steel corrosion loss and pitting of marine infrastructure', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 93 423-432 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.ress.2006.12.006
CitationsScopus - 29Web of Science - 14
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, Frangopol DM, 'Probabilistic modelling of structural degradation', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 93 363 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.ress.2007.01.001
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2008Brown CB, Elms DG, Melchers RE, 'Assessing and achieving structural safety', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Structures and Buildings, 161 219-230 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1680/stbu.2008.161.4.219
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2007Li CQ, Zheng JJ, Lawanwisut W, Melchers RE, 'Concrete delamination caused by steel reinforcement corrosion', Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19 591-600 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2007)19:7(591)
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 10
2007Melchers RE, Moan T, Gao Z, 'Corrosion of working chains continuously immersed in seawater', Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 12 102-110 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1007/s00773-006-0227-4
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 3
2007Melchers RE, 'Structural reliability theory in the context of structural safety', Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 24 55-69 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1080/10286600601025191
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 10
2007Melchers RE, 'Development of new applied models for steel corrosion in marine applications including shipping', 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and other Floating Structures, PRADS 2007, 2 919-927 (2007)

Models for the prediction of corrosion mostly give the misleading impression that corrosion of steel in seawater environments is a linear function of time (the 'corrosion rate'). Non-linear functions have been proposed also, These have been calibrated to aggregated data from a wide variety of sources. This produces predictions with wide uncertainty and it is difficult to make assessments of the effect of steel composition and environmental influences. Recent research has produced a model based on the fundamental characteristics of steel corrosion, including the effect of biological influences. Detailed investigations show that the process controlling the (instantaneous) rate of corrosion changes as corrosion progresses. This is represented as a sequence of phases for which fundamental theoretical justifications and mathematical relationships have been derived. To ensure the model has practical validity it has been calibrated to actual field observations rather than laboratory data. Research findings for the effect of water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, nutrient pollution, depth, water velocity, water salinity and steel composition are reviewed briefly. Some observations about applications and research directions are given. © 2007 American Bureau of Shipping.

CitationsScopus - 2
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Influence of migration of iron particles, ions and compounds during long term marine immersion corrosion', Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, 42 145-151 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1179/174327807X196870
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Gudze MT, Melchers RE, 'Prediction of naval ship ballast tank corrosion using operational profiles', Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects Part A: International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 149 51-53 (2007) [C3]
2007Melchers RE, 'Influence of Seawater nutrient content on the early immersion corrosion of mild steel - Part 1: Empirical observations', Corrosion, 63 318-329 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278385
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 12
2007Melchers RE, 'Transition from marine immersion to coastal atmospheric corrosion for structural steels', Corrosion, 63 500-514 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278401
CitationsScopus - 25Web of Science - 15
2007Melchers RE, 'Influence of seawater nutrient content on the early immersion corrosion of mild steel - Part 2: The role of biofilms and sulfate-reducing bacteria', Corrosion, 63 405-415 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278393
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 8
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Effect of orientation and shielding in the early corrosion of mild steel in tidal marine conditions', Corrosion, 63 872-879 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278438
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Melchers RE, 'Discussion: Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion - Part 1: Data analysis and part 2: Probabilistic modeling for maximum pit depth', Corrosion, 63 112-113 (2007) [C1]
2007Melchers RE, 'The effects of water pollution on the immersion corrosion of mild and low alloy steels', Corrosion Science, 49 3149-3167 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2007.03.021
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 14
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The changing topography of corroding mild steel surfaces in seawater', Corrosion Science, 49 2270-2288 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2006.11.003
CitationsScopus - 44Web of Science - 30
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2006Melchers RE, Li CQ, Lawanwisut W, 'Modelling deterioration of structural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams under saline environment corrosion', Magazine of Concrete Research, 58 575-587 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1680/macr.2006.58.9.575
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2006Li CQ, Melchers RE, 'Time-dependent serviceability of corrosion-affected concrete structures', Magazine of Concrete Research, 58 567-574 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1680/macr.2006.58.9.567
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2006Melchers RE, Paik JK, 'Discussion: non-linear corrosion model for immersed steel plates', Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, 323-325 (2006) [C1]
2006Guedes Soares C, Garbatov Y, Zayed A, Wang G, Melchers RE, Paik JK, Cui W, 'Non-linear corrosion model for immersed steel plates accounting for environmental factors', Transactions - Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 113 306-329 (2006)

The effects of different marine environmental factors on the corrosion behavior of steel plates totally immersed in salt water are studied. A new corrosion wastage model is proposed, based on a non-linear time-dependent function. This model accounts for the effects of various environmental factors, including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and flow velocity. A numerical example is illustrated for ships trading in different routes in the Pacific Ocean.

CitationsScopus - 14
2006Fathi M, Daneshjoo F, Melchers RE, 'A method for determining the behaviour factor of moment-resisting steel frames with semi-rigid connections', Engineering Structures, 28 514-531 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.09.006
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 5
2006Moareftadeh MR, Melchers RE, 'Nonlinear wave theory in reliability analysis of offshore structures', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 21 99-111 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2005.04.002
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2006Gray WA, Melchers RE, 'Modifications to the 'directional simulation in the load space' approach to structural reliability analysis', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 21 148-158 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2005.08.002
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2006Gray WA, Melchers RE, 'Load combination analysis by 'Directional simulation in the load space'', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 21 159-170 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2005.08.001
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2006Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Phenomenological modeling-of reinforcement corrosion in marine environments', ACI Materials Journal, 103 25-32 (2006) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 35
2006Li CQ, Melchers RE, Zheng JJ, 'Analytical model for corrosion-induced crack width in reinforced concrete structures', ACI Structural Journal, 103 479-487 (2006) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 66Web of Science - 53
2006Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'Gradient and parameter sensitivity estimation for systems evaluated using Monte Carlo analysis', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 91 594-601 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.ress.2005.04.005
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 20
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2006Melchers RE, 'The corrosion in seawater of structural steels in infrastructure applications', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 6 159-168 (2006) [C1]
2006Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Statistical characterization of corroded steel plate surfaces', Advances in Structural Engineering, 9 83-90 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1260/136943306776232828
CitationsScopus - 1
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2006Melchers RE, 'Examples of mathematical modelling of long term general corrosion of structural steels in sea water', Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, 41 38-44 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1179/174327806X93992
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 9
2006Gudze MT, Melchers RE, 'Prediction of naval ship ballast tank corrosion using operational profiles', International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 148 77-86 (2006) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 9
2006Melchers RE, 'The marine corrosion of structural steels in brackish and fresh waters', Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2 53-61 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1080/15732470500253115
CitationsWeb of Science - 4
2006Melchers RE, Jiang X, 'Estimation of models for durability of epoxy coatings in water ballast tanks', Ships and Offshore Structures, 1 61-70 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1533/saos.2004.0006
2006Melchers RE, 'Mathematical and probabilistic modelling of material deterioration with application to pitting corrosion in structural steel applications', Journal of Reliability of Structures and Materials, 2 1-8 (2006) [C1]
2006Melchers RE, 'Recent progress in the modeling of corrosion of structural steel immersed in seawaters', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 12 154-162 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2006)12:3(154)
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 7
2006Melchers RE, 'Pitting corrosion of mild steel under marine anaerobic conditions - Part 1: Experimental observations', Corrosion, 62 981-988 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278236
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 9
2006Melchers RE, 'Pitting corrosion of mild steel under marine anaerobic conditions - Part 2: Statistical representation of maximum pit depth', Corrosion, 62 1074-1081 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278241
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2006Melchers RE, 'Modelling immersion corrosion of structural steels in natural fresh and brackish waters', Corrosion Science, 48 4174-4201 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2006.04.012
CitationsScopus - 48Web of Science - 30
2006Melchers RE, Wells PA, 'Models for the anaerobic phases of marine immersion corrosion', Corrosion Science, 48 1791-1811 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2005.05.039
CitationsScopus - 56Web of Science - 39
2005Melchers RE, 'Effect of alloying on maximum depth of pits in mild steel in marine immersion environments', Corrosion, 61 355-363 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3279888
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 4
2005Melchers RE, 'Effect of nutrient-based water pollution on the corrosion of mild steel in marine immersion conditions', Corrosion, 61 237-245 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3280633
CitationsScopus - 48Web of Science - 32
2005Melchers RE, 'Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion - Part 1: Data analysis', Corrosion, 61 655-664 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278201
CitationsScopus - 37Web of Science - 26
2005Melchers RE, 'Statistical characterization of pitting corrosion - Part 2: Probabilistic modeling for maximum pit depth', Corrosion, 61 766-777 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3278211
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 23
2005Melchers RE, 'Effect Of Immersion Depth On Marine Corrosion Of Mild Steel', Corrosion, 61 895-906 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3280659
CitationsScopus - 18Web of Science - 14
2005Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Early corrosion of mild steel in seawater', Corrosion Science, 47 1678-1693 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2004.08.006
CitationsScopus - 70Web of Science - 41
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2005Melchers RE, 'The effect of corrosion on the structural reliability of steel offshore structures', Corrosion Science, 47 2391-2410 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2005.04.004
CitationsScopus - 65Web of Science - 40
2005Melchers RE, 'Representation of uncertainty in maximum depth of marine corrosion pits', Structural Safety, 27 322-334 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.strusafe.2005.02.002
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 10
2005Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'Barrier failure dominance in time variant reliability analysis', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 20 79-85 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2004.05.007
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 5
2005Novikov A, Melchers RE, Shinjikashvili E, Kordzakhia N, 'First passage time of filtered Poisson process with exponential shape function', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 20 57-65 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2004.04.005
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 7
2005Li CQ, Melchers RE, 'Time-dependent reliability analysis of corrosion-induced concrete cracking', ACI Structural Journal, 102 543-549 (2005) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 17Web of Science - 11
2005Li CQ, Melchers RE, 'Time-dependent risk assessment of structural deterioration caused by reinforcement corrosion', ACI Structural Journal, 102 754-762 (2005) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 12
2005Li CQ, Melchers RE, Lawanwisut W, 'Vulnerability Assessment Of Corrosion-Affected Concrete Structures', Magazine Of Concrete Research, 57 557-565 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1680/macr.2005.57.9.557
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2005Jiang X, Melchers RE, 'Reliability analysis of maintained ships under correlated fatigue and corrosion', Royal Institution of Naval Architects. Transactions. Part A. International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 147 9-18 (2005) [C1]
2005Melchers RE, 'On extending the range of Michell-like optimal topology structures', Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 29 85-92 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1007/s00158-004-0469-x
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 10
2005Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'A meso-scale finite element model for environmental stress corrosion of GFRP', 4th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, ACAM 2005, 573-578 (2005)

A stress corrosion model of a glass fibre is used within the framework of the finite element theory to predict the life of a unidirectional composite. The approach proposed here seeks to construct plausible models of comparative behaviour such that data and experience gained from short-term durability tests can be extrapolated and used to predict long-term behaviour. It is based on numerical simulation. Its significance comes from the fact that it makes use of the finite element method at the microstructural level. The finite element can capture reasonably well all aspects of damage mechanisms taking place in the microstructure. © Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia Ltd 2005.

CitationsScopus - 1
2004Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Influence Of Water Velocity On Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel', Corrosion, Vol. 60 84-94 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3299235
CitationsScopus - 44Web of Science - 30
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2004Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Surface 'Roughness' Effect On Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel', Corrosion, Vol. 60 697-703 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3287847
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 10
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2004Melchers RE, 'Mathematical Modeling Of The Effect Of Water Velocity On The Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel Coupons', Corrosion, Vol. 60 471-478 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3299243
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 5
2004Melchers RE, 'Pitting Corrosion Of Mild Steel In Marine Immersion Environment - Part 1: Maximum Pit Depth', Corrosion, Vol. 60 824-836 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3287863
CitationsScopus - 73Web of Science - 47
2004Melchers RE, 'Pitting Corrosion Of Mild Steel In Marine Immersion Environment - Part 2: Variability Of Maximum Pit Depth', Corrosion, Vol. 60 937-944 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3287827
CitationsScopus - 41Web of Science - 22
2004Melchers RE, 'Effect Of Small Compositional Changes On Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Low Alloy Steels', Corrosion Science, Vol. 46 1669-1691 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2003.10.004
CitationsScopus - 61Web of Science - 40
2004Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'A Fast Approximate Method For Parameter Sensitivity Estimation In Monte Carlo Structural Reliability', Computers and Structures, Vol 82 55-61 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.compstruc.2003.08.003
CitationsScopus - 127Web of Science - 61
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2004Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'Overload Failure Of Structural Components Under Random Crack Propagation And Loading - A Random Process Approach', Structural Safety, Vol. 26 471-488 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.strusafe.2004.02.001
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 14
2004Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'On The Ensemble Crossing Rate Approach To Time Variant Reliability Analysis Of Uncertain Structures', Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 19 9-19 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.probengmech.2003.11.018
CitationsScopus - 32Web of Science - 23
2004Masia MJ, Kleeman PW, Melchers RE, 'Modelling Soil/Structure Interaction For Masonry Structures', Journal of Structural Engineering, 130 641-649 (2004) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:4(641)
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 5
Co-authorsMark Masia
2003Melchers RE, 'Modeling Of Marine Immersion Corrosion For Mild And Low-Alloy Steels - Part 1: Phenomological Model', Corrosion, Vol. 59 319-334 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3277564
CitationsScopus - 127Web of Science - 81
2003Melchers RE, 'Modeling Of Marine Immersion Corrosion For Mild And Low-Alloy Steels - Part 2: Uncertainty Estimation', Corrosion, Vol. 59 334-344 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.5006/1.3277565
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 25
2003Melchers RE, 'Mathematical Modelling Of The Diffusion Controlled Phase In Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel', Corrosion Science, Vol. 45 923-940 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0010-938X(02)00208-1
CitationsScopus - 106Web of Science - 71
2003Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Bacteriological Influence In The Development Of Iron Sulphide Species In Marine Immersion Environments', Corrosion Science, Vol. 45 693-714 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0010-938X(02)00147-6
CitationsScopus - 49Web of Science - 34
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2003Melchers RE, 'Modelling Of Marine Immersion Corrosion For Copper-Bearing Steels', Corrosion Science, Vol. 45 2307-2323 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0010-938X(03)00049-0
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 10
2003Melchers RE, 'Effect On Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Carbon Content Of Low ALlow Steels', Corrosion Science, Vol. 45 2609-2625 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0010-938X(03)00068-4
CitationsScopus - 48Web of Science - 37
2003Melchers RE, Ahammed M, Middleton C, 'FORM For Discontinuous And Truncated Probability Density Functions', Structural Safety, Vol. 25 304-313 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0167-4730(03)00002-X
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 13
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2003Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'A micromechanics model for environmental stress corrosion in GFRP', International Journal of Materials and Product Technology, 19 2-14 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1504/IJMPT.2003.003556
CitationsScopus - 2
2003Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic Model For Marine Corrosion Of Steel For Structural Reliability Assessment', Journal Of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129 1484-1493 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:11(1484)
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 13
2003Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic Models For Corrosion In Structural Reliability Assessment - Part 1: Empirical Models', Journal Of Offshore Mechanics And Arctic Engineering, Vol. 125 264-271 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1115/1.1600467
CitationsScopus - 27Web of Science - 16
2003Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic Models For Corrosion In Structural Reliability Assessment - Part 2: Models Based On Mechanics', Journal Of Offshore Mechanics And Arctic Engineering, Vol. 125 272-280 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1115/1.1600468
CitationsScopus - 38Web of Science - 32
2003Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion Analysis Of Bulk Carriers: Part 1 - Operational Parameters Influencing Corrosion Rates', Marine Structures, Vol. 16 547-566 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1016/S0951-8339(01)00026-0
CitationsScopus - 36Web of Science - 22
2003Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'Durability Of Glass Polymer Composites Subject To Stress Corrosion', Journal Of Composites For Construction, Vol. 7 109-117 (2003) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2003)7:2(109)
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2002Melchers RE, 'Effect Of Temperature On The Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Carbon Steels', Corrosion, Vol. 58, No. 9 768-782 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 28Web of Science - 19
2002Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion Of Mild Steel In Porous Media', Corrosion Science, Vol. 44 2459-2478 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 28Web of Science - 19
2002Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion Of Mild Steel By Coal And Iron Ore', Corrosion Science, Vol. 44 2665-2673 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 18
2002Guan X-L, Melchers RE, 'Effect Of Response Surface Parameter Variation On Structural Reliability Estimates', Structural Safety, Vol. 23 429-444 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 123Web of Science - 89
2002Melchers RE, 'Safety And Risk In Structural Engineering', Progress In Structural Engineering And Materials, Vol. 4 193-202 (2002) [C1]
2002Masia MJ, Melchers RE, Kleeman PW, 'Probabilistic Crack Prediction For Masonry Structures On Expansive Soils', Journal of Structural Engineering, 128 1454-1461 (2002) [C1]
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:11(1454)
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authorsMark Masia
2002Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Gradient Estimation For Applied Monte Carlo Analyses', Reliability Engineering And System Safety, Vol. 78 283-288 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 6
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2002Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic Risk Assessment For Structures', Proceedings Of The Institution Of Civil Engineers: Structures And Buildings, Issue 4 351-359 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 3
2002Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'Stress corrosion of glass fibre reinforced polymers for infrastructure applications', Corrosion and Materials, 27 S5-S8 (2002) [C1]
2002Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Shape And Size Effects For Marine Immersion Coupons', British Corrosion Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2 99-104 (2002) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 14
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2001Melchers RE, 'Influence of temperature on sea water immersion corrosion of aluminium', British Corrosion Journal, 36 201-204 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 6
2001Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Enclosed atmospheric corrosion in ship spaces', British Corrosion Journal, 36 272-276 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 21Web of Science - 10
2001Melchers RE, 'Temperature effect on seawater immersion corrosion of 90:10 copper-nickel alloy', Corrosion, 57 440-451 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 8
2001Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Estimation of failure probabilities for intersections of non-linear limit states', Structural Safety, 23 123-135 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 12
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2001Guan X-L, Melchers RE, 'Effects of response surface parameter variation on structural reliability estimates', Structural Safety, 23 429-444 (2001) [C1]
2001Melchers RE, 'Assessment of Existing Structures - Approaches and Research Needs', Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol 127, No. 4 406-411 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 39Web of Science - 24
2001Melchers RE, Soares CG, 'Special issue - Risk assessment of engineering facilities', RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 74 225-225 (2001)
DOI10.1016/S0951-8320(01)00103-XAuthor URL
2001Melchers RE, Soares CG, 'Guest editorial', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 74 225-225 (2001) [C3]
DOI10.1016/S0951-8320(01)00103-X
Co-authorsStephen Nicholas
2001Melchers RE, 'Rational optimization of reliability and safety policies', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 73 263-268 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 4
2001Melchers RE, 'On the ALARP approach to risk management', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 71 201-208 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 63Web of Science - 45
2001Melchers RE, Feutrill WR, 'Risk assessment of LPG automotive refuelling facilities', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 74 283-290 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 7
2001Melchers RE, 'Optimality-criteria-based probabilistic structural design', Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 23 34-39 (2001) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2000Melchers RE, 'Discussion on 'The strategies and value of risk based structural safety analysis' - Special issue of Structural Safety, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1999', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 22 281-286 (2000)
DOI10.1016/S0167-4730(00)00009-6Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
2000Melchers RE, 'Discussion on 'The strategies and value of risk based structural safety analysis'', Structural Safety, Vol 22 281-286 (2000) [C1]
2000Son KS, Melchers RE, Kal WM, 'An analysis of safety control effectiveness', Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol 68 187-194 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2000Val DV, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Life-cycle performance of reinforced concrete bridges: probabilistic approach', Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 15 14-25 (2000) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 24Web of Science - 20
Co-authorsMark Stewart
2000Melchers RE, Jefferis M, 'Australian Journal of Structural Engineering', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 3, Nos. 1 & 2 1-109 (2000) [C2]
1999Melchers RE, 'Corrosion uncertainty modelling for steel structures', Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 52 3-19 (1999) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 70Web of Science - 48
1999Moarefzadeh MR, Melchers RE, 'Directional importance sampling for ill-proportioned spaces', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 21 1-22 (1999)
DOI10.1016/S0167-4730(98)00023-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 13
1999Guan X-L, Melchers RE, 'A load space formulation for probabilistic finite element analysis of structural reliability', Porbabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 14 73-81 (1999) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
1999Melchers RE, 'Research needs in structural engineering: changes and challenges', Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 2 85-94 (1999) [C1]
1998Val DV, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Effect of reinforcement corrosion on reliability of highway bridges', Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, No.11 1010-1019 (1998) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 76Web of Science - 49
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1997Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic analysis of underground pipelines subject to combined stresses and corrosion', ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, 19 988-994 (1997)
DOI10.1016/S0141-0296(97)00043-6Author URL
CitationsScopus - 57Web of Science - 37
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1997Guan XL, Melchers RE, 'Multitangent-plane surface method for reliability calculation', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 123 996-1002 (1997)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:10(996)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 13
1997Val DV, Melchers RE, 'Reliability of deteriorating RC slab bridges', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 123 1638-1644 (1997)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1997)123:12(1638)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 91Web of Science - 66
1997Melchers RE, 'Modeling of marine corrosion of steel specimens', ASTM Special Technical Publication, 1300 20-33 (1997)

Phenomenological modeling of the long term general corrosion of mild and low alloy steel specimens under marine conditions is considered, using weight loss as a function of time. A conceptual model for immersion corrosion, tidal corrosion and atmospheric corrosion under marine conditions is proposed. The model uses accepted theories for short term surface corrosion and employs modern understanding of the action of bacterial colonisation of the surfaces of specimens, including the development of anaerobic conditions. Kinetic, diffusion, nutrient and anaerobic components of the model are identified and mathematical descriptions given. The model is compared to some data available in the literature. Some observations are made about data requirements for further development of models of the type proposed.

CitationsScopus - 5
1996Frangopol DM, Melchers RE, 'Special issue on reliability-based evaluation and design of masonry, steel, and reinforced concrete structures', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 18 65-65 (1996)
DOI10.1016/S0167-4730(96)90000-4Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1996Moarefzadeh MR, Melchers RE, 'Sample-specific linearization in reliability analysis of off-shore structures', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 18 101-122 (1996)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(96)00014-8Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 5
1996Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'Reliability estimation of pressurised pipelines subject to localised corrosion defects', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING, 69 267-272 (1996)
DOI10.1016/0308-0161(96)00009-9Author URL
CitationsScopus - 56Web of Science - 36
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1996Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'Reliability of underground pipelines subject to corrosion - Closure', JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING-ASCE, 122 408-408 (1996)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(1996)122:5(408)Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1995MELCHERS RE, 'LOAD SPACE RELIABILITY FORMULATION FOR POISSON PULSE PROCESSES', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 121 779-784 (1995)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1995)121:7(779)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 9
1995AHAMMED M, MELCHERS RE, 'PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF PIPELINES SUBJECTED TO PITTING CORROSION LEAKS', ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, 17 74-80 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0141-0296(95)92637-NAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 26Web of Science - 11
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1995LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'FAILURE PROBABILITY OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE COLUMNS UNDER STOCHASTIC LOADS', ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, 17 419-424 (1995)
DOI10.1016/0141-0296(95)00044-8Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 2
1995CHAN HY, MELCHERS RE, 'TIME-DEPENDENT RESISTANCE DETERIORATION IN PROBABILISTIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS', CIVIL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, 12 115-132 (1995)
DOI10.1080/02630259508970163Author URL
1995Melchers RE, Feutrill WR, 'Risk assessment for automotive LPG facilities', American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP, 296 457-462 (1995)

Experiences are described of the use and application of quantified risk analysis (QRA) for medium size liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) facilities associated with automotive service (gas) stations in suburban and rural areas. The facilities consist primarily of one or more 7.5 kilolitre pressure vessels, pumps, pipework, dispensing facilities and various types of safety equipment. QRA was required to show compliance with recently introduced Australian national regulatory risk criteria for land use planning purposes. A description is given of the risk analysis procedure, the various hazard scenarios considered, the determination and application of appropriate data for initiating events and for rates of failure of mechanical components, the pressure vessel and various human operations. Various tests were performed to estimate matters such as flame length and flame impingement on pressure vessels. Some observations are made regarding the standard of conventional industry quantified risk analysis techniques and the way they are often applied. An area of particular concern is the use of 'conservative best estimates' widely used in the industry but inconsistent with the interpretation of risk criteria derived from expected (observed) risks.

CitationsScopus - 3
1994GUAN XL, MELCHERS RE, 'AN EFFICIENT FORMULATION FOR LIMIT STATE FUNCTION GRADIENT CALCULATION', COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES, 53 929-935 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0045-7949(94)90380-8Author URL
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 6
1994MELCHERS RE, LI CQ, 'A BENCHMARK STUDY ON IMPORTANCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES IN STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY - ENGELUND,S. RACKWITZ,R. (MUNCHEN, GERMANY), STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 12(4)(1993) 255-276 - DISCUSSION', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 14 299-302 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(94)90017-5Author URL
1994MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT USING DIRECTIONAL SIMULATION', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 16 23-37 (1994)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(94)00026-MAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 24Web of Science - 19
1994LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'RELIABILITY-ANALYSIS OF CREEP AND SHRINKAGE EFFECTS - CLOSURE', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 120 1050-1050 (1994)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1994)120:3(1050.2)Author URL
1994AHAMMED M, MELCHERS RE, 'RELIABILITY OF UNDERGROUND PIPELINES SUBJECT TO CORROSION', JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING-ASCE, 120 989-1002 (1994)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(1994)120:6(989)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 36Web of Science - 24
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1994Melchers RE, 'On intra-plate earthquakes and existing structures', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering, CE36 265-272 (1994)

Although the risk of damage to buildings and structures and the risk of personal death and injury due to earthquakes in Australia is relatively low, the 1989 Newcastle earthquake did point to the need to reexamine existing structural design and construction standards. There is a danger, however, that tough regulations will affect adversely the continued viability of existing building stock, in particular historical buildings. Commercial interests also may be affected. For buildings which have a projected life which is short relative to the recurrence rate of serious ground shaking, it is argued that the total structural life-time risk is low and might be ignored. This would appear to be the situation under Australian intra-plate earthquake conditions. The conclusion is relevant for structurally adequate existing buildings and for new buildings constructed in the first few years after the occurrence of major ground shaking.

1994LI CW, MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS RELIABILITY UNDER STOCHASTIC LOADS', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS, 104 251-255 (1994)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 2
1994LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS RELIABILITY UNDER STOCHASTIC LOADS (VOL 104, PG 251, 1994)', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS, 104 489-489 (1994)
Author URL
1993CHAN HY, MELCHERS RE, 'A SIMULATION METHOD FOR TIME-DEPENDENT STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY', COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES, 49 989-996 (1993)
DOI10.1016/0045-7949(93)90010-BAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1993LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'GAUSSIAN UPCROSSING RATE SOLUTION FOR STRUCTURAL SERVICEABILITY', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 12 293-303 (1993)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(93)90058-9Author URL
1993LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'OUTCROSSINGS FROM CONVEX POLYHEDRA FOR NONSTATIONARY GAUSSIAN-PROCESSES', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 119 2354-2359 (1993)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1993)119:11(2354)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 18Web of Science - 22
1993Chan HY, Melchers RE, 'Reliability of time-dependent structural systems', Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE, 2 39-46 (1993)

A corrosion process acting on an individual structural member may be modelled as a time-dependent resistance deterioration mechanism. This leads to a deteriorating structural system, which may be subjected to one or more stochastic load processes. When resistances are modelled as Gaussian random variables, the loads as Gaussian random processes and deterioration is considered to be a simple function of time, some progress can be made in evaluation of structural system reliability using an outcrossing formulation. This was checked using numerical integration. The results are compared to purely simulation results both for the outcrossing rate and for various sensitivity results. Good agreement is demonstrated.

1993Melchers RE, 'Reliability and risk assessments for LPG facilities - a view of the state of the art', Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE, 2 13-19 (1993)

Quantitative risk analysis procedures increasingly are being applied to potentially hazardous industrial operations and facilities. A review of QRA analyses carried out for land-based LPG facilities has shown that the failure probabilities obtained for specific events may differ considerably between risk analyses and between analists. The present paper reviews possible reasons for the disparities and what might be done to produce more consistent results. It is necessary that the limitations of current QRA techniques be recognized and be made known. This is important because there is a distinct danger that quantified risk analysis in general may be discredited as a result of unfavourable experiences by industry, decision-makers and legislators. This may have implications also for the offshore industry.

CitationsScopus - 2
1992MELCHERS RE, 'COLUMN-BASE RESPONSE UNDER APPLIED MOMENT', JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL RESEARCH, 23 127-143 (1992)
DOI10.1016/0143-974X(92)90040-LAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 11
1992Melchers RE, 'Rotational stiffness of shallow footings', Computers and Geotechnics, 13 21-35 (1992)

The details of footing design, the soil stiffness and the soil resistance all affect the rotation characteristics of column bases of structural frames. This can have a considerable influence on structural economics (strength design), structural deflections (serviceability design) and on structural stability. Of particular and increasing importance in structural design is the ability to predict structural deformations under serviceability load level conditions. However, only limited theoretical and experimental attention has been given to understanding the footing-soil interface behaviour of shallow footings for realistic foundation conditions. In this paper, a set of experimental results for shallow footing behaviour under load reversal is presented. Based on this work and on previous modelling attempts, a relatively simple theoretical model for predicting rotation behaviour of simple pad footings under the first loading condition is described. © 1992.

DOI10.1016/0266-352X(92)90009-I
CitationsScopus - 2
1992MELCHERS RE, 'LOAD-SPACE FORMULATION FOR TIME-DEPENDENT STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 118 853-870 (1992)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1992)118:5(853)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 33Web of Science - 34
1992LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'RELIABILITY-ANALYSIS OF CREEP AND SHRINKAGE EFFECTS', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 118 2323-2337 (1992)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1992)118:9(2323)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 20Web of Science - 18
1992Melchers RE, 'On earthquake design standards for Australia', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering, CE34 63-71 (1992)

The setting of structural engineering design standards for earthquakes in Australia is particularly difficult. The country lies within a ``continental'' plate and evidence from other such regions uggests that Australia is therefore a relatively low risk country with only rare occurrences of major earthquakes. By comparison to other countries Australia also has a very short recorded history relative to the frequency of significant earthquakes. A discussion is given herein of factors which influence seismic zoning, the underlying assumptions and limitations which apply to the methods used and how these matters should relate to the development of design codes for earthquake forces. The discussion should be seen as a contribution towards understanding the background and assumptions and not as criticism of present code-development efforts.

1992Li CQ, Melchers RE, 'Simulation of load effect due to creep and shrinkage', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering, CE34 107-113 (1992)

Mathematical models for creep and shrinkage of concrete are used in the paper to present a whole-process analysis of creep and shrinkage effects in reinforced concrete structures, allowing in particular for various uncertainties. A simulation method is proposed to predict the time-dependent load effect due to creep and shrinkage under stochastic loads. It is shown through the formulation and by example that the method has the advantage that all the random variability can be included in the load effect at any point in time. Because of the uncertainties of concrete material properties and the applied loads, all parameters that describe the properties of the structures and the nature of load at any point in time are treated as random variables.

CitationsScopus - 1
1992MELCHERS RE, PAGE AW, 'THE NEWCASTLE EARTHQUAKE', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS, 94 143-156 (1992)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsAdrian Page
1992Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Linearisation and offshore fatigue reliability', Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural and Geotechnical Reliability, Proceedings of the Specialty Conference, 5-8 (1992)

In determining the force effects due to wave action on offshore structures it is conventional to use an equivalent linearisation to convert wave velocities to forces via Morison's equation. Different linearisations have been suggested. However, it is not, a priori, clear which is appropriate when structural fatigue is to be estimated. A (theoretical) criterion is introduced herein and examined in relation to a simple offshore structure.

Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1992Melchers RE, 'Sampling techniques for time-variant reliability problems', Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural and Geotechnical Reliability, Proceedings of the Specialty Conference, 100-103 (1992)
CitationsScopus - 1
1992Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Equivalent linearisation and fatigue reliability estimation for offshore structures 531-536 (1992)

The force effects due to wave action on offshore structures are conventionally determined using Morison's equation. This is a nonlinear relation in velocity, conventionally represented by an equivalent linearisation for converting wave velocities to forces, necessary to allow structural dynamic analysis by frequency domain methods (the most commonly applied approach). The suggested approaches for the linearisation can be shown to be of essentially two classes; those equivalent to Borgman's approach and those equivalent to Bolotin's. In general, it is not clear, a priori, which is more the appropriate. Nor is it clear whether these classical linearisations are relevant, particularly when structural fatigue is to be estimated (e.g., through the Palmgren-Miner rule). A criterion for derivation of a linearisation constant under fatigue considerations can be derived relatively simply. Unfortunately the criterion is not easily applied except by iteration. A sensitivity study has been performed for a simple but realistic offshore structure to estimate the relative importance of correctly estimating the linearisation constant.

Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1991Melchers RE, 'Directional simulation for time-dependent reliability problems', Lecture Notes in Engineering, 261-272 (1991)

While there has been significant progress in the assessment of structural reliability for complex structures (e.g., offshore oil platforms) in the time independent domain, significant problems remain in dealing with structures subject to time varying loading. The crux of the problem lies in the fact that the loads are time dependent (e.g., wave loading, wind loading, etc.) but the material properties can be considered to be time independent. A procedure utilizing refined Monte Carlo simulation in the hyper-polar co-ordinate space of the load processes is described herein.

1991STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL CHECKING STRATEGIES FOR ERROR CONTROL IN STRUCTURAL-ENGINEERING', CIVIL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, 8 59-59 (1991)
DOI10.1080/02630259108970606Author URL
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1991AHMAD MZ, DATTA TK, MELCHERS RE, 'MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT SOLUTION FOR FLAT SLABS - DISCUSSION', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 91 609-615 (1991)
Author URL
1991STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'CHECKING MODELS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN - CLOSURE', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 117 2188-2189 (1991)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1991)117:7(2188.2)Author URL
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1991MELCHERS RE, 'NON-INVARIANT FAILURE PROBABILITIES WITH INVARIANT RELIABILITY INDEX - DISCUSSION', RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 33 315-318 (1991)
DOI10.1016/0951-8320(91)90068-IAuthor URL
1991Melchers RE, 'Discussion on 'non-invariant failure probabilities with invariant reliability index'', Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 33 315-318 (1991)
DOI10.1016/0951-8320(91)90068-I
1991Melchers RE, 'New methods for structural reliability assessment', Proceedings of the First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 254-258 (1991)

The reliability of offshore structures under ultimate load conditions is considered under a potentially diverse load process scenario. An 'outcrossing' formulation in which the loads are modelled as processes rather than only as random variables is developed in the (hyper-) polar co-ordinate space. This has distinct advantages for problems, such as involving offshore structures, for which the structural analysis for safety checking is complex (e.g., requiring a finite element analysis or dynamic analysis etc.).

1990DITLEVSEN O, MELCHERS RE, GLUVER H, 'GENERAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROBABILITY INTEGRATION BY DIRECTIONAL SIMULATION', COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES, 36 355-368 (1990)
DOI10.1016/0045-7949(90)90134-NAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 51Web of Science - 44
1990CHAN HY, MELCHERS RE, 'WAVE LOADING EFFECT IN OFFSHORE STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 7 1-10 (1990)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(90)90009-EAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
1990MELCHERS RE, 'SEARCH-BASED IMPORTANCE SAMPLING', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 9 117-128 (1990)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(90)90003-8Author URL
CitationsScopus - 83Web of Science - 54
1990MELCHERS RE, TURNER RC, 'STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MAJOR STRUCTURES - DISCUSSION', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 89 439-442 (1990)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1990Melchers RE, 'Assesment of structural reliability. A review', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 6-11 (1990)

Considerable progress has been made in the theory of structural reliability in the last 15-20 years, particularly in relation to the analytical treatment of information. Much of this has gone relatively unnoticed by the engineering profession, even though the potential for structural reliability assessments in certain practical problems is now significant. Structural reliability theory has been applied, of course, to structural design code calibration, but has a much wider potential. Particularly in the offshore industry and in large projects it is being used where risk must be specifically considered and where to do so may yield considerable design and construction cost savings. In this paper the basic concepts of structural reliability theory will be reviewed and related to the standard and type of information usually availabel in engineering studies. An overview will also be given of the various calculation technique now available.

1990Page AW, Kleeman PW, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Structural aspects of the Newcastle earthquake', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 305-312 (1990)

On 28 December, 1989 the city of Newcastle was struck by a magnitude 5.6 earthquake killing 12 people and causing losses estimated at $1000 million. It was the first time a major Australian city has been so extensively damaged as a result of an earthquake, and the first time that deaths have occurred. With a few exceptions, most of the damage was to older loadbearing masonry construction or to infill masonry in modern framed construction. There was relatively little structural damage to modern buildings, industrial facilities and lifelines. This paper reviews the damage to structures and brings out the main points to be considered in future design and construction.

Co-authorsMark Stewart
1990MELCHERS RE, 'RADIAL IMPORTANCE SAMPLING FOR STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY', JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS-ASCE, 116 189-203 (1990)
DOI10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1990)116:1(189)Author URL
CitationsScopus - 70Web of Science - 52
1989Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Structural design and design checking', Civil engineering transactions, CE31 63-69 (1989)

The process of structural design has received very little attention from the research community despite its centralness in day-to-day structural engineering. Much of the research which has been done has been carried out in Australia over a number of years and with the co-operation of many structural engineers. The present paper reviews the reasons for being engaged in this relatively unusual research activity and provides an overview of the work to date. A review is given of the incidence and type of errors made in basic design tasks such as calculations, table look-up and table interpolation, and how these errors relate to results obtained for more comprehensive tasks such as loading determination and member design. One of the outcomes of the work has been to suggest areas in certain current design codes which are prone to misinterpretation by practitioners. Preliminary results related to design computation checking and inspection are also reviewed. This work potentially has major implications for quality assurance programmes.

Co-authorsMark Stewart
1989MELCHERS RE, 'IMPORTANCE SAMPLING IN STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 6 3-10 (1989)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(89)90003-9Author URL
CitationsScopus - 200Web of Science - 133
1989STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'ERROR CONTROL IN MEMBER DESIGN', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 6 11-24 (1989)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(89)90004-0Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1989MELCHERS RE, 'ADAPTIVE SAMPLING - AN ITERATIVE FAST MONTE-CARLO PROCEDURE - DISCUSSION', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 6 65-66 (1989)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(89)90008-8Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1989Melchers RE, 'Discussion to: Bucher, C.G. adaptive sampling-an iterative fast Monte Carlo procedure. Structural safety, 5 (1988) 119-126', Structural Safety, 6 65-66 (1989)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(89)90008-8
CitationsScopus - 2
1989Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Decision model for overview checking of engineering designs', International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 4 19-27 (1989)

Overview checking occurs whenever an engineering design is reviewed by another engineer without specifically carrying out checking calculations or following through the design process in detail. Results are reported herein of a survey examining the effectiveness of overview checking. The respondents were requested to assess whether a structural design should be considered "undersized", "correct" or "oversized". Using the responses as a basis, a decision model is proposed for the effectiveness of overview checking as a function of error magnitude and of checker's experience. It is concluded that correct assessment of a design as "safe" is not a function of experience. However, it appears that more experience is beneficial in selecting economical designs. © 1989.

DOI10.1016/0169-8141(89)90046-2
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1989MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR MAJOR STRUCTURES', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 87 343-356 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1989MELCHERS RE, 'HUMAN ERROR IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN TASKS', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 115 1795-1807 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 17Web of Science - 10
1989STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN CHECKING', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 115 2448-2460 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1989STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'CHECKING MODELS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 115 1309-1324 (1989)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 9
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1989Melchers RE, 'On probabilistic absolute optimum design', Structural Optimization, 1 107-112 (1989)

Absolute structural optimization problems such as leastweight and layout problems become both more realistic and more complex when their parameters are described probabilistically. The theoretical framework for absolute optimal design of sandwich beams, grillages and reinforced slabs is extended herein to deal with probabilistic parameters. It is shown that using a simplified probabilistic framework (socalled First Order Second Moment), some classical solutions for optimal layout remain valid. Remarks about the more general problem and the difficulty of its solution close the paper. © 1989 Springer-Verlag.

DOI10.1007/BF01637667
CitationsScopus - 1
1989Melchers RE, 'Improved importance sampling methods for structural system reliability calculation 1185-1192 (1989)

Improvements can be made to importance sampling by recognising some of the essential features of the time-independent structural reliability problem. Thus non-interesting regions in the integration domain can be deleted from consideration using a priori information and updating techniques. These can also be used to obtain the point(s) of maximum likelihood, a central parameter for importance sampling in cartesian co-ordinates.

CitationsScopus - 23
1988HON KK, MELCHERS RE, 'EXPERIMENTAL BEHAVIOR OF STEEL COLUMN BASES', JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL RESEARCH, 9 35-50 (1988)
DOI10.1016/0143-974X(88)90055-7Author URL
CitationsScopus - 8Web of Science - 5
1988MELCHERS RE, 'A CRITICAL-APPRAISAL OF METHODS TO DETERMINE FAILURE PROBABILITIES - DISCUSSION', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 5 155-156 (1988)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(88)90024-0Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1988STEWART MG, MELCHERS RE, 'SIMULATION OF HUMAN ERROR IN A DESIGN LOADING TASK', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 5 285-297 (1988)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(88)90029-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 8
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1988Melchers RE, 'Discussion to Schuëller, G.I. and Stix, R., A critical appraisal of methods to determine failure probabilities. Structural Safety, 4 (1987) 293-309', Structural Safety, 5 155-156 (1988)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(88)90024-0
CitationsScopus - 1
1988TANG K, MELCHERS RE, 'INCREMENTAL FORMULATION FOR STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY-ANALYSIS', CIVIL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, 5 153-158 (1988)
DOI10.1080/02630258808970521Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
1987Melchers RE, 'MONTE-CARLO METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ANALYSES.', Civil engineering transactions, 29 219-222 (1987)
CitationsScopus - 1
1987TANG LK, MELCHERS RE, 'IMPROVED APPROXIMATION FOR MULTINORMAL INTEGRAL', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 4 81-93 (1987)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 28
1987MELCHERS RE, MORLEY CT, WOOD RH, GURLEY CR, 'EQUILIBRIUM DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR TORSIONLESS GRILLAGES OR HILLERBORG SLABS UNDER CONCENTRATED LOADS - DISCUSSION', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 83 669-682 (1987)
Author URL
1987YEE YL, MELCHERS RE, 'MOMENT ROTATION CURVES FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS - CLOSURE', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 113 2327-2329 (1987)
Author URL
1987TANG LK, MELCHERS RE, 'DOMINANT MECHANISMS IN STOCHASTIC PLASTIC FRAMES', RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 18 101-115 (1987)
DOI10.1016/0143-8174(87)90025-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
1987Chan HY, Melchers RE, 'Wave load modelling for offshore structural reliability.', IN: FIRST NAT. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING CONF. 1987, PREPRINT OF PAPERS, (MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA: AUG. 26-28, 1987), 1 , Barton, Australia, Inst. Engrs. Australia, 1987 (1987)
1987Hon KK, Melchers RE, 'MOMENT-ROTATION CURVES FOR 'PINNED' COLUMN-BASES.', Structural Engineer, Part B: R&D Quarterly, 65 B 54-59 (1987)

A mathematical model, based on the physical properties of nominally 'pinned' column-bases and intended to describe the moment-rotation characteristics for given eccentricity of axial load, is presented. The model uses three main parameters to describe the characteristic: elastic stiffness, strain hardening stiffness, and plastic moment capacity. In addition, an empirically determined 'shape' factor allows for the transition from elastic to inelastic behavior. The model is compared to a series of full-sized test results for a range of practical column-base connection. The behavior of soil under the footing is not considered.

CitationsScopus - 4
1987Chan HY, Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY OF COMPLEX STRUCTURES UNDER WAVE LOADS. (1987)

The reliability analysis of multi-membered structures such as steel tubular offshore platforms has been largely confined to considerations of structural member behavior and given loading uncertainty. However realistic modelling of wave forces may require account to be taken of the effect of wave forces varying with the incident wave location as it passes through the structure. Such an analysis is described in the present paper, using the Truncated Enumeration technique previously described. Main emphasis is given to structures composed of elastic-brittle members: the analysis for elastic-plastic structures degenerates to that of a probabilistic adaptation problem.

1987Melchers RE, 'STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT AND HUMAN ERROR. (1987)

Realistic assessment of reliability must take account of the possibility of human error in the design and execution of the project of interest. This is also true for structural reliability assessment, even though for some applications, such as design code writing, a nominal reliability measure, largely ignoring human error, may well be sufficient. The present paper reviews, briefly, the principles by which human error information may be taken into account in reliability assessment, and, in a little more detail, both empirical models and data for some types of human error which may arise in structural design processes. Attention is also given to three forms of checking: independent, self- and overview checking. Only recently has some indicative data for checking processes become available; in all aspects the reported research must seem as preliminary rather than definitive.

1986Evans EP, Baker KN, Cairnes TH, Clyde DH, Johnson R, Kavanagh KT, et al., 'STRUCTURAL CODES AND THE PROFESSION - REPORT OF A WORKING PARTY.', Civil engineering transactions, 28 106-121 (1986)

Debate concerning the role, authority and complexity of contemporary structural codes has persisted in Australia and overseas for many years. The Report examines contemporary literature and assesses the results of a request for opinion. Conflicting views of different user groups are identified. The traditional roles of codes as multi-user documents, vehicles for communicating information, and educational resources are examined. The profession's view of codes is interpreted and a proposal put forward as to what should be the Institution of Engineers' position on the philosophy, form and drafting of codes.

1986Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY THEORY AS A TOOL IN OFFSHORE STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 177-181 (1986)

Traditional design methods for offshore structures have, on the whole, worked well, but there are now moves to develop probabilistically-based design rules. This is a sound strategy since uncertainties in information can be rationally incorporated in the design and analysis process. The application of reliability theory extends, however, also to the sphere of analysis and decision making in the construction stages. The paper briefly reviews the essential concepts of structural reliability theory and then indicates the various ways in which it has been or can be applied in practical situations. This includes analysis for peak loading and for fatigue as well as other criteria. Some ongoing research areas will be noted.

1986YEE YL, MELCHERS RE, 'MOMENT-ROTATION CURVES FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 112 615-635 (1986)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 106Web of Science - 73
1986Melchers RE, 'Reliability theory as a tool in offshore structural design and construction.', IN: FIRST AUSTRALASIAN PORT, HARBOUR & OFFSHORE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 1986, (SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA: SEP. 29-OCT. 2, 1986), BARTO, (1986)

Offshore structures are subject to poorly defined hazards such as storms, continued wave action, corrosion and ship impact and are themselves not well defined in terms of their strength or resistance. Traditional design methods for offshore structures have, on the whole, worked well, but there are now moves to develop probabilistically based design rules. This is a sound strategy since uncertainties in information can be rationally incorporated in the design and analysis process. The application of reliability theory extends, however, also to the sphere of analysis and decision making in the construction stages. The paper briefly reviews the essential concepts of structural reliability theory and then indicates the various ways in which it has been or can be applied in practical situations. This includes analysis for peak loading and for fatigue as well as other criteria. Some ongoing research areas will be noted. (A)

1986Melchers RE, 'HUMAN INFLUENCES IN QUALITY ASSURANCE.', Reports of the Working Commissions (International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering), 50 107-116 (1986)
1986Hon KK, Melchers RE, 'INITIAL INVESTIGATION OF COLUMN BASE BEHAVIOUR. 73-79 (1986)

A common feature of many steel building frames is the use of two bolts to anchor a baseplate welded to the column end to the concrete foundation. Such a connection is typically assumed to represent a pinned connection, meaning that it is assumed for design purposes that the connection is incapable of transferring bending moment. However, virtually no experimental observations about the behaviour of such connections have been reported. The paper presents some initial experimental findings for connection capacity under axial load and bending moment and reports on preliminary mathematical modelling of the behaviour of the connection using physical parameters such as endplate thickness and bolt characteristics as input.

1985Cugley RC, Kennedy B, Melchers RE, 'DYNAMIC STABILITY OF UNRESTRAINED PILES DURING DRIVING.', Structural Engineer, 63 A 173-178 (1985)

The response of an initially curved cantilever strut with a lumped mass at the tip subject to arbitrary axial impact loads is described, as a model for the dynamic response of unrestrained piles during driving. The differential equation of motion defining the lateral movement of impact-loaded cantilever struts is derived. This equation includes the effect of inertial resistance to motion provided by both the strut self-mass and the mass of the pile hammer. The shape of force pulses produced during pile driving was approximated by an equivalent trapezoidal force pulse. The differential equation of motion was solved for this force pulse using the Runge-Kutta technique. The solution was found to agree with observed pile behavior during driving. Is is shown that the magnitude of lateral displacements reduces as the mass of the pile hammer increases, because of inertial effects.

1985Tang LK, Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY OF LARGE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS.', Institution of Engineers, Australia, Civil Engineering Transactions, 27 136-142 (1985)

For structural systems, calculation of the structural failure probability requires the determination of all the failure modes contributing significantly to the overall failure probability. For large systems it is not practical to enumerate fully all modes. The paper presents a procedure, termed the Truncated Enumeration Method, which has been shown to be derivable rigorously from exhaustive enumeration when truncation of solution possibilities, not significant for the reliability assessment, is imposed. The method has been able to reproduce independently all known solutions obtained by others, but usually in a more systematic manner. The relationship of this method to other system reliability calculation techniques is discussed, some limitations are noted and some calculation results are presented.

CitationsScopus - 3
1985Harrington MV, Melchers RE, 'TIME DEPENDENT STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY WITH REFERENCE TO LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE.', Institution of Engineers, Australia, Civil Engineering Transactions, 27 130-135 (1985)

This paper presents an exploratory example of the way structural reliability may change with time, in this case due to the effect of low-cycle fatigue. This may be of interest for structures subject to the possibility of high overload during their design lives. Inelastic fracture mechanics theory is reviewed in the first part of the paper. This is followed by a discussion of distributions appropriate for use in a reliability analysis. Monte-Carlo simulation is then employed to show how, typically, the failure probability changes with the number of load applications to the structure, i. e. with time.

1985Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY CALCULATION FOR STRUCTURES.', Institution of Engineers, Australia, Civil Engineering Transactions, 27 124-129 (1985)

Structures are composed of many members and connections, each with individual properties. When the member properties and the loadings applied to the structure are specified in statistical terms, the determination of structural system reliability becomes a problem of multi-fold integration. Since direct integration is feasible only for extremely simple structures, several alternative approaches to the problem have been suggested; either through simplifying the integration process itself or through simplified reliability theory. These approaches are discussed in the context of use of computer programs and computer usage.

CitationsScopus - 2
1985Melchers RE, Tang LK, 'RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTI-MEMBER STRUCTURES. 763-772 (1985)

For structural systems composed of many individual members each perhaps having a nonlinear constitutive relationship, the calculation of the probability of structural failure under applied random loading requires a knowledge of all failure modes which contribute significantly to the failure probability. For large structural systems this may present a formidable problem, even with modern computers. A calculation procedure which systematically generates failure modes and eliminates those of little significance is described, together with appropriate procedures for calculating the necessary modal failure probabilities. (Author abstract. ) Refs.

CitationsScopus - 1
1985Melchers RE, Cugley RC, 'TRAINSIENT STABILITY OF STEEL PILES DURING DRIVING. 755-762 (1985)
1985Melchers RE, Tang LK, 'FAILURE MODES IN COMPLEX STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS. 97-106 (1985)

For large structural systems, calculation of the structural failure probability requires a knowledge of all relevant failure modes. The so-called 'truncated enumeration method' to systematically derive the dominant failure modes is described. The derivation of the limit state expressions for each mode is through an incremental load approach, which allows member behaviour including strain hardening, strain softening and residual strength to be handled. It is noted that elastic-plastic member behaviour does not necessarily converge to rigid-plastic behaviour. Finally, the numerical problems associated with the procedures outlined are discussed and two examples given.

CitationsScopus - 6
1985Melchers RE, Stewart MG, 'DATA-BASED MODELS FOR HUMAN ERROR IN DESIGN. 51-60 (1985)

To predict the reliability of structures it is necessary to make reasonable allowances in the assessment for the influence of human error in the design, construction and use of the structure. The present paper deals with an attempt to model mathematically the human errors introduced into the structural design process and the effect they may have on structural safety. Preliminary data collection for use in the model is reported, and an outline of the model being developed is given.

CitationsScopus - 4
1984MELCHERS RE, TANG LK, 'DOMINANT FAILURE MODES IN STOCHASTIC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS', STRUCTURAL SAFETY, 2 127-143 (1984)
DOI10.1016/0167-4730(84)90016-XAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 37Web of Science - 26
1984MELCHERS RE, 'HUMAN ERROR IN STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY ASSESSMENTS', RELIABILITY ENGINEERING & SYSTEM SAFETY, 7 61-75 (1984)
DOI10.1016/0143-8174(84)90017-9Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
1984Harrington MV, Melchers RE, 'TIME DEPENDENT STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY. 301-305 (1984)

This paper presents an example of the way structural reliability may change with time, in this case due to the effect of low-cycle fatigue. This may be of interest for structures subject to the possibility of high overload during their design lives. Inelastic fracture mechanics theory is reviewed in the first part of the paper. This is followed by a discussion of distributions appropriate for use in a reliability analysis. Monte-Carlo simulation is then employed to show how, typically, the failure probability changes with the number of load applications to the structure, i. e. with time.

1984Tang LK, Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY OF LARGE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. 295-300 (1984)

For structural systems, calculation of the structural failure probability requires the determination of all the failure modes contributing significantly to the overall failure probability. For large systems it is not practical to enumerate fully all modes. The paper will present a procedure, termed the 'Truncated Enumeration Method', which has been shown to be derivable rigorously from exhaustive enumeration when truncation of solution possibilities, not significant for the reliability assessment, is imposed.

1983Cugley RC, Melchers RE, 'DYNAMIC STABILITY OF STEEL PILES.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 128-132 (1983)
1983Melchers RE, Yee YL, 'DEFLECTION OF FRAMES WITH BOLTED END-PLATE CONNECTIONS.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 176-180 (1983)
1983Melchers RE, 'RELIABILITY CALCULATION FOR MAJOR STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 95-99 (1983)
1983Brownlee RT, Melchers RE, 'ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES.', National Conference Publication - Institution of Engineers, Australia, 105-110 (1983)
1983MELCHERS RE, 'RELIABILITY OF PARALLEL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING-ASCE, 109 2651-2665 (1983)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
1983Melchers RE, Baker MJ, Moses F, 'EVALUATION OF EXPERIENCE.', Reports of the Working Commissions (International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineerin, 47 21-38 (1983)
CitationsScopus - 2
1983Melchers RE, Harrington MV, 'STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY AS AFFECTED BY HUMAN ERROR. 683-694 (1983)
CitationsScopus - 2
1983Melchers RE, 'STATIC THEOREM APPROACH TO THE RELIABILITY OF PARALLEL PLASTIC STRUCTURES. 1313-1324 (1983)
CitationsScopus - 1
1982MELCHERS RE, 'DEFLECTION OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES, 24 341-347 (1982)
DOI10.1016/0020-7403(82)90067-4Author URL
1982MELCHERS RE, 'DEFLECTION OF HYPERSTATIC THERMOELASTIC STRUCTURES', JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL MECHANICS, 10 227-240 (1982)
Author URL
1982Melchers RE, 'CORRELATION EFFECTS IN THE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF PARALLEL STRUCTURES. (1982)

For the reliability assessment of structures which may fail in one of several failure modes, bounds on the probability of failure of the structure have been developed. It is well known that even the best of these bounds are dependent on the correlation between the failure modes and that this correlation is, in turn, dependent on the correlation between member properties. Relatively little appears to be known about the importance of member property correlation effects in reliability analysis, nor about the actual values of correlation coefficients. Before attempts are made to increase our knowledge of member correlation, the importance of correlation effects in structural reliability calculations should be assessed. The paper describes a simple study of the sensitivity of structural reliability assessments to variations in correlation coefficients for parallel structures. It is demonstrated that the structural reliability for the structure considered is sensitive mainly to correlation between different locations within the same member or related members.

1982Melchers RE, Kaur D, 'BEHAVIOUR OF FRAMES WITH FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS. (1982)

The so-called 'rigid' connections in real frames are seldom rigid, and instead contribute to the deflection behaviour of the frame. In conventional practice this is usually ignored. The present paper is a first step in the analysis of the significance of connection flexibility, allowing for both elastic and plastic behaviour of frame members. It is shown that existing formulae for prediction of connection behaviour of bolted end plated connections are inadequate and that connection flexibility can make a significant contribution to frame deflection. However, this contribution varies in magnitude with load level and frame flexibility. A wide spectrum of realistic frames needs to be examined to assess the importance of connection flexibility for designers.

1981MELCHERS RE, 'REINFORCEMENT MINIMIZATION OF BEAMS WITH AXIAL FORCES', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES, 23 607-617 (1981)
DOI10.1016/0020-7403(81)90041-2Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1981MELCHERS RE, 'APPROXIMATE DEFLECTIONS IN PLASTIC DESIGN', JOURNAL OF THE STRUCTURAL DIVISION-ASCE, 107 1359-1364 (1981)
Author URL
1981Melchers RE, Clarke GJ, 'DETERMINING SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTIONS IN PLASTICALLY DESIGNED STRUCTURES.', Institution of Engineers, Australia, Civil Engineering Transactions, CE 23 74-79 (1981)

Methods for determining the deflections at service loads in plstically designed structures are presented. A number of approaches to calculating these deflections are considered, since the usual method of performing a completely separate elastic analysis of the plastically designed structure is generally very cumbersome unless a computer is available. The alternative methods considered are: (a) direct estimation from plastic bending moment distribution; (b) correction approach; (c) exact calculation using a newly developed theorem; and (d) an approximate procedure using estimates of the bending moment diagrams for use in the unit dummy load method. Several examples are worked to illustrate the methods. It is shown that method (c) is a powerful direct and accurate technique for most simple structures.

1980MELCHERS RE, 'REINFORCEMENT MINIMIZATION OF CYLINDRICAL-SHELLS', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NON-LINEAR MECHANICS, 15 505-516 (1980)
DOI10.1016/0020-7462(80)90036-0Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1980MELCHERS RE, 'A FUZZY SAFETY MEASURE', JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING MECHANICS DIVISION-ASCE, 106 856-857 (1980)
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1980MELCHERS RE, 'SERVICE LOAD DEFLECTIONS IN PLASTIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 69 157-174 (1980)
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CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 3
1980Melchers RE, 'EXAMINATION OF PUBLISHED CASES OF STRUCTURAL FAILURE.', Institution of Engineers, Australia, Civil Engineering Transactions, CE22 222-230 (1980)

Study of cases of structural failure show these to be inconsistent between various investigators. To resolve these problems, detailed studies of the causes and underlying mechanisms for structural failure are required, even though this severely limits the data that can be employed. Starting from the development of a quite general model of the causes of structural failure, implications are derived for the type of information that can be obtained using limited data. The study of well-reported cases of failure can be useful in identifying ¿error-causing-potentials¿ , but only socially weighted relative values can be established from such a study. Particular attention is given to the relative importance of so-called ¿uncertainty¿ type (or ¿gross¿ ) errors compared to errors arising from natural variability. It is suggested that the manipulation of control processes is likely to be an effective practical means of reducing structural failure.

1980Melchers RE, 'SOCIENTAL OPTIONS FOR ASSURANCE OF STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE. 983-988 (1980)
CitationsScopus - 2
1979MELCHERS RE, 'VALIDITY OF YIELD-LINE THEORY FOR POLYHEDRAL SHELLS', JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING MECHANICS DIVISION-ASCE, 105 107-126 (1979)
Author URL
1979MELCHERS RE, ARMER GST, 'INFLUENCE OF CONTROL PROCESSES IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 67 551-552 (1979)
Author URL
1979Melchers RE, 'SELECTION OF CONTROL LEVELS FOR MAXIMUM UTILITY OF STRUCTURES.', National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication, 2 839-849 (1979)

The role of human error in the effective implementation and use of structural engineering projects is reviewed and shown to be underestimated in conventional treatments of probabilistic structural design. Both suitable organization and control are required for project success. The concept of maximizing total expected socio-economic utility is employed to derive criteria for selecting the levels of control required on the various tasks constituting the construction and use sequence of a structural engineering project. These criteria are applied to a hypothetical example using both the limited experimental evidence available and hypothesized data. Refs.

1978MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL-ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE TANKS', JOURNAL OF THE STRUCTURAL DIVISION-ASCE, 104 609-611 (1978)
Author URL
1978FERNANDO JS, KEMP KO, LOWE PG, CLARK LA, BHATT P, MELCHERS RE, HARROP J, 'GENERALIZED STRIP DEFLECTION METHOD OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE SLAB DESIGN', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 65 719-724 (1978)
Author URL
1978MELCHERS RE, 'INFLUENCE OF CONTROL PROCESSES IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING', PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS PART 2-RESEARCH AND THEORY, 65 791-807 (1978)
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CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 9
1977MELCHERS RE, 'INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION ON PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION', JOURNAL OF THE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION-ASCE, 103 611-625 (1977)
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CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 6
1976MELCHERS RE, 'MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT OF NONUNIFORM PLATES', JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING MECHANICS DIVISION-ASCE, 102 943-955 (1976)
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CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 2
1975MELCHERS RE, 'OPTIMALLY REINFORCED AXISYMMETRIC PLATES', JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING MECHANICS DIVISION-ASCE, 101 143-149 (1975)
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CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1975Melchers RE, 'OPTIMALLY REINFORCED AXISYMMETRIC PLATES', ASCE J Eng Mech Div, 101 143-149 (1975)

A sandwich plate is considered in which the reinforcement fibers are located entirely within the outer faces of the plate. The layout of the fibers is determined within the faces of the plate to minimize the total fiber consumption. The variation of fiber material within the optimal plate to resist the internal stress resultants due to a given loading may be obtained once the fiber layout has been determined. Only one loading case is considered for a simply supported plate, clamped plate, and simply supported annular plate.

CitationsScopus - 1
1974Melchers RE, 'Reply to discussion by G. I. N. Rozvany', International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 16 264-266 (1974)
1974Lowe PG, Melchers RE, 'On the theory of optimal, edge beam supported, fibre-reinforced plates', International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 16 627-641 (1974)

Earlier papers have considered optimal solutions for various layout shapes of plate but with the edges supported in the classical manner-either simple supports, fixed edges or free edges in various combinations. In these cases there is no work done by supported boundary moments or edge normal reactions. The present study focuses attention on the optimal layouts appropriate to cases where the plate edge is supported on (deflecting) edge beams and hence work is done and energy is stored or dissipated in the boundary zone. © 1974.

DOI10.1016/0020-7403(74)90062-9
CitationsScopus - 4
1973Lowe PG, Melchers RE, 'On the theory of optimal, constant thickness fibre-reinforced plates-II', International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 15 157-169 (1973)
DOI10.1016/0020-7403(73)90063-5
CitationsScopus - 13
1973Lowe PG, Melchers RE, 'On the theory of optimal, constant thickness fibre-reinforced plates-III', International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 15 711-726 (1973)

In the earlier papers in this series optimal fibre layouts have been given for a variety of domain shapes and boundary conditions. The general feature which most of these layouts possess is that the reinforcement fibres are parallel to one another within the various zones. In the present paper attention is focused on cases with non-parallel reinforcement. The most common occurrence of such cases is in slabs with a free edge meeting a supported edge at other than a right angle, and at obtuse corners. A number of results for skew slabs and corners are presented. © 1973.

DOI10.1016/0020-7403(73)90050-7
CitationsScopus - 8
1973Melchers RE, 'OPTIMAL DESIGN OF VARIABLE THICKNESS REINFORCED PLATES. (1973)

A general optimality condition is indicated for laterally loaded plates reinforced with fibers in their outer faces only. This result is applied to two examples. The first is a simply supported circular plate for which the thickness variation is specified. It is found that an optimal design has only radial fibres. The second problem is a simply supported square plate under arbitrary loading, for which the reinforcement fibers have different internal lever-arms in bending for different orientations within the plan of the plate.

1972Lowe PG, Melchers RE, 'On the theory of optimal, constant thickness, fibre-reinforced plates', International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 14 311-324 (1972)

The work of previous investigators in the field of absolute optimal design of laterally loaded fibre reinforced plates is briefly reviewed and a further approach to the problem is outlined. This further approach suggests that the problem is essentially one-dimensional and consists in determining the optimum load carrying (load-path) directions at all points in the plate. Optimal fibre layouts for square, rectangular and triangular plates with both simply supported and clamped edges are given and some errors in previous work are noted. © 1972.

DOI10.1016/0020-7403(72)90086-0
CitationsScopus - 22
Show 294 more journal articles

Conference (227 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2014Wells PA, Melchers RE, 'Findings of a 4 year study of concrete sewer pipe corrosion', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) of reinforced concrete sewer piping and manholes is a significant issue in Australia and overseas costing water authorities hundreds of millions of dollars annually. It is anticipated that as the country's sewer infrastructure ages the problem will become more severe. Over the last 4 years an ARC and industry funded research project has been undertaken with the aim of building a mathematical model to predict the corrosion of concrete as a function of exposure time and environmental and operational conditions. After almost 4 years of field trials in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth sewers a detailed understanding of the evolution of the corrosion process has emerged and a phenomenological model has been developed. The present paper describes the study findings and their implication for pipe service life prediction.

2014Asadi ZS, Melchers RE, 'STatistical modelling for pitting corrosion of cast iron pipelineS', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

External corrosion is the main reason of the deterioration of cast iron water main in the Australia Water Industry. Prediction of the life time and the maximum pit depth which causes failure can help to reduce the cost of water system maintenance. Due to the complexities of the mechanism of pitting as well as existence of numerous uncertainties, none of the conventional electrochemical approaches is capable of accurate prediction of pipe lifetime. This study, therefore, aims at investigating the maximum pit depth based on the probabilistic theory in order to assist with the prediction of the lifetime of pipelines. A probabilistic model based on the extreme value theory is suggested for this study. Real field data of pitting corrosion of a series of old underground pipelines have been gathered from some sites in Australia. Although Gumbel distribution has been widely employed for extrapolation of maximum pit depth of pipelines, analysis of these real data indicates that the variability of maximum pit depth in long- Term exposure fits the Frechet extreme value distribution. Moreover, results of this study show that for cases whose ages have been 30-50 years the maximum pit depth tends to follow one Frechet distribution, while two subsequent Frechet curves have been observed in the probabilistic distributions of data of cases which are older than 50-60 years.

2014Wang X, Melchers RE, 'Laboratory study of under-deposit corrosion of steel pipelines in seawater environment', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Water injection is a practical and widely employed method to promote production for oil industry especially for mature oil reservoirs. For this seawater, aquifer water and produced water (water recovered from crude oil) are most commonly used. Typically the water injection pipelines (WIP) are carbon steel and are not cathodically protected. The potential for pipeline failure caused by internal corrosion is an on-going concern for the industry. Corrosion mitigation methods include deoxygenation, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and pigging. The most serious corrosion problem is channelling corrosion, known also as 6 o'clock corrosion or bottom of line corrosion, although it does not occur in all pipelines, for reasons not fully understood. It shows as aggressive corrosion at the bottom part of pipelines and is much more severe than corrosion elsewhere in WIPs. Recent assessment and monitoring of several water injection pipelines from the North Sea continental shelf obtained either by intelligent pigging tools or on-site bio-coupons has indicated that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and under-deposit corrosion are likely to be involved in channelling corrosion. Despite occasional industrial reports and conference papers, the comprehensive interpretation of this type of corrosion is still limited. The present paper outlines an experimental pilot study of under-deposit corrosion of mild steel model pipeline coupons exposed to deoxygenated natural seawater in simulated field conditions. Identical test rigs and different test scenarios were established to ascertain the influence of the presence of deposits, of water quality, surface roughness and nitrate addition. SEM observations of changes in surface topography for the first set of samples after 12 days exposure are reported. The paper also discusses the potential reasons of the formation process of channelling corrosion in water injection pipelines and the effect of early stage corrosion for long-term trends.

2014Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'Five year observations of corrosion losses for steels at a severe marine atmospheric site', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Comprehensive new data for the effects of orientation, height and bold exposure versus shielding effects and detailed chronological observations and variability data for nominally identical exposures of mild steel coupons all exposed at one site is presented. Previous investigations have been reported only for different sites and this raises difficulties in making comparisons and deductions. The present results have been obtained under the one local climatic regime for all coupons, thus providing a much more controlled environment within which to compare various effects. The present paper deals with the five-year results and compares these with information available in the literature. After three years most of the boldly exposed double-sided coupons had completely corroded but many single-sided coupons remained viable. The difference in corrosion behaviour between individual coupons exposed at different heights and vertical continuous single strips of steel is described. Moreover, the difference in corrosion losses for a continuous strip and for a series of coupons oriented in different directions is described. Furthermore, variability of nominally identically exposed coupons is reported.

Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2014Melchers RE, 'Trends in long-term corrosion of aluminium alloys in marine, industrial and urban environments', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Aluminium alloys have excellent corrosion resistance including in seawater and marine conditions. Herein a wide range of literature data, including in-situ immersion, tidal, coastal atmospheric and industrial exposures is examined. It is shown that while the classical power-law has been assumed, widely, to be valid as a model for the progression of corrosion, in the longer term corrosion of aluminium alloys is nearly always more consistent with the bi-modal model previously proposed only for the corrosion behaviour of steels in seawater and marine conditions, including in the atmosphere. Although aluminium alloys tend to pit rather than to corrode 'uniformly', the bi-modal trend applies irrespectively of whether mass loss, loss of tensile strength or the deepest pits are considered. It is proposed the bi-modal characteristic results from the accumulation of corrosion products causing localised anoxic conditions. These permit a change from predominantly cathodic oxygen reduction to hydrogen ion reduction under anoxic autocatalytic conditions within pits. This mechanism is consistent with established theory for pitting corrosion in aluminium, such as proposed many years ago by Wranglen. It is shown that maximum pit depths for very deep pits tend to follow the Frechet rather than the Gumbel Extreme Value distribution. This is consistent with what has been observed previously for steels.

2014Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'A comparison of corrosion profiles of steel strips, coupons and chains', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Corrosion profiles for coupons and for single strips have been published previously and tend to show a distinct difference between the two. Corrosion of a continuous strip usually results in a flatter profile than that obtained for a set of individual coupons. Herein these results are compared with the corrosion of chain links in chains exposed through the tidal zone. Steel chains are used extensively in the marine industry and are subject to the same corrosive effects as other marine steel infrastructure. The matter of interest is whether chain links act as individual coupons or form part of a single strip as in electrically connected links of a chain. If the corrosion profile is similar to that of coupons, individual links will act as isolated cathode/anode couples and will corrode faster in the tidal zone than if the corrosion loss is spread over the entire length of the chain. The present paper presents corrosion profiles derived from lengths of nominally 10 mm diameter steel chains exposed at three geographical locations and compares these profiles to profiles obtained from single strips and sets of individual coupons exposed at the same or similar locations.

Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2014Melchers RE, Chaves IA, 'New results for the corrosion of reinforcement in marine environments', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

The apparently premature corrosion of steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures exposed to marine environments continues to be a matter of concern in practice despite decades of research effort and much research funding expenditure and despite much practical experience. Herein results are reported of a long-term (10 year) study of the influence of alkalis on the corrosion initiation and progression of 6mm diam. reinforcing bars centrally embedded in 40x40x160mm concrete specimens. These were made with seawater as mixing water and with a variety of mix proportions including some with added alkalis. All were equally well compacted by vibration. After 10 years continuous exposure in a fog-room only a limited amount of corrosion initiation was observed. These results are in stark contrast with those reported in the famous paper by Shalon & Raphael (1959) who found serious corrosion of reinforcement after only 1-2 years exposure for all mixes. It is shown herein that the corrosion loss trends in those tests are similar to those of steel exposed directly to seawater. This indicates that in the 1959 tests the concrete provided little protection against reinforcement corrosion. The reasons for this are considered herein and the practical implications discussed.

Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2014Petersen RB, Melchers RE, 'Long term corrosion of buried cast iron pipes in native soils', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

The corrosion of old buried cast iron water mains is a problem for the Australian Water Industry. To better manage their assets the industry requires a way of predicting the remaining service life of their pipes. In order to do this a predictive model of long-term corrosion loss with time is required. This paper describes ongoing work being conducted at The University of Newcastle to develop corrosion loss models for cast iron pipes in soils, as a function of exposure time and soil environment. A preliminary corrosion model was calibrated in a previous work, using a limited set of data collected from recent field work. This data base was extended in the current work by including data (of maximum pit depth and some soil properties) from historical condition assessments within the Hunter Water network. Previous studies by the authors (and others) indicate the significance of soil moisture content on the long-term corrosion loss and rate. At most sites soil moisture was only measured at a single point in time (or not at all), so the long-term average value of soil moisture (required for model calibration) was uncertain. To better estimate the average long-term soil moisture content, a simple climate-soil moisture model was developed. This paper presents the collected field data, describes the method for estimating long-term moisture content and presents the updated model calibration based on the additional data.

2014Rosen J, Potts AE, Melchers RE, 'MIC and pitting corrosion on field recovered mooring chain links', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 (2014) [E1]

Forensic investigations were performed on chain links recovered from two FSO mooring systems in West Africa and Indonesia. Although these links were in tropical seawater for only 7 years, they experienced extremely severe pitting corrosion not previously seen in any available records. The material presented has direct application to ensuring the integrity of mooring systems as it provides insight into the mechanical behaviour of highly corroded chain links, statistics of the observed corrosion rates in these locations and guidelines for examining chain links. Corrosion on the surface of the links was mapped using 3D photogrammetry. The observed long-term corrosion rate is significantly higher than the average corrosion rate of 0.4 mm/year given in API RP-2SK. Analysis of the elementary composition of the rusts indicates that the large pits observed were most likely associated with Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC). The obtained results represent a breakthrough in the field of corrosion of mooring chains deployed in tropical seawater, corroborating the latest models that have been developed taking into account MIC. This work was conducted under the scope of the SCORCH JIP which involves ExxonMobil, Chevron, BP, Total, Shell, BHP Billiton, ConocoPhillips, Petrobras, Statoil, BSEE, DNV, ABS, Bureau Veritas, INPEX, SOFEC, InterMoor, KBR, SBM, Franklin Offshore, Vicinay Cadenas, Bridon, Arcelormittal, Arrium and Vryhof Anchors.

2014Chaves IA, Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'The effect of cleaning procedures on corrosion coupon surface topography', Australasian Corrosion Association, Darwin - Australia (2014) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey, Igor Chaves
2014Melchers RE, Pape TM, Chaves IA, 'The long-term durability of reinforced concrete structures exposed to aggressive marine environments', Proceedings of the First International Conference on Infrastructure Failures and Consequences, Melbourne - Australia (2014) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2013Melchers RE, Jeffrey R, 'Atmospheric Corrosion Of Mild Steel Vertical Prisms Of Different Plan Shape', Corrosion and Prevention 2013, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'The effect of aluminium allying on the corrosion resistance of cast steel', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Petersen RB, Dafter M, Melchers RE, 'Modelling The Long-Term Corrosion Of Cast Iron Pipes', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
2013Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'A Study Of Reinforced Concrete Piles From The Hornibrook Highway Bridge (1935-2011)', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
2013Melchers RE, Herron C, Emslie R, 'Variability In Long-Term Corrosion Of Cast Iron Bridge Piers', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
2013Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Reliability Based Evaluation Of Commonly Applied Corrosion Mitigation Techniques', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2013Melchers RE, Comanescu I, 'Influence Of MIC On Corrosion Of Oil Field Water Injection Pipelines', Corrosion and Prevention 2013 Proceedings, Brisbane (2013) [E1]
2013Petersen RB, Dafter M, Melchers RE, 'Long-term corrosion of buried cast iron water mains: field data collection and model calibration', LESAM 2013 Strategic Asset Management of Water and Wastewater Infrastructure, Sydney Australia (2013) [E2]
2013Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic pitting corrosion risk assessment of welded offshore steel pipelines', Proceedings of the Twenty-third International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Anchorage, AK (2013) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2013Melchers RE, 'Mechanism for Debonding of Internal Pipeline Lining in De-aerated Environments', The Proceedings of the 23rd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2013), Anchorage, Alaska (2013) [E1]
2013Melchers RE, Herron C, Emslie R, 'Variability in long-term corrosion of cast iron bridge piers', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

In 2010 the disused railway bridge at St Lawrence on the Queensland Pacific Ocean coast was demolished after 90 years service across the St Lawrence Creek, Queensland, some 6 km inland from the Pacific Ocean and subject large (up to 9 m) seawater tidal movements. Detailed examination of samples about 300×300 mm square and larger cut from several of the bridge piers at various elevations showed corrosion loss varying on average between 2-3 mm for the immersion and tidal exposure zones. This is remarkably little for such aggressive environment and for such long duration of exposure. There was negligible corrosion in the atmospheric zone. The multiple samples allowed statistical analysis of the variability of corrosion losses at different elevations. The statistical results are unique for such long-term exposures and are of major importance for structural reliability analyses of similar old bridges. Also, the corrosion loss results were compared with results reported in the literature for which the longest period of observation is only a few years. Observations show that cast iron is not free from localized corrosion and pitting as sometimes assumed. The corrosion loss results were compared to patterns previously observed for corrosion of steel through the tidal zone. A pattern consistent with so-called accelerated low water corrosion was observed, suggesting that at some period of time in the history of the bridge the tidal seawaters suffered some degree of water pollution.

2013Comanescu I, Taxén C, Melchers RE, 'Possible influence of microorganisms on the patterns of corrosion seen in water injection pipelines', NACE Corrosion Conference and Expo 2013, Orlando, FL (2013) [E1]
Author URL
2013Melchers RE, Comanescu I, 'Influence of MIC on corrosion of oil field water injection pipelines', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

Water injection or water flooding is widely used as a secondary recovery method to increase the production of oil usually from mature oil wells. It requires the injection of water into the reservoir, typically using carbon steel pipelines. Their corrosion is a major issue for the oil and gas industry, involving high costs of periodic chemical treatment, including biocides, oxygen scavengers, corrosion and scale inhibitors, and pipeline pigging. There is also the high potential cost of premature failure of the pipelines relative to life-time predictions, and the associated potential for unpredicted costs and major environmental implications should the pipeline fail. The present paper presents a review of a pilot study supported by the oil industry and the European Community that aimed to improve understanding of the corrosion behaviour of these pipelines. It draws on data and observations for the long-term corrosion, water quality, intelligent pigging records and microbiological testing to gain a better understanding why some pipelines suffer mild corrosion yet others, apparently similar, are prone to highly aggressive channelling corrosion. Herein the documented experience of several pipelines is reviewed. Observation data taken into consideration include pigging operation information, composition of corrosion products and their amount, corrosion rates and pipe geometry, identified biological consortia, water chemistry and process parameters. Also, the distribution of corrosion along the pipeline as well as the localization of corrosion attack is noted. Preliminary correlations between and conclusions about observed corrosion, operational conditions and service history are made. A Joint Industry research project currently is being arranged by the offshore oil industry to extend this work.

2013Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel vertical prisms of different plan shape', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

Atmospheric corrosion tests of mild steel have employed thin flat steel panels of various sizes, with low edge to main surface ratios. The corrosion loss results relate well to the corrosion of flat steel products and surfaces. The few results reported for circular coupons such as wires showed corrosion losses higher than for flat plates (Jeffrey et al). Herein new observations are reported for the development of rusts, delamination of rusts and of atmospheric corrosion losses for mild steel square, hexagonal and circular prisms exposed in the vertical orientation at Belmont Beach for up to 3 years. The corrosion loss results are compared to previously reported results for flat plate coupons at the same site. In general, smaller samples, including the flat coupons, corroded much more than larger samples. For the smaller prisms rusts delaminated within 12 months or less whereas delamination was not observed for the larger samples. It is proposed that this the result of radial or equivalent cracking permitting higher rates of oxygen diffusion to the corrosion interface.

Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Petersen RB, Dafter M, Melchers RE, 'Modelling the long-term corrosion of cast iron pipes', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

The external corrosion of buried cast iron water mains is a significant problem for the Australian Water Industry. To improve maintenance and replacement strategies for these mains the industry requires a method to estimate their remaining service lives. Predictions of long-term corrosion losses, pit depths and pitting extents are therefore required. A conceptual model for the prediction of long-term corrosion has been developed and the external soil conditions influencing corrosion were identified in a previous study. To calibrate the model, long-term data of corrosion (average loss and maximum penetration) and associated soil parameters for pipes in service is required. Field data has been collected at 18 condition assessment sites and two pipe replacement sites within Hunter Water Corporation's network. This paper presents the field observations and measurements taken from these sites, the model calibration procedure and results of the calibration. The results show that the long-term maximum corrosion penetration increases with increasing soil wetness (measured using degree of saturation) over the observed range of degree of saturation (0.5 to 0.86). The initial model calibration produced model parameters for cast iron pipes buried at standard depths in relatively homogeneous, low-permeability, soils with degrees of saturation equal to 0.57, 0.66, and 0.76.

2013Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'A study of reinforced concrete piles from the hornibrook highway bridge (1935-2011)', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

The Hornibrook Highway Bridge was a 2684m long timber and concrete bridge spanning across Bramble Bay north of Brisbane, Queensland. Completed in 1935, it was the longest road viaduct across water in Australia at the time. It was demolished in 2011 after 76 years of service due to substantial timber degradation and the deterioration of the concrete due to corrosion. A number of piles were salvaged from demolition and studied by the University of Newcastle. This paper outlines some of the findings from this investigation. The piles and reinforcing bars were in relatively good condition with minimal cross-sectional area losses despite the age of the bridge and exposure to an aggressive marine environment. An exception was the severe corrosion of a bar in one pile with no obvious external visual evidence. A summary of petrographic and XRD analyses, and carbonation profiles are also presented and discussed.

2013Jeffrey R, Melchers RE, 'The effect of aluminium alloying on the corrosion resistance of cast steel', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 (2013)

There is some evidence that the addition of small amount of aluminium can reduce the atmospheric corrosion of steel. However, systematic long-term investigations are lacking. There also appears to be no information about resistance of such alloys to marine immersion conditions. This paper reports on the marine environment corrosion performance of steel alloyed with aluminium additions of 0% (control), 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. The cast steel was forged into billets and machined into coupons. Sets of coupons were exposed to three exposure conditions: (a) in temperate seawater for 1, 2 and 3 years, (b) submerged below the mud-line for 1, 2 and 3 years and (c) exposed at two extremely severe atmospheric marine locations for 12 months. The results show that the increase in Al content reduced corrosion loss in submerged conditions from 10.5% after one year to 2.8% after 3 years. In the coastal atmosphere, corrosion loss dropped from 5.5% after one year with no Al addition to 1.2% with 8% Al alloying. The corrosion resistance in marine mud buried conditions was less favourable. Corrosion loss reduced from 4.4% after one year to 2.9% after 2 years but in some instance the addition of Al had minimal or no effect on corrosion resistance. These observations add to the body of knowledge regarding the effect of aluminium on long-term corrosion loss.

Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2013Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Reliability analysis of steel pipeline welds subjected to long-term seawater exposure', From Materials to Structures: Advancement through Innovation, Sydney, NSW (2013) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2013Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'Structural performance of 45 year old corroded prestressed concrete beams', From Materials to Structures: Advances through Innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, ACMSM 22, Sydney, Australia (2013) [E1]
2012Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect of microbiological involvement on the topography of corroding mild steel in coastal seawater', Book of Abstracts. Eurocorr 2012, Istanbul, Turkey (2012) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Reliability analysis of long term pitting corrosion of welded marine steel pipelines', Corrosion Management for a Sustainable World: Transport, Energy, Mining, Life Extension and Modelling, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2012Melchers RE, 'The relative influence of microbiological and abiotic processes in modelling longer-term marine corrosion of steel', Eurocorr 2012. The European Corrosion Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (2012) [E2]
2012Comanescu I, Melchers RE, 'Correlation between MIC and water quality, pigging frequency and biocide dosing in oil field water injection pipelines', Eurocorr 2012. The European Corrosion Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (2012) [E2]
2012Taxen C, Comanescu I, Melchers RE, 'Framework model for under deposit corrosion in water injection pipelines', Eurocorr 2012. The European Corrosion Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (2012) [E2]
2012Melchers RE, Pape TM, 'The durability of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments', Proceedings Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 2012, Perth, WA (2012) [E1]
2012Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, Fontaine E, 'Corrosion and the structural safety of FPSO mooring systems in Tropical waters', Proceedings of the Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 2012, Perth, WA (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Comanescu I, Taxen C, Melchers RE, 'Assessment of MIC in carbon steel water injection pipelines', SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Oilfield Corrosion 2012, Aberdeen, UK (2012) [E2]
2012Fontaine E, Potts A, Consulting A, Ma K-T, Company CT, Arredondo A, et al., 'SCORCH JIP: Examination and testing of severely-corroded mooring chains from West Africa', Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference 2012, Houston, Texas (2012) [E2]
2012Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The changing composition of the corrosion products of mild steel in severe marine atmospheres', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2012, melbourne, australia (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Melchers RE, 'Long-term corrosion of grey cast iron in marine environments', Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2012, melbourne, australia (2012)
2012Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'External corrosion of carbon steel pipeline weld zones', Proceedings of the 22nd International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Rhodes, Greece (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2012Fontaine E, Potts AE, Arredondo A, Melchers RE, Ma K-T, 'Investigation of severe corrosion of mooring chain in West Africa Waters', Proceedings of the Twenty-second (2012) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Rhodes, Greece (2012) [E1]
2012Comanescu I, Melchers RE, Taxen C, 'Life time assessment of offshore water injection pipelines as a function of microbiologically influenced corrosion', Proceedings of the Twenty-second (2012) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Rhodes, Greece (2012) [E1]
2012Wells PA, Melchers RE, Joseph A, Bond P, Vitanage D, Bustamante H, et al., 'A collaborative investigation of microbial corrosion of concrete sewer pipe in Australia', Conference Proceedings. Oz Water '12. Australia's National Water Conference and Exhibition, Sydney, NSW (2012) [E1]
2012Melchers RE, 'Structural reliability estimation for steel structures affected by pitting corrosion', ISRERM2012: Reliability Engineering and Risk Management ISRERM2012, Yokohama, Japan (2012) [E1]
2012Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect of increasing amounts of nutrient on the corrosion rate of mild steel', Corrosion & Prevention 2012, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect coupon size for the determination of atmospheric corrosivity', Corrosion & Prevention 2012, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Stockert L, Haas M, Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Electrochemical measurements and short-term-in-situ exposure testing', Corrosion & Prevention 2012, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2012Dafter MR, Melchers RE, Nicholas DM, 'Prediction of long term corrosion in soils using electrochemical tests', Corrosion & Prevention 2012, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
2012Melchers RE, 'Long term corrosion of grey cast iron in marine environments', Corrosion Management for a Sustainable World: Transport, Energy, Mining, Life Extension and Modelling, Melbourne, Vic (2012) [E1]
2012Petersen RB, Melchers RE, 'Long-term corrosion of cast iron cement lined pipes', Corrosion Management for a Sustainable World: Transport, Energy, Mining, Life Extension and Modelling, Melbourne, Australia (2012) [E1]
2012Melchers RE, 'Safety and reliability of FPSO mooring systems', 6th International ASRANet Conference for Integrating Structural Analysis, Risk and Reliability, London, UK (2012) [E2]
2011Melchers RE, 'Modelling long-term corrosion of mild steel in unpolluted fresh and sterile seawaters', 18th International Corrosion Congress 2011, Perth (2011) [E1]
2011Chaves IA, Melchers RE, 'Long-term marine corrosion of welds on steel piling', 18th International Corrosion Congress 2011, Perth, WA (2011) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2011Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect of airborne nutrients on atmospheric corrosion', 18th International Corrosion Congress 2011, Perth, WA (2011) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2011Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'A detailed case study of carbonation profiles in prestressed concrete beams from an aggressive marine environment', 18th International Corrosion Congress 2011, Perth, WA (2011) [E1]
2011Wells PA, Melchers RE, 'Microbial corrosion of sewer pipe in Australia - Initial field results', 18th International Corrosion Congress 2011, Perth, WA (2011) [E1]
2011Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Deterioration mechanics - The competition between abiotic and biotic processes', Incorporating Sustainable Practice in Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Proceedings of the 21st Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Melbourne, VIC (2011) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2011Melchers RE, 'Application of extreme value theory to discriminate between failure modes', Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, Zurich, CH (2011) [E1]
2011Melchers RE, Ahammed M, Jeffrey RJ, Simundic G, 'Statistical analysis of the surfaces of corroded mild steel plates', Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, Zurich, CH (2011) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey, Goran Simundic, Mukshed Ahammed
2011Melchers RE, 'Prediction of long-term corrosion for infrastructure applications', European Corrosion Congress 2011, Stockholm, Sweden (2011) [E2]
2011Melchers RE, 'The role of nutrients and water pollution in the bacterial corrosion of structural steels', Symposium on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Papers, Melbourne, Vic (2011) [E1]
2011Melchers RE, 'Observations about the corrosion of reinforcement in marine environments', XII DBMC: International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, Porto, Portugal (2011) [E1]
2010Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Experimental investigation of accelerated low water corrosion of steel piling in habours', Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Structures Degradation in Coastal Zones, La Rochelle, France (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2010Melchers RE, Pape TM, 'Aspects of long-term durability of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments', Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Structures Degradation in Coastal Zones, La Rochelle, France (2010) [E1]
DOI10.3166/EJECE.15.969-980
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2010Melchers RE, 'The time to commencement of reinforcement corrosion in marine environments', Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Concrete Under Severe Conditions, Yucatan, Mexico (2010) [E1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2010Melchers RE, Chernov BB, 'High temperature hard freshwater corrosion loss of mild steel', TEAM 2010 Vladivostok: The 24th Asian-Pacific Technical Exchange and Advisory Meeting on Marine Structures: Program and Proceedings, Vladivostok, Russia (2010) [E1]
DOI10.1016/j.corsci.2009.10.002
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 11
2010Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Predicting the life of reinforced concrete structures in severe marine environments', BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, SAFETY, MANAGEMENT AND LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION, Lehigh Univ, Adv Technol Large Struct Syst (ATLSS) Engn Res Ctr, Philadelphia, PA (2010) [E2]
Author URL
2010Melchers RE, 'Experiments, science and probability theory in building new models for long-term pitting corrosion in marine environments', Safety, Reliability and Risk of Structures, Infrastructures and Engineering Systems: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2009), Osaka, Japan (2010) [E1]
2010Melchers RE, 'Structural reliability theory in the wider safety context', Safety, Reliability and Risk of Structures, Infrastructures and Engineering Systems: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2009), Osaka, Japan (2010) [E1]
2010Schoefs F, Boero J, Capra B, Melchers RE, 'Statistical analysis of corrosion process along French coasts', Safety, Reliability and Risk of Structures, Infrastructures and Engineering Systems: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR2009), Osaka, Japan (2010) [E1]
2010Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Predicting the life of reinforced concrete structures in severe marine environments', Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life-Cycle Optimization - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, Philadelphia, United States (2010) [E1]
2010Melchers RE, 'Observations about the performance of reinforcement in marine environments', CECAR 5. ASEC 2010. 5th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region and Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 2010, Sydney, NSW (2010) [E1]
2010Melchers RE, Wells PA, 'Modelling the long term corrosion of reinforced concrete sewers', Leading-Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies, Phoenix, AZ (2010) [E1]
2010Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Variability of corrosion of mild steel coupons in tidal, splash and atmospheric marine environments', Corrosion and Prevention 2010: Always Protecting, Always Learning, Adelaide, SA (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2010Chaves IA, Melchers RE, Fontaine E, 'A field investigation of pitting corrosion of welded pipeline steels', Proceedings of the ACA Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2010, Adelaide, SA (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsIgor Chaves
2010Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, Simundic G, 'Representativeness of small coupons for corrosion of large plates', Proceedings of the ACA Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2010, Adelaide, SA (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsGoran Simundic, Robert Jeffrey
2010Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'On predicting long-term corrosion behaviour from short-term tests', Proceedings of the ACA Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2010, Adelaide, SA (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2010Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect of microbiological involvement on the topography of corroding mild steel in coastal seawater', NACE Corrosion Conference & Expo 2010, San Antonio, TX (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2010Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Corrosion of vertical steel strips exposed in the marine tidal zone and implications for ALWC', NACE Corrosion Conference & Expo 2010, San Antonio, TX (2010) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2009Melchers RE, 'Failure mechanism of the Newcastle Workers Club', AEES 2009 Program, Newcastle, NSW (2009) [E3]
2009Melchers RE, 'Ensuring validity and quality of deterioration models for structural reliability assessment', ICCES'09 Conference Program & Souvenir, Phuket, Thailand (2009) [E3]
2009Melchers RE, 'Reliability theory and estimating the likely safety of constructed facilities', Futures in Mechanics of Structures and Materials: Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Toowoomba, QLD (2009) [E1]
2009Fontaine E, Armstrong R, Potts A, Melchers RE, Chaplin CR, Francois M, 'Semi-empirical modeling for seawater corrosion of wire rope', Proceedings of the Nineteenth (2009) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Osaka, Japan (2009) [E1]
2009Papè T, Melchers R, 'Comparisons between two corrosion assessment methods and the corrosion of steel in prestressed concrete', 49th Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2009: Corrosion and Prevention 2009, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia (2009) [E1]
2009Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion of isolated and electrically-connected steel coupons in temperate coastal seawater', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2009Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The effect of seawater sterilisation on the corrosion of mild steel', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2009Melchers RE, 'Experiments, science and intuition in the development of models for the corrosion of steel infrastructure', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
2009Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Time to initiation of reinforcement corrosion in marine environments: A review of older concrete structures', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
2009Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'Comparisons between two corrosion assessment methods and the corrosion of steel in prestressed concrete', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009)
2009Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'Comparisons between two corrosion assessment methods and the corrosion of steel in prestressed concrete', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
2009Wells PA, Melchers RE, Bond P, 'Factors involved in the long term corrosion of concrete sewers', Corrosion & Prevention 2009: The Management of Infrastructure Deterioration: Conference Proceedings, Coffs Harbour, NSW (2009) [E1]
2008Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Evidence for microbiological influenced longer-term corrosion in tidal and coastal atmospheric corrosion of steel elements', Corrosion & Prevention 2008: The Impact of Corrosion on our Lives: Conference Proceedings, Wellington, NZ (2008) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, Li CQ, 'Long-term observations of reinforcement corrosion for concrete elements exposed to the North Sea', Corrosion & Prevention 2008: The Impact of Corrosion on our Lives: Conference Proceedings, Wellington, NZ (2008) [E1]
2008Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion profiles of mild steel in varying tidal seawaters', Corrosion & Prevention 2008: The Impact of Corrosion on our Lives: Conference Proceedings, Wellington, NZ (2008) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Three year observations of corrosion losses for steels at a severe marine atmospheric site', Corrosion & Prevention 2008: The Impact of Corrosion on our Lives: Conference Proceedings, Wellington, NZ (2008) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, 'Long-term corrosion of steels exposed to marine environments', MEDACHS 08: Construction Heritage in Coastal and Marine Environments: Damage, Diagnostic, Maintenance and Rehabilitation, Lisbon, Portugal (2008) [E1]
DOI10.3166/EJECE.13.527-546
CitationsWeb of Science - 5
2008Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Early test results and interpretations for corrosion of vertical steel strips exposed in the marine tidal zone', The 14th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling: Abstracts, Kobe, Japan (2008) [E3]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2008Melchers RE, 'The critical role of marine bacterial processes in the development of models for pitting corrosion of structural steels', Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, Lake Como, Italy (2008) [E1]
DOI10.1201/9780203885307.ch26
2008Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'Investigating the effects of corrosion on 45-year-old prestressed concrete bridge beams', Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, Lake Como, Italy (2008) [E1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2008Melchers RE, 'New research findings for the atmospheric corrosion of steel structures and the development of predictive models for corrosion loss and pitting', Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 2008: Conference Proceedings, Melbourne, VIC (2008) [E1]
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Correlation between water temperature and corrosion of mild steel in different waters', Corrosion Control 007. Conference Proceedings, Sydney (2007) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Gudze MT, Melchers RE, 'Prediction of corrosion in ballast tanks of naval ships using operational characteristics', Corrosion Control 007. Conference Proceedings, Sydney (2007) [E1]
2007Melchers RE, 'Modelling the corrosion losses for mild steel exposed to natural fresh, brackish and seawaters', Corrosion Control 007. Conference Proceedings, Sydney (2007) [E1]
2007Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'The effect of corrosion on 45 year-old prestressed concrete bridge beams', Corrosion Control 007. Conference Proceedings, Sydney (2007) [E1]
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'New data for verification of a phenomenological model for corrosion of steels in seawater', 1st Corrosion and Material Protection Conference 2007. Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic (2007) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'The critical involvement of anaerobic bacterial activity in modelling the corrosion behaviours of mild steel in marine environments', BIOCORYS 2007, Paris (2007) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'The involvement of anaerobic bacteria in the corrosion of mild steel in water', MIC Symposium: An International Perspective. Proceedings, Perth (2007) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Melchers RE, 'Development of high-quality engineering models for marine coastal zone corrosion of structural steels', SCAMI-2. 2nd International Conference on Structural Condition Assessment Monitoring and Improvement. Conference Proceedings, Changsha, China (2007) [E1]
2007Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion profiles of mild steel in varying tidal seawaters', Second World Congress on Corrosion in the Military. Proceedings, Naples, Italy (2007) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2007Melchers RE, 'Development of new applied models for steel corrosion in marine applications including shipping', 2007 PRADES. 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures, Houston, Texas (2007) [E1]
2007Melchers RE, 'Recent progress in the development of mathematical-probabilistic corrosion models for long-term life assessment of steel infrastructure', Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, Tokyo (2007) [E1]
2007Melchers RE, 'Modelling the corrosion of steel infrastructure in marine environments for long-term reliability assessment', Lifetime-Oriented Design Concepts, 2007. Proceedings of the Third International Conference Lifetime-Oriented Design Concepts, Bochum, Germany (2007) [E2]
2006Melchers RE, 'The probabilistic prediction of short- and long-term maximum pit depth for steels immersed in seawater', Corrosion Modeling For Life Prediction 2006, Cernobbio, Lake Como, Italy (2006) [E2]
2006Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic modelling of long-term pitting corrosion of structural steel under marine immersion conditions', Corrosion and Prevention 2006, Hobart, Tasmania (2006) [E1]
2006Melchers RE, 'From marine immersion to coastal atmospheric corrosion of mild steel: implications arising from long-term observations', Corrosion and Prevention 2006, Hobart, Tasmania (2006) [E1]
2006Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Early observations of corrosion losses for steels at a severe marine atmospheric site', Corrosion and Prevention 2006, Hobart, Tasmania (2006) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2006Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Observations of corrosion losses for steels exposed in tidal seawaters', Corrosion and Prevention 2006, Hobart, Tasmania (2006) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2006Melchers RE, 'Aspects of probabilistic risk assessment and remaining life prediction for pipelines under long-term pitting corrosion', International Conference and Exhibition on Pressure Vessels and Piping (OPE 2006), Chennai, India (2006) [E1]
2006Paik JK, Thayamballi AK, Melchers RE, 'Recent advances in corrosion assessment and management for ships and offshore structures', 5th International Conference on High Performance Marine Vehicles, Tasmania, Australia (2006) [E1]
2006Melchers RE, 'Advances in mathematical-probabilistic modelling of the atmospheric corrosion of structural steels in ocean environments', 3rd International ASRANet Colloquium, Glasgow, United Kingdom (2006) [E1]
2006Melchers RE, 'Assessment and prediction of remaining safe and serviceable life for corroding infrastructure', 19th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Christchurch, New Zealand (2006) [E1]
2006Pape TM, Melchers RE, 'The effect of corrosion on the capacity and behaviour of a 45 year-old post-tensioned concrete bridge beams', 19th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Christchurch, New Zealand (2006) [E1]
2005Melchers RE, 'Observations About The Probabilistic Representation Of Uncertainty For Maximum Corrosion Pit Depths', Advances In Reliability And Optimization Of Structural Systems, Aalborg, Denmark (2005) [E2]
2005Melchers RE, 'The Corrosion Of Structural Steel In Seawater', Australian Structural Engineering Conference 2005, Newcastle, Australia (2005) [E1]
2005Wells PA, Melchers RE, 'Predictive Methods For Estimating The Durability Of Simple Composite Materials', Australian Stuctural Engineering Conference : ASEC 2005 : 11-14 September 2005, Newcastle City Hall, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Program & abstract book, Newcastle, Australia (2005) [E1]
2005Li CQ, Lawanwisut W, Melchers RE, 'Reliability Analysis Of Corrosion Induced Concrete Cracking', 9th International Conference On Structural Safety And Reliability (ICOSSAR 2005), Rome, Italy (2005) [E1]
2005Melchers RE, 'Representation Of Uncertainty For Maximum Corrosion Pit Depth', 9th International Conference On Structural Safety And Reliability (ICOSSAR 2005), Rome, Italy (2005) [E1]
2005Melchers RE, 'Degradation Of The Reliability Of Steel Structures Due To Marine Immersion Corrosion', 9th International Conference On Structural Safety And Reliability (ICOSSAR 2005), Rome, Italy (2005) [E1]
2005Li CQ, Aguiar S, Melchers RE, 'Maintenance Strategy For Coastal Concrete Structures', 9th International Conference On Structural Safety And Reliability (ICOSSAR 2005), Rome, Italy (2005) [E1]
2005Ahammed M, Melchers RE, 'New Bounds For Highly Correlated Structural Series System', 9th International Conference On Structural Safety And Reliability (ICOSSAR 2005), Rome, Italy (2005) [E1]
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2005Melchers RE, 'Mathematical And Probabilistic Modelling Of Material Deterioriation With Application To Pitting Corrosion In Structural Steel Applications', Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop On Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Design of Civil Infrastructure Systems, Cocoa Beach, USA (2005) [E1]
2005Melchers RE, 'Mathematical And Probabilistic Modelling For Seawater Corrosion Of Steels In Structural Applications', Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Structural Condition Assessment, Monitoring and Improvement, Perth, Australia (2005) [E1]
2005Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Corrosion Field Trials - Case Studies On Unsuccessful Atmospheric And Marine Immersion Studies', Corrosion and Prevention 2005, Gold Coast, QLD (2005) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2005Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'The Changing Surface Topography Of Corroding Mild Steel In Sub-Tropical Coastal Waters', 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, China (2005) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2005Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Morphology Of The Corrosion Products Of Mild Steel Immersed In Temperate Seawaters', 16th International Corrosion Congress, Beijing, China (2005) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2005Melchers RE, Jiang XL, Lu KJ, 'Coating Life Prediction For Water Ballast Tank', 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2005), Halkidiki, Greece (2005) [E2]
2005Melchers RE, 'The Probability Of Occurrence For Pits Of Maximum Depth - Upsetting 50 Years Of Convention', Corrosion and Prevention 2005, Gold Coast, Australia (2005) [E1]
2004Gudze M, Cannon S, Melchers RE, 'Ballast Tank Corrosion Using Naval Ship Operational Profiles', Proceedings of the Pacific 2004 International Maritime Conference, Sydney, Australia (2004) [E1]
2004Wells PA, Melchers RE, 'Determining Hydrolysis Behavior And Durability From Short Term Water Absorption Data', Proceedings of the Second International Conference on FRP Composites In Civil Engineering, Adelaide, Australia (2004) [E1]
2004Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Characterization Of Corroded Steel Plate Surfaces', Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Perth, Australia (2004) [E1]
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2004Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Migration Of Iron Particles, Ions and Compounds During Long-Term Marine Immersion Corrosion', Corrosion and Prevention 2004, Perth, Australia (2004) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2004Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Influence Of Tidal Movement On Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel - Preliminary Results', Corrosion and Prevention 2004, Perth, Australia (2004) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2004Melchers RE, 'Variability Of Maximum Pit Depth For Mild Steel In Seawater', Corrosion and Prevention 2004, Perth, Australia (2004) [E1]
2004Melchers RE, 'The Effect Of Corrosion On The Structural Reliability Of Steel Offshore Structures', International Symposium on Corrosion and Protection of Marine Structures, Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan (2004) [E2]
2004Melchers RE, 'Mathematical Modelling Of Marine Immersion Corrosion For Structural Reliability Assessment', Proceedings of the Third Asian Pacific Symposium on Structural Reliability and its Applications, Seoul, Korea (2004) [E1]
2003Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'An XRD Study Of The Products Of Corrosion Of Mild Steel Immersed In Coastal Conditions', Corrosion Control And NDT, Melbourne, Australia (2003) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2003Melchers RE, 'Pitting Corrosion Of Mild Steel In Marine Immersion Environments', Corrosion Control And NDT, Melbourne, Australia (2003) [E1]
2003Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Observations On The Effect Of Surface 'Roughness' In The Marine Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel Coupons', Corrosion Control And NDT, Melbourne, Australia (2003) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2003Melchers RE, 'Modelling Of Long-Term Performance Of Structural Steel Under Marine Corrosion Conditions', Proceedings Of The International Conference On Performance Of Construction Materials In The New Millenium (ICPCM), Cairo, Egypt (2003) [E1]
2003Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'Fatigue And Fracture Reliability Analysis Under Random Loading', Proceedings Of The Second MIT Conference On Computational Fluid And Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States (2003) [E2]
2003Moarefzadeh MR, Melchers RE, 'Nonlinear Wave Effect In Reliability Analysis Of Offshore Structures', Extreme Loading Conference: Response Of Structures To Extreme Loading, Toronto, Canada (2003) [E2]
2003Melchers RE, Ahammed M, 'Numerical Estimation Of Sensitivities For Complex Probabilistically-Described Systems', Proceedings Of The Ninth International Conference On Civil And Structural Engineering Computing, Egmond-aan-Zee, The Netherlands (2003) [E2]
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
2003Gray WA, Melchers RE, 'A Comparison Of Some Numerical Methods Available For The Estimation Of Time-Invariant Reliability', Proceedings Of The Sixth Engineering Mathematics And Applications Conference, Sydney, Australia (2003) [E1]
2003Gray WA, Melchers RE, 'A Comparison Of Some Numerical Methods For Estimating Time-Invariant Reliability', Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference On Applications Of Statistics And Probability In Civil Engineering, San Francisco, California, United States (2003) [E1]
2003Melchers RE, 'A New Model For Marine Immersion Corrosion In Structural Reliability Assessment', Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference On Applications Of Statistics And Probability In Civil Engineering, San Francisco, California, United States (2003) [E1]
2003Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'On The Ensemble Up-Crossing Rate Approach To Time Variant Reliability Analysis Of Uncertain Structures', Proceedings Of The Fourth International Conference On Computation Stochastic Mechanics, Corfu, Greece (2003) [E2]
2002Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Effect Of Seawater Velocity On Immersion Corrosion Of Mild Steel', Corrosion And Prevention - 02, Adelaide, South Australia (2002) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2002Melchers RE, Jeffrey RJ, 'Variability In Corrosion Of Mild Steel Coupons In Seawater', Corrosion And Prevention 02, Adelaide, South Australia (2002) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2002Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Influence Of Edge Effect On Marine Immersion Corrosion Measurement For Mild Steel Coupons', 15th International Corrosion Congress, Granada, Spain (2002) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2002Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Images Of Bacteriological Influence In The Development Of Iron Sulphide In Marine Immersion Environments', 15th International Corrosion Congress, Granada, Spain (2002) [E2]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2002Melchers RE, 'Stochastic Computational Mechanics - With Emphasis On Mechanics Modelling', ASRANet, Glasgow, Scotland (2002) [E1]
2002Melchers RE, Stewart MG, 'Risk-Based Predictions Of Service Life Performance', IABSE Symposium, Melbourne, Australia (2002) [E1]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
2002Beck AT, Melchers RE, 'A Comparison Of Some Methods For Fatigue And Fracture Reliability Estimation Under Random Loading', Proceedings Of The 17th Australasian Conference On The Mechanics Of Structures And Materials, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2002) [E1]
2002Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'A Finite Element Approach For Modeling The Statistical Strength Of A Unidirectional Composite', Proceedings Of The 17th Australasian Conference On The Mechanics Of Structures And Materials, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2002) [E1]
2002Masia MJ, Kleeman PW, Melchers RE, 'Soil/Structure Interation Modelling Of Masonry For Reliability Studies', Proceedings of the 17th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2002) [E1]
Co-authorsMark Masia
2001Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic models of corrosion for reliability assessment and maintenance planning - CD-ROM', Proceedings of OMAE'01 20th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Brazil (2001) [E1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2001Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Bulk Carrier Corrosion Modelling', Proceedings of the Eleventh (2001) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Norway (2001) [E1]
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 2
2001Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Bacteriological influence in the development of iron sulphide species in marine immersion environments', Proceedings of Corrosion and Prevention - 2001, Newcastle (2001) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2001Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'Stress corrosion of glass fibre reinforced polymers for infrastructure applications', Proceedings of Corrosion and Prevention - 2001, Newcastle (2001) [E1]
2001Melchers RE, 'A phenomenological model for 'at-sea' marine immersion corrosion of mild steel', Proceedings of Corrosion and Prrevention - 2001, Newcastle (2001) [E1]
2001Faber MH, Melchers RE, 'Aspects of safety in design and assessment of deteriorating structures', Conference Report on Safety, Risk and Relaibility - Trends in Engineering, Malta (2001) [E2]
2001Masia MJ, Melchers RE, 'Serviceability and Reliability of Structures Subject to Ground Movement', Proceedings of the 4th Triennial Conference on Coal Mine Subsidence 2001, Maitland (2001) [E2]
Co-authorsMark Masia
2001Khennane A, Melchers RE, 'A micromechanics model for environmental stress corrosion in GFRP', Proceedings of the International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Hong Kong, China (2001) [E1]
2000Melchers RE, 'Influence of Temperature on Marine Corrosion of 90:10 Copper-Nickel Alloy', Corrosion & Prevention - 2000, Auckland, New Zealanad (2000) [E1]
2000Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Boundary Conditions of Marine Immersion Coupons', Corrosion & Prevention - 2000, Auckland, New Zealand (2000) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
2000Kordzakhia N, Melchers RE, Novikov A, 'First Passage of Filtered Poisson Processes with Exponential', PMC2000 Proceedings of the 8th ASCE Joint Specialty Conference, University of Notre Dame, USA (2000) [E2]
2000Guan X-L, Melchers RE, 'A parametric Study on the Response Surface Method', PMC2000 Proceedings of the 8th ASCE Joint Specialty Conference, University of Notre Dame, USA (2000) [E2]
2000Masia MJ, Melchers RE, Kleeman PW, 'A probabilistic model for the prediction of cracking in masonry structures', Proceedings of the 12th International Brick/Block Masonry Conference, Madrid, Spain (2000) [E2]
Co-authorsMark Masia
2000Melchers RE, Stewart MG, 'Proceedings of the ICASP8 Conference, Applications of Statistics and Probability', Proceedings of the ICASP8 Conference, Applicatiosn of Statistics and Probability, Sydney (2000) [E4]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
2000Guan X-L, Melchers RE, 'A Comparison of some FOSM and Monte Carlo results', Proceedings of the ICASP8 Conference: Applications of Statistics and Probability, Sydney, Australia (2000) [E1]
2000Kordzakhia N, Melchers RE, 'First passage analysis of a 'square wave' filtered Poisson process', Proceedings of the ICASP8 Conference: Applications of Statistics and Probability, Sydney, Australia (2000) [E1]
2000Melchers RE, 'Optimization of Structural Reliability and Structural Safety', Proceedings of the Ninths IFIP WG 7.5 Working Conference on Reliability and optimization of structural system, 2000, The University of Michigan, USA (2000) [E1]
1999Melchers RE, 'Early and longer term prediction of immersion corrosion of steel in marine waters', Proceedings Corrosion & Prevention-99, Sydney, Australia (1999) [E1]
1999Jeffrey RJ, Melchers RE, 'Influence of environmental factors on the early corrosion of steel in coastal seawater', Proceedings Corrosion & Prevention-99, Sydney, Australia (1999) [E1]
Co-authorsRobert Jeffrey
1999Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Enclosed atmospheric corrosion in an unloaded bulk carrier cargo hold', Proceedings Corrosion & Prevention-99, Sydney, Australia (1999) [E1]
1999Melchers RE, Guan X-L, 'Finite element analysis in structural reliability', Proceedings of the 16th Australasian conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Sydney, Australia (1999) [E1]
1999Melchers RE, 'Developments in directional stimulation for structural reliability estimation', Proceedings of the Asian-Pacific Symposium on Structural Reliability and its Applications, Taipei, Taiwan (1999) [E2]
1999Melchers RE, 'Factors influencing the immersion corrosion of steels in marine waters', Proceedings on 14th International Corrosion Congress, Cape Town, South Africa (1999) [E1]
1998Ellingwood B, Nowak A, Melchers RE, Thoft-Christensen P, Furuta H, Vrouwenvelder T, 'Summary of Panel Discussion: New generation of codes', STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND RELIABILITY, VOLS. 1-3, INT ASSOC STRUCT SAFETY & RELIABIL, KYOTO, JAPAN (1998)
Author URL
1998Val D, Melchers RE, 'Reliability analysis of deteriorating reinforced concrete frame structures', STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND RELIABILITY, VOLS. 1-3, INT ASSOC STRUCT SAFETY & RELIABIL, KYOTO, JAPAN (1998)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1998Guan XL, Melchers RE, 'Piece-wise linear models for reliability estimation with finite elements', STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND RELIABILITY, VOLS. 1-3, INT ASSOC STRUCT SAFETY & RELIABIL, KYOTO, JAPAN (1998)
Author URL
1998Melchers RE, 'Probabilistic modelling of immersion marine corrosion', STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND RELIABILITY, VOLS. 1-3, INT ASSOC STRUCT SAFETY & RELIABIL, KYOTO, JAPAN (1998)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 10
1998Melchers RE, 'Aspects of Seismic Risk for Existing Infrastructure in Intraplate Regions', Asian-Pacific Workshop on Seismic Design and Retrofit of Structures, Taipei (1998) [E2]
1998Val DV, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'A Probabilistic Approach to the Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Bridges', Developments in Short and Medium Span Bridge Engineering '98, Calgary (1998) [E1]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1998Gardiner CP, Melchers RE, 'Aspects of Bulk Carrier Hold Corrosion', International Conference on Design and Operation of Bulk Carriers, London (1998) [E2]
1998Hough R, Melchers RE, 'Lightweight Structures in Architecture Engineering and Construction Vol. 1', Lightweight Structures in Architecture Engineering and Construction, Vol 1, Australia (1998) [E4]
1998Hough R, Melchers RE, 'Lightweight Structures in Architecture Engineering and Construction Vol 2', Lightweight Structures in Architecture Engineering and Construction, Vol 2, Australia (1998) [E4]
1998Melchers RE, 'Immersion Corrosion of Steels in Marine and Brackish Waters', Proceedings Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, Hobart (1998) [E1]
1998Melchers RE, 'Infrastructure Performance and Research Needs', Proceedings of the Australasian Structural Engineering Conference, Auckland (1998) [E1]
1998Val DV, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Assessment of Existing RC Structures: Statistical and Reliability Issues', Proceedings of the Second International RILEM/CSIRO/ACRA Conference, Melbourne, Australia (1998) [E2]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1998Melchers RE, 'Load Path Dependence for Directional Simulation in the Load Space', Proceedings of the eighth IFIP WG7.5 working conference on reliability and optimization of structural systems, 1998, Krakow, Poland (1998) [E1]
1998Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Integrated Risk Assessment', Proceedings of the third conference on Integrated Risk Assessment, Newcastle, Australia (1998) [E4]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1998Stewart MG, Val DV, Melchers RE, 'Risk-based assessment of deteriorating infrastructure', Proceedings of the third conference on integrated risk assessment, Newcastle, Australia (1998) [E2]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1998Melchers RE, 'Marine Corrosion of Mild and Low Alloy Steels', SEWC '98, California, USA (1998) [E1]
1998Val D, Stewart MG, Melchers RE, 'Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Bridges With Corroded Reinforcement', SEWC Conference Proceedings, San Francisco, USA (1998) [E2]
Co-authorsMark Stewart
1997Melchers RE, 'Corrosion of steel in seawater - A poorly formulated but important practical problem', MECHANICS OF STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS, UNIV MELBOURNE, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA (1997)
Author URL
1996Melchers RE, 'Towards a probabilistic model for marine corrosion of steel', PROBABILISTIC MECHANICS & STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY, WORCESTER, MA (1996)
Author URL
1996Guan XL, Melchers RE, 'Load space formulation for reliability estimation of complex structures', PROBABILISTIC MECHANICS & STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY, WORCESTER, MA (1996)
Author URL
1996Melchers RE, Jeulin D, 'Synthesis of session 2c: Mechanics of materials: Durability, serviceability', APPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY: CIVIL ENGINEERING RELIABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS, VOL 3 - FINAL REPORT, PARIS, FRANCE (1996)
Author URL
1995MELCHERS RE, 'PROBABILISTIC MODELING OF MARINE CORROSION OF STEEL SPECIMENS', PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH (1995) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL IV, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS (1995)
Author URL
1995MELCHERS RE, 'Probabilistic calibration against existing practice as a tool for risk acceptability assessment', INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT, NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA (1995)
Author URL
1995MELCHERS RE, 'Probabilistic modelling of seawater corrosion of steel structures', APPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY: CIVIL ENGINEERING RELIABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS, VOLS 1 AND 2, PARIS, FRANCE (1995)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
1994MELCHERS RE, 'POISSON PROCESSES IN LOAD SPACE RELIABILITY', STRUCTURAL SAFETY & RELIABILITY, VOLS 1-3, INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA (1994)
Author URL
1994LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'METHODS TO ASSESS TIME-DEPENDENT SERVICEABILITY OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES', STRUCTURAL SAFETY & RELIABILITY, VOLS 1-3, INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA (1994)
Author URL
1993MELCHERS RE, 'EARTHQUAKE HAZARD IN AUSTRALIA AND RATIONAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES', ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT : GEO-WATER AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS, WOLLONGONG, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
1993GUAN XL, MELCHERS RE, 'A NEW PROBABILISTIC FINITE-ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR RELIABILITY-ANALYSIS', PROBABILISTIC METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
1993MELCHERS RE, 'MODERN COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR RELIABILITY ESTIMATION', PROBABILISTIC METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
1993TAN CP, DONALD IB, MELCHERS RE, 'PROBABILISTIC SLIP CIRCLE ANALYSIS OF EARTH AND ROCKFILL DAMS', PROBABILISTIC METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 2
1993MELCHERS RE, 'ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY INFORMATION IN PRA', PROBABILISTIC RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT, NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
1993AHAMMED M, MELCHERS RE, 'PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF PIPELINE SERVICE LIFE BASED ON PITTING CORROSION LEAKS', PROBABILISTIC RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT, NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
Co-authorsMukshed Ahammed
1993LI CQ, MELCHERS RE, 'A PRACTICAL METHOD TO ASSESS TIME-DEPENDENT STRUCTURAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY', PROBABILISTIC RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT, NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
1993MELCHERS RE, 'SOCIETY, TOLERABLE RISK AND THE ALARP PRINCIPLE', PROBABILISTIC RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT, NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA (1993)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 8
1992Melchers RE, 'Developments in structural reliability assessment under complex load conditions', Proceedings of the International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium (1992)

An important part of the assessment of the reliability of offshore structures involves the estimation of the reliability of the structural system. Most offshore systems are subject to a number of load processes (e.g., wave load, wind load, earthquake load, etc.). It is clear that not all these processes will be at their peak value at the same time. Hence a representation is necessary which considers the temporal effect of the loading processes. Much conventional structural reliability theory has relied on the use of a 'load combination' approach to represent loads. However, such an approach is not valid unless structures behave linearly elastically to failure. The paper outlines some new directions in the assessment of structural reliability for structures subject to a number of loading processes and which may be deteriorating or changing their resisting values with time. In particular, attention is given to modern methods of simulation to solve the surface integral required for 'time-dependent' reliability evaluation. As is indicated, the computations involves are not necessarily significantly more complex than those which are currently required for so-called 'time-independent' reliability assessments.

1990MELCHERS RE, 'PROBABILISTIC PROPERTIES OF THIN-WALLED ELEMENTS', THIN-WALLED STRUCTURES, MONASH UNIV, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA (1990)
DOI10.1016/0263-8231(90)90048-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1988MELCHERS RE, 'STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION IN A NON-DETERMINISTIC SETTING', STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION /, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA (1988)
Author URL
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants67
Total funding$10,261,559

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20141 grants / $1,100,000

Aggressive corrosion of steel infrastructure in marine environments $1,100,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2014
Funding Finish2014
GNoG1300289
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

20132 grants / $419,820

Structural Reliability and Remaining Life Estimation for Deteriorating Steel Infrastructure$405,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2013
Funding Finish2013
GNoG1200308
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Joint Project on Corrosion of Steels in Colder Sea Waters$14,820

Funding body: Institute for Research & Industry Co-operation

Funding bodyInstitute for Research & Industry Co-operation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2013
Funding Finish2013
GNoG1300990
Type Of FundingInternational - Non Competitive
Category3IFB
UONY

20123 grants / $520,000

Simultaneous Measurements of Reaction Kinetics and Particle Distributions for Cutting-Edge Research into CO2 Storage, Catalysis and Novel Materials$200,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamConjoint Professor Bogdan Dlugogorski, Professor Eric Kennedy, Professor Behdad Moghtaderi, Associate Professor Michael Stockenhuber, Professor Robert Melchers, Laureate Professor Scott Sloan
SchemeEquipment Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2012
Funding Finish2012
GNoG1100634
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Simultaneous Measurements of Reaction Kinetics and Particle Distributions for Cutting-Edge Research into CO2 Storage, Catalysis and Novel Materials$160,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamConjoint Professor Bogdan Dlugogorski, Professor Eric Kennedy, Professor Behdad Moghtaderi, Associate Professor Michael Stockenhuber, Professor Robert Melchers, Dr Ali Abbas, Associate Professor Marjorie Valix, Associate Professor Andrew Harris, Dr Gallage Kannangara, Professor John Bartlett, Dr Adriyan Milev, Dr Nguyen Tran, Professor Eric May, Associate Professor Thomas Rufford, Associate Professor Brian O'Neill
SchemeLinkage Infrastructure Equipment & Facilities (LIEF)
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2012
Funding Finish2012
GNoG1100806
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

Simultaneous Measurements of Reaction Kinetics and Particle Distributions for Cutting-Edge Research into CO2 Storage, Catalysis and Novel Materials$160,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamConjoint Professor Bogdan Dlugogorski, Professor Eric Kennedy, Professor Behdad Moghtaderi, Associate Professor Michael Stockenhuber, Professor Robert Melchers, Dr Ali Abbas, Associate Professor Marjorie Valix, Associate Professor Andrew Harris, Dr Gallage Kannangara, Professor John Bartlett, Dr Adriyan Milev, Dr Nguyen Tran, Professor Eric May, Associate Professor Thomas Rufford, Associate Professor Brian O'Neill
SchemeLinkage Infrastructure Equipment & Facilities (LIEF) Partner funding
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2012
Funding Finish2012
GNoG1200631
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

20113 grants / $1,452,260

Advanced condition assessment and failure predication technologies for optimal management of critical pipes$1,040,780

Funding body: Sydney Water Corporation

Funding bodySydney Water Corporation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Project
RoleLead
Funding Start2011
Funding Finish2011
GNoG1100380
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

Sub-project for Activity 4b of G1100380$211,480

Funding body: Sydney Water Corporation

Funding bodySydney Water Corporation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Project
RoleLead
Funding Start2011
Funding Finish2011
GNoGS140003
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

Sub-project for Activity 4c of G1100380$200,000

Funding body: Sydney Water Corporation

Funding bodySydney Water Corporation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Project
RoleLead
Funding Start2011
Funding Finish2011
GNoGS140004
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

20101 grants / $320,000

Remaining life estimation for existing deteriorating reinforced concrete infrastructure$320,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2010
Funding Finish2010
GNoG0190046
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

20093 grants / $1,905,000

Engineering models for inland atmospheric corrosion of steel infrastructure considering microbiological and environmental influences$1,185,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2009
Funding Finish2009
GNoG0188793
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

20085 grants / $655,744

Optimal management of corrosion and odour problems in sewer systems$418,981

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLinkage Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0188346
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Optimal management of corrosion and odour problems in sewer systems$197,688

Funding body: University of Queensland

Funding bodyUniversity of Queensland
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLinkage Projects Partner funding
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0190231
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Effect of dynamic flexure on rusting of steel plate$26,615

Funding body: Institute for Research & Industry Co-operation

Funding bodyInstitute for Research & Industry Co-operation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189876
Type Of FundingInternational - Non Competitive
Category3IFB
UONY

Industrial Applications of Corrosion Sensing$9,960

Funding body: CRC for Integrated Engineering Asset Management (CIEAM)

Funding bodyCRC for Integrated Engineering Asset Management (CIEAM)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Doctor Robert Jeffrey
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189330
Type Of FundingCRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Category4CRC
UONY

First International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCC08), Varenna, Italy, 11/6/2008 - 14/6/2008$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0188703
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20072 grants / $242,500

Modelling of Damage Progression and its Effects on the Expected Safety and Satisfactory Performance of Existing Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure$240,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0186278
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Lifetime Oriented Design Concepts, Bochum Germany, 12/11/2007 - 14/11/2007, $2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0188255
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20061 grants / $2,400

Modeling for life prediction and damage assessment from corrosion and corrosion-assisted damage, 29-31 July 2006$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2006
Funding Finish2006
GNoG0186625
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20052 grants / $11,860

A study of the moisture assisted deterioration of the mechanical properties of a composite matrix$10,760

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2005
GNoG0184610
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Corrosion and Prevention 2005, 20-23 November 2005$1,100

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2005
GNoG0185949
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20047 grants / $1,041,628

Mathematical modelling of tidal, splash and coastal atmospheric marine corrosion for structural reliability assessment$555,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0182849
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Modelling integration of spacial time-dependent variability in structural reliability analysis$217,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart
SchemeDiscovery Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0182850
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Risk assessment modelling for corrosion affected concrete infrastructure$140,622

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Associate Professor Chun Li
SchemeLinkage International Fellowship
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0183977
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

A study of the correlation between pre- and post-demolition performance assessment for prestressed concrete beams in a 45 year old major road bridge$85,668

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart, Mr Geoff Mulcahy
SchemeLinkage Projects
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0184243
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

A study of the correlation between pre- and post-demolition performance assessment for prestressed concrete beams in a 45 year old major road bridge$30,000

Funding body: Department of Industry, Energy and Resources

Funding bodyDepartment of Industry, Energy and Resources
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor Mark Stewart
SchemeLinkage Projects Partner funding
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0184914
Type Of FundingNot Known
CategoryUNKN
UONY

Further field trials for marine corrosion of structural steel$11,313

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0183357
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Asian-Pacific Symposium on Structural Reliability and its Applications, 18-20 August 2004$2,025

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0184468
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20032 grants / $14,562

Field trials for marine corrosion of mild steel in the tidal zone$12,162

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2003
Funding Finish2003
GNoG0182300
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Intern Conf Applications of Statistics and Probability in civil Engrgr (ICASP9)$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2003
Funding Finish2003
GNoG0183270
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20021 grants / $2,500

1st ASRA Net Glasgow, 8-10 July 2002$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2002
Funding Finish2002
GNoG0181979
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20015 grants / $683,203

Very stiff three-dimensional structural testing facility.$269,500

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamEmeritus Professor Adrian Page, Professor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Infrastructure Equipment & Facilities (RIEF)
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0179622
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Probabilistic Modelling of Load and Deterioration Processes in Structural Reliability.$214,440

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Professor A Novikov
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0179247
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Uncertainty Modelling and Probability-Based Assessment for Ageing Concrete Structures.$185,763

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Mark Stewart, Professor Robert Melchers, Dr Dimitri Val
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0179271
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Intersection probabilies in structural reliability estimation.$11,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0179937
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

1 Offshore Mechanics & Arctic Engineering, Brazil, 3-8 June 2001 2 International Conference on Structural & Reliability, USA, 17-22 June 2001$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2001
Funding Finish2001
GNoG0180838
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20004 grants / $131,886

Deterioration Modelling.$116,000

Funding body: CRC for Advanced Composite Structures

Funding bodyCRC for Advanced Composite Structures
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2000
Funding Finish2000
GNoG0179173
Type Of FundingCRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Category4CRC
UONY

Contract to establish mechanistic models for the integration of corrosion behaviour into ship structural reliability assessments.$10,000

Funding body: Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Funding bodyDefence Science and Technology Organisation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeConsultancy
RoleLead
Funding Start2000
Funding Finish2000
GNoG0179469
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

Professor Boris Chernov - November 2000 - December 2000$3,486

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeVisitor Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2000
Funding Finish2000
GNoG0179213
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Am Soc Civil Engrs: Probabilistic Mechanics Conf 2000, USA 24-26 July 2000$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2000
Funding Finish2000
GNoG0179774
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19993 grants / $216,186

Structural Reliability Techniques applied to Finite Element Problems$164,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1999
Funding Finish1999
GNoG0177790
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Probabilistic Risk and Reliability Analysis of Aircraft Structures.$50,000

Funding body: Defence Science and Technology Organisation

Funding bodyDefence Science and Technology Organisation
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1999
Funding Finish1999
GNoG0178625
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

14th International Corrosion Congress, South Africa.$2,186

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1999
Funding Finish1999
GNoG0180453
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19985 grants / $417,194

Universal Testing Machine$250,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Equipment Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0177582
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

Development of probabilistic models for marine corrosion of steel for application in offshore structural system reliability analysis$143,021

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0177096
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Structural Reliability Techniques applied to Solid Mechanics Finite Element Problems.$16,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeSmall Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0177362
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

Melchers - Dr MH Faber - 1/1/98-15/4/98$5,773

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Dr M Faber
SchemeVisitor Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0177512
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

8th IFIP WG 7.5 Working Conference on Optimisation and Reliability of Structural Systems, Poland 11-13 May 1998$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0180343
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19973 grants / $133,168

Probabilistic Measures of Serviceability Performance.$121,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Mark Stewart, Professor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start1997
Funding Finish1997
GNoG0176135
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Reliability assesment of corroding existing reinforced concrete bridges.$10,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1997
Funding Finish1997
GNoG0176535
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, Kyoto, Japan, 24-28 November 1997$2,168

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1997
Funding Finish1997
GNoG0179519
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19963 grants / $171,400

Cracking in Masonry - A study in probabilistic structural serviceability.$155,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Emeritus Professor Adrian Page
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1996
Funding Finish1996
GNoG0175300
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Reliability analysis of offshore jacket structure using directional simulation$14,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeSmall Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1996
Funding Finish1996
GNoG0175777
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

American Society of Civil Engineers, Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Methods, Worcester, USA, 7-9 August 1996$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1996
Funding Finish1996
GNoG0176433
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19952 grants / $173,760

95APP. Reliability estimation for corroding structural systems with application to offshore structures.$123,198

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1995
Funding Finish1995
GNoG0174465
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Multi-Storey Concrete Building Construction$50,562

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Mark Stewart, Professor Robert Melchers
SchemeMulti-Year Small Grant Scholarship
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start1995
Funding Finish1995
GNoG0174960
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

19942 grants / $42,479

Probabilistic phenomenological modelling of the corrosion of pipelines$40,079

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeMulti-Year Small Grant Scholarship
RoleLead
Funding Start1994
Funding Finish1994
GNoG0174833
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Symposium on risk Analysis - Michigan - 11-12 August 1994$2,400

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1994
Funding Finish1994
GNoG0175099
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19933 grants / $230,709

93,94,95 GRANT. Cracking in Masonry and Reinforced Concrete - A Study in Structural Serviceability.$207,062

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers, Emeritus Professor Adrian Page, Doctor Peter Kleeman
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1993
Funding Finish1993
GNoG0173076
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Reliability Analysis of Structures Having Time-Dependent Deterioration Properties$21,147

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeSmall Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1993
Funding Finish1993
GNoG0172714
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

'Symposium on Probabilistic Structural Mechanics' - San Antonio, Texas USA - 7 - 10 June 1993$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1993
Funding Finish1993
GNoG0174324
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19923 grants / $162,300

92,93,94 GRANT. Stochastic Material Deterioration Mechanisms and the Reliability Assessment of Structural Systems$143,800

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1992
Funding Finish1992
GNoG0173077
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Reliability Analysis Of Structures Having Time-dependent Deterioation Properties$10,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeSmall Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1992
Funding Finish1992
GNoG0173587
Type Of FundingScheme excluded from IGS
CategoryEXCL
UONY

A Finite Element Analysis Technique For Use In Structural Reliability Procedures$8,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1992
Funding Finish1992
GNoG0174181
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19911 grants / $211,000

Cracking in Masonry and Reinforced Concrete A Study in Structural Serviceability$211,000

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding bodyARC (Australian Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor Robert Melchers
SchemeLarge Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1991
Funding Finish1991
GNoG0173842
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY
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Research Supervision

Current Supervision

CommencedResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2015Long-Term Internal Corrosion of Oil Pressure Pipelines
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2013Understanding and Reducing the Contribution of Hydraulic Transient Pressures to Pipe Failure
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2013Systems and Reliability Modelling of Improvised Explosive Devices
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2013Service Life Prediction of Corrosion Pitted Pipes
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2013Long-Term Wear of Model Offshore Mooring Chains under Simulated Working Conditions
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2013Modelling Pitting Corrosion Statistics for Cast Iron Pipes
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2012Reliability Analysis and Life-Cycle Costing of Rehabilitation Strategies for RC Structures Exposed to Marine Environment
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2012Microbiologically Influenced Under-Deposit Corrosion of Steel Pipelines in Seawater Environment
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor

Past Supervision

YearResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2015Spatial Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis of Carbonation Induced Corrosion Damage to RC Structures Under a Changing Climate and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate Adaptation Strategies
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2014Electrochemical Testing of Soils for Long-Term Prediction of Corrosion of Ferrous Pipes
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2014Spatial Reliability Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subject to Explosive Blast Loading
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2013Development of Behaviour Models for Pitting Corrosion of Mild Steel Pipeline Welds in Marine Environment
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2013Probabilistic Modelling of Structural and Safety Hazard Risks for Monolithic Glazing Subject to Explosive Blast Loads
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2010Spatial Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis and Optimisation of Maintenance Strategies for RC Structures Subject to Corrosion Damage
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2009Investigating the Correlation Between Pre- and Post-Demolition Assessments for Precast, Post-Tensioned Beams in Service for 45 Years
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2009Pollution Deposition Rates on Insulator (HV) Surfaces for Use in Atmospheric Corrosivity Estimation
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2007An Investigation Into Structural Failure
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2005Spatial Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders Subject to Pitting Corrosion
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
2005Generalisation of the "Directional Simulation in the Load Space" Approach to Structural Reliability Analysis
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2004Reliability Analysis of Degrading Uncertain Structures with Applications to Fatigue and Fracture under Random Loading
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Sole Supervisor
2004Operational Based Corrosion Analysis of Naval Ship Structures
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Principal Supervisor
2004Corrosion of Mild Steel in Coastal Waters
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Sole Supervisor
2004Corrosion-Induced Cracking and Spatial Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Co-Supervisor
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News

Dr Mark Lock

$8.8M ARC funding

November 8, 2013

The Australian Research Council (ARC) has today awarded $8.8 million in Discovery Project research funding to the University of Newcastle. The funding will extend across 19 projects, an increase of 6 projects and $4.2 million since last year.

Professor Robert Melchers

Position

ARC DORA Fellow
The Centre for Infrastructure Performance and Reliability
School of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Focus area

Civil Engineering

Contact Details

Emailrob.melchers@newcastle.edu.au
Phone(02) 4921 6044
Fax(02) 4921 6991

Office

RoomEA117/119
BuildingEngineering A
LocationCallaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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