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Professor Nanthi Bolan

Professor of Environmental Chemistry

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation

Healthy soil

Research on sustainable approaches to maintain soil health is in Professor Nanthi Bolan's DNA.

Professor Nanthi BolanNanthi has always been passionate about soil because "We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil under feet" (Leonardo Da Vinci: 1452-1519).

It was a case of 'right background, right people' for Nanthi, who came from farming background and graduated from the University of Western Australia under the supervision of two leading soil scientists (Professor Alan Robson and Dr Jim Barrow). That experience was the 'stepping stone' for what has become an illustrious career in soil science with a particular emphasis on soil fertility.

He has served as the Dean of Graduate Studies of the University of South Australia and as the leader of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE) Programme on Prevention Technologies.  His teaching and research interests include agronomic value of manures, fertilisers and soil amendments, soil acidification, nutrient cycling, pesticide and metal pollutants interactions in soils, soil remediation and waste and waste water management.

Nanthi has supervised more than 40 postgraduate students, and was awarded the Massey University Research Medal for excellence in supervision. He has published more than 200 papers and was awarded the M.L. Leamy Award in recognition of the most meritorious contribution to soil science. Nanthi is a Fellow of the American Soil Science Society and New Zealand Soil Science Society, and is currently serving as the Associate Editor of Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology.

He says 'with continued decline in the land area available for cultivation, food security can be achieved only by safe guarding soil health in terms of its physical, biological and chemical fertility.

Nanthi and his research team have been able to identify the causes for the decline in soil health and have also developed innovative methods to improve soil health to achieve food security. As Dr Jonathan Swift once said: "whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass grown upon a spot of ground where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind".

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Professor Nanthi Bolan

Healthy soil

Professor Nanthi Bolan's research focuses on sustainable approaches to maintaining soil health.

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Career Summary

Biography

Nanthi is a Professor of Environmental Chemistry in the Global Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation at The University of Newcastle, Australia. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Agriculture and a Master of Science degree in Soil Science from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India, and a PhD in Soil Science from the University of Western Australia. Before joining the University of Newcastle Nanthi worked as a Professor of Soil Science at Massey University, New Zealand and the University of South Australia. He has taught Environmental and Soil Sciences both at Massey University and the University of South Australia. Nanthi’s research interests include the soil fertility management, nutrient and heavy metal transformations in soils, remediation of contaminated soils, and carbon sequestration in soils. Nanthi is a Fellow of both the American Society of Soil Science and the New Zealand Soil Science Society.

Research Expertise

Nanthi’s research field deals with the management of soil fertility for sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. Nanthi has also been involved in research into nutrient and contaminants interactions, and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Recently he has initiated a major research work on the functional characterisation of organic matter-clay mineral interactions in relation to carbon sequestration using advanced multiple state-of-the-science nanoscale techniques including: (i) small Angle Neutron and X-Ray Scattering to characterize the surface area and size distribution of the total porosity of soil microaggregates; (ii) synchrotron-radiation based microtomography (SR-µCT) in combination with quantitative 3d-image analysis to study pore network characteristics of soil microaggregates; (iii) scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to visualize and characterise intact microaggregates; and (iv) radioactive and stable isotopic techniques to measure the priming effect and origin of soil organic matter decomposition in microaggregates.

Teaching Expertise

Nanthi has been teaching a number of papers in Soil and Environmental Sciences for BApplSc and BTech programmes. These papers include: Users Guide to Soils, Soil Properties and Processes, Soil Fertility Management, Pollutant Transport in Soils and Microbial Ecology.

Nanthi has developed paper outlines and compiled Study Guides for a number of above internal and extramural papers. He also compiled a Laboratory Manual on "Selected Methods of Analysis" which is used extensively by undergraduate and post graduate students and technicians. He has supervised more than 40 Postgraduate students from a number of countries in various aspects of natural resource management. In addition to his University teaching, Nanthi has regularly contributed to a training course dealing with sustainable management of nutrient management for fertility industry personnel.

Collaboration

Nanthi has established research collaboration with a number of international organisations including:

  • University of Delaware, USA and UMR CNRS-Université Paris VI, XII-IRD-AgroParisTech, France: Carbon sequestration in soils
  • Savannah River Ecology Lab, University of Georgia, SC: Contamination and its Risk Management in Complex Environmental Settings
  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India: Remediation of metal contaminated soils
  • Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Germany: mobile and immobile water in the transport of sulphur in soils
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna: training on the application of isotopic techniques in the sustainable management of soil and water resources.
  • University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile: Mobilization of Trace elements in soils.


Qualifications

  • PhD, University of Western Australia

Keywords

  • biogeochemistry of heavy metals
  • carbon sequestration in soils
  • nutrient cycling
  • soil contamination and remediation
  • soil fertility
  • wastewater management

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
050304 Soil Chemistry (excl. Carbon Sequestration Science) 40
050301 Carbon Sequestration Science 30
050207 Environmental Rehabilitation (excl. Bioremediation) 30

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

Title Organisation / Department
Professor of Environmental Chemistr University of Newcastle
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation
Australia
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (6 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2011 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Kunhikrishnan A, James T, McDowell R, Senesi N, Dissolved Organic Matter. Biogeochemistry, Dynamics, and Environmental Significance in Soils. (2011)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is defined as the organic matter fraction in solution that passes through a 0.45 µm filter. Although DOM is ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic e... [more]

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is defined as the organic matter fraction in solution that passes through a 0.45 µm filter. Although DOM is ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, it represents only a small proportion of the total organic matter in soil. However, DOM, being the most mobile and actively cycling organic matter fraction, influences a spectrum of biogeochemical processes in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Biological fixation of atmospheric CO2 during photosynthesis by higher plants is the primary driver of global carbon cycle. A major portion of the carbon in organic matter in the aquatic environment is derived from the transport of carbon produced in the terrestrial environment. However, much of the terrestrially produced DOM is consumed by microbes, photo degraded, or adsorbed in soils and sediments as it passes to the ocean. The majority of DOM in terrestrial and aquatic environments is ultimately returned to atmosphere as CO2 through microbial respiration, thereby renewing the atmospheric CO2 reserve for photosynthesis. Dissolved organic matter plays a significant role in influencing the dynamics and interactions of nutrients and contaminants in soils and microbial functions, thereby serving as a sensitive indicator of shifts in ecological processes. This chapter aims to highlight knowledge on the production of DOM in soils under different management regimes, identify its sources and sinks, and integrate its dynamics with various soil processes. Understanding the significance of DOM in soil processes can enhance development of strategies to mitigate DOM-induced environmental impacts. This review encourages greater interactions between terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemists and ecologists, which is essential for unraveling the fundamental biogeochemical processes involved in the synthesis of DOM in terrestrial ecosystem, its subsequent transport to aquatic ecosystem, and its role in environmental sustainability, buffering of nutrients and pollutants (metal(loid)s and organics), and the net effect on the global carbon cycle. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-385531-2.00001-3
Citations Scopus - 109
2008 Bolan NS, Rowarth J, de la Luz Mora M, Adriano D, Curtin D, Chapter 17 Biological transformation and bioavailability of nutrient elements in acid soils as affected by liming (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32017-5
Citations Scopus - 5
2008 Singh J, Saggar S, Bolan NS, Zaman M, Chapter 15 The role of inhibitors in the bioavailability and mitigation of nitrogen losses in grassland ecosystems (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32015-1
Citations Scopus - 3
2008 Naidu R, Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments, Elsevier Science Limited, Amsterdam, 809 (2008) [A3]
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2004 Bolan NS, Saggar S, Luo JF, Bhandral R, Singh J, Gaseous emissions of nitrogen from grazed pastures: Processes, measurements and modelling, environmental implications, and mitigation, ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 84 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/S0065-2113(04)84002-1
Citations Web of Science - 115
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Curtin D, Soil acidification and liming interactions with nutrient and heavy metal transformation and bioavailability, ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 58 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S0065-2113(02)78006-1
Citations Scopus - 114Web of Science - 111
Show 3 more books

Chapter (28 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2016 Chowdhury S, Khan N, Kim GH, Harris J, Longhurst P, Bolan NS, 'Zeolite for Nutrient Stripping From Farm Effluents', Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention, Academic Press, London, UK 569-589 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-803837-6.00022-6
2016 Wijesekara H, Bolan NS, Kumarathilaka P, Geekiyanage N, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, et al., 'Biosolids Enhance Mine Site Rehabilitation and Revegetation', Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention 45-71 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Globally, around 10×107tonsyear-1 of biosolids is generated from wastewater treatment facilities. Biosolids contain significant amounts ... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Globally, around 10×107tonsyear-1 of biosolids is generated from wastewater treatment facilities. Biosolids contain significant amounts of organic matters and nutrients. Therefore, biosolids can be used to improve infertile and degraded soils in certain mine sites. Shortfalls in topsoil, heavy metal-rich tailings and drainage, residual soils with poor physical properties, and low-organic matter soils are common consequences of degraded mine soils. These issues adversely affect soil health including microbial activity, flora, and fauna, thereby hindering reestablishment of the lost ecological integrity.Rehabilitation has been achieved in a number of mine sites by incorporating biosolids, which demonstrated sustainable remediation of these sites. Improvements in the biological, chemical, and physical properties of degraded lands are associated with these rehabilitation cases. Furthermore, these improvements enhance the nutrient cycling, water purification, and restoration of plants and increase the recreational value of the land, thereby helping in the emergence of novel ecosystems.This chapter describes the composition of different types of biosolids and their generation, benefits, and current regulations for use, particularly regarding mine site rehabilitation and environmental contamination issues including human health concerns. Finally, challenges and future research needs are identified in terms of the minimization of environmental complications and sustainable use of biosolids.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-803837-6.00003-2
2016 Karunanithi R, Szogi A, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Ok YS, Krishnamurthy S, Seshadri B, 'Phosphorus Recovery From Wastes', Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention 687-705 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient essential to all living organisms, and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorg... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient essential to all living organisms, and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, P use efficiency is low and only 15-20% of applied P is used by crops and animals; the remaining amounts are wasted in various waste streams. Consequently, valuable nutrients end up in nonagricultural land, thereby resulting in permanent loss. Globally, livestock production and domestic and industrial water consumption produce large quantities of manure and effluents which are rich in P and other nutrients. The P present in these waste streams poses a threat to the environment by way of nutrient enrichment, resulting in various ecological problems. These waste streams can be employed for P recovery and reuse for a sustainable future. Hence, this chapter will focus on developments in P recovery from various wastes and its sustainable reuse for agronomic needs.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-803837-6.00027-5
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Mandal S, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan NS, Wijesekara H, Naidu R, 'Application of Biochar Produced From Biowaste Materials for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Agriculture Production', Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention, Academic Press, London 73-89 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-803837-6.00004-4
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Wijesekara H, Bolan NS, Vithanage M, Xu Y, Mandal S, Brown SL, et al., 'Utilization of biowaste for mine spoil rehabilitation', Advances in Agronomy, Elsevier, London, UK (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.03.001
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Khan N, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Saint CP, Kirkham MB, Chowdhury S, et al., 'Root iron plaque on wetland plants as a dynamic pool of nutrients and contaminants', Advances in Agronomy, Elsevier, London, UK 1-96 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.04.002
Citations Web of Science - 1
2016 Kunhikrishnan A, Thangarajan R, Bolan NS, Xu Y, Mandal S, Gleeson DB, et al., 'Functional Relationships of Soil Acidification, Liming, and Greenhouse Gas Flux', Advances in Agronomy, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1-71 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.001
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Weerasundara L, Nupearachchi CN, Kumarathilaka P, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Vithanage M, 'Bio-retention systems for storm water treatment and management in urban systems', Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants, Volume 4, Springer International, Switzerland 175-200 (2016) [B1]
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41811-7_10
2015 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, Chowdhury S, Thangarajan R, Chuasavathi T, 'Recycled water irrigation in Australia', Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies 39-48 (2015)

© Springer India 2015.Access to water has been identified as one of the most limiting factors to economic growth in Australia¿s horticultural sector. Water reclaimed from wastew... [more]

© Springer India 2015.Access to water has been identified as one of the most limiting factors to economic growth in Australia¿s horticultural sector. Water reclaimed from wastewater (sewage) is being increasingly recognised as an important resource, and the agricultural sector is currently the largest consumer of this resource. An overview of the Australian experience of using reclaimed wastewater to grow horticultural crops is presented in this chapter. The wastewater treatment process and governing regulations are discussed in relation to risk minimisation practices which ensure that this resource is used in a sustainable manner without impacting adversely on human health or the environment. A case study covering the socio-economic and environmental implications of recycled water irrigation is also presented.

DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2056-5_2
Citations Scopus - 1
2015 Matheyarasu R, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Impacts of Abattoir Waste-Water Irrigation on Soil Fertility and Productivity', Irrigation and Drainage - Sustainable Strategies and Systems, InTech, Open access 55-75 (2015)
DOI 10.5772/59312
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Chatskikh D, Ovchinnikova A, Seshadri B, Bolan N, 'Biofuel Crops and Soil Quality and Erosion', Biofuel Crop Sustainability 261-299 (2013)

This chapter discusses the soil quality aspect of biofuel production. The production of biofuel crops might simultaneously affect a combination of soil properties and stipulating ... [more]

This chapter discusses the soil quality aspect of biofuel production. The production of biofuel crops might simultaneously affect a combination of soil properties and stipulating severe human-driven soil quality threats, out of which the decline of soil organic matter (SOM), the increase of erosion risks, and onand off-site pollution and nutrient losses are the most pronounced. The chapter analyzes differences between annual and perennial crops out of the effects of management and land-use change (LUC), including an issue of soil organic carbon (SOC) budget and sustainable removal of crop residues for energy production. Consequently, it focuses on soil quality under biofuel crop production as affected by these threats to provide essential soil services. The chapter further concentrates on the challenges of the soil quality aspect of sustainable biofuel crop production, which include by-product management, soil remediation potential, and utilization of idle and degraded soils for biofuels. This edition first published 2013 © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

DOI 10.1002/9781118635797.ch8
2012 Thangarajan R, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Greenhouse gas emission from wastewater irrigated soils', Sustainable Irrigation and Drainage IV. Management, technologies and policies, WIT Press, Australia 225-236 (2012)
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2011 Bolan N, Brennan R, Budianta D, Camberato J, Naidu R, Pan W, et al., 'Bioavailability of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Si, and Micronutrients', Handbook of Soil Sciences: Resource Management and Environmental Impacts, CRC Press, Boca Raton 1-80 (2011)
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2011 Bolan NS, Park JH, Robinson B, Naidu R, Huh KY, 'PHYTOSTABILIZATION: A GREEN APPROACH TO CONTAMINANT CONTAINMENT', , ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC 145-204 (2011)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-385538-1.00004-4
Citations Scopus - 54Web of Science - 38
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Naidu R, Bolan NS, 'Chapter 2 Contaminant chemistry in soils: Key concepts and bioavailability', 9-37 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32002-3
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Naidu R, Pollard SJT, Bolan NS, Owens G, Pruszinski AW, 'Chapter 4 Bioavailability: The underlying basis for risk-based land management', 53-72 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32004-7
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Naidu R, Semple KT, Megharaj M, Juhasz AL, Bolan NS, Gupta SK, et al., 'Chapter 3 Bioavailability: Definition, assessment and implications for risk assessment', 39-51 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32003-5
Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2008 Bolan NS, Ko BG, Anderson CWN, Vogeler I, Mahimairaja S, Naidu R, 'Chapter 27 Manipulating bioavailability to manage remediation of metal-contaminated soils', 657-678 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32027-8
Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Fuentes B, de la Luz Mora M, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Chapter 16 Assessment of phosphorus bioavailability from organic wastes in soil', 363-411 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32016-3
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Naidu R, Bolan NS, Megharaj M, Juhasz AL, Gupta SK, Clothier BE, Schulin R, 'Chapter 1 Chemical bioavailability in terrestrial environments', 1-6 (2008)
DOI 10.1016/S0166-2481(07)32001-1
Citations Scopus - 10
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2008 Singh J, Saggar S, Bolan N, Zaman M, 'The Role of inhibitors in the bioavailability and mitigation of nitrogen losses in grassland ecosystems', Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments, Elsevier Science Limited, Amsterdam 329-362 (2008)
2008 Bolan N, Rowarth J, de la Luz Mora M, Adriano D, Curtin D, 'Biological transformation and bioavailability of nutrient elements in acid soils as affected by liming', Chemical Bioavailability in Terrestrial Environments, Elsevier Science Limited, Amsterdam 413-446 (2008)
2006 Wang H, Bolan N, Hedley M, Horne D, 'Potential Uses of Fluidised Bed Boiler Ash (FBA) as a Liming Material, Soil Conditioner and Sulfur Fertilizer', Coal Combustion Byproducts and Environmental Issues, Springer Science & Business Media, New York 202-215 (2006)
Citations Web of Science - 4
2006 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R, Adriano DC, 'Biotransformation of arsenic in soil and aquatic environments', Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From Soil to Human Health, CSIRO PUBLISHING, Australia 433-454 (2006)
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2006 Robinson B, Marchetti M, Moni C, Schroeter L, van den Dijssel C, Milne G, et al., 'Arsenic accumulation by aquatic and terrestrial plants', Managing Arsenic in the Environment, CSIRO PUBLISHING, Australia 235-247 (2006)
2005 Bolan N, Adriano DC, Naidu R, de la Luz Mora M, Mahimairaja S, 'Phosphorus-trace element interactions in soil-plant systems', Agriculture and the Environment, Soil Science Society of America, South Australia 384-412 (2005)
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2005 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Adriano DC, 'Dynamics and remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils', Perspectives of Agricultural Research and Development, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India 205-252 (2005)
2005 Robinson B, Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Clothier B, 'Solubility, Mobility, and Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements', Trace Elements in the Environment, CRC Press, Boca Raton 97-106 (2005)
Show 25 more chapters

Journal article (262 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Qi F, Naidu R, Bolan NS, Dong Z, Yan Y, Lamb D, et al., 'Pyrogenic carbon in Australian soils', Science of the Total Environment, 586 849-857 (2017)

© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, th... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50 cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0¿10 cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27¿5.62 mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58¿5.62 mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0¿11% (N = 29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0¿10 cm) or bottom (30¿50 cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30¿50 cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0¿11%, N = 18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3¿84.9%, N = 18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.064
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu, Luchun Duan
2017 Khan N, Clark I, Bolan N, Meier S, Saint CP, Sánchez-Monedero MA, et al., 'Development of a buried bag technique to study biochars incorporated in a compost or composting medium', Journal of Soils and Sediments, 17 656-664 (2017)

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: The purpose was to develop a netbag technique suitable for burying biochar in a compost or composting medium, followed by its c... [more]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: The purpose was to develop a netbag technique suitable for burying biochar in a compost or composting medium, followed by its collection in a clean state (i.e., free of compost debris) without loss or damage, for physicochemical analyses. Collection in a clean state is required to ensure that the analytical data of various biochars are representative and comparable. Five criteria were identified to evaluate the suitability of netbag. Materials and methods: A small netbag (3.5 × 3.5¿cm) was developed using nylon fabric (30-µm mesh) to contain ~1¿g of biochar. A production system was developed to make 15 netbags per batch. Unlike commonly used litterbags, polypropylene was used to seal netbags. Two experiments were conducted in which three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell, hardwood shaving, and chicken litter, were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust and also incubated with a chicken litter-based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5 or 10¿% in the co-composting and 10 or 20¿% in the incubation experiments. The biochar-containing netbags were buried in the co-composting and incubation mediums for 133¿days. Various physicochemical analyses were conducted with netbag-biochars and their compost mediums. Results and discussion: The netbags collected after both experiments showed no visible sign of degradation. The weight of netbag-biochars from co-composting and incubation systems did not reduce significantly over the experimental period, thereby indicating no loss of biochar. No visible evidence of entry of solid particles from compost medium was found on the netbag-biochars. Pretests indicated that the netbag and biochars absorbed pore solution from the medium. Findings showed that elements translocated between the netbag-biochar and compost medium. A colony of coccus bacteria was found on the surface of composted chicken litter biochar, denoting probable entry of bacteria from compost medium. Unlike conventional litterbags, the netbags were suitable for burying and extracting biochar in compost/composting mediums due to smaller size, smaller mesh, and strong sealing with polypropylene. Conclusions: The netbags addressed all the five criteria. Therefore, it was concluded that, in the co-compost or incubated-compost medium, the biochar retained in the netbag and the biochar mixed with the medium were exposed to a similar bio-oxidative environment, and netbag-biochar represents the biochar in the medium. This means that these netbags can be used as a convenient means to examine the effects of the composting process or incubation in compost on biochar.

DOI 10.1007/s11368-016-1359-8
Citations Scopus - 1
2017 Meier S, Curaqueo G, Khan N, Bolan N, Rilling J, Vidal C, et al., 'Effects of biochar on copper immobilization and soil microbial communities in a metal-contaminated soil', Journal of Soils and Sediments, 17 1237-1250 (2017)

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: Copper (Cu) contamination has been increasing in land ecosystems. Biochars (BCs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are kno... [more]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: Copper (Cu) contamination has been increasing in land ecosystems. Biochars (BCs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to bind metals, and metallophyte can remove metals from soils. Will BC in combination with AMF contain the Cu uptake by a metallophyte growing in a metal-contaminated soil? The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of BCs on the Cu immobilization and over soil microbial communities in a metal-contaminated soil in the presence of AMF and metallophyte. Materials and methods: Two BCs were produced from chicken manure (CMB) and oat hull (OHB). A Cu-contaminated sandy soil (338¿mg¿kg-1) was incubated with CMB and OHB (0, 1, and 5¿% w/w) for 2¿weeks. Metallophyte Oenothera picensis was grown in pots (500¿mL) containing the incubated soils in a controlled greenhouse for 6¿months. A number of analyses were conducted after the harvest. These include plant biomass weight, microbial basal respiration, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA), AMF root colonization, spore number, and glomalin production; changes in fungal and bacterial communities, Cu fractions in soil phases, and Cu uptake in plant tissues. Results and discussion: The BCs increased the soil pH, decreased easily exchangeable fraction of Cu, and increased organic matter and residual fraction of Cu. The BCs provided favorable habitat for microorganisms, thereby increasing basal respiration. The CMB increased DHA by ~62 and ~574¿%, respectively, for the low and high doses. Similarly, the OHB increased soil microbial activity by ~68 and ~72¿%, respectively, for the low and high doses. AMF root colonization, spore number, and total glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) production increased by ~3, ~2, and ~3 times, respectively, in soils treated with 1¿% OHB. Despite being a metalophyte, O. picensis could not uptake Cu efficiently. Root and shoot Cu concentrations decreased or changed insignificantly in most BC treatments. Conclusions: The results show that the BCs decreased bioavailable Cu, decreased Cu uptake by O. picensis, improved habitat for microorganisms, and enhanced plant growth in Cu-contaminated soil. This suggests that biochars may be utilized to remediate Cu-contaminated soils.

DOI 10.1007/s11368-015-1224-1
Citations Scopus - 1
2017 Meier S, Curaqueo G, Khan N, Bolan N, Cea M, Eugenia GM, et al., 'Chicken-manure-derived biochar reduced bioavailability of copper in a contaminated soil', Journal of Soils and Sediments, 17 741-750 (2017)

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: Copper (Cu) contamination has been increasing in land ecosystems due to economic development activities. Excessive amount of Cu... [more]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: Copper (Cu) contamination has been increasing in land ecosystems due to economic development activities. Excessive amount of Cu in soils is toxic to both plants and microorganisms. Biochar (BC) is known to immobilize soil Cu. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of chicken-manure-derived BC (CMB) on Cu immobilization, and growth of native metallophyte Oenothera picensis in a Cu-contaminated soil. Materials and methods: A Cu-contaminated sandy soil (338¿mg¿Cu¿kg-1) was spiked and equilibrated with additional Cu (0, 100, and 500¿mg¿Cu¿kg-1). The spiked soil was then amended with CMB (0, 5, and 10¿% w/w) and incubated for 2¿weeks. The metallophyte was grown on these treatments under greenhouse conditions for 3¿months. Pore water solutions were collected from the plant pots every 30¿days. After the harvest, soil and pore water pH, soil Cu fractions, pore water Cu concentration, soil microbial activity, plant biomass weight, and Cu concentration in plant parts were determined. Results and discussion: The CMB increased the pH of soils and soil pore water, and probably also soil major nutrients. It reduced the exchangeable fraction of Cu but increased its organic matter and residual fractions. At the same time, it decreased the Cu concentration in the soil pore water. The CMB increased basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity. The CMB application produced up to three and seven times more root and shoot biomass, respectively. In addition, shoots accumulated lesser Cu than control but roots did more. Plants survived in soil that was spiked with 500¿mg¿Cu¿kg-1, only when CMB dose was 10¿%. Conclusions: The CMB affected the Cu uptake in plant by altering the mobility, bioavailability, and spatial distribution of Cu in soils. The increase in available nutrients and decrease in Cu toxicity facilitated plant growth. The increased microbial activity probably also promoted the plant growth and reduced the Cu bioavailability. Therefore, CMB can be used to remediate Cu-contaminated soils.

DOI 10.1007/s11368-015-1256-6
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2017 Vithanage M, Herath I, Joseph S, Bundschuh J, Bolan N, Ok YS, et al., 'Interaction of arsenic with biochar in soil and water: A critical review', Carbon, 113 219-230 (2017)

© 2016 Elsevier LtdBiochar exhibits a great potential to act as a universally applicable material for water and soil remediation due to extensive availability of feedstocks and f... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier LtdBiochar exhibits a great potential to act as a universally applicable material for water and soil remediation due to extensive availability of feedstocks and favorable physio-chemical surface characteristics; nevertheless, studies related to its application on the remediation of toxic metalloids are relatively rare. Hence, this review highlights biochar production technologies, biochar properties, and recent advances in the removal and immobilization of a major metalloid contaminant, As in water and soil. It also covers surface modification of biochars to enhance As removal and microbial properties in biochar amended soil. Experimental studies related to the adsorption behaviors of biochar and the underlying mechanisms proposed to explain them have been comprehensively reviewed. Compared to the number of research publications in SCOPUS database on ¿Biochar+Water¿ (¿1290 ¿ Scopus), the attention drawn to examine the behavior of biochar on the remediation of As is limited (¿85 - Scopus). Because of the toxicity of As, the subject urgently needs more consideration. In addition to covering the topics listed above, this review identifies research gaps in the use of biochar as an adsorbent for As, and proposes potential areas for future application of biochars.

DOI 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.11.032
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2017 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'Application of a biodegradable chelate to enhance subsequent chemical stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils', Journal of Soils and Sediments, 17 1696-1705 (2017)

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: A risk-based approach commonly applied for Pb-contaminated soil is stabilisation by phosphate amendment. However, the proportio... [more]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Purpose: A risk-based approach commonly applied for Pb-contaminated soil is stabilisation by phosphate amendment. However, the proportion of Pb present in a form that is readily immobilised by phosphate addition is often limited. Chelates were examined as a means to mobilise Pb prior to immobilisation to increase the proportion of Pb that could react with phosphate. Four contrasting shooting range soils from around Australia (Murray Bridge (MB), Townsville (TV), Darwin (DA) and Perth (PE)) were used for the study. Materials and methods: Chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are able to extract Pb from existing species in the soil, forming complexes. By lowering soil pH or adding Fe3+ for the displacement of Pb from the complex, a greater proportion of Pb may be available for reaction with phosphate. The use of biodegradable ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) minimises residual effects of chelate treatment in the soil. Results and discussion: EDTA was not found to be suitable due to the stability of the chelate-Pb complex. The addition of EDDS had variable effect between the four shooting range soils. In the strongly weathered oxidic TV and DA soils, applying EDDS prior to phosphate amendment produced greater reduction in bioaccessible Pb, but in the less weathered MB and PE soil, bioaccessible Pb was increased. Water-extractable (WE) Pb increased in the soils by EDDS application, but this could be offset by lime application in DA soil, without negatively affecting Pb bioaccessibility; WE Pb also decreased over time when ammonium nitrate was added to the soil. Conclusions: Application of EDDS may be able to increase the proportion of Pb that reacts with phosphate in the soil, providing greater reduction in bioaccessible Pb than phosphate-only treatments. Additional treatability studies are needed to test amendments that could manage the water-extractable portion of Pb and to optimise application of EDDS for the best outcome.

DOI 10.1007/s11368-016-1608-x
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2017 Fan J, Xu Y, Chen Z, Xiao J, Liu D, Luo J, et al., 'Sulfur deposition suppressed nitrogen-induced soil N2O emission from a subtropical forestland in southeastern China', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 233 163-170 (2017)

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Subtropical forestland soils are important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O); however few studies have evaluated the effects of sulfate (S) deposition and its in... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Subtropical forestland soils are important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O); however few studies have evaluated the effects of sulfate (S) deposition and its interaction with nitrogen (N) on soil N2O emissions from subtropical forestland. A field experiment was conducted in subtropical forestland in Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, China, between June 2011 and May 2013, to measure soil N2O fluxes under three N (NO3-) application levels (0, 40, and 80¿kg¿N¿ha-1¿yr-1), two S (SO42-) levels (0 and 45¿kg S ha-1¿yr-1), and their combinations. The soil N2O flux was significantly (P¿<¿0.05) correlated with only soil temperature in all treatments over the study period; however, soil moisture, and NH4+ and NO3- contents were also included in the stepwise multiple linear regression equations during the N and/or S application period (March to September). N2O emissions under natural conditions in the subtropical forestland were estimated at 0.42¿kg¿N2O-N¿ha-1¿yr-1, and were significantly (P¿<¿0.05) increased by 97¿330% under the N application. In contrast, soil N2O emissions decreased to 0.36¿kg¿N2O-N¿ha-1¿yr-1 in the S-applied soil and were significantly (P¿<¿0.05) reduced by 27¿36% in the S plus N-amended soils. Our results indicated that atmospheric N deposition potentially increases soil N2O emissions in subtropical forestland, whereas S addition has the potential to mitigate N2O emissions. Given that increased N deposition is expected in the future, S deposition in subtropical forestland soils could suppress N2O emissions to some extent.

DOI 10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.11.017
2017 Chowdhury S, Thangarajan R, Bolan N, O'Reilly-Wapstra J, Kunhikrishnan A, Naidu R, 'Nitrification potential in the rhizosphere of Australian native vegetation', Soil Research, 55 58-69 (2017)

The rhizosphere influences nutrient dynamics in soil mainly by altering microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizosphere effect on nitrogen transfor... [more]

The rhizosphere influences nutrient dynamics in soil mainly by altering microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizosphere effect on nitrogen transformation in Australian native vegetation in relation to nitrification potential (NP). Microbial activity, NP, and nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidising bacteria, AOB) were compared between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of several Australian native vegetation under field conditions. These parameters were also measured with increasing distance from the rhizosphere of selected plant species using plant growth experiments. To examine the persistence of nitrification inhibitory activity of rhizosphere soil on non-rhizosphere soil, the soils were mixed at various ratios and examined for NP and AOB populations. The rhizosphere soil from all native vegetation (29 species) had higher microbial activity than non-rhizosphere soil, whereas 13 species showed very low NP in the rhizosphere when compared with non-rhizosphere soil. Nitrification potential and AOB populations obtained in the soil mixture were lower than the predicted values, indicating the persistence of a nitrification inhibitory effect of the rhizosphere soils on non-rhizosphere soils. In plant growth experiments the microbial activity decreased with increasing distance from rhizosphere, whereas the opposite was observed for NP and AOB populations, indicating the selective inhibition of nitrification process in the rhizosphere of the Australian native plants Scaevola albida, Chrysocephalum semipapposum, and Enteropogon acicularis. Some Australian native plants inhibited nitrification in their rhizosphere. We propose future studies on these selected plant species by identifying and characterising the nitrification inhibiting compounds and also the potential of nitrification inhibition in reducing nitrogen losses through nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emission.

DOI 10.1071/SR16116
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Sanderson P, Wang H, et al., 'Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.', Chemosphere, 184 197-206 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.172
Co-authors Peter Sanderson
2017 Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala G, Seshadri B, Wijesekara H, Bolan NS, Mbene K, Kim W-I, 'Impact of wastewater derived dissolved organic carbon on reduction, mobility, and bioavailability of As(V) and Cr(VI) in contaminated soils', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 186 183-191 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.020
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2017 Mandal S, Sarkar B, Bolan N, Ok YS, Naidu R, 'Enhancement of chromate reduction in soils by surface modified biochar', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 186 277-284 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.034
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2017 Lu K, Yang X, Gielen G, Bolan N, Ok YS, Niazi NK, et al., 'Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the mobility and redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in contaminated soil', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 186 285-292 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.068
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
2017 Choppala LA, 'Oxidative transformation of iron monosulfides and pyrite in estuarine sediments: Implications for trace metals mobilisation', Journal of Environmental Management, 186 158-166 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.062
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Zhaohui Wang, Richard Bush
2017 Jeong J, Bolan NS, Harper RJ, Kim C, 'Distribution of carbon and nitrogen in forest floor components in Pinus radiata plantations of different ages in South Australia', Australian Forestry, 1-6 (2017)

© 2017 Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA)This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of plantation age on the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in forest fl... [more]

© 2017 Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA)This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of plantation age on the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in forest floor components in radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations. Forest floor samples from plantations of three age classes (13-year-old; 27-year-old; 41-year-old) with various site qualities (II¿VII) were collected from the Kuitpo radiata pine plantations in the Mount Lofty forest region of South Australia. The C concentrations of the forest floor components were significantly higher in the 41-year-old plantation than in the 13-year-old plantation, whereas the N concentrations were significantly lower in the 41-year-old plantation than in the 13-year-old plantation, except for the needle component. The C and N content of needles was significantly larger in the 13-year-old plantation than in the 41-year-old plantation, whereas fine woody materials, such as branches and bark, contributed less to the total C and N contents in the 13-year-old plantation. The total C content of the forest floor did not significantly differ with age, whereas the N content was significantly affected by age in the radiata plantations. The results reflect the existence of considerable variation in the quality and quantity of the C and N in forest floor components associated with different ages of radiata pine growing in sites of various qualities.

DOI 10.1080/00049158.2017.1321465
2017 Qi F, Dong Z, Lamb D, Naidu R, Bolan NS, Ok YS, et al., 'Effects of acidic and neutral biochars on properties and cadmium retention of soils.', Chemosphere, 180 564-573 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.014
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Dane Lamb
2017 Singh M, Sarkar B, Biswas B, Bolan NS, Churchman GJ, 'Relationship between soil clay mineralogy and carbon protection capacity as influenced by temperature and moisture', Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 109 95-106 (2017)

© 2017 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental conditions like temperature and moisture could affect the carbon protection capacity of various clay types in soils. Using dominantly kaolinitic-... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier LtdEnvironmental conditions like temperature and moisture could affect the carbon protection capacity of various clay types in soils. Using dominantly kaolinitic-illitic, smectitic and allophanic soils, we conducted systematic incubation experiments over 42 days at different temperatures (4, 22 and 37¿°C) and moisture contents (30, 60 and 90% of water holding capacity (available water)). The basal respiration was monitored to study the relative effect of moisture contents and temperature on the carbon protection capacities and mechanisms of the three clay types. The results indicated that carbon decomposition increased with increasing moisture and temperature. A two-component quadratic equation could explain the carbon mineralisation process. The highest C respiration was observed at 37¿°C with a 60% moisture level in each of the soil types. Under these conditions, the smectitic soil recorded the highest carbon decomposition followed by the kaolinitic-illitic and allophanic soils. The study of the priming effect using 14C labelled malic acid confirmed the trend of the bulk respiration results. The allophanic soil showed the lowest amount of carbon mineralisation under all experimental conditions. A strong inverse correlation (R2¿=¿0.90¿at p¿<¿0.05) was observed between CO2 emission rate and total sesquioxides (Fe and Al oxides) content. As evidenced by the pore size distribution, micromorphologies and thermogravimetric analyses, the microporous structure and microaggregate formation in the allophanic soil enhanced carbon sequestration. This study indicated that soil carbon stabilisation was related more to the sesquioxides content than to the clay types or their relative specific surface areas.

DOI 10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.02.003
2017 Rana S, Biswas JK, Rinklebe J, Meers E, Bolan N, 'Harnessing fertilizer potential of human urine in a mesocosm system: a novel test case for linking the loop between sanitation and aquaculture.', Environ Geochem Health, (2017)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-017-9942-5
2017 Singh M, Sarkar B, Hussain S, Ok YS, Bolan NS, Churchman GJ, 'Influence of physico-chemical properties of soil clay fractions on the retention of dissolved organic carbon.', Environ Geochem Health, (2017)
DOI 10.1007/s10653-017-9939-0
2017 Xu Y, Fan J, Ding W, Gunina A, Chen Z, Bol R, et al., 'Characterization of organic carbon in decomposing litter exposed to nitrogen and sulfur additions: Links to microbial community composition and activity', Geoderma, 286 116-124 (2017)

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Understanding the links between litter chemical transformations and functional microbial communities is key to elucidating the mechanisms of litter decomposit... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Understanding the links between litter chemical transformations and functional microbial communities is key to elucidating the mechanisms of litter decomposition processes under nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition. Carbon (C)-13-labelled Pinus massoniana needles were incubated in a subtropical plantation forest soil exposed to: no amendment (Control), N amendments of 81 (N1) and 270 (N2) mg¿kg-¿1, S amendments of 121 (S1) and 405 (S2) mg¿kg-¿1 and combined N and S amendments. Litter decomposition was measured as litter-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the litter C pools were partitioned using a two-pool model. Relationships between litter residue chemistry (assessed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis) and microbial community composition (probed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and activity (the metabolic quotient, qCO2) were investigated. Over the 420¿days incubation period, N and S additions (except N and S addition alone at low rate) significantly increased litter decomposition by 7.2¿18.9% compared to the Control. Decomposition was stimulated by 10.2¿61.9% during the initial 56¿days (stage 1) and in contrast, 8.3¿42.1% inhibition was measured during 57¿420¿days (stage 2) across the addition treatments. Stimulation on litter-derived CO2 emissions under the N and S additions was largely dependent on the loss of O-alkyl C, a dominant component of the litter active C pool. During the initial 7¿days, N and S additions increased the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs compared to the Control, which was accompanied by the increases in methoxyl C. The activity of microbes, particularly gram-negative bacteria, was also increased by N and S additions at stage 1, which was related to di-O-alkyl C. In contrast, fungal activity decreased under N and S additions at stage 2, accompanied by lowered C availability and increased methoxyl C. Alkyl C and aromatic C in the litter had positive relationships with the half-life of the slow C pool. Accordingly, the residue recalcitrance was increased under N and S additions compared with Control at stage 2, and was largely responsible for the inhibition of litter decomposition. Thus, N and S deposition is likely to increase the persistence of litter-derived recalcitrant C in subtropical forest soils in the long term.

DOI 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.10.032
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2016 Chowdhury S, Bolan NS, Seshadri B, Kunhikrishnan A, Wijesekara H, Xu Y, et al., 'Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 7099-7110 (2016) [C1]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowast... [more]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6¿months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes¿ properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-015-5411-9
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Park JH, Bush R, Bolan N, 'Comparative sorption of chromium species as influenced by pH, surface charge and organic matter content in contaminated soils', Journal of Geochemical Exploration, (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.07.012
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Richard Bush
2016 Khan N, Clark I, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Shea S, Meier S, Qi F, et al., 'Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost', CHEMOSPHERE, 142 14-23 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.065
Citations Web of Science - 7
2016 Bolan S, Naidu R, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Ok YS, Palanisami T, et al., 'Speciation and bioavailability of lead in complementary medicines', Science of the Total Environment, 539 304-312 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Complementary medicines have associated risks which include toxic heavy metal(loid) and pesticide contamination. The objective of this study was to examine th... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Complementary medicines have associated risks which include toxic heavy metal(loid) and pesticide contamination. The objective of this study was to examine the speciation and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in selected complementary medicines. Six herbal and six ayurvedic medicines were analysed for: (i) total heavy metal(loid) contents including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), Pb and mercury (Hg); (ii) speciation of Pb using sequential fractionation and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques; and (iii) bioavailability of Pb using a physiologically-based in vitro extraction test (PBET). The daily intake of Pb through the uptake of these medicines was compared with the safety guidelines for Pb. The results indicated that generally ayurvedic medicines contained higher levels of heavy metal(loid)s than herbal medicines with the amount of Pb much higher than the other metal(loid)s. Sequential fractionation indicated that while organic-bound Pb species dominated the herbal medicines, inorganic-bound Pb species dominated the ayurvedic medicines. EXAFS data indicated the presence of various Pb species in ayurvedic medicines. This implies that Pb is derived from plant uptake and inorganic mineral input in herbal and ayurvedic medicines, respectively. Bioavailability of Pb was higher in ayurvedic than herbal medicines, indicating that Pb added as a mineral therapeutic input is more bioavailable than that derived from plant uptake. There was a positive relationship between soluble Pb fraction and bioavailability indicating that solubility is an important factor controlling bioavailability. The daily intake values for Pb as estimated by total and bioavailable metal(loid) contents are likely to exceed the safe threshold level in certain ayurvedic medicines. This research demonstrated that Pb toxicity is likely to result from the regular intake of these medicines which requires further investigation.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.124
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Thava Palanisami, Morrow Dong
2016 Xu Y, Fan J, Ding W, Bol R, Chen Z, Luo J, Bolan N, 'Stage-specific response of litter decomposition to N and S amendments in a subtropical forest soil', Biology and Fertility of Soils, 52 711-724 (2016) [C1]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition are important drivers of global climate change, but their effects on litter decomposition remain ... [more]

© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition are important drivers of global climate change, but their effects on litter decomposition remain unclear in the subtropical regions. We investigated the influences of N, S, and their interactions on the decomposition of 13C-labeled Pinus massoniana leaf litter. An orthogonal experiment with three levels of N (0, 81, and 270¿mg N¿kg-1 soil) and S (0, 121, and 405¿mg S¿kg-1 soil) was conducted. We traced the incorporation of 13C-litter into carbon dioxide (CO2), dissolved organic C (DOC), and microbial phospholipids. Over the 420-day incubation, litter decomposition did not respond to low N and S additions but increased under high levels and combined amendments (NS). However, litter-derived CO2 emissions were enhanced during the first 56¿days, with a positive interaction of N × S. N additions promoted fungal growth, while S stimulated growth of Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria. Increased decomposition was related to higher litter-derived DOC and fungi/bacteria ratio. Inversely, N and/or S amendments inhibited decomposition (N > NS > S) from day 57 afterwards, possibly due to C limitation and decreased abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and actinobacteria. These results suggested that N deposition interacted with S to affect litter decomposition, and this effect depended on N and S deposition levels and litter decomposition stage.

DOI 10.1007/s00374-016-1115-7
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2016 Zhang H, Ding W, Luo J, Bolan N, Yu H, Zhu J, 'Temporal responses of microorganisms and native organic carbon mineralization to C-13-glucose addition in a sandy loam soil with long-term fertilization', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL BIOLOGY, 74 16-22 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2016.02.007
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Wijesekara H, Kunhikrishnan A, Thangarajan R, Qi F, et al., 'Phosphorus-cadmium interactions in paddy soils', Geoderma, 270 43-59 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Regular application of phosphate (P) fertilisers has been identified as the main source of heavy metal(loid) contamination including cadmium (Cd) in agricultu... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Regular application of phosphate (P) fertilisers has been identified as the main source of heavy metal(loid) contamination including cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soils. Some of these P fertilisers that act as a source of Cd contamination of soils have also been found to act as a sink for the immobilisation of this metal(loid). In paddy soils, redox reactions play an important role in the (im)mobilisation of nutrients and heavy metal(loid)s, as a result of flooding of the rice plains. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of P compounds in the immobilisation of metals in contaminated soils, there has been no comprehensive review on the mechanisms involved in the P-induced (im)mobilisation of Cd in paddy soils. There are a number of factors that influences P induced Cd (im)mobilisation in paddy soils that include pH, redox reactions, liming effect, rhizosphere acidification and root iron plaques. Following a brief overview of the reactions of Cd and common P compounds that are used as fertiliser in soils, the review focuses on the above mentioned mechanisms for the (im)mobilisation of Cd by P compounds in paddy soils. The role of iron plaques on Cd status in soil and rice plants is also discussed followed by a summary and future research needs.

DOI 10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.11.029
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Jeong J, Bolan N, Kim C, 'Heterotrophic soil respiration affected by compound fertilizer types in red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) stands of Korea', Forests, 7 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 by the authors.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red... [more]

© 2016 by the authors.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on heterotrophic soil respiration (Rh) in soil respiration (Rs) components in red pine stands. Two types of fertilizer (N3P4K1 = 113:150:37 kg·ha-1·year-1; P4K1 = 150:37 kg·ha-1·year-1) were applied manually on the forest floor for two years. Rs and Rh rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2013. Mean Rs and Rh rates were not significantly affected by fertilizer applications. However, Rh in the second year following fertilizer application fell to 27% for N3P4K1 and 17% in P4K1 treatments, while there was an increase of 5% in the control treatments compared with the first fertilization year. The exponential relationships between Rs or Rh rates and the corresponding soil temperature were significant (Rh: R2 = 0.86-0.90; p < 0.05; Rs: R2 = 0.86-0.91; p < 0.05) in the fertilizer and control treatments. Q10 values (Rs increase per 10°C increase in temperature) in Rs rates were lowest for the N3P4K1 treatment (3.47), followed by 3.62 for the P4K1 treatment and 3.60 in the control treatments, while Rh rates were similar among the treatments (3.59-3.64). The results demonstrate the importance of separating Rh rates from Rs rates following a compound fertilizer application.

DOI 10.3390/f7120309
2016 Shakoor MB, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Murtaza G, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, et al., 'Remediation of arsenic-contaminated water using agricultural wastes as biosorbents', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 46 467-499 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater reservoirs is a global environmental and health issue given to its toxic and carcinogenic nature. Ove... [more]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater reservoirs is a global environmental and health issue given to its toxic and carcinogenic nature. Over 170 million people have been affected by As due to the ingestion of As-contaminated groundwater. Conventional methods such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis are commonly used for the remediation of As-contaminated water; however, the high cost and sludge production put limitations on their application to remove As from water. This review critically addresses the use of various agricultural waste materials (e.g., sugarcane bagasse, peels of various fruits, wheat straw) as biosorbents, thereby offering an eco-friendly and low-cost solution for the removal of As from contaminated water supplies. The effect of solution chemistry such as solution pH, cations, anions, organic ligands, and various other factors (e.g., temperature, contact time, sorbent dose) on As biosorption, and safe disposal methods for As-loaded biosorbents to reduce secondary As contamination are also discussed.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2015.1109910
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
2016 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils', Journal of Environmental Management, 170 123-130 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied.... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions.The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment.The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant.Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in phosphate treated soils.

DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.01.017
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2016 Rajapaksha AU, Chen SS, Tsang DCW, Zhang M, Vithanage M, Mandal S, et al., 'Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: Potential and implication of biochar modification', Chemosphere, 148 276-291 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.The use of biochar has been suggested as a means of remediating contaminated soil and water. The practical applications of conventional biochar for contaminan... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.The use of biochar has been suggested as a means of remediating contaminated soil and water. The practical applications of conventional biochar for contaminant immobilization and removal however need further improvements. Hence, recent attention has focused on modification of biochar with novel structures and surface properties in order to improve its remediation efficacy and environmental benefits. Engineered/designer biochars are commonly used terms to indicate application-oriented, outcome-based biochar modification or synthesis. In recent years, biochar modifications involving various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, amination, surfactant modification, impregnation of mineral sorbents, steam activation and magnetic modification have been widely studied. This review summarizes and evaluates biochar modification methods, corresponding mechanisms, and their benefits for contaminant management in soil and water. Applicability and performance of modification methods depend on the type of contaminants (i.e., inorganic/organic, anionic/cationic, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, polar/non-polar), environmental conditions, remediation goals, and land use purpose. In general, modification to produce engineered/designer biochar is likely to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar and its potential applications for environmental remediation.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.043
Citations Scopus - 39
2016 Mandal S, Thangarajan R, Bolan NS, Sarkar B, Khan N, Ok YS, Naidu R, 'Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat', CHEMOSPHERE, 142 120-127 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.086
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 12
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Liu Y, Yan Y, Seshadri B, Qi F, Xu Y, Bolan N, et al., 'Immobilization of lead and copper in aqueous solution and soil using hydroxyapatite derived from flue gas desulphurization gypsum', Journal of Geochemical Exploration, (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum is an abundant waste generated from coal-fired power plants. This study evaluated the potential application of hydroxya... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum is an abundant waste generated from coal-fired power plants. This study evaluated the potential application of hydroxyapatite (F-HAP) derived from FGD gypsum for immobilization of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in water and soil. MINTEQ software was employed to determine the species distribution of Pb(II) and Cu(II) at different solution pH conditions. The factors that affect sorption behavior such as pH effect, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherms were investigated using batch tests. Various kinetics and isotherms models were used to fit the obtained data. The experimental results showed that the amount of Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorbed on F-HAP increased as the pH increased from 2.0 to 6.0, and adsorption was enhanced with the rise in temperature. The predicted maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 1.376 and 0.460. mmol/g for Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. The values of mean free energy (E) obtained from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) model implied that the chemical reaction, which was stronger than ion exchange governed the process of Pb(II) adsorption, while the adsorption of Cu(II) was mainly ascribed to ion exchange. XRD analysis revealed that the final solid obtained after Pb(II) immobilization was mainly mixed of pyromorphite and F-HAP, while the final solid acquired after Cu(II) immobilization still consisted of a single phase of F-HAP. On the other hand, application of F-HAP in contaminated soil effectively reduced the leachable and exchangeable Pb and Cu, reflecting that F-HAP is a potential material for remediating environmental pollution with Pb and Cu. This study realized the potential of a modified geochemical waste material towards remediation of metal contaminated soils, providing very useful and valuable information for other similar solid wastes, such as paper sludge and phosphogypsum.

DOI 10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.08.006
Citations Scopus - 1
2016 Matheyarasu R, Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Assessment of nitrogen losses through nitrous oxide from abattoir wastewater-irrigated soils', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 23 22633-22646 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-7438-y
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Ma C, Ming H, Lin C, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'Phytoextraction of heavy metal from tailing waste using Napier grass', Catena, 136 74-83 (2016)

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.Hybrid giant Napier (HGN) grass was used to examine its phytoextraction potential for removing heavy metal(oid)s from contaminated tailings. Foll... [more]

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.Hybrid giant Napier (HGN) grass was used to examine its phytoextraction potential for removing heavy metal(oid)s from contaminated tailings. Following a two-year cultivation of HGN, the amount of heavy metal(oid)s Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and As removed ranged from 12% to 26% in the tailings and 16% to 74% in the control soil. The root distribution profile and chemical analysis of the plant in the growth media suggest that heavy metal was phytoextracted by fibrous roots, then transported from roots to shoots and stored to all parts of the plant including fibrous roots, tap roots, stem and leaves. Most of the heavy metal was stored in the plant's stem due to its high biomass, although the highest concentration of the metal occurred in the fibrous roots. The plants grown in the contaminated tailings were generally stunted compared to those in the control soil, due to heavy metal phytotoxicity. Less biomass was produced in the HGN planted in the contaminated tailings, which was less than 1/2 amount of biomass yielded in the control soil. The biomass has the potential to be used in energy production. The phytoextraction of heavy metal by the HGN in this study was attributed to the well-developed root systems in the plant which is capable of phytoaccumulating nutrients and heavy metals. Results suggest that HGN has good phytoextraction potential in removing heavy metal(oid)s from contaminated tailing wastes and producing biomass.

DOI 10.1016/j.catena.2015.08.001
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Yan Y, Qi F, Balaji S, Xu Y, Hou J, Ok YS, et al., 'Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil', Chemosphere, 162 315-323 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45¿d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.068
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Matheyarasu R, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Abattoir Wastewater Irrigation Increases the Availability of Nutrients and Influences on Plant Growth and Development', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 227 (2016) [C1]

© 2016, The Author(s).This study evaluated the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on plant growth and development. The soils used in this study were collected from Primo S... [more]

© 2016, The Author(s).This study evaluated the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on plant growth and development. The soils used in this study were collected from Primo Smallgoods Abattoir (Port Wakefield, South Australia) at different sites such as currently irrigated (CI), currently not irrigated (CNI) and soil outside the irrigation area as control (CTRL). A completely randomised block design was employed for the plant growth experiment, where four crops (Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa, Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown separately on three different soils (CI, CNI and CTRL) in plastic pots. Two types of water (tap water and wastewater) and two loadings were applied throughout the planting period based on the field capacity (FC 100 and 150¿%). The overall dry matter yield was compared between the soils and treatments. Under wastewater irrigation, among the four species grown in the CI soil, P. purpureum (171¿g) and H. annuus (151¿g) showed high biomass yields, followed by S. alba (115¿g) and M. sativa (31¿g). The plants grown under tap water showed about 70¿% lower yields compared to the abattoir wastewater irrigation (AWW). Similar trends in the biomass yields were observed for CNI and CTRL soils under the two water treatments, with the biomass yields in the following order CI > CNI > CTRL soils. The results confirm the beneficial effects of AWW at the greenhouse level. However, a proper cropping pattern and wastewater irrigation management plan is essential to utilise the nutrients available in the wastewater-irrigated land treatment sites. The increase in fertility is evident from the effects of wastewater on biomass growth and also the abundance of nutrients accumulated in plants. A mass balance calculation on the applied, residual and the plant-accumulated nutrients over a few cropping periods will help us in understanding the nutrient cycling processes involved in the abattoir-irrigated land treatment sites, which will serve as an effective tool for the environmental management.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-016-2947-3
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Yang J, Wang J, Pan W, Regier T, Hu Y, Rumpel C, et al., 'Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy', Scientific Reports, 6 (2016) [C1]

Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) re... [more]

Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios =0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

DOI 10.1038/srep26127
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Mandal S, Sarkar B, Bolan N, Novak J, Ok YS, Van Zwieten L, et al., 'Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 46 1367-1401 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon (C)-enriched char materials like biochar have been des... [more]

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon (C)-enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially greater soil GHG suppression due to its interactions in the soil system. However, these effects are variable and the duration of the impact remains uncertain. Various (nano)materials can be used to modify chars to obtain surface functionality to mitigate GHG emissions. This review critically focusses on the innovative methodologies for improving char efficiency, underpinning GHG mitigation and C sequestration.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2016.1239975
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2016 Zhang X, Sarmah AK, Bolan NS, He L, Lin X, Che L, et al., 'Effect of aging process on adsorption of diethyl phthalate in soils amended with bamboo biochar', Chemosphere, 142 28-34 (2016)

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Biochar is a carbonaceous sorbent and can be used as a potential material to reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. In the pr... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Biochar is a carbonaceous sorbent and can be used as a potential material to reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. In the present study, the adsorption and desorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP) onto soils amended with bamboo biochar was investigated with a special focus on the effect of biochar application rates and aging conditions on the adsorption capacity of the soils. Biochar amendment significantly enhanced the soil adsorption of DEP that increased with increasing application rates of biochar. However, the adsorption capacity decreased by two aging processes (alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist). In the soil with low organic carbon (OC) content, the addition of 0.5% biochar (without aging) increased the adsorption by nearly 98 times compared to the control, and exhibited the highest adsorption capacity among all the treatments. In the soil with high OC content, the adsorption capacity in the treatment of 0.5% biochar without aging was 3.5 and 3 times greater than those of the treatments of biochar aged by alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist, respectively. Moreover, constantly moist resulted in a greater adsorption capacity than alternating wet and dry treatments regardless of biochar addition. This study revealed that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of DEP, however, the enhancement of the adsorption capacity was dependent on the soil organic carbon levels, and aging processes of biochar.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.037
Citations Scopus - 9
2016 Choppala G, Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Bush R, 'Differential effect of biochar upon reduction-induced mobility and bioavailability of arsenate and chromate', Chemosphere, 144 374-381 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Heavy metals such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) occur in ionic form in soil, with chromate [Cr(VI)] and arsenate As(V) being the most pre-dominant forms. ... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Heavy metals such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) occur in ionic form in soil, with chromate [Cr(VI)] and arsenate As(V) being the most pre-dominant forms. The application of biochar to Cr(VI) and As(V) spiked and field contaminated soils was evaluated on the reduction processes [(Cr(VI) to Cr(III)] and [As(V) to As(III))], and subsequent mobility and bioavailability of both As(V) and Cr(VI). The assays used in this study included leaching, soil microbial activity and XPS techniques. The reduction rate of As(V) was lower than that of Cr(VI) with and without biochar addition, however, supplementation with biochar enhanced the reduction process of As(V). Leaching experiments indicated Cr(VI) was more mobile than As(V). Addition of biochar reversed the effect by reducing the mobility of Cr and increasing that of As. The presence of Cr and As in both spiked and contaminated soils reduced microbial activity, but with the addition of biochar to these soils, the microbial activity increased in the Cr(VI) contaminated soils, while it was further decreased with As(V) contaminated soils. The addition of biochar was effective in mitigating Cr toxicity by reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). In contrast, the conversion process of As(V) to As(III) hastened by biochar was not favourable, as As(III) is more toxic in soils. Overall, the presence of functional groups on biochar promotes reduction by providing the electrons required for reduction processes to occur as determined by XPS data.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.043
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Richard Bush
2016 Singh M, Sarkar B, Biswas B, Churchman J, Bolan NS, 'Adsorption-desorption behavior of dissolved organic carbon by soil clay fractions of varying mineralogy', Geoderma, 280 47-56 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Soil clay minerals significantly influence the accumulation and stabilization of organic carbon (OC). However, the effect of interactions among phyllosilicate... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Soil clay minerals significantly influence the accumulation and stabilization of organic carbon (OC). However, the effect of interactions among phyllosilicate clay minerals, native OC and sesquioxides (Fe/Al oxides) on the adsorption-desorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under different background electrolyte types and concentration is poorly understood. A set of batch adsorption-desorption experiments were conducted using pedogenic clays extracted from soils dominated by kaolinite-illite (Kaol-Ill), smectite (Smec) and allophane (Allo). The clay samples were sequentially treated to remove native OC and sesquioxides, and tested for adsorption-desorption of DOC under various solution conditions. All the experiments were conducted at pH 7 using water extractable fraction of OC from wheat residues. DOC adsorption increased with increasing background electrolyte concentration, and the presence of Ca2+ significantly enhanced the uptake in comparison to Na+ due to a possible cationic bridging effect. Under all electrolyte conditions, the maximum DOC adsorption capacity (Qmax) (mg g-1) of the soil clay fractions (SCF) maintained the order: Allo > Smec > Kaol-Ill. A similar order was also observed when the adsorption capacities were normalized to the specific surface area (SSA) of the SCFs (mg m-2). DOC adsorption showed a positive relationship with SSA, and sesquioxides and allophanic minerals provided the largest contributions to the SSA in the SCF. Removal of sesquioxides from the SCF resulted in a decrease in SSA and thus DOC adsorption, whereas removal of native OC increased the SSA and subsequent DOC adsorption. Because this study used pedogenic SCFs which represented soils formed in different environments instead of processed clays from geological deposits, it provided realistic information about the interaction of DOC with SCF in relation to their native OC and sesquioxide contents. It also revealed the importance of Ca2+ in enhancing the carbon adsorption capacities of these SCFs.

DOI 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.06.005
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2016 Nguyen LQ, Bolan N, Kumar M, 'Screening three finfish species for their potential in removing organic matter from the effluent of white leg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) farming', Tropicultura, 34 86-97 (2016) [C1]

White leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.) farming effluent contains pollutants that include high levels of organic matter (OM) nutrients and growth- promoting substances. This stud... [more]

White leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.) farming effluent contains pollutants that include high levels of organic matter (OM) nutrients and growth- promoting substances. This study investigated the effects of varied concentrations of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannameij farm wastewater 0, 50, 75 and 100%, on the survival rate (SR) of three finfish species: tilapia fOreochromis niloticusj, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and rabbit fish (Siganus guttatus.) as part of screening their potential in removing organic matter from the effluent of white leg shrimp farming. The different initial levels of shrimp wastewater from 50% to 100% had no significant effect on the survival rate of tilapia and mullet; but the survival rate of S. guttatus significantly decreased with increasing shrimp wastewater (P < 0.05). The results showed that the removal of BOD, COD and TSS occurred in the range of 66-83, 68-81 and 30-54%; respectively and the removal efficiency of OM by mullet was higher than Tilapia in all treatments. The study also indicated that the reduction highest removal of BOD, COD and TSS was achieved being 83.1%, 80.7and 53,7% respectively, at the medium stocking density (25 fish/m2) of mullet.

2016 Makino T, Maejima Y, Akahane I, Kamiya T, Takano H, Fujitomi S, et al., 'A practical soil washing method for use in a Cd-contaminated paddy field, with simple on-site wastewater treatment', Geoderma, 270 3-9 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.Heavy metal contamination in rice paddies is a serious problem in monsoon Asia, and these fields require appropriate restoration measures. Althou... [more]

© 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.Heavy metal contamination in rice paddies is a serious problem in monsoon Asia, and these fields require appropriate restoration measures. Although soil washing is a promising remediation technology, high cost for the treatment on soil washing leachate (wastewater) is one of the critical problems. This study sought to develop a simple method for the restoration of paddy fields by soil washing, with simplified wastewater treatment. Ferric chloride solution (FeCl3) was used as a washing chemical to extract Cd from a soil, which produced the wastewater containing Cd and other metals. Three alkali materials (NaOH, MgO, and CaCO3) were tested to treat the wastewater and determined MgO is optimal. In an on-site experiment, the target pH for wastewater treatment was controlled between 8 and 9 by using MgO. All metals in the wastewater could be effectively removed, reaching levels substantially lower than those permitted by Japanese standards. The treated wastewater could be discharged to agricultural canal. Therefore, our novel simplified method effectively removed heavy metals from the wastewater produced by on-site soil washing and contribute drive down the cost.

DOI 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.01.006
Citations Scopus - 2
2016 Novak J, Ro K, Ok YS, Sigua G, Spokas K, Uchimiya S, Bolan N, 'Biochars multifunctional role as a novel technology in the agricultural, environmental, and industrial sectors', Chemosphere, 142 1-3 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.066
Citations Scopus - 6
2016 Yang J, Liu J, Hu Y, Rumpel C, Bolan N, Sparks D, 'Molecular-level understanding of malic acid retention mechanisms in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-malic acid systems: The importance of Fe speciation', Chemical Geology, (2016)

© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Multivalent cation interaction and mineral association play a vital role in organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils. However, the retention mechanisms... [more]

© 2017 Elsevier B.V.Multivalent cation interaction and mineral association play a vital role in organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils. However, the retention mechanisms of OC in mineral-cation-OC systems remain largely unclear at the molecular level. Of all OC forms, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are readily biodegradable. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of malic acid (MA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-MA systems with various Fe/MA molar ratios at pH. ~. 3.5 using Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Our results indicated the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to the enhanced MA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation at high Fe/MA molar ratios in kaolinite-Fe(III)-MA systems relative to kaolinite-MA systems. With the decrease of Fe/MA molar ratios, ternary complexation of MA with kaolinite via a tetrahedral Fe bridge occurred in kaolinite-Fe(III)-MA systems. This study highlighted the significant impact of Fe speciation on MA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-MA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the impact of ferrihydrite-induced adsorption/coprecipitation and Fe-bridged ternary complexation on MA retention in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-MA systems, which will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of MA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.02.018
2016 Khan N, Clark I, Sánchez-Monedero MA, Shea S, Meier S, Qi F, et al., 'Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost', Chemosphere, 142 14-23 (2016) [C1]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with ... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.065
Citations Scopus - 7
2016 Yong SK, Skinner WM, Bolan NS, Lombi E, Kunhikrishnan A, Ok YS, 'Sulfur crosslinks from thermal degradation of chitosan dithiocarbamate derivatives and thermodynamic study for sorption of copper and cadmium from aqueous system', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 1050-1059 (2016)

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Pristine chitosan beads were modified with sulfur (S)-containing functional groups to produce thiolated chitosan beads (ETB), thereby in... [more]

© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Pristine chitosan beads were modified with sulfur (S)-containing functional groups to produce thiolated chitosan beads (ETB), thereby increasing S donor ligands and crosslinks. The effect of temperature, heating time, carbon disulfide (CS2)/chitosan ratio, and pH on total S content of ETB was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The total S content of ETB increased with increasing CS2/chitosan ratio and decreased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature (>60¿°C) and heating time (at 60¿°C). Spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of thiol (¿SH)/thione, disulfide (¿S¿S¿), and sulfonate groups in ETB. The thiolation mechanism involves decomposition of dithiocarbamate groups, thereby forming thiourea crosslinks and trithiocarbonate, resulting in ¿SH oxidation to produce ¿S¿S¿ crosslinks. The partially formed ETB crosslinks contribute to its acid stability and are thermodynamically feasible in adsorbing Cd and Cu. The S-containing functional groups added to chitinous wastes act as sorbents for metal remediation from acidic environments.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-015-5654-5
Citations Scopus - 3
2015 Choppala G, Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Skinner W, Seshadri B, 'Concomitant reduction and immobilization of chromium in relation to its bioavailability in soils', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 8969-8978 (2015)

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the redu... [more]

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in two spiked [600¿mg Cr(VI) kg-1] and one tannery waste contaminated [454¿mg Cr(VI) kg-1] soils. In spiked soils, both the rate and the maximum extent of reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr [Cr(III)] were higher in the sandy loam than clay soil, which is attributed to the difference in the extent of Cr(VI) adsorption between the soils. The highest rate of Cr(VI) reduction was observed in BC-amended sandy loam soil, where it reduced 452¿mg¿kg-1 of Cr(VI), followed by clay soil (427¿mg¿kg-1) and tannery soil (345¿mg¿kg-1). X-ray photoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in BC within 24¿h of addition of Cr(VI), which proved its high reduction capacity. The resultant Cr(III) species either adsorbs or precipitates in BC and CMB. The addition of carbon materials to the tannery soil was also effective in decreasing the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of carbon materials enhanced the reduction of Cr(VI) and the subsequent immobilization of Cr(III) in soils.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1653-6
Citations Scopus - 8
2015 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Thangarajan R, 'Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 8866-8875 (2015)

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture ... [more]

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1827-2
Citations Scopus - 4
2015 Yu H, Ding W, Chen Z, Zhang H, Luo J, Bolan N, 'Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates.', Scientific reports, 5 13804 (2015) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 1
2015 Yang X, Song Z, Liu H, Bolan NS, Wang H, Li Z, 'Plant silicon content in forests of north China and its implications for phytolith carbon sequestration', Ecological Research, 30 347-355 (2015)

© 2014, The Ecological Society of Japan.In plants, silicon (Si) accumulates in phytoliths, which can contain 0.1¿6.0¿% occluded organic carbon (phytolith-occluded organic carbo... [more]

© 2014, The Ecological Society of Japan.In plants, silicon (Si) accumulates in phytoliths, which can contain 0.1¿6.0¿% occluded organic carbon (phytolith-occluded organic carbon, PhytOC). Globally, phytolith formation has implications for the long-term terrestrial carbon balance, and thus, global climate change. In this study, we analyzed the Si contents of 108 species of plants from Inner Mongolia and Hebei, China, to demonstrate the relationships between plant Si content and various phylogenetic and ecological characteristics, and to estimate PhytOC production in the forests of north China. Variations in Si content were related to the plant¿s higher-level phylogenetic position, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III classification. In angiosperms, the commelinoid monocot orders accumulated substantially more Si than did the other monocot orders, and the asteroid dicot orders accumulated more Si than did the other dicot orders. In an ecological context, herbs had the highest Si content (0.47¿±¿0.26¿% dry weight), followed by trees (0.33¿±¿0.13¿% dry weight) and shrubs (0.24¿±¿0.09¿% dry weight). The total PhytOC production rate in the forests of north China corresponded to 0.48¿±¿0.20¿×¿106 t CO2 year-1, approximately 44¿% of which was contributed by the understory vegetation comprising herbs and shrubs. This finding indicates that the phytolith carbon sequestration potential of the forests may be further enhanced by afforestation/reforestation, preserving the understory vegetation, and maximizing the aboveground net primary productivity of all forest layers, especially herbs that accumulate high Si contents.

DOI 10.1007/s11284-014-1228-0
Citations Scopus - 4
2015 Kunhikrishnan A, Shon HK, Bolan NS, El Saliby I, Vigneswaran S, 'Sources, distribution, environmental fate, and ecological effects of nanomaterials in wastewater streams', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45 277-318 (2015)

© 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are manufactured, as opposed to being an incidental by-product of combustion or a natural process, and they ofte... [more]

© 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are manufactured, as opposed to being an incidental by-product of combustion or a natural process, and they often have unique or novel properties that emerge from their small size. These materials are being used in an expanding array of consumer products and, like all technological developments, have both benefits and risks. As the use of ENM in consumer products becomes more common, the amount of these nanomaterials entering wastewater stream increases. Estimates of nanomaterials production are in the range of 500 and 50,000 tons per year for silver and titanium dioxide (TiO2) alone, respectively. Nanomaterials enter the wastewater stream during the production, usage, and disposal of nanomaterial-containing products. The predicted values of nanomaterials range from 0.003 (fullerenes) to 21 ng L-1 (nano-TiO2) for surface waters, and from 4 ng L-1 (fullerenes) to 4 g L-1 (nano-TiO2) for sewage treatment effluents. Therefore, investigating the fate of nanomaterials in wastewater streams is critical for risk assessment and pollution control. The authors aim first to identify the sources of nanomaterials reaching wastewater streams, then determine their occurrence and distribution, and finally discuss their fate in relation to human and ecological health, and environmental impact.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2013.852407
Citations Scopus - 14
2015 He L, Gielen G, Bolan NS, Zhang X, Qin H, Huang H, Wang H, 'Contamination and remediation of phthalic acid esters in agricultural soils in China: a review', Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35 519-534 (2015)

© 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.Phthalic acid esters have been used as plasticizers in numerous products and classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds. As China is one... [more]

© 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.Phthalic acid esters have been used as plasticizers in numerous products and classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds. As China is one of the largest consumers of phthalic acid esters, some human activities may lead to the accumulation of phthalic acid esters in soil and result in contamination. Therefore, it is necessary for us to understand the current contamination status and to identify appropriate remediation technologies. Here, we reviewed the potential sources, distribution, and contamination status of phthalic acid esters in soil. We then described the ecological effect and human risk of phthalic acid esters and finally provided technologies to remediate phthalic acid esters. We found that (1) the application of plastic agricultural films, municipal biosolids, agricultural chemicals, and wastewater irrigation have been identified as the main sources for phthalic acid ester contamination in agricultural soil; (2) the distribution of phthalic acid esters in soils is determined by factors such as anthropogenic behaviors, soil type, properties of phthalic acid esters, seasonal variation, etc.; (3) the concentrations of phthalic acid esters in soil in most regions of China are exceeding the recommended values of soil cleanup guidelines used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), causing phthalic acid ester in soils to contaminate vegetables; (4) phthalic acid esters are toxic to soil microbes and enzymes; and (5) phthalic acid ester-contaminated soil can be remedied by degradation, phytoremediation, and adsorption.

DOI 10.1007/s13593-014-0270-1
Citations Scopus - 14
2015 Zhang H, Ding W, Luo J, Bolan N, Yu H, 'The dynamics of glucose-derived 13C incorporation into aggregates of a sandy loam soil following two-decade compost or inorganic fertilizer amendments', Soil and Tillage Research, 148 14-19 (2015) [C1]

© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Soil aggregates play a central role in the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. To understand the stabilization process of exogenous easily decomposable o... [more]

© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Soil aggregates play a central role in the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. To understand the stabilization process of exogenous easily decomposable organic C in soil and aggregates, 13C-glucose was supplied to arable soils following a 20-year application of compost (CM), inorganic NPK (NPK) and a control (no fertilizer, CK). Soil was fractionated into large macroaggregate (>2000µm), small macroaggregate (250-2000µm), microaggregate (53-250µm), silt fraction (2-53µm) and clay fraction (<2µm) by wet-sieving. The dynamic variation and the distribution of glucose-derived 13C in soils and aggregates were monitored during the 30-day incubation using the 13C stable isotopic technique. The amount of glucose-derived 13C remaining in soils decreased from 61.6-76.9% (day 3) to 27.8-53.1% (day 30). In contrast, the proportion of glucose-derived 13C remaining in aggregates during fractionation to that in soil increased from 13.2-29.4% (day 3) to 32.5-39.3% (day 30) and was ranked as: CCM>CNPK>CCK over the entire incubation. The content of glucose-derived 13C in large and small macroaggregates decreased gradually, but steadily increased in the silt and clay fractions in all treatments over the 30-day incubation period. However, glucose-derived 13C in microaggregates remained at the constant level during the incubation. Our findings indicate that the proportion of 13C protected from dissolving in water during wet-sieving increased with the incubation, and the exogenous easily decomposable organic C could be more effectively maintained in organic C-rich soil (CM) than in organic C-poor soil (CK or NPK). Clearly, glucose-derived 13C was sequestrated and stabilized gradually in soil by redistribution from macroaggregates to silt and clay fractions.

DOI 10.1016/j.still.2014.11.010
Citations Scopus - 2
2015 Zhang C, Clark GJ, Patti AF, Bolan N, Cheng M, Sale PWG, Tang C, 'Contrasting effects of organic amendments on phytoextraction of heavy metals in a contaminated sediment', Plant and Soil, (2015) [C1]

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Background and aims: Soil amendments are often added to polluted soils to increase phytoremediation efficiency. Here we inves... [more]

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Background and aims: Soil amendments are often added to polluted soils to increase phytoremediation efficiency. Here we investigated the potential of a range of organic amendments for phytoextraction of heavy metals in a contaminated sediment. Methods: Two experiments compared adsorption and phytoextraction of heavy metals by a Cd-hyperaccumulator Carpobrotus rossii grown in the contaminated sediment amended with six organic amendments. Results: The adsorption capacity as measured by Langmuir adsorption maximum followed the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd, and the effect of organic amendments followed the order of chicken manure > cow manure > brown coal > golden wattle biochar > blue gum biochar > radiata pine biochar. The addition of amendments increased the adsorption of heavy metals, with brown coal resulting in the lowest concentrations of water-extractable Cd, Cu and Zn. Two manures resulted in the highest concentrations of these water-extractable heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil of C. rossii. Furthermore, brown coal resulted in higher shoot accumulation of these heavy metals than three wood-derived biochars, whilst the manures generally had the lowest accumulation of Cd and Cu although they increased shoot biomass. Conclusions: The addition of brown coal decreased whereas manure addition increased the mobility (water-extractable fraction) of heavy metals in rhizosphere soil. Phytoextraction of Cd and Cu was greater with brown coal than with biochars or manures. Brown coal is suitable for enhancing phytoextraction of these heavy metals because it could increase their accumulation in shoots of C. rossii and decrease the risk of leaching of these heavy metals into groundwater.

DOI 10.1007/s11104-015-2615-1
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2015 Lu W, Ding W, Zhang J, Zhang H, Luo J, Bolan N, 'Nitrogen amendment stimulated decomposition of maize straw-derived biochar in a sandy loam soil: A short-term study', PLoS ONE, 10 (2015)

© 2015 Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reprodu... [more]

© 2015 Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using d13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4plant) straw in absence (BC0) and presence (BCN) of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C) were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than DOC in biochar (1.75%) and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of grampositive (G+) bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G-) bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0133131
Citations Scopus - 1
2015 Alrajhi A, Beecham S, Bolan NS, Hassanli A, 'Evaluation of soil chemical properties irrigated with recycled wastewater under partial root-zone drying irrigation for sustainable tomato production', Agricultural Water Management, 161 127-135 (2015)

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Recycling of wastewater is becoming more popular in order to augment the inadequate irrigation supplies and meet the growing water demands for agriculture in ... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Recycling of wastewater is becoming more popular in order to augment the inadequate irrigation supplies and meet the growing water demands for agriculture in arid regions of the world. This study investigated the environmental impact of deficit irrigation regimes on soil properties with five scenarios using recycled wastewater (RW), fresh tap water (FW), and a blend of RW and stormwater (BW). The five irrigation scenarios were applied to tomato plants growing in pots and included: (i) full irrigation (FI); (ii) partial root zone drying (PRD) irrigation at 75% of FI involving irrigation of only one part of the root zone, while the other part was exposed alternately to soil drying (PRD 75); (iii) PRD irrigation at 50% of FI (PRD 50); (iv) conventional deficit irrigation (DI) at 75% of FI applied on both sides of the root zone (DI 75); and (v) DI at 50% of FI (DI 50). Among the different irrigation scenarios, the PRD 75 treatment led to the lowest level of salinity for the surface soil layer. The PRD reduced TN in the soil compared with DI, while the water source significantly increased soil TN and TC with RW by 4% and 7%, respectively, compared with FW under FI. However, the irrigation scenarios and water sources did not show significant differences in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR), but PRD could reduce SAR compared with DI when using water with a high sodium concentration, such as RW.

DOI 10.1016/j.agwat.2015.07.013
Citations Scopus - 2
2015 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 8942-8956 (2015)

© 2013, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explo... [more]

© 2013, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1¿year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1¿year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50¿%. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1918-0
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2015 Yong SK, Bolan N, Lombi E, Skinner W, 'Enhanced Zn(II) and Pb(II) removal from wastewater using thiolated chitosan beads (ETB)', Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 19 586-594 (2015)

© 2015, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.Chitosan beads (E) was first prepared by phase inversion of chitosan acetate solutions. Thiolated chitosan b... [more]

© 2015, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.Chitosan beads (E) was first prepared by phase inversion of chitosan acetate solutions. Thiolated chitosan beads (ETB) was synthesised by soaking E in a mixture of ethanol and carbon disulfide for 7 days and then rinsed thoroughly with water and ethanol. Sulfur content of ETB is 7.88 %. The thiolation process has increased the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of E beads from 39.5 m2/g to 46.3 m2 /g. ETB is categorised as macroporous material (pore aperture: 182 nm) with multiple and uniform porous layers. A new shoulder at 1594 cm -1 was found in Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of ETB, is assigned to thiourea moiety and was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The Pb(II) sorption capacity by ETB was higher than E beads at all sorbent dosage (except 5.0 g/L). At sorbent dosage of 5.0 g/L, sorption capacity of Zn(II) by ETB was enhanced by 3.2 times as compared to E beads. Sorption data fitted well to linearised Freundlich isotherm model and Ho¿s pseudo second order kinetic model. The higher KF value of ETB than E indicated greater sorption capacity. The increase in Zn(II) and Pb(II) sorption capacities were attributed to enhanced chemisorption with thiol group in ETB beads.

Citations Scopus - 4
2015 Chowdhury S, Farrell M, Butler G, Bolan N, 'Assessing the effect of crop residue removal on soil organic carbon storage and microbial activity in a no-till cropping system', Soil Use and Management, (2015) [C1]

© 2015 British Society of Soil Science. Changes in agricultural management strategies have received much attention in recent years with a view to increasing or maintaining the am... [more]

© 2015 British Society of Soil Science. Changes in agricultural management strategies have received much attention in recent years with a view to increasing or maintaining the amount of carbon (C) sequestered as soil organic C (SOC). In many parts of the world, minimum or no-till management has been promoted as a means of improving soil quality, reducing losses of erosion and potentially increasing SOC stocks. However, no-till systems can become problematic and potentially disease-prone, especially due to high crop residue loadings. Consequently, residue removal either by harvesting or burning off may be employed to reduce these pressures. Here, we examined the effect of crop residue removal on C storage in soil that had been under no-till management for 20 yr. We predicted improved physical properties (i.e. lower bulk density) and greater microbial activity under the residue retention soils due to greater readily available C and nutrients derived from crop residues. In contrast, we predicted relative reductions in SOC in the no residue soils due to a lack of available residue-derived C for microbial use. Residue removal caused a relative C loss from the soil, which was related to C input, amount of nutrient availability and microbial activity. We demonstrate the importance of maintaining crop residue cover in no-till cropping systems for soil function and highlight the potentially deleterious effects of changing management strategy to increased residue harvesting or removal by burning.

DOI 10.1111/sum.12215
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2015 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Rhizosphere-induced heavy metal(Loid) transformation in relation to bioavailability and remediation', Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15 524-548 (2015)

© 2015, Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo. All rights reserved.Soil is the sink and source of heavy metals (both geogenic and anthropogenic) and plants are the ecosystem r... [more]

© 2015, Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo. All rights reserved.Soil is the sink and source of heavy metals (both geogenic and anthropogenic) and plants are the ecosystem regulators, balancing the chemistry of life on earth. However, roots are the only connection between soil and plants, which are the real engineers of ecosystem dynamics responsible for environmental balance and stability. The plant-soil interface termed as ¿rhizosphere¿ is a typical zone of soil where the physical, chemical and biological characteristics are different from bulk soil (outside the rhizosphere region). This is mainly controlled by physiological response from plants to the environmental changes through exudation of chemicals from root region and the cascade of chemical (changes in pH and redox potential, release of anions and nutrient transformation) and biological (microbial association) events that follow. The other adaptive mechanisms include root length and area as affected by temperature, moisture and nutrient content of the soil. In the recent years, advanced technologies have lead to significant findings at the micro-level in rhizosphere research, targeting the role of root-soil interface towards nutrient availability and agricultural productivity. However, with increasing human activities (including agriculture), undesirable quantites of heavy metals are being added to the environment thereby resulting in soil contamination. This review will discuss in detail on the processes involved in the (im)mobilisation of heavy metals in and around the root region as affected by chemical (pH and root exudates) and biological (microorganisms) components.

Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Karunanithi R, Szogi AA, Bolan N, Naidu R, Loganathan P, Hunt PG, et al., 'Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse from Waste Streams', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 131, 131 173-250 (2015)
DOI 10.1016/bs.agron.2014.12.005
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Thangarajan R, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Surapaneni A, 'Effects of temperature and amendments on nitrogen mineralization in selected Australian soils', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 8843-8854 (2015)

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.The effects of temperature (18, 24, and 37¿°C) and form of nitrogen (N) input from various sources (organic¿green waste compost, bios... [more]

© 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.The effects of temperature (18, 24, and 37¿°C) and form of nitrogen (N) input from various sources (organic¿green waste compost, biosolids, and chicken manure; inorganic¿urea) on N transformation in three different Australian soils with varying pH (4.30, 7.09, and 9.15) were examined. Ammonification rate (ammonium concentration) increased with increase in temperature in all soil types. The effect of temperature on nitrification rate (nitrate concentration) followed 24 > 37 > 18¿°C. Nitrification rate was higher in neutral and alkaline soils than acidic soil. Mineral N (bioavailable N) concentration was high in urea treatments than in organic N source treatments in all soil types. Acidic soil lacked nitrification activity resulting in low nitrate (NO3) buildup in urea treatment, whereas a significant NO3 buildup was noticed in green waste compost treatment. In neutral and alkaline soils, the nitrification activity was low at 37¿°C in urea treatment but with a significant NO3 buildup in organic amendment added soils. Addition of organic N sources supplied ammonia oxidizing bacteria thereby triggering nitrification in the soils (even at 37¿°C). This study posits the following implications: (1) inorganic fertilizer accumulate high NO3 content in soils in a short period of incubation, thereby becoming a potential source of NO3 leaching; (2) organic N sources can serve as possible source of nitrifying bacteria, thereby increasing bioavailable N (NO3) in soils regardless of the soil properties and temperature.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-2191-y
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2015 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, Lim JE, Ok YS, 'Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 299 395-403 (2015)

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation wa... [more]

© 2015 Elsevier B.V.Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO.Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.056
Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2014 Chowdhury S, Farrell M, Bolan N, 'Photoassimilated carbon allocation in a wheat plant-soil system as affected by soil fertility and land-use history', PLANT AND SOIL, 383 173-189 (2014)
DOI 10.1007/s11104-014-2173-y
Citations Web of Science - 1
2014 Chowdhury S, Farrell M, Bolan N, 'Priming of soil organic carbon by malic acid addition is differentially affected by nutrient availability', SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY, 77 158-169 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.06.027
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 15
2014 Choppala G, Saifullah, Bolan N, Bibi S, Iqbal M, Rengel Z, et al., 'Cellular Mechanisms in Higher Plants Governing Tolerance to Cadmium Toxicity', CRITICAL REVIEWS IN PLANT SCIENCES, 33 374-391 (2014)
DOI 10.1080/07352689.2014.903747
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 38
2014 Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N, 'Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives', Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 233 1-43 (2014)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-10479-9_1
Citations Scopus - 14
2014 Thangarajan R, Chowdhury S, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N, 'Interactions of soluble and solid organic amendments with priming effects induced by glucose', Vadose Zone Journal, 13 (2014)

In this work, the effects of various dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources (piggery effluent [PigE], dairy effluent [DE], sewage effluent [SE], and stormwater [SW]) on the primin... [more]

In this work, the effects of various dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources (piggery effluent [PigE], dairy effluent [DE], sewage effluent [SE], and stormwater [SW]) on the priming effect (PE) of soil C as affected by solid organic amendments (biochar [BC], biosolids [BS], compost, and poultry manure [PM]) and microbial activity were quantified using landfill, arable, and metal-contaminated field and spiked soils. The BC-amended soil caused significantly lower PEs than BS-, compost-, or PM-amended field soils due to its low DOM. A strong positive correlation was observed between the dissolved organic C content and glucose-induced PE of soil C. However, a negative correlation between the PE and dissolved N in different sources of DOM suggested that the PE may also be influenced by the quality of added C sources in the soils. The DE-treated soil with the highest dissolved N resulted in significantly lower PE than PigE-, SE-, and SW-treated soils. Compared with the uncontaminated soils, microbial activity as CO2 evolution and PE decreased markedly in the metal-contaminated soils, which may be attributed to the heavy metal toxicity. However, the distinct increase in microbial activity in the wastewater-treated contaminated soils suggests the capacity of wastewater to reduce metal toxicity in soils. The findings of this study suggest that although wastewater DOM may reduce the toxic effect to microorganisms, it can have an important effect on the source of CO2 by stimulating the decomposition of native soil organic matter. © Soil Science Society of America.

DOI 10.2136/vzj2014.01.0002
Citations Scopus - 1
2014 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala G, Naidu R, 'Effect of Coal Combustion Products in Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Soil II: Leaching Study', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 225 (2014)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1777-9
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2014 Lu W, Ding W, Zhang J, Li Y, Luo J, Bolan N, Xie Z, 'Biochar suppressed the decomposition of organic carbon in a cultivated sandy loam soil: A negative priming effect', Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 76 12-21 (2014)

Conversion of plant residues to biochar is an attractive strategy for mitigation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and enhancement of carbon (C) storage in soil. Howeve... [more]

Conversion of plant residues to biochar is an attractive strategy for mitigation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and enhancement of carbon (C) storage in soil. However, the effect of biochar application on the decomposition of soil organic C (SOC) as well as its mechanisms is not well understood in the sandy loam soil of North China Plain. We investigated how biochar affected the decomposition of native SOC, using stable d13C isotope analyses by applying biochar produced from corn straw (a C4 plant, d13C=-11.9 0/00) to a sandy loam soil (d13C of SOC=-24.5) under a long-term C3 crop rotation. The incubation experiment included four treatments: no amendment (Control), biochar amendment (BC, 0.5% of soil mass), inorganic nitrogen (N) amendment (IN, 100mgNkg-1) and combined biochar and N amendments (BN). Compared with Control, N amendment significantly (P<0.05) increased total soil CO2 emission, even when combined with biochar amendment. In contrast, biochar alone amendment did not affect total soil CO2 emission significantly. However biochar, even when combined with N amendment, significantly (P<0.05) reduced CO2 emission from native SOC by 64.9-68.8%, indicating that biochar inhibited the decomposition of native SOC and the stimulation effect of inorganic N on native SOC degradation, a negative priming effect. N addition immediately stimulated the growth of microorganisms and altered microbial community structure by increasing Gram-positive bacteria compared to Control as measured by phospholipid fatty acid. Biochar amendment did not alter microbial biomass during the 720-h incubation period except at 168 and 720h, but significantly (P<0.05) lowered dissolved organic C (DOC) content in soil, primarily due to sorption of DOC by the biochar. Our study suggested that biochar application could effectively reduce the decomposition of native organic C and a potential effective measure for C sequestration in the test soil of the North China Plain. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.04.029
Citations Scopus - 41
2014 Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, et al., 'Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review', Chemosphere, 99 19-23 (2014)

Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product synthesized through pyrolysis/carbonization of plant- and animal-based biomass. An increasing interest in the beneficial application of ... [more]

Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product synthesized through pyrolysis/carbonization of plant- and animal-based biomass. An increasing interest in the beneficial application of biochar has opened up multidisciplinary areas for science and engineering. The potential biochar applications include carbon sequestration, soil fertility improvement, pollution remediation, and agricultural by-product/waste recycling. The key parameters controlling its properties include pyrolysis temperature, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type. The efficacy of biochar in contaminant management depends on its surface area, pore size distribution and ion-exchange capacity. Physical architecture and molecular composition of biochar could be critical for practical application to soil and water. Relatively high pyrolysis temperatures generally produce biochars that are effective in the sorption of organic contaminants by increasing surface area, microporosity, and hydrophobicity; whereas the biochars obtained at low temperatures are more suitable for removing inorganic/polar organic contaminants by oxygen-containing functional groups, electrostatic attraction, and precipitation. However, due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain. In this review, a succinct overview of current biochar use as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water is summarized and discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.071
Citations Scopus - 407
2014 Lu K, Yang X, Shen J, Robinson B, Huang H, Liu D, et al., 'Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn to Sedum plumbizincicola', Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, (2014)

Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a global concern because of its adverse effects on ecosystem health and food security. Soil amendments including biochar can reduce... [more]

Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a global concern because of its adverse effects on ecosystem health and food security. Soil amendments including biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars derived from bamboo and rice straw on bioavailability and plant growth in a sandy loam paddy soil naturally co-contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The soil was moderately acidic (pH = 5.7) and low in organic carbon content (8.7 g kg-1). Bamboo and rice straw biochars, pyrolyzed at temperatures = 500 °C and with two mesh sizes (< 0.25 mm and < 1 mm), were applied at three rates (0, 1% and 5%, w/w). A metal-tolerant plant, Sedum plumbizincicola X. H. Guo et S. B. Zhou sp. nov. was used in the plant growth experiment to examine the bioavailability of these metals. The addition of biochars to soil significantly (p < 0.05) increased the above-ground biomass of S. plumbizincicola. By the end of the experiment, soils amended with biochar had pH values significantly (p < 0.05) higher, this effect being more accentuated at the high biochar dose and small particle size. The solubility of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn as measured by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the biochar-amended soils than in the control soil. This was paralleled by significant reductions in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulated in the above-plant biomass of amended soils. Rice straw biochar reduced the concentration of Cu and Pb in the shoots by 46 and 71%, while bamboo biochar reduced concentration of Cd in the shoot by 49%. Finer biochar was more effective on reducing the concentrations of Zn in shoot than the coarse ones, while particle size had no effect on the concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in the shoot of S. plumbizincicola. In conclusion, the influence of biochar on heavy metal bioavailability varied not only with the feedstock and application rate of biochars, but also with the metal species. Therefore, biochar should be carefully designed to maximize the reduction of the bioavailability of a given heavy metal in soil. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.agee.2014.04.010
Citations Scopus - 9
2014 Lu K, Yang X, Shen J, Robinson B, Huang H, Liu D, et al., 'Effect of bamboo and rice straw biochars on the bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn to Sedum plumbizincicola', Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 191 124-132 (2014)

© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Soil amendments including biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain. A pot... [more]

© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Soil amendments including biochar can reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils and reduce their risk of entering the food chain. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars derived from bamboo and rice straw on bioavailability and plant growth in a sandy loam paddy soil naturally co-contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The soil was moderately acidic (pH=5.7) and low in organic carbon content (8.7gkg-1). Bamboo and rice straw biochars, pyrolyzed at temperatures=500°C and with two mesh sizes (< 0.25mm and<1mm), were applied at three rates (0, 1% and 5%, w/w). A metal-tolerant plant, Sedum plumbizincicola X. H. Guo et S. B. Zhou sp. nov. was used in the plant growth experiment to examine the bioavailability of these metals. The addition of biochars to soil significantly (p<0.05) increased the above-ground biomass of S. plumbizincicola. By the end of the experiment, soils amended with biochar had pH values significantly (p<0.05) higher, this effect being more accentuated at the high biochar dose and small particle size. The solubility of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn as measured by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the biochar-amended soils than in the control soil. This was paralleled by significant reductions in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulated in the above-plant biomass of amended soils. Rice straw biochar reduced the concentration of Cu and Pb in the shoots by 46 and 71%, while bamboo biochar reduced concentration of Cd in the shoot by 49%. Finer biochar was more effective on reducing the concentrations of Zn in shoot than the coarse ones, while particle size had no effect on the concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in the shoot of S. plumbizincicola. In conclusion, the influence of biochar on heavy metal bioavailability varied not only with the feedstock and application rate of biochars, but also with the metal species. Therefore, biochar should be carefully designed to maximize the reduction of the bioavailability of a given heavy metal in soil.

DOI 10.1016/j.agee.2014.04.010
Citations Scopus - 28
2014 Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Thangarajan R, Kumpiene J, Park J, Makino T, et al., 'Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils - To mobilize or to immobilize?', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 266 141-166 (2014)

Unlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s pl... [more]

Unlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.018
Citations Scopus - 224
2014 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils', ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, 100 201-208 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.003
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 20
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2014 Khan N, Clark I, Sánchez-Monedero MA, Shea S, Meier S, Bolan N, 'Maturity indices in co-composting of chicken manure and sawdust with biochar', Bioresource Technology, 168 245-251 (2014)

Several maturity indices were evaluated for in-vessel co-composting of chicken manure and pine sawdust with three different biochars. All the seven mixtures (piles) contained chic... [more]

Several maturity indices were evaluated for in-vessel co-composting of chicken manure and pine sawdust with three different biochars. All the seven mixtures (piles) contained chicken manure and sawdust. Six of these piles contained biochar; each biochar was added at two rates, 5% and 10% wet weight. The maturity of composts was assessed by C/N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), seed germination, NO3--N/NH4+-N, and the Solvita test. The C/N values of finished composts were from 31.5 to 35.7, which were much higher than the optimum value of 21 for matured compost. Nevertheless, the rest of the parameters indicated that the composts were matured. The C/N values were high because of the high amount of recalcitrant carbon present in the feedstocks: biochar and sawdust. Biochar treated piles showed higher respiration as well as decomposition of DOC indicating higher microbial activity. Use of biochar in composting may reduce NH3 emission and nitrate leaching. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.123
Citations Scopus - 26
2014 Loganathan P, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J, Bolan NS, 'Removal and recovery of phosphate from water using sorption', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 44 847-907 (2014)

Sorption is an effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly treatment process for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater sources which otherwise can cause eutrophication o... [more]

Sorption is an effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly treatment process for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater sources which otherwise can cause eutrophication of receiving waters. Phosphorus in wastewater, if economically recovered, can partly overcome the future scarcity of phosphorus resulting from exhaustion of natural phosphate rock reserves. The authors present a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the effectiveness of a number of sorbents, especially some novel ones that have recently emerged, in removing and recovering phosphate. Mechanisms and thermodynamics of sorption, as well as regeneration of sorbents for reuse using acids, bases, and salts, are critically examined. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2012.741311
Citations Scopus - 54
2014 Chung JW, Lee ME, Kang ST, Bolan NS, 'Concentration distribution of carbonyl compounds in an industrial shipbuilding complex', KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 18 927-932 (2014)

In the present work, the distribution of carbonyl compounds in an industrial shipbuilding complex was monitored, with the characteristics of formation and disappearance behaviors ... [more]

In the present work, the distribution of carbonyl compounds in an industrial shipbuilding complex was monitored, with the characteristics of formation and disappearance behaviors of carbonyls estimated. The major carbonyls measured at all of the sampling sites were formaldehyde, acetone+acrolein and acetaldehyde. Several unique local characteristics of carbonyl compounds such as wide variations in concentrations, and higher formaldehyde to acetaldehyde (C1/C2) ratios, were clearly observed in the shipbuilding complex compared to the typical urban area. Wide temporal and spatial variations in the carbonyl concentrations were observed as a result of irregular changes to the work intensity due to shipbuilding. Higher carbonyl concentrations were measured during summer and autumn when the intensity of sunlight was high, even though the work intensity of shipbuilding was likely to be weak. These results demonstrate that the secondary formation of carbonyls from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) directly produced by painting works plays a significant role in the distribution of carbonyls in shipbuilding areas. © 2014 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s12205-013-1360-3
Citations Scopus - 1
2014 Seshadri B, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 21 10013-10021 (2014)
DOI 10.1007/s11356-014-3030-5
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2014 Seshadri B, Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Chowdhury S, Thangarajan R, Chuasavathi T, 'Recycled water irrigation in Australia', Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies, (2014)
DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2056-5_2
2014 Lamb DT, Venkatraman K, Bolan N, Ashwath N, Choppala G, Naidu R, 'Phytocapping: An Alternative Technology for the Sustainable Management of Landfill Sites', CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 44 561-637 (2014)
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu
2014 Chowdhury S, Farrell M, Bolan N, 'Photoassimilated carbon allocation in a wheat plant-soil system as affected by soil fertility and land-use history', Plant and Soil, 383 173-189 (2014)

© 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.Background and aims: Carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is influenced by the distribution of photo-assimilated C i... [more]

© 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.Background and aims: Carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is influenced by the distribution of photo-assimilated C in the plant-soil system. Photo-assimilated C allocation in a wheat cropping system was examined to identify the links between soil fertility, C partitioning and soil C sequestration.Methods: A pulse labelling experiment was conducted where14CO2 was introduced to wheat plants grown in two groups of soils of varying fertility: arable soils spiked with nutrients, and soils with differing land-use histories. Wheat shoot, root and soil samples were taken 1, 14 and 28¿days after pulse labelling to examine the fluxes of14C in the plant-root-soil system.Results: The partitioning of14C in wheat plant-root-soil system was found to vary with time, nutrient spiked soil fertility and land-use history. At the end of the experiment using spiked soils, a positive correlation was observed between the allocation of14C in the shoots and soil fertility, whereas in the roots, this relationship was negative. The overall allocation of14C in the plant-root system differed significantly between the land-use histories; while in the spiked arable soils14C allocation in the shoots and roots systematically followed their fertility status.Conclusions: There was a weak relationship between C allocation and soil fertility in the soils of different land-use history compared to the strong relationship in the spiked arable soils. This suggests that other factors in the soils under different land uses were more important than nutrient status alone in driving photo-assimilated C allocation. This study demonstrated that soil fertility and land-use history have a crucial role in the allocation of photo-assimilated C in the plant-soil system and are important factors by which C sequestration in soil may be impacted.

DOI 10.1007/s11104-014-2173-y
Citations Scopus - 1
2013 Choppala G, Bolan N, Lamb D, Kunhikrishnan A, 'Comparative sorption and mobility of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in a range of soils: Implications to bioavailability topical collection on remediation of site contamination', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (2013)

The sorption of chromium (Cr) species to soil has become the focus of research as it dictates the bioavailability and also the magnitude of toxicity of Cr. The sorption of two env... [more]

The sorption of chromium (Cr) species to soil has become the focus of research as it dictates the bioavailability and also the magnitude of toxicity of Cr. The sorption of two environmentally important Cr species [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)] was examined using batch sorption, and the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The effects of soil properties such as pH, CEC, organic matter (OM), clay, water-extractable SO42- and PO43-, surface charge, and different iron (Fe) fractions of 12 different Australian representative soils on the sorption, and mobility of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were examined. The amount of sorption as shown by K f was higher for Cr(III) than Cr(VI) in all tested soils. Further, the amount of Cr(III) sorbed increased with an increase in pH, CEC, clay, and OM of soils. Conversely, the chemical properties of soil such as positive charge and Fe (crystalline) had a noticeable influence on the sorption of Cr(VI). Desorption of Cr(VI) occurred rapidly and was greater than desorption of Cr(III) in soils. The mobility of Cr species as estimated by the retardation factor was higher for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III) in all tested soils. These results concurred with the results from leaching experiments which showed higher leaching of Cr(VI) than Cr(III) in both acidic and alkaline soils indicating the higher mobility of Cr(VI) in a wide range of soils. This study demonstrated that Cr(VI) is more mobile and will be bioavailable in soils regardless of soil properties and if not remediated may eventually pose a severe threat to biota. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1699-6
Citations Scopus - 12
Co-authors Dane Lamb
2013 Singh J, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan NS, Saggar S, 'Impact of urease inhibitor on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from temperate pasture soil cores receiving urea fertilizer and cattle urine', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 465 56-63 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.018
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 24
2013 Saggar S, Jha N, Deslippe J, Bolan NS, Luo J, Giltrap DL, et al., 'Denitrification and N2O:N-2 production in temperate grasslands: Processes, measurements, modelling and mitigating negative impacts', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 465 173-195 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.050
Citations Scopus - 92Web of Science - 85
2013 Bolan N, 'Soil as a Source & Sink for Greenhouse Gases.', Science of The Total Environment, 465 1-2 (2013) [C6]
2013 Vithanage M, Rajapaksha AU, Dou X, Bolan NS, Yang JE, Ok YS, 'Surface complexation modeling and spectroscopic evidence of antimony adsorption on iron-oxide-rich red earth soils', Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 406 217-224 (2013)

Few studies have investigated surface complexation of antimony (Sb) on natural sorbents. In addition, intrinsic acidic constants, speciation, and spectroscopic data are scarce for... [more]

Few studies have investigated surface complexation of antimony (Sb) on natural sorbents. In addition, intrinsic acidic constants, speciation, and spectroscopic data are scarce for Sb sorption in soil. Only simple sorption models have been proposed to describe the sorption of Sb(V) on specific mineral surfaces. This study therefore assessed the mechanisms of Sb(III) and Sb(V) adsorption on natural red earth (NRE), a naturally occurring iron coated sand, at various pHs and Sb loadings. The Sb(V) adsorption followed typical anion adsorption curve with adsorption reaching maximum around pH 4-5, while no pH dependence was observed for Sb(III) sorption. The FT-IR spectra revealed that shifts in absorbance of the hydroxyl groups in iron-oxide were related to the Fe. O. Sb bonds and provided evidence for inner sphere bond formation. Direct evidence on the strong interaction of Sb(III) and Sb(V) with Fe. O and Al. O was observed from the decrease in Fe-2p, Al-2p, and Si-2p peaks of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data before and after Sb(V) and Sb(III) adsorption on NRE. Successful data modeling using the 2-pK diffuse double layer model (DDLM) with the FITEQL revealed that sorption occurs through the formation of bidentate mononuclear and binuclear complexes. Model simulations showed a high affinity to the FeOH sites at high Sb loadings, whereas at low loadings, both FeOH and AlOH sites showed similar affinities to Sb. In the case of Sb(V), multilayer formation was also revealed in addition to surface complexation by the isotherm data fitted with the Freundlich model and two sites Langmuir equations, which indicated heterogeneous multilayer adsorption of Sb(V) on NRE. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

DOI 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.05.053
Citations Scopus - 34
2013 Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Gibbs J, 'Rhizoreduction of arsenate and chromate in Australian native grass, shrub and tree vegetation', Plant and Soil, 367 615-625 (2013)

Background and aims: Rhizosphere influences the dynamics of nutrients and contaminants through increased microbial activity, release of root exudates and alteration of pH. The obj... [more]

Background and aims: Rhizosphere influences the dynamics of nutrients and contaminants through increased microbial activity, release of root exudates and alteration of pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizosphere-induced reduction (i.e. rhizoreduction) and redistribution of arsenate [As(V)] and chromate [Cr(VI)] in Australian native vegetation in relation to their bioavailability. Methods: The reduction of As(V) and Cr(VI) was examined using rhizosphere soils from a number of Australian native vegetation (Acacia pubescens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Enchylaena tomentosa, Templetonia retusa, Dichantheum sericeum and Austrodanthonia richardsonii). Naturally contaminated As and Cr soils were used to examine the effect of Dichantheum sericeum on the redistribution and bioavailability of these metal(loid)s. Results: The rhizosphere soil contained higher levels of microbial activity, dissolved organic carbon and organic acid content than the non-rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil caused up to 2.4 and 5.1 fold increases in the rate of reduction of As(V) and Cr(VI), respectively. There was a significant relationship between rhizosphere-induced increases in microbial activity (¿ basal respiration) and As(V) and Cr(VI) reduction (¿ rate of reduction), indicating the role of increased microbial activity in rhizosphere soil on metal(loid) reduction. In the plant growth experiment, Dichantheum sericeum enhanced the reduction of metal(loid)s in the naturally contaminated soils, thereby increasing the bioavailability of As but decreasing that of Cr. Conclusions: Depending on the nature of metal(loid)s present in soil, the rhizosphere-induced reduction by plant species such as Dichantheum sericeum and Templetonia retusa has implications to both their bioavailability to higher plants and microorganisms, and remediation of contaminated soils. While rhizoreduction decreases Cr bioavailability it increases that of As. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11104-012-1506-y
Citations Scopus - 9
2013 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala G, 'Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability', Science of the Total Environment, 463-464 1154-1162 (2013)

Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in ... [more]

Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.016
Citations Scopus - 23
2013 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, 'Effect of clean coal combustion products in reducing soluble phosphorus in soil I. Adsorption study', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (2013)

The study examined the effectiveness of various coal combustion products (CCPs) [fly ash (FA), fluidized bed combustion ash (FBC), and flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD)] on ph... [more]

The study examined the effectiveness of various coal combustion products (CCPs) [fly ash (FA), fluidized bed combustion ash (FBC), and flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD)] on phosphorus (P) adsorption in soils using batch sorption studies. The results indicated that P adsorption increased with increasing application rates of CCPs. The effect of CCPs in increasing P adsorption followed: FBC > FA > FGD. There was an inverse relationship between the CCP-induced increase in P adsorption and initial soil pH, demonstrating that acidic and neutral soils responded more effectively to CCP addition than alkaline soils. The increases in soil pH and calcium (Ca) concentration in the soil solution resulting from CCP application enhanced P retention through adsorption and precipitation reactions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1524-2
Citations Scopus - 3
2013 Yong SK, Bolan N, Lombi E, Skinner W, 'Synthesis and characterization of thiolated chitosan beads for removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (2013)

Removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater using porous chitosan beads is likely to be enhanced by the introduction of thiol groups (-SH). This is because, in accordance with th... [more]

Removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater using porous chitosan beads is likely to be enhanced by the introduction of thiol groups (-SH). This is because, in accordance with the Hard Soft Acid Base concept, the soft Lewis base of -SH forms a strong bond with soft Lewis acid of Cd(II) or with borderline Lewis acids such as Cu(II). Possible formation of thiourea and disulfide crosslinks (-S-S-) may also confer increased bead stability in acidic solution. Thiolated chitosan beads (ETB) prepared and investigated in this study had a total sulfur content of 7.9 %. The thiolation process slightly increased the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of the chitosan beads from 39.5 to 46.3 m2/g. This ETB was categorised as a microporous material (pore aperture: 1.8 nm) with multiple and uniform porous layers. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the presence of three sulfur species, S(-I), S(-II) and S(V) attributed to -S-S-, -SH and sulfonate (-SO3-) groups. The Langmuir sorption capacity, q max, for Cd(II) was improved by 18 times by thiolation of chitosan. However, the q max for Cu(II) by ETB was seven times lower than that of pristine chitosan beads, possibly due to exhaustion of amine groups (-NH2). The batch sorption data was generally fitted well by a linearised Freundlich isotherm model and a Ho's pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating metal interaction with the heterogeneous surface of ETB and chemical adsorption as the possible rate-limiting step, respectively. The metal uptake has resulted in the oxidation of -SH to -SO3- group in ETB, thereby decreasing the stability of metal-sulfide bonds as well as their metal uptake. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1720-0
Citations Scopus - 8
2013 Panneerselvam P, Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N, 'Potential of novel bacterial consortium for the remediation of chromium contamination', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (2013)

This study was aimed to examine the efficiency of a novel bacterial consortium on the reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to non-toxic trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Six Cr(V... [more]

This study was aimed to examine the efficiency of a novel bacterial consortium on the reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to non-toxic trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Six Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria (IS1-IS6) were isolated from a tannery waste disposal site at Mount Barker, South Australia, of which three viz., IS1, IS2 and IS3 were selected based on Cr(VI) reduction ability in minimal salt medium. The isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus (IS1), Microbacterium paraoxydans (IS2) and Bacillus simplex (IS3) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All three isolates were able to tolerate chromium (Cr(VI), 300-400 mg L-1), arsenic (As(V), 1,000 mg L-1), copper (Cu(II), 300-400 mg L-1) and lead (Pb(II), 1,000 mg L-1). The isolates were evaluated both as an individual and as a consortia for Cr(VI) reduction in minimal salt medium and storm water, both spiked with 100 mg Cr(VI) L-1. In both cases, the rate of Cr(VI) reduction was found to be significantly higher in the bacterial consortium inoculation (t = 8.45 for minimal salt medium; 6.02 h for storm water), compared to inoculation with individual isolates (t = 53.3-115.5 h for minimal salt medium; 8.77-9.76 h for storm water). The rate of Cr(VI) reduction in both minimal salt medium and storm water was found to be higher in bacterial consortium inoculation (IS1 + IS2 + IS3) than in individual isolate inoculation. This experiment demonstrated that bacterial consortium prepared by using B. endophyticus, M. paraoxydans and B. simplex was more effective in Cr(VI) detoxification than application of individual bacterium. This experiment also proved that a bacterial consortium was more effective in Cr(VI) detoxification than the application of individual bacterial strain. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1716-9
Citations Scopus - 2
2013 Park JH, Choppala G, Lee SJ, Bolan N, Chung JW, Edraki M, 'Comparative sorption of Pb and Cd by biochars and its implication for metal immobilization in soils topical collection on remediation of site contamination', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 (2013)

Biochar has great potential as a soil amendment to immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their bioavailability. In this study, biochars derived from chicken manure and green w... [more]

Biochar has great potential as a soil amendment to immobilize heavy metals, thereby reducing their bioavailability. In this study, biochars derived from chicken manure and green waste were compared with commercial activated carbon (AC) and laboratory produced black carbon (BC) for the sorption of Pb and Cd. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption isotherms for Pb and Cd were obtained for the char materials and the data were fitted to kinetic and sorption isotherm models. Chicken manure-derived biochar (CM) showed the highest sorption capacity for both Pb and Cd, and the Pb sorption by biochars was higher than the Cd sorption because of the precipitation of Pb with various ions released from the biochars such as carbonate, phosphate, and sulfate. The sorption data for both Pb and Cd were better represented by the pseudo-second order kinetic model than the pseudo-first order kinetic model, which indicates chemical sorption between biochar and metals. For the isotherm studies, char materials was mixed with various amount of Pb or Cd solutions and the remaining metal concentration was measured. The equilibrium sorption data followed a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum sorption capacity of 6.8-11 and 1.7-8.0 mg/g by biochars for Pb and Cd, respectively. Furthermore, CM immobilized Pb and Cd up to 93.5 and 88.4 %, respectively, while BC was not effective in the immobilization of Pb in soil. Overall, the sorption experiments in solution and the immobilization experiment in soil showed that biochars are more effective than AC in the sorption of Pb and Cd, and that they have the potential to be used as a soil amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soil. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1711-1
Citations Scopus - 2
2013 Choppala G, Bolan N, Park JH, 'Chromium Contamination and Its Risk Management in Complex Environmental Settings', Advances in Agronomy, 120 129-172 (2013)

Chromium reaches the soil environment through waste disposal emanating from a number of industrial activities, including coal-fired power production, electroplating,. leather tann... [more]

Chromium reaches the soil environment through waste disposal emanating from a number of industrial activities, including coal-fired power production, electroplating,. leather tanning, timber treatment, pulp production, and mineral ore and petroleum refining. Of the heavy metals, chromium (Cr) is a major pollutant, poses a great threat to flora and fauna and persists for long time. The most abundant species of Cr-Cr(III) and Cr(VI)-have very different properties. The toxicity, mobility, and bioavailability of Cr mainly depend on its speciation. In the natural environment, Cr(III) is most immobile, less soluble and stable, whereas Cr(VI) is highly mobile, soluble and bioavailable. Redox reactions play an important role in the interconversion of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). As our awareness of the rising toxicity of Cr increases, it is necessary to develop new and advanced strategies to mitigate this toxicity in the environment. Several physicochemical methods have been developed but these techniques are expensive and are not readily applicable to large contaminated zones. This chapter provides an overview of the concepts of Cr biogeochemistry, bioavailability and integrated risk management. The physicochemical factors, speciation and toxicity have been discussed with special emphasis on the remediation methods due to the complex reactions associated with Cr toxicity mitigation. Furthermore, this study identified systematically the future needs for understanding Cr biogeochemistry and low-cost remediation methods. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-407686-0.00002-6
Citations Scopus - 19
2013 Laurenson G, Laurenson S, Bolan N, Beecham S, Clark I, 'The Role of Bioretention Systems in the Treatment of Stormwater', Advances in Agronomy, 120 223-274 (2013)

Urbanization leads to water catchments becoming more impervious and channelized. These modifications to the natural landscape result in reduced water infiltration into soils and b... [more]

Urbanization leads to water catchments becoming more impervious and channelized. These modifications to the natural landscape result in reduced water infiltration into soils and base flow components that cause a greater volume and rate of surface water runoff. In contrast to conventional stormwater management systems, water-sensitive urban design (WSUD) technologies manage rainfall where it falls, through enhancement of infiltration capacity of impervious areas and rerouting runoff across pervious areas. WSUD aims to better incorporate several urban water sources, including stormwater, into the local hydrological cycle so as to (1) reduce demand on potable water, (2) minimize pollutant loading to surface waters, and (3) restore or maintain predevelopment hydrological processes. Bioretention systems are designed to remove both dissolved pollutants and particulate matter from stormwater runoff and reduce the volume and rate of stormwater discharged. Treatment is achieved via a number of chemical, biological and physical processes including sedimentation, filtration, sorption, reduction, vegetative uptake and microbial biomass assimilation. The efficiency of bioretention systems in the treatment of contaminants in stormwater depends on a number of factors including substrate conditions, type of vegetation, climatic conditions and on the volume and rate of stormwater infiltrated and discharged. This chapter discusses the various processes involved in the treatment of stormwater within bioretention systems; in particular, the fate of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and metals, and the soil-plant processes involved in their retention. The factors affecting treatment efficiency are also examined. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-407686-0.00004-X
Citations Scopus - 5
2013 Park JH, Bolan N, 'Lead immobilization and bioavailability in microbial and root interface', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261 777-783 (2013)

A range of both soluble and insoluble phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize Pb in solution and soil. However, these compounds have limitations because of low solubi... [more]

A range of both soluble and insoluble phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize Pb in solution and soil. However, these compounds have limitations because of low solubility or leaching of P. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can be used to enhance the solubility of insoluble P compounds. The effects of PSB on the immobilization of Pb in the presence of phosphate rock (PR) and subsequent reduction in Pb uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) in nutrient agar medium and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in soil under sterile condition were tested. Root colonization of PSB was confirmed by halo formation around the root in the medium containing tricalcium phosphate. Addition of PR in the presence of PSB immobilized Pb in both agar medium and soil, and reduced Pb translocation from root to shoot. Furthermore, shoot Pb concentrations of Indian mustard in agar medium and ryegrass in soil were decreased by 58.1% and 22.8%, respectively, compared to the control. Even though soluble P compound was the most effective in the immobilization of Pb, excess P may cause eutrophication. Therefore, PSB are suggested as a co-amendment to facilitate immobilization of Pb without causing any detrimental effect on the environment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.02.010
Citations Scopus - 7
2013 Choppala G, Bolan N, Seshadri B, 'Chemodynamics of chromium reduction in soils: Implications to bioavailability', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261 718-724 (2013)

Chromium toxicity in soils can be mitigated by reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) which is influenced by the presence of free Cr(VI) species in soil solution, and the supply of proton... [more]

Chromium toxicity in soils can be mitigated by reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) which is influenced by the presence of free Cr(VI) species in soil solution, and the supply of protons and electrons. In this study, the effects of Cr(VI) adsorption (i.e. availability of free Cr(VI) species in soil solution), soil pH (i.e. supply of protons) and three electron donor carbon sources [black carbon (BC), chicken manure biochar (CMB) and cow manure (CM)] on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in soils were investigated. The results indicated that the rate of Cr(VI) reduction decreased with an increase in Cr(VI) adsorption and soil pH, which is attributed to decreased supply of free Cr(VI) ions and protons, respectively. Among the three different amendments tested, BC showed the highest rate of Cr(VI) reduction followed by CM and CMB. Furthermore, addition of BC, CM and CMB decreased the bioavailability of Cr(VI) in contaminated soils. The high efficiency of BC on Cr(VI) reduction was due to the electron donor's functional groups such as phenolic, hydroxyl, carbonyl and amides. The study demonstrated that free form of Cr(VI) ions in soil solution and carbon amendments enriched with acidic functional groups favored the reduction of Cr(VI), thereby mitigating its bioavailability and toxicity in contaminated soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.040
Citations Scopus - 8
2013 Choppala G, Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Skinner W, Seshadri B, 'Concomitant reduction and immobilization of chromium in relation to its bioavailability in soils', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-10 (2013)

In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in tw... [more]

In this study, two carbon materials [chicken manure biochar (CMB) and black carbon (BC)] were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in two spiked [600¿mg Cr(VI) kg-1] and one tannery waste contaminated [454¿mg Cr(VI) kg-1] soils. In spiked soils, both the rate and the maximum extent of reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr [Cr(III)] were higher in the sandy loam than clay soil, which is attributed to the difference in the extent of Cr(VI) adsorption between the soils. The highest rate of Cr(VI) reduction was observed in BC-amended sandy loam soil, where it reduced 452¿mg¿kg-1 of Cr(VI), followed by clay soil (427¿mg¿kg-1) and tannery soil (345¿mg¿kg-1). X-ray photoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species in BC within 24¿h of addition of Cr(VI), which proved its high reduction capacity. The resultant Cr(III) species either adsorbs or precipitates in BC and CMB. The addition of carbon materials to the tannery soil was also effective in decreasing the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of carbon materials enhanced the reduction of Cr(VI) and the subsequent immobilization of Cr(III) in soils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1653-6
Citations Scopus - 2
2013 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Thangarajan R, 'Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-10 (2013)

In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of... [more]

In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1827-2
Citations Scopus - 1
2013 Zhang X, Wang H, He L, Lu K, Sarmah A, Li J, et al., 'Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20 8472-8483 (2013)

Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to re... [more]

Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1659-0
Citations Scopus - 118
2013 Yong SK, Bolan NS, Lombi E, Skinner W, Guibal E, 'Sulfur-containing chitin and chitosan derivatives as trace metal adsorbents: A review', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 43 1741-1794 (2013)

Chitosan has low uptake for most heavy metals as well as high solubility in monoprotic acids. To address these problems, sulfur-containing functional groups have been introduced t... [more]

Chitosan has low uptake for most heavy metals as well as high solubility in monoprotic acids. To address these problems, sulfur-containing functional groups have been introduced to enhance the sorption of heavy metals via formation of strong coordination bonds with heavy metals and also to improve its stability. The approaches to sulfur enrichment to the chitosan structure include grafting of sulfur-containing molecules to C2 amine or C 6 hydroxyl groups. Crosslinking and grafting agents such as glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin have also been used in chitosan modification. In this review, special emphasis is placed on the synthesis pathways of sulfur-functionalization of chitin and chitosan and their metal uptakes. Generally, the uptake of soft acid metals such as Hg(II) and Cd(II) has been shown to increase with increasing sulfur content of modified chitosan. However, other factors such as the availability of thiol and amine groups as well as surface area of the modified chitosan also influence metal sorption. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2012.671734
Citations Scopus - 14
2013 Rathnayake IVN, Megharaj M, Krishnamurti GSR, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Heavy metal toxicity to bacteria - Are the existing growth media accurate enough to determine heavy metal toxicity?', CHEMOSPHERE, 90 1195-1200 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.036
Citations Scopus - 32Web of Science - 30
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2013 Thangarajan R, Bolan NS, Tian G, Naidu R, Kunhikrishnan A, 'Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 465 72-96 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.031
Citations Scopus - 73Web of Science - 60
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, Naidu R, 'Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 465 216-225 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.093
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Jeong J, Kim C, Lee K-S, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Carbon storage and soil CO2 efflux rates at varying degrees of damage from pine wilt disease in red pine stands', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 465 273-278 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.080
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Sudharshan S, Mallavarapu M, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Effect of Seaweeds on Degradation of DDT in Soils', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 224 (2013)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1715-x
Citations Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2013 Naidu R, Smith E, Wong MH, Megharaj M, Bolan N, Juhasz AL, Lombi E, 'Remediation of Site Contamination', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 224 (2013)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1723-x
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2013 Bolan NS, Makino T, Kunhikrishnan A, Kim P-J, Ishikawa S, Murakami M, et al., 'Cadmium Contamination and Its Risk Management in Rice Ecosystems', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 119, 119 183-273 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-407247-3.00004-4
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 28
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Wang H, Sajwan K, 'Clean Coal Technology Combustion Products: Properties, Agricultural and Environmental Applications, and Risk Management', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 119, 119 309-370 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-407247-3.00006-8
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Bolan NS, Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Park J, Naidu R, 'Microbial Transformation of Trace Elements in Soils in Relation to Bioavailability and Remediation', REVIEWS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, VOL 225, 225 1-56 (2013)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-6470-9_1
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Naidu R, Juhasz A, Mallavarapu M, Smith E, Lombi E, Bolan NS, et al., 'Chemical Bioavailability in the Terrestrial Environment - recent advances Preface', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 261 685-686 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.001
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2013 Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Naidu R, 'Sorption-bioavailability nexus of arsenic and cadmium in variable-charge soils', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 261 725-732 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.074
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Kim W-I, 'Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 261 784-792 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.015
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Seshadri B, Bolan N, Choppala G, Naidu R, 'Differential effect of coal combustion products on the bioavailability of phosphorus between inorganic and organic nutrient sources', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 261 817-825 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.04.051
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Chatskikh D, Ovchninnikova A, Seshadri B, Bolan N, 'Biofuel Crops and Soil Quality and Erosion', Biofuel Crop Sustainability, (2013)
2013 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, 'Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15 (2013)

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites w... [more]

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1¿year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1¿year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50¿%. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.

DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1918-0
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2013 Bolan NS, Thangarajan R, Seshadri B, Jena U, Das KC, Wang H, Naidu R, 'Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 135 578-587 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.135
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 17
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2013 Park JH, Choppala G, Lee SJ, Bolan N, Chung JW, Edraki M, 'Comparative sorption of Pb and Cd by biochars and its implication for metal immobilization in soils', Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224 1-12 (2013)

Biochar has great potential as a soil amendment to immobilize heavymetals, thereby reducing their bioavailability. In this study, biochars derived from chicken manure and green wa... [more]

Biochar has great potential as a soil amendment to immobilize heavymetals, thereby reducing their bioavailability. In this study, biochars derived from chicken manure and green waste were compared with commercial activated carbon (AC) and laboratory produced black carbon (BC) for the sorption of Pb and Cd. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption isotherms for Pb and Cd were obtained for the char materials and the data were fitted to kinetic and sorption isotherm models.. Chicken manure-derived biochar (CM) showed the highest sorption capacity for both Pb and Cd, and the Pb sorption by biochars was higher than the Cd sorption because of the precipitation of Pb with various ions released from the biochars such as carbonate, phosphate, and sulfate. The sorption data for both Pb and Cd were better represented by the pseudo-second order kinetic model than the pseudo-first order kinetic model, which indicates chemical sorption between biochar and metals. For the isotherm studies, char materials was mixed with various amount of Pb or Cd solutions and the remaining metal concentration was measured. The equilibrium sorption data followed a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum sorption capacity of 6.8-11 and 1.7-8.0 mg/g by biochars for Pb and Cd, respectively. Furthermore, CM immobilized Pb and Cd up to 93.5 and 88.4 %, respectively, while BC was not effective in the immobilization of Pb in soil. Overall, the sorption experiments in solution and the immobilization experiment in soil showed that biochars are more effective than AC in the sorption of Pb and Cd, and that they have the potential to be used as a soil amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soil. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

DOI 10.1007/s11270-013-1711-1
Citations Scopus - 13
2013 Bolan N, Saggar S, Kirkham MB, Culleres DB, 'Foreword', Science of the Total Environment, 465 1-2 (2013)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.062
2013 Bolan N, 'Soil as a Source & Sink for Greenhouse Gases.', Science of The Total Environment, 465 1-2 (2013) [C6]
2012 Calabi-Floody M, Velásquez G, Gianfreda L, Saggar S, Bolan N, Rumpel C, Mora ML, 'Improving bioavailability of phosphorous from cattle dung by using phosphatase immobilized on natural clay and nanoclay', Chemosphere, 89 648-655 (2012)

The high P retention of acidic Andisols makes necessary to increase our technological approaches in pasture management in the animal system production. Here, we evaluated the clay... [more]

The high P retention of acidic Andisols makes necessary to increase our technological approaches in pasture management in the animal system production. Here, we evaluated the clay- or nanoclay-acid phosphatase complexes for improving phosphorus mineralization from degraded cattle dung. We implemented an immobilization mechanism of acid phosphatase (AP) using natural clays (allophanic and montmorillonite) and nanoclays as support materials. Also, we evaluated the mineralization of organic P containing in decomposed cattle dung with clay- and nanoclay-AP complexes by incubation studies. Clays and nanoclays were characterized by microscopy techniques as atomic force and confocal-laser scanning microscopy. We found that these support materials stabilized AP by encapsulation. Our results showed that immobilization on allophanic or montmorillonite materials improved both the specific activity (4-48%) and the Vmax (28-38%) of AP. Moreover, the enzyme had a better performance when immobilized on clay and nanoclay from Andisol than on montmorillonite materials. Phosphorous mineralization of cattle dung was regulated by water-soluble P present in the dung and P re-adsorption on allophanic materials. However, we were able to detect a potential capacity of AP immobilized on allophanic nanoclays as the best alternative for P mineralization. Further research with initially low water-soluble P containing organic materials is required to quantify the P mineralization potential and bioavailability of P from dung. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.107
Citations Scopus - 11
2012 Bolan NS, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala GK, Thangarajan R, Chung JW, 'Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility', Science of the Total Environment, 424 264-270 (2012)

There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration i... [more]

There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t 1/2) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139days in the sandy soil and 187days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139days to 620, 806 and 474days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.061
Citations Scopus - 45
2012 Pérez-Sirvent C, Martínez-Sánchez MJ, Martínez-López S, Bech J, Bolan N, 'Distribution and bioaccumulation of arsenic and antimony in Dittrichia viscosa growing in mining-affected semiarid soils in southeast Spain', Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 123 128-135 (2012)

Arsenic and antimony, metalloids that cause environmental and human health problems, display similar characteristics in the environment. In this work, the bioaccumulation of As an... [more]

Arsenic and antimony, metalloids that cause environmental and human health problems, display similar characteristics in the environment. In this work, the bioaccumulation of As and Sb in Dittrichia viscosa (L) Greuter from soils polluted by mining activities located in Sierra Minera, (SE Spain) were investigated. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether this plant species that spontaneously colonizes these contaminated soils can be used for revegetation purposes.Hydride generation-atomic fluorescence analysis showed that the total Sb content in soils was lower than that of As. Soils had a larger range of water extractable As than of water extractable Sb concentrations, and in all soils the water extractable As concentration exceeded that of Sb. In plants, the As concentrations in leaves and roots were far higher than those of Sb. D. viscosa can be considered a suitable plant for phytoremediation and revegetation since it transfers arsenic and antimony from the soil to the root but does not translocate them in large quantities to the aerial parts, which are those eaten by animals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.08.002
Citations Scopus - 20
2012 Vistoso E, Theng BKG, Bolan NS, Parfitt RL, Mora ML, 'Competitive sorption of molybdate and phosphate in andisols', Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12 59-72 (2012)

We have examined the effects of both pH and phosphate concentrations on molybdate sorption by four Chilean Andisols with varying chemical properties. For both anions adsorption de... [more]

We have examined the effects of both pH and phosphate concentrations on molybdate sorption by four Chilean Andisols with varying chemical properties. For both anions adsorption decreased with an increase in soil pH and also with organic matter content in the soils. In general, more phosphate than molybdate was sorbed by the soils. The Freundlich equation adequately described adsorption of both anions. Differences in the extent of sorption of molybdate and phosphate and in isotherm shape between soils were ascribed to variations in soil properties. The competitive sorption data were adequately described by the multicomponent Freundlich equations. Phosphate strongly competed with molybdate for sorption sites on the Andisols, causing molybdate sorption to decrease by 10-27%. The competition coefficients for phosphate and molybdate sorption were variable, indicating that competition between the two anions was not symmetrical. The present results provide further evidence to indicate that the surfaces of Andisols are rich in reactive Al-OH and Fe-OH groups, exposed at colloidal particle surfaces. Molybdate sorption appeared to be mainly associated with free Al- and Fe-oxides, while phosphate sorption was primarily regulated by Al- and Fe-humus complexes.

DOI 10.4067/S0718-95162012000100006
Citations Scopus - 7
2012 Meier S, Borie F, Curaqueo G, Bolan N, Cornejo P, 'Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on metallophyte and agricultural plants growing at increasing copper levels', Applied Soil Ecology, 61 280-287 (2012)

A pot culture experiment was carried out to assay the behavior of different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inocula on plant growth and copper (Cu) uptake using two metallophyt... [more]

A pot culture experiment was carried out to assay the behavior of different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inocula on plant growth and copper (Cu) uptake using two metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and one agricultural plant (Helianthus annuus) grown at increasing Cu supply levels. Plants were established in a Cu polluted soil spiked with 0, 150, 300 or 450mg Cukg -1, and inoculated or not with: (i) Cu-adapted AM fungi (GA) or (ii) the Cu non-adapted strain Glomus claroideum (GC). Differences in plant biomass between inoculated and uninoculated plants were found, which were dependent on the AM fungal inocula used and the Cu level applied. Although the beneficial effect of AM fungi in promoting plant biomass production was not observed in metallophytes plants, a positive interaction between GA and H. annuus increased the shoot growth, especially at higher Cu levels. In addition, the Cu transfer from the roots to the shoots was low, remaining mostly at root level, especially in non-mycorrhizal plants; however AM fungi produced changes in Cu distribution increasing the translocation to the shoots. Differences in AM fungal parameters (root colonization, spore number and glomalin production) were strictly dependent on the Cu level and the AM fungal inoculum, suggesting the existence of certain compatibility, which was dependent on the particular combination AM-plant used. Specifically, the glomalin accumulation and Cu-bound to glomalin were significantly higher in AM colonized H. annuus plants, which could suggest a highly efficient way to reduce the Cu toxicity levels in soil. Therefore the use of H. annuus with AM fungal could promote phytostabilization processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.10.018
Citations Scopus - 17
2012 Marmiroli M, Robinson BH, Clothier BE, Bolan NS, Marmiroli N, Schulin R, 'Effect of dairy effluent on the biomass, transpiration, and elemental composition of Salix kinuyanagi Kimura', Biomass and Bioenergy, 37 282-288 (2012)

The land treatment of Dairy Effluent (DE), comprising urine and faeces is common practice, yet can lead to nutrient imbalances in plants and soils. We aimed to determine the growt... [more]

The land treatment of Dairy Effluent (DE), comprising urine and faeces is common practice, yet can lead to nutrient imbalances in plants and soils. We aimed to determine the growth, transpiration, and elemental composition of Salix kinuyanagi Kimura (Clone No. PN 386) as affected by DE application. DE was applied for 15 weeks to eighteen 122dm 3 lysimeters, either bare or planted with S. kinuyanagi, at N application rates of 0-558kg ha -1 over three months. DE application increased biomass and transpiration. Chlorosis, possibly caused by excess Cl, appeared in the highest treatment. DE application increased foliar concentrations ofN, P, K, Cl, and the foliar N:S ratio to above 15, a level indicative of S deficiency. Concentrations of essential trace elements were unaffected. Trees receiving the N equivalent of 279kg ha -1 removed similar amounts of N and K as were applied in the DE. All DE treatments added more Cl than the plants removed. Soil chloride accumulation may be harmful in drier climes. Future work should include a field trial to determine the long-term sustainability of DE application to willows, and the potential use of willows as animal fodder. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.12.001
Citations Scopus - 7
2012 Meier S, Borie F, Bolan N, Cornejo P, 'Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi', Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 42 741-775 (2012)

Human activities generate wastes, some of which contain large amounts of heavy metals/metalloids that could enter natural ecosystems and alter the activities and functioning of so... [more]

Human activities generate wastes, some of which contain large amounts of heavy metals/metalloids that could enter natural ecosystems and alter the activities and functioning of soil micro-and macroorganisms. Microorganisms can adapt/resist to metal stress, and some of them are able to promote the plants establishment and therefore the phytoremediation process. In this context, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and their role in phytoremediation, has emerged as a new and interesting choice. In addition to AMF's well-known contribution to plant nutrient acquisition and growth, these fungi develop diverse mechanisms that encourage plants to grow in soils with high toxic metals concentrations. The authors are concerned about the AMF metal tolerance mechanisms and its role in the promotion of in phytoremediation processes. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/10643389.2010.528518
Citations Scopus - 55
2012 Laurenson S, Bolan NS, Smith E, Mccarthy M, 'Review: Use of recycled wastewater for irrigating grapevines', Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 18 1-10 (2012)

Municipal and winery wastewater can provide a valuable irrigation source in regions where water accessibility is problematic or sustainable disposal of waste is essentialIt is imp... [more]

Municipal and winery wastewater can provide a valuable irrigation source in regions where water accessibility is problematic or sustainable disposal of waste is essentialIt is imperative, however, that when used for irrigation, water conservation benefits are not compromised by a decline in soil and plant healthTo date, published literature investigating the use of wastewaters for grapevine production is restricted to a limited set of studiesGlobally, wastewater usage within the horticultural sector, including winegrape production, is increasingIt is necessary, therefore, to better understand the short- and long-term implications of such practice Although wastewaters may contain a range of organic and inorganic pollutants, this review focuses primarily on specific issues associated with high salt loading that is typical under wastewater irrigationManaging salt, in particular sodium (Na +) and potassium (K +), in wastewater will be necessary in order to maintain the soil physical, chemical and biological health in the long termSoil structural degradation resulting from a high concentration of exchangeable monovalent cations is of major concern where wastewater is being used for irrigationThis review will address (i) the effect of wastewater irrigation on vine performance and grape quality; (ii) chemical and physical changes in soils irrigated with municipal and winery wastewater; and (iii) management practices that may assist in ameliorating vineyard soils abundant in monovalent cations as a result of wastewater irrigation. © 2011 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

DOI 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2011.00170.x
Citations Scopus - 19
2012 Panichini M, Matus F, Mora ML, Godoy R, Bolan NS, Rumpel C, Borie F, 'Carbon distribution in top- and subsoil horizons of two contrasting Andisols under pasture or forest', European Journal of Soil Science, 63 616-624 (2012)

Volcanic ash soils display distinctive morphological, physical and chemical properties and they contain several times more organic matter than non-volcanic soils. So far, there ar... [more]

Volcanic ash soils display distinctive morphological, physical and chemical properties and they contain several times more organic matter than non-volcanic soils. So far, there are few studies of soil organic matter (SOM) distribution in different chemically and physically protected carbon pools of soil horizons of volcanic soils. The aim of this study was to determine the SOM distribution (and its d13C and d15N composition) in different chemical and physical fractions at various depth horizons of two Andisols under pasture or rain forest in southern Chile. We used the amount of humus-complexes (Cp) extracted with Na pyrophosphate as a measure of C stabilized by aluminum (Alp) and iron (Fep) in combination with density fractionation to separate particulate organic matter as free (fPOM), occluded (oPOM) and organic matter associated with the mineral fraction (MF). The results showed that soil SOM stock (0-40 cm) in the pasture soil was 166 Mg C ha-1 (11.7 Mg N ha-1) and in the forest soil 100 Mg C ha-1 (4.1 Mg N ha-1). The SOM variation was explained largely by the differences in Cp, Alp and Fep. About 34% of total soil C was found as Cp in both oPOM and MF in the topsoil, whereas 33-53% was found in the subsoil horizons. The oPOM fraction was more important in the forest soil and generally decreased in the subsoil where these fractions were enriched with d13C and d15N. Our results emphasize the importance of the humus complex and oPOM formation as the SOM stabilization mechanism in the forest Andisol, whereas under pasture organo-mineral interaction, including the formation of humic-metal complexes, is the most important stabilization mechanism. A conceptual model is lacking to demonstrate the major areas of uncertainty within known mechanisms and factors that explain the distribution of SOM through soil profiles in Andisols. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 British Society of Soil Science.

DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2012.01488.x
Citations Scopus - 9
2012 Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Megharaj M, Chen Z, Naidu R, 'The Influence of Biochar and Black Carbon on Reduction and Bioavailability of Chromate in Soils', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, 41 1175-1184 (2012)
DOI 10.2134/jeq2011.0145
Citations Scopus - 38Web of Science - 33
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu, Zuliang Chen
2012 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, Bowman M, Mclure S, 'Effect of soil type on distribution and bioaccessibility of metal contaminants in shooting range soils', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 438 452-462 (2012)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.014
Citations Scopus - 30Web of Science - 25
Co-authors Peter Sanderson, Ravi Naidu
2012 Lamb DT, Heading S, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Use of Biosolids for Phytocapping of Landfill Soil', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 223 2695-2705 (2012)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-011-1060-x
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Dane Lamb
2012 Thangarajan R, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Greenhouse gas emission from wastewater irrigated soils', WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, (2012)
DOI 10.2495/SI120191
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Matheyarasu R, Seshadri B, Bolan N, Naidu R, 'Nutrient management in effluents derived from agricultural industries: An Australian perspective', WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, (2012)
DOI 10.2495/SI120181
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Sudharshan S, Naidu R, Mallavarapu M, Bolan N, 'DDT remediation in contaminated soils: a review of recent studies', BIODEGRADATION, 23 851-863 (2012)
DOI 10.1007/s10532-012-9575-4
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 23
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2012 Park JH, Bolan N, Megharaj M, Naidu R, 'Relative Value of Phosphate Compounds in Reducing the Bioavailability and Toxicity of Lead in Contaminated Soils', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 223 599-608 (2012)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-011-0885-7
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2012 Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan NS, Mueller K, Laurenson S, Naidu R, Kim W-I, 'THE INFLUENCE OF WASTEWATER IRRIGATION ON THE TRANSFORMATION AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METAL (LOID)S IN SOIL', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 115, 115 215-297 (2012)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-394276-0.00005-6
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 19
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Kim C, Jeong J, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Short-term effects of fertilizer application on soil respiration in red pine stands', Journal of Ecology and Field Biology, 35 307-311 (2012)

This study was conducted to evaluate the dynamics of soil respiration (total soil and heterotrophic respiration) following fertilizer application in red pine forests. Fertilizer (... [more]

This study was conducted to evaluate the dynamics of soil respiration (total soil and heterotrophic respiration) following fertilizer application in red pine forests. Fertilizer (N:P:K = 113:150:37 kg/ha), which reflects current practices in Korean forest, was applied in April 2011, and total soil and heterotrophic respiration rates were monitored from April 2011 to March 2012. Monthly variation of total soil and heterotrophic respiration rates were similar between the fertilizer and control treatments, as soil temperature was the dominant factor controlling the both rates. Total soil respiration rates during the study period were not significantly different between the fertilizer (0.504 g CO2 m-2 h-1) and control (0.501 g CO2 m-2 h-1) treatments. However, the proportion of heterotrophic respiration was higher in the fertilizer (78% of total soil respiration rates) than in the control (62% of total soil respiration rates) treatments. These results suggest that current fertilizer practices in Korea forest soil do not substantially affect total soil respiration rates. © The Ecological Society of Korea.

DOI 10.5141/JEFB.2012.036
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N, Bowman M, 'Critical review on chemical stabilization of metal contaminants in shooting range soils', Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, 16 258-272 (2012)

Shooting ranges have come under increased scrutiny in recent years as a potential source of contamination owing to the high loading of lead in the soil. Stabilization by the addit... [more]

Shooting ranges have come under increased scrutiny in recent years as a potential source of contamination owing to the high loading of lead in the soil. Stabilization by the addition of chemical amendments has been examined as a viable risk-based approach to managing shooting range contamination. Amendments have been shown to immobilize metals to varying degrees, determined by the target contaminant, the amendment used, soil properties, and the reaction kinetics in the contaminated soil and amendment system. Field scale evaluation of the effectiveness of chemical amendments for the stabilization of metal contaminants in shooting range soil is limited. Doubt remains over effectiveness and long-term stability under the varying conditions found in the field, which affect the kinetics of immobilization and dissolution in amended soil. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000113
Citations Scopus - 12
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Peter Sanderson
2011 Park JH, Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Chung JW, Chuasavathi T, 'Biochar reduces the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals', Plant and Soil, 348 439-451 (2011)

Background and aims: Biochar has attracted research interest due to its ability to increase the soil carbon pool and improve crop productivity. The objective of this study was to ... [more]

Background and aims: Biochar has attracted research interest due to its ability to increase the soil carbon pool and improve crop productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metal immobilizing impact of chicken manure- and green waste-derived biochars, and their effectiveness in promoting plant growth. Methods: The immobilization and phytoavailability of Cd, Cu and Pb was examined using naturally contaminated shooting range and spiked soils. Biochar samples prepared from chicken manure and green waste were used as soil amendments. Results: Application of biochar significantly reduced NH4NO3 extractable Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations of soils, indicating the immobilization of these metals. Chicken manure-derived biochar increased plant dry biomass by 353 and 572% for shoot and root, respectively with 1% of biochar addition. This might be attributed to reduced toxicity of metals and increased availability of nutrients such as P and K. Both biochars significantly reduced Cd, Cu and Pb accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and the reduction increased with increasing amount of biochar application except Cu concentration. Metal sequential fractionation data indicated that biochar treatments substantially modified the partitioning of Cd, Cu and Pb from the easily exchangeable phase to less bioavailable organic bound fraction. Conclusions: The results clearly showed that biochar application was effective in metal immobilization, thereby reducing the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

DOI 10.1007/s11104-011-0948-y
Citations Scopus - 232
2011 Laurenson S, Smith E, Bolan NS, McCarthy M, 'Effect of K + on Na-Ca exchange and the SAR-ESP relationship', Soil Research, 49 538-546 (2011)

In Australia, application of winery wastewater to land is increasingly being viewed as the most environmentally sound and cost-effective means of disposal. This wastewater contain... [more]

In Australia, application of winery wastewater to land is increasingly being viewed as the most environmentally sound and cost-effective means of disposal. This wastewater contains high concentrations of both sodium (Na +) and potassium (K +), which have the potential to accumulate in the profile of irrigated soils and adversely alter physical properties such as aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity. Cation exchange equilibria in soil of mixed illite and kaolinite mineralogy have been investigated in binary Ca-Na and Ca-K systems and in a ternary Ca-Na-K system. In the respective binary systems, resulting exchangeable potassium percentage was nearly twice the corresponding exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), indicating a high binding affinity of K + in this soil. In a ternary system, soils were equilibrated with solutions of differing sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and potassium adsorption ratio (PAR) within ranges typical of winery wastewater. The presence of K + had a significant effect on the relationship between SAR and ESP, whereby ESP decreased with increasing PAR. Resulting ESP in the ternary system was consistently lower than in the binary system. Cation selectivity between solid and solution phases in the ternary system was calculated from the Vanselow and K-selectivity coefficients and showed a decreasing selectivity for Na + with increasing K + in solution. It is expected that, due to the high K + content of winery wastewater (i.e. >400mg/L), adsorption of Na +, and subsequent ESP, will be less than in wastewaters of comparable Na + concentration yet absent K +. © 2011 CSIRO.

DOI 10.1071/SR11192
Citations Scopus - 8
2011 Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Phytoavailability of copper in the presence of recycled water sources', PLANT AND SOIL, 348 425-438 (2011)
DOI 10.1007/s11104-011-0899-3
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2011 Park JH, Bolan N, Megharaj M, Naidu R, 'Comparative value of phosphate sources on the immobilization of lead, and leaching of lead and phosphorus in lead contaminated soils', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 409 853-860 (2011)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.11.003
Citations Scopus - 48Web of Science - 42
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2011 Murtaza G, Haynes RJ, Naidu R, Belyaeva ON, Kim K-R, Lamb DT, Bolan NS, 'Natural Attenuation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in Three Biosolids-Amended Soils of Contrasting pH Measured Using Rhizon Pore Water Samplers', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 221 351-363 (2011)
DOI 10.1007/s11270-011-0795-8
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 9
Co-authors Dane Lamb, Ravi Naidu
2011 Park JH, Bolan N, Megharaj M, Naidu R, 'Concomitant rock phosphate dissolution and lead immobilization by phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Enterobacter sp.)', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, 92 1115-1120 (2011)
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.031
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 25
Co-authors Ravi Naidu, Megh Mallavarapu
2011 Park JH, Bolan N, Megharaj M, Naidu R, 'Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their potential for lead immobilization in soil', JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 185 829-836 (2011)
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.095
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 47
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2011 Park JH, Lamb D, Paneerselvam P, Choppala G, Bolan N, Chung JW, 'Role of organic amendments on enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils', Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185 549-574 (2011)

As land application becomes one of the important waste utilization and disposal practices, soil is increasingly being seen as a major source of metal(loid)s reaching food chain, m... [more]

As land application becomes one of the important waste utilization and disposal practices, soil is increasingly being seen as a major source of metal(loid)s reaching food chain, mainly through plant uptake and animal transfer. With greater public awareness of the implications of contaminated soils on human and animal health there has been increasing interest in developing technologies to remediate contaminated sites. Bioremediation is a natural process which relies on soil microorganisms and higher plants to alter metal(loid) bioavailability and can be enhanced by addition of organic amendments to soils. Large quantities of organic amendments, such as manure compost, biosolid and municipal solid wastes are used as a source of nutrients and also as a conditioner to improve the physical properties and fertility of soils. These organic amendments that are low in metal(loid)s can be used as a sink for reducing the bioavailability of metal(loid)s in contaminated soils and sediments through their effect on the adsorption, complexation, reduction and volatilization of metal(loid)s. This review examines the mechanisms for the enhanced bioremediation of metal(loid)s by organic amendments and discusses the practical implications in relation to sequestration and bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.082
Citations Scopus - 234
Co-authors Dane Lamb
2011 Park JH, Bolan NS, Chung JW, Naidu R, Megharaj M, 'Environmental monitoring of the role of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of lead in contaminated soils', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING, 13 2234-2242 (2011)
DOI 10.1039/c1em10275c
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 16
Co-authors Megh Mallavarapu, Ravi Naidu
2010 Bolan NS, Szogi AA, Chuasavathi T, Seshadri B, Rothrock MJ, Panneerselvam P, 'Uses and management of poultry litter', World's Poultry Science Journal, 66 673-698 (2010)

The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-based industries in the world. This can be attributed to an increasing demand for poultry meat and egg products... [more]

The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-based industries in the world. This can be attributed to an increasing demand for poultry meat and egg products. However, a major problem facing the poultry industry is the large-scale accumulation of wastes including manure and litter which may pose disposal and pollution problems unless environmentally and economically sustainable management technologies are evolved. Most of the litter produced by the poultry industry is currently applied to agricultural land as a source of nutrients and soil amendment. However environmental pollution, resulting from nutrient and contaminant leaching can occur when poultry litter is applied under soil and climatic conditions that do not favour agronomic utilisation of the manure-borne nutrients. This review examines the composition of poultry litter in relation to nutrient content and environmental contaminants, its value as a nutrient source, soil amendment, animal feed and fuel source, and cost-effective innovative technologies for improving its value. Poultry litter provides a major source of nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements for crop production and is effective in improving physical and biological fertility, indicating that land application remains as the main option for the utilisation of this valuable resource. The alternative use of poultry litter; as an animal feed and fuel source, is limited by contaminants, and high moisture content, respectively. The review proposes best management practices to mitigate environmental consequences associated with air and water quality parameters that are impacted by land application in order to maintain the continued productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the poultry industry. © 2010 World's Poultry Science Association.

DOI 10.1017/S0043933910000656
Citations Scopus - 85
2010 Bhandral R, Bolan NS, Saggar S, 'NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION FROM FARM DAIRY EFFLUENT APPLICATION IN GRAZED GRASSLAND', REVISTA DE LA CIENCIA DEL SUELO Y NUTRICION VEGETAL, 10 22-34 (2010)
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2010 Bhandral R, Bolan NS, Saggar S, 'NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION FROM FARM DAIRY EFFLUENT APPLICATION IN GRAZED GRASSLAND', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION, 10 22-34 (2010)
DOI 10.4067/S0718-27912010000100003
2010 Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Brodie K, 'THE ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN MANAGING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS IN SOILS', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION, 10 378-398 (2010)
DOI 10.4067/S0718-95162010000100011
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2009 Vistoso G EM, Bolán NS, Theng BKG, Mora MDLL, 'Kinetics of molybdate and phosphate sorption by some Chilean Andisols', Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutricion Vegetal, 9 55-68 (2009)

The kinetics for the sorption of molybdate and phosphate by four Chilean Andisols have been determined. About 55% of the molybdate and 61% of the phosphate was sorbed in the first... [more]

The kinetics for the sorption of molybdate and phosphate by four Chilean Andisols have been determined. About 55% of the molybdate and 61% of the phosphate was sorbed in the first 0.5 h, after which sorption slowly increased, reaching 90% for molybdate and 97% for phosphate after 72 h. At the same time, OH- ions were released into the external solution, raising its pH by 0.85 units for molybdate and by 0.65 units in the case of phosphate. These observations indicated that both anions were sorpbed by a ligand exchange mechanims. Among the five kinetic models examined (Table, 2), the Elovich equation gave the best fit of the experimental data (R2 = 0.93 to 0.97, standard error = 0.35 to 0.94). The sorption rate constant (a) for both anions was related to the organic matter (OM) content of the soils, especially the content of Al- and Fe-humus complexes. The a values for molybdate were 2.24×1015 mmol kg-1 h-1 for the Vilcún soil (15% OM), 2.49 x1012 mmol kg-1 h-1 for the Pemehue soil (16% OM), 8.76×1010 mmol kg-1 h-1 for the Osorno soil (20% OM), and 3.11×107 mmol kg-1 h-1 for the Piedras Negras soil (24% OM). The corresponding values for phosphate were 3.89×107, 5.21×1010, 3.11×1012 and 1.08×1016 mmol kg-1 h-1. The desorption rate constant (ß) for the four soils (in the above order) ranged from 0.47 to 0.28 for molybdate, and 0.22 to 0.39 mmol kg-1 h-1 for phosphate. The results suggest that the mineralogical composition and organic matter content of the Andisols control the kinetics for the sorption of both molybdate and phosphate. Molybdate appeared to have a high affinity for Fe- and Al-oxides, while phosphate was largely sorbed to Fe-and Al-humus complexes.

Citations Scopus - 14
2009 Bolan NS, Laurenson S, Luo J, Sukias J, 'Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations', Bioresource Technology, 100 5490-5497 (2009)

Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. ... [more]

Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.004
Citations Scopus - 19
2009 Cichota R, Vogeler I, Bolan NS, Clothier BE, 'Sulfate and Calcium Movement in an Allophanic Soil-The Relevance of Ion-Pair Adsorption in the Soil-Plant System', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 40 2784-2799 (2009)
DOI 10.1080/00103620903173814
2009 Aye TM, Hedley MJ, Loganathan P, Lefroy RDB, Bolan NS, 'Effect of organic and inorganic phosphate fertilizers and their combination on maize yield and phosphorus availability in a Yellow Earth in Myanmar', NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS, 83 111-123 (2009)
DOI 10.1007/s10705-008-9203-1
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2009 Singh J, Saggar S, Bolan NS, 'Influence of dicyandiamide on nitrogen transformation and losses in cow-urine-amended soil cores from grazed pasture', ANIMAL PRODUCTION SCIENCE, 49 253-261 (2009)
DOI 10.1071/EA08200
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 15
2009 Cichota R, Vogeler I, Bolan NS, Clothier BE, 'Parameter estimation of an adsorption model for describing ion-pair adsorption', Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73 1305-1312 (2009)

The simultaneous retention of both cations and anions due to ion-pair adsorption (IPA) has been identified in several soils. The mechanism controlling IPA is not yet understood, h... [more]

The simultaneous retention of both cations and anions due to ion-pair adsorption (IPA) has been identified in several soils. The mechanism controlling IPA is not yet understood, however, and the mathematical description of this phenomenon is only incipient. In this study, a parameterization analysis was performed using a recently proposed adsorption model that considers the occurrence of IPA. The model, which has two alternative approaches to describe IPA, has been shown in a previous study to describe experimental data reasonably well. That analysis was incomplete, however, as the parameter uncertainties were not estimated. In this study, with the parameterization procedure using the maximum-likelihood method, a robust estimation of the model parameters, including the analysis of their uncertainties, was developed. The model was fitted to a data set obtained in batch experiments using the variable-charge Egmont soil, from New Zealand, and a comprehensive combination of SOa¸and Ca concentrations. This procedure allowed the analysis of some of the underlying model characteristics and also some inferences about the IPA phenomenon. Overall, it was shown that the proposed adsorption model is a useful tool for the modeling of solutes in soils where IPA occurs. © 2009 Soil Science Society of America.

DOI 10.2136/sssaj2008.0129
2008 Vogeler I, Vachey A, Deurer M, Bolan N, 'Impact of plants on the microbial activity in soils with high and low levels of copper', European Journal of Soil Biology, 44 92-100 (2008)

Elevated copper (Cu) concentrations have been shown to decrease the microbial activity in soils. Plants can have beneficial effects on the biological activity of soils mainly thro... [more]

Elevated copper (Cu) concentrations have been shown to decrease the microbial activity in soils. Plants can have beneficial effects on the biological activity of soils mainly through their root exudates. In this study we investigated the impact of various plant species with different Cu tolerance levels on the microbial activity in two soils with low (10 mg/kg) and high (180 mg/kg) copper concentrations. The soil was a Kahangi Sandy Loam. Three different plants, Agrostis capillaris 'Parys' tolerant for Cu, Agrostis capillaris 'Highland' non-tolerant and Helianthus annuus tolerant and a hyper-accumulator for Cu were used. To increase the Cu availability to plants, EDTA was added to some of the pots 20 days after sowing. The effect of Cu contamination on the biological activity of soil in the presence and absence of plant growth was evaluated by measuring the dehydrogenase activity, the microbial biomass, the basal respiration, and the potential nitrification. Results show that plants increased the microbial activity in the low Cu soil. In the high Cu soil the microbial activity seemed to be related to the plant health. With the Cu-tolerant Agrostis capillaris 'Parys', the microbial activity increased faster than with the other plant species. Up to 50 days after sowing, the tolerant grass Agrostis capillaris 'Parys' had a higher plant biomass and was much healthier than the non-tolerant grass. Later on the growth of the non-tolerant Agrostis capillaris 'Highland' recovered, and the microbial activity of the soil reached close to those recorded for the soil treatments with the Cu-tolerant plant species. The addition of EDTA delayed the increase in microbial activity even further. The proportion of microbial biomass carbon in the organic fraction was higher in the low Cu soil than in the high Cu soil, with ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.3 and from 0.5 to 1.7 respectively. The basal respiration rate in the original soil was significantly lower in the high Cu soil than in the low Cu soil, and was generally increased by the presence of plants. © 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2007.12.001
Citations Scopus - 12
2008 Luo J, Donnison A, Ross C, Bolan N, Ledgard S, Clark D, Qiu W, 'Sawdust and bark to treat nitrogen and faecal bacteria in winter stand-off pads on a dairy farm', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 51 331-340 (2008)
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2008 Luo J, Saggar S, Bhandral R, Bolan N, Ledgard S, Lindsey S, Sun W, 'Effects of irrigating dairy-grazed grassland with farm dairy effluent on nitrous oxide emissions', PLANT AND SOIL, 309 119-130 (2008)
DOI 10.1007/s11104-008-9550-3
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 18
2007 Cichota R, Vogeler I, Bolan NS, Clothier BE, 'Cation influence on sulfate leaching in allophanic soils', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 45 49-54 (2007)
DOI 10.1071/SR06070
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2007 Vogeler I, Blard A, Bolan N, 'Modelling DCD effect on nitrate leaching under controlled conditions', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 45 310-317 (2007)
DOI 10.1071/SR06177
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
2007 Pratt C, Shilton A, Pratt S, Haverkamp RG, Bolan NS, 'Phosphorus removal mechanisms in active slag filters treating waste stabilization pond effluent', ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 41 3296-3301 (2007)
DOI 10.1021/es062496b
Citations Scopus - 56Web of Science - 51
2007 Ko BG, Vogeler I, Bolan NS, Clothier B, Green S, Kennedy J, 'Mobility of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated timber into grapevines', Science of the Total Environment, 388 35-42 (2007)

The use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber posts as support structures in New Zealand vineyards has raised concerns regarding the release of heavy metal(loid)s from... [more]

The use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber posts as support structures in New Zealand vineyards has raised concerns regarding the release of heavy metal(loid)s from the treated timber into the environment. A laboratory experiment was set up to evaluate if post sealing by painting reduces the release rate of CCA metal(loid)s from timber posts. Three posts were painted (Gripset 38, Multi Purpose Bitumen Rubber) on the bottom part, submerged in freshwater, and the concentrations of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) in the water were monitored over a period of 8¿months. Three additional, unpainted posts were also used. The CCA contents in the water showed a clear difference between the painted and the unpainted posts, and painting the bottom of the posts reduced the release rate by 50-75%. To monitor the possible mobility of CCA from treated posts into grapevines further, an experiment with four-year-old grapevines planted into sixteen lysimeters was set up in a greenhouse. To half the lysimeters Cu, Cr and As were added to the soil surface at rates of 16, 20, and 12.5¿mg/month from 15 November 2005 to 5 May 2006. The other lysimeters acted as a control. Soil solutions were collected at 50, 150 and 300¿mm depths using suction cups after seven application of the CCA solution. The results showed that all the elements moved to a depth of 50¿mm. Grape fruit, leaves and rachis were analysed for CCA metal(loid)s, but did not show any differences between the CCA-treated and control lysimeters. This indicated either that these metals were not taken up by grapevines or that their translocation from roots to the upper part of the vine was negligible. Further monitoring of CCA metal(loid)s in various parts of the grapevines, including roots, needs to be undertaken. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.041
Citations Scopus - 15
2007 Bhandral R, Saggar S, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ, 'Transformation of nitrogen and nitrous oxide emission from grassland soils as affected by compaction', Soil and Tillage Research, 94 482-492 (2007)

Animal trampling is one of the main factors responsible for soil compaction under grazed pastures. Soil compaction is known to change the physical properties of the soil thereby a... [more]

Animal trampling is one of the main factors responsible for soil compaction under grazed pastures. Soil compaction is known to change the physical properties of the soil thereby affecting the transformation of nitrogen (N) and the subsequent of release of N as nitrous oxide (N2O). The form of N source added to these compacted soils further affects N emissions. Here we determine the interactive effects of soil compaction and form of N sources (cattle urine and ammonium, nitrate and urea fertilizers) on the loss of N through N2O emission from grassland soil. Overall, soil compaction caused a seven-fold increase in the N2O flux, the total N2O fluxes for the entire experimental period ranged from 2.62 to 61.74 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the compacted soil and 1.12 to 4.37 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the uncompacted soil. Among the N sources, the highest emissions were measured with nitrate application, emissions being 10 times more than those from other N sources for compacted soil, suggesting that the choice of N fertilizer can go a long way in mitigating N2O emissions in compacted grasslands. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.still.2006.10.006
Citations Scopus - 41
2007 Mueller K, Magesan GN, Bolan NS, 'A critical review of the influence of effluent irrigation on the fate of pesticides in soil', AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 120 93-116 (2007)
DOI 10.1016/j.agee.2006.08.016
Citations Scopus - 90Web of Science - 78
2007 Cichota R, Vogeler I, Bolan NS, Clothier BE, 'Simultaneous adsorption of calcium and sulfate and its effect on their movement', SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL, 71 703-710 (2007)
DOI 10.2136/sssaj2006.0206
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
2007 Bhandral R, Bolan NS, Saggar S, Hedley MJ, 'Nitrogen transformation and nitrous oxide emissions from various types of farm effluents', NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS, 79 193-208 (2007)
DOI 10.1007/s10705-007-9107-5
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 24
2006 Aye TM, Nguyen ML, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ, 'Phosphorus in soils of riparian and non-riparian wetland and buffer strips in the Waikato area, New Zealand', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 49 349-358 (2006)
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 12
2005 Khan MAR, Bolan NS, MacKay AD, 'Adsorption and desorption of copper in pasture soils', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 36 2461-2487 (2005)
DOI 10.1080/00103620500255824
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2005 Khan MAR, Bolan NS, Mackay AD, 'Soil test to predict the copper availability in pasture soils', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 36 2601-2624 (2005)
DOI 10.1080/00103620500257341
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2005 Mahimairaja S, Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Robinson B, 'Arsenic contamination and its risk management in complex environmental settings', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOLUME 86, 86 1-82 (2005)
DOI 10.1016/S0065-2113(05)86001-8
Citations Scopus - 109Web of Science - 91
2005 Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, Currie LD, 'Field evaluation of the liming value of two phosphate rocks and their partially acidulated products after 16 years of annual application to grazed pasture', NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGROECOSYSTEMS, 72 287-297 (2005)
DOI 10.1007/s10705-005-4277-5
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2004 Luo J, Kulasegarampillai M, Bolan N, Donnison A, 'Control of gaseous emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from cow manure by use of natural materials', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 47 545-556 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 7
2004 Bolan N, Swain D, 'Issues and innovations in land application of farm wastes', New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 47 387-388 (2004)
2004 Bolan NS, Wong L, Adriano DC, 'Nutrient removal from farm effluents', Bioresource Technology, 94 251-260 (2004)

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpe... [more]

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.01.012
Citations Scopus - 45
2004 Bolan NS, Horne DJ, Currie LD, 'Growth and chemical composition of legume-based pasture irrigated with dairy farm effluent', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 47 85-93 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 14
2004 Wang HL, Magesan GN, Bolan NS, 'An overview of the environmental effects of land application of farm effluents', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 47 389-403 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 45Web of Science - 38
2004 Saggar S, Bolan NS, Bhandral R, Hedley CB, Luo J, 'A review of emissions of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide from animal excreta deposition and farm effluent application in grazed pastures', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 47 513-544 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 99Web of Science - 97
2004 Bolan NS, Wong L, Adriano DC, 'Nutrient removal from farm effluents', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 94 251-260 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.biotech.2004.01.012
Citations Web of Science - 37
2004 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Mahimairaja S, 'Distribution and bioavailability of trace elements in livestock and poultry manure by-products', CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 34 291-338 (2004)
DOI 10.1080/10643380490434128
Citations Scopus - 131Web of Science - 110
2003 Robinson B, Duwig C, Bolan N, Kannathasan M, Saravanan A, 'Uptake of arsenic by New Zealand watercress (Lepidium sativum)', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 301 67-73 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00294-2
Citations Scopus - 58Web of Science - 48
2003 Bolan N, Adriano D, Mani S, Khan A, 'Adsorption, complexation, and phytoavailability of copper as influenced by organic manure', ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, 22 450-456 (2003)
DOI 10.1897/1551-5028(2003)022<0450:ACAPOC>2.0.CO;2
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 47
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Naidu R, 'Role of phosphorus in (im)mobilization and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil-plant system', REVIEWS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, VOL 177, 177 1-44 (2003)
DOI 10.1007/0-387-21725-8_1
Citations Scopus - 77Web of Science - 62
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2003 Bolan NS, Mowatt C, Adriano DC, Blennerhassett JD, 'Removal of ammonium ions from fellmongery effluent by zeolite', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 34 1861-1872 (2003)
DOI 10.1081/CSS-120023222
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2003 Magesan GN, Bolan NS, Lee R, 'Adsorption of atrazine and phosphate as affected by soil depth in allophanic and non-allophanic soils', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 46 155-163 (2003)
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 6
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Duraisamy P, Mani A, Arulmozhiselvan K, 'Immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium in variable charge soils. I. Effect of phosphate addition', PLANT AND SOIL, 250 83-94 (2003)
DOI 10.1023/A:1022826014841
Citations Scopus - 93Web of Science - 81
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Mani PA, Duraisamy A, 'Immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium in variable charge soils. II. Effect of lime addition', PLANT AND SOIL, 251 187-198 (2003)
DOI 10.1023/A:1023037706905
Citations Scopus - 105Web of Science - 83
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Duraisamy P, Mani A, 'Immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium in variable charge soils. III. Effect of biosolid compost addition', PLANT AND SOIL, 256 231-241 (2003)
DOI 10.1023/A:1026288021059
Citations Scopus - 61Web of Science - 53
2003 Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Natesa R, Koo BJ, 'Effects of organic amendments on the reduction and phytoavailability of chromate in mineral soil', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, 32 120-128 (2003)
Citations Scopus - 119Web of Science - 100
2003 Bolan NS, Khan MA, Donaldson J, Adriano DC, Matthew C, 'Distribution and bioavailability of copper in farm effluent', SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 309 225-236 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00052-4
Citations Scopus - 64Web of Science - 55
2002 Adriano DC, Weber J, Bolan NS, Paramasivam S, Koo BJ, Sajwan KS, 'Effects of high rates of coal fly ash on soil, turfgrass, and groundwater quality', WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, 139 365-385 (2002)
DOI 10.1023/A:1015895922471
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 52
2002 Magesan GN, White RE, Scotter DR, Bolan NS, 'Effect of prolonged storage of soil lysimeters on nitrate leaching', AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 88 73-77 (2002)
DOI 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00149-9
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
2001 Bolan NS, Thiagarajan S, 'Retention and plant availability of chromium in soils as affected by lime and organic matter amendments', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 39 1091-1103 (2001)
DOI 10.1071/SR00090
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 30
2001 Roygard JKF, Clothier BE, Green SR, Bolan NS, 'Tree species for recovering nitrogen from dairy-farm effluent in New Zealand', JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, 30 1064-1070 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 12
2000 Gurung SR, Stewart RB, Gregg PEH, Bolan NS, 'An assessment of requirements of neutralising materials of partially oxidised pyritic mine waste', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 38 329-344 (2000)
DOI 10.1071/SR99049
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 6
1999 Bolan NS, Naidu R, Khan MAR, Tillman RW, Syers JK, 'The effects of anion sorption on sorption and leaching of cadmium', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 37 445-460 (1999)
DOI 10.1071/S97046
Citations Scopus - 52Web of Science - 46
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
1999 Wang HL, Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, Horne DJ, 'The influence of surface incorporated lime and gypsiferous by-products on surface and subsurface soil acidity. I. Soil solution chemistry', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 37 165-180 (1999)
DOI 10.1071/S97057
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 9
1999 Wang HL, Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, Horne DJ, 'The influence of surface incorporated lime and gypsiferous by-products on surface and subsurface soil acidity. II. Root growth and agronomic implications', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 37 181-190 (1999)
DOI 10.1071/S97058
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 10
1999 Roygard JKF, Green SR, Clothier BE, Sims REH, Bolan NS, 'Short rotation forestry for land treatment of effluent: a lysimeter study', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 37 983-991 (1999)
DOI 10.1071/SR98067
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
1999 Bolan NS, Naidu R, Syers JK, Tillman RW, 'Surface charge and solute interactions in soils', ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 67, 67 87-140 (1999)
DOI 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60514-3
Citations Scopus - 106Web of Science - 51
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
1998 Baskaran S, Bolan NS, 'An evaluation of methods for measurement of pesticides in sorption experiments', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 29 369-380 (1998)
DOI 10.1080/00103629809369951
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 1
1997 Bolan NS, Baskaran S, 'Sorption and degradation of phorate as influenced by soil depth', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 35 763-775 (1997)
DOI 10.1071/S96097
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
1997 Bolan NS, Elliott J, Gregg PEH, Weil S, 'Enhanced dissolution of phosphate rocks in the rhizosphere', BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS, 24 169-174 (1997)
DOI 10.1007/s003740050226
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 31
1997 Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, 'Developments in some aspects of reactive phosphate rock research and use in New Zealand', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE, 37 861-884 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 8
1996 Baskaran S, Bolan NS, Rahman A, Tillman RW, 'Effect of exogenous carbon on the sorption and movement of atrazine and 2,4-D by soils', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 34 609-622 (1996)
DOI 10.1071/SR9960609
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 21
1996 Bolan NS, Baskaran S, 'Biodegradation of 2,4-D herbicide as affected by its adsorption-desorption behaviour and microbial activity of soils', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 34 1041-1053 (1996)
DOI 10.1071/SR9961041
Citations Scopus - 50Web of Science - 51
1996 Bolan NS, Syers JK, Adey MA, Sumner ME, 'Origin of the effect of pH on the saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-sodic soils', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 27 2265-2278 (1996)
DOI 10.1080/00103629609369702
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 6
1996 Bolan NS, Baskaran S, Thiagarajan S, 'An evaluation of the methods of measurement of dissolved organic carbon in soils, manures, sludges, and stream water', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 27 2723-2737 (1996)
DOI 10.1080/00103629609369735
Citations Scopus - 41Web of Science - 29
1996 Baskaran S, Bolan NS, Rahman A, Tillman RW, 'Pesticide sorption by allophanic and non-allophanic soils of New Zealand', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 39 297-310 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 67Web of Science - 64
1996 Baskaran S, Bolan NS, Rahman A, Tillman RW, 'Non-equilibrium sorption during the movement of pesticides in soils', PESTICIDE SCIENCE, 46 333-343 (1996)
DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199604)46:4<333::AID-PS361>3.0.CO;2-A
Citations Scopus - 26Web of Science - 24
1996 Bolan NS, Currie LD, Baskaran S, 'Assessment of the influence of phosphate fertilizers on the microbial activity of pasture soils', BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS, 21 284-292 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 16
1996 Bolan NS, Baskaran S, 'Characteristics of earthworm casts affecting herbicide sorption and movement', BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS, 22 367-372 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 13
1996 Morrell WJ, Stewart RB, Gregg PEH, Bolan NS, Horne D, 'An assessment of sulphide oxidation in abandoned base-metal tailings, Te Aroha, New Zealand', ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 94 217-225 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
1995 MAHIMAIRAJA S, BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, 'AGRONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF POULTRY MANURE COMPOSTS', COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS, 26 1843-1861 (1995)
DOI 10.1080/00103629509369412
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 15
1995 WANG HL, HEDLEY MJ, BOLAN NS, 'CHEMICAL-PROPERTIES OF FLUIDIZED-BED BOILER ASH RELEVANT TO ITS USE AS A LIMING MATERIAL AND FERTILIZER', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 38 249-256 (1995)
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
1995 MAHIMAIRAJA S, BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, 'DENITRIFICATION LOSSES OF N FROM FRESH AND COMPOSTED MANURES', SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY, 27 1223-1225 (1995)
DOI 10.1016/0038-0717(95)00042-D
Citations Scopus - 29Web of Science - 27
1994 Mahimairaja S, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ, 'Dissolution of phosphate rock during the composting of poultry manure: an incubation experiment', Fertilizer Research, 40 93-104 (1994)

Dissolution of phosphate rocks (PRs) during composting with poultry manure was examined using a radioactive32P labelled synthetic francolite and North Carolina phosphate rock (NCP... [more]

Dissolution of phosphate rocks (PRs) during composting with poultry manure was examined using a radioactive32P labelled synthetic francolite and North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) through laboratory incubation experiments. Francolite or NCPR was mixed with different poultry manure composts at a rate equivalent to 5 mg P g-1 and the dissolution was measured after 60 and 120 days incubation by a sequential phosphorus (P) fractionation procedure. The use of32P labelled francolite showed that in manure systems, PR dissolution can be measured more accurately from the increases in NaOH extractable P (¿NaOH-P) than from the decreases in HCl extractable P (¿HCl-P) in the PR treated manure over the control. The dissolution measurements showed that approximately 8 to 20% of francolite and 27% of NCPR dissolved during incubation with poultry manure composts in the presence of various amendments. Addition of elemental sulphur (S°) to the compost enhanced the dissolution of PRs. The results provide no evidence for the beneficial effect of protons (H+), produced during the nitrification of NH4+ in manure composts, on PR dissolution. The low level of dissolution of PR in poultry manure composts was attributed mainly to the high concentration (4.8 × 10-2 mol L-1) of calcium (Ca2+) in manure solution. © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

DOI 10.1007/BF00750093
Citations Scopus - 21
1994 BOLAN NS, NAIDU R, MAHIMAIRAJA S, BASKARAN S, 'INFLUENCE OF LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ORGANIC-ACIDS ON THE SOLUBILIZATION OF PHOSPHATES', BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS, 18 311-319 (1994)
DOI 10.1007/BF00570634
Citations Scopus - 212Web of Science - 194
1994 Magesan GN, White RE, Scotter DR, Bolan NS, 'Estimating leaching losses from sub-surface drained soils', Soil Use and Management, 10 87-93 (1994)

Abstract. Leaching losses of solutes can be calculated if two variables, the amount of water passing through the soil and the concentration of solute in that water (a flux concen... [more]

Abstract. Leaching losses of solutes can be calculated if two variables, the amount of water passing through the soil and the concentration of solute in that water (a flux concentration), are known. Two simple approaches, soil extraction and suction cup sampling, were used to estimate the concentration of solutes in the water moving through a silt loam soil. The results were compared with actual concentrations measured in the drainage water from a sub-surface (mole-pipe) drained soil. Seasonal leaching losses were calculated as the sum of the products of estimated monthly drainage and the estimated average monthly solute concentration in the soil solution. These results were compared with the leaching losses measured in drainage water from the mole-pipe system. For non-reactive solutes such as bromide (an applied solute) and chloride (a resident solute), the suction cup data provided better estimates of the leaching losses than did the soil extraction data. The leaching losses calculated using volume-averaged soil solution concentrations (obtained by soil extraction) overestimated the loss for the resident solute, but under-estimated the loss for the surface-applied solute. On the other hand, the data for non-reactive solutes suggest that measurements on suction cup samples may be representative of the flux concentration of a solute during leaching. For nitrate, a biologically reactive solute, there was no clear pattern in the differences between the estimated and measured leaching losses. The flux-averaged concentration in the drainage water was about midway between those measured in the suction cup samples and in the soil solution. Copyright © 1994, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved

DOI 10.1111/j.1475-2743.1994.tb00464.x
Citations Scopus - 10
1994 NAIDU R, BOLAN NS, KOOKANA RS, TILLER KG, 'IONIC-STRENGTH AND PH EFFECTS ON THE SORPTION OF CADMIUM AND THE SURFACE-CHARGE OF SOILS', EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 45 419-429 (1994)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1994.tb00527.x
Citations Scopus - 310Web of Science - 270
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
1994 HENG LK, WHITE RE, SCOTTER DR, BOLAN NS, 'A TRANSFER-FUNCTION APPROACH TO MODELING THE LEACHING OF SOLUTES TO SUBSURFACE DRAINS .2. REACTIVE SOLUTES', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 32 85-94 (1994)
DOI 10.1071/SR9940085
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
1994 BASKARAN S, BOLAN NS, RAHMAN A, TILLMAN RW, MACGREGOR AN, 'EFFECT OF DRYING OF SOILS ON THE ADSORPTION AND LEACHING OF PHOSPHATE AND 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 32 491-502 (1994)
DOI 10.1071/SR9940491
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 8
1994 ROBINSON JS, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'A SIMPLE CONCEPTUAL-MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE DISSOLUTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN SOILS', JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, 64 397-403 (1994)
DOI 10.1002/jsfa.2740640402
Citations Web of Science - 5
1994 MAHIMAIRAJA S, BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, MACGREGOR AN, 'LOSSES AND TRANSFORMATION OF NITROGEN DURING COMPOSTING OF POULTRY MANURE WITH DIFFERENT AMENDMENTS - AN INCUBATION EXPERIMENT', BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 47 265-273 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/0960-8524(94)90190-2
Citations Scopus - 146Web of Science - 130
1993 Tambunan D, Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, Turner MA, 'A comparison of sequential extraction procedures for measuring phosphate rock residues in soils', Fertilizer Research, 35 183-191 (1993)

Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate sequential extraction procedures to measure phosphate rock (PR) residues in a range of temperate (New Zealand) and tropical (In... [more]

Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate sequential extraction procedures to measure phosphate rock (PR) residues in a range of temperate (New Zealand) and tropical (Indonesian) soils. The amounts of soil and PR-P were measured by using a sequential procedure which involved pre-extraction with either 1 M NaCl or 0.5 M NaCl/TEA (pH 7), followed by 1 M NaOH and mineral acids. The acids included varying concentrations of HCl or H2SO4 (0.5-4 M) and a tri-acid mixture of HCl, HNO3 and HClO4 (5:5:7). Amounts of PR residues in the soil were estimated from increases in amounts of the acid-extractable P (¿acid-P) or Ca (¿acid-Ca) in the PR-treated over untreated soil. Amounts of PR-P residues (measured by ¿HCl-P) in New Zealand soils varying in pH and Ca levels were completely recovered (±5%) when the soils were pre-extracted with 0.5 M NaCl/TEA, rather than 1 M NaCl (or no pre-extraction). Pre-extraction of acid soil/PR mixtures with 1 M NaCl caused dissolution of PR during the extraction. Although the ¿HCl-Ca also estimated the amount of PR residues well, particularly after a 0.5 M NaCl/TEA pre-extraction, this method was less sensitive than the ¿HCl-P method, particularly in the soils with high native Ca saturation. In contrast to the high recovery obtained from the New Zealand soils, the recovery of the PR-P residues in the Indonesian soils in the HCl extracts following the 0.5 M NaCl/TEA and 1 M NaOH extractions were low ranging from 62 to 86%. Although increasing the concentration of HCl (upto 4 M) did not cause any improvement in the recovery of PR-P, extraction with H2SO4 achieved complete recovery of PR-P. For all soils, a sequential extraction involving 0.5 M NaCl/TEA-1 M NaOH-0.5 M H2SO4 is recommended for measuring PR residues in pairs of PR-treated and untreated field or laboratory incubated soils. © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

DOI 10.1007/BF00750637
Citations Scopus - 23
1993 CURTIN D, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'PHOSPHATE SORPTION BY SOIL IN RELATION TO EXCHANGEABLE CATION COMPOSITION AND PH', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 31 137-149 (1993)
DOI 10.1071/SR9930137
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 13
1993 BOLAN NS, RAJAN SSS, 'CONTROLLED-RELEASE PHOSPHORUS AND SULFUR FERTILIZERS - PREFACE', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 35 R5-R5 (1993)
DOI 10.1007/BF00750227
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
1993 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, LOGANATHAN P, 'PREPARATION, FORMS AND PROPERTIES OF CONTROLLED-RELEASE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 35 13-24 (1993)
DOI 10.1007/BF00750216
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 13
1993 BOLAN NS, SYERS JK, SUMNER ME, 'CALCIUM-INDUCED SULFATE ADSORPTION BY SOILS', SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL, 57 691-696 (1993)
Citations Scopus - 61Web of Science - 61
1993 Mahimairaja S, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ, 'Absorption of ammonia released from poultry manure to soil and bark and the use of absorbed ammonia in solubilizing phosphate rock', Compost Science and Utilization, 1 101-112 (1993)

Composting systems were designed to utilize ammonia(NH3) released during composting of poultry manure to solubilize phosphate rock (PR). The NH3released from decomposing manure wa... [more]

Composting systems were designed to utilize ammonia(NH3) released during composting of poultry manure to solubilize phosphate rock (PR). The NH3released from decomposing manure was allowed to pass through columns containing soil or bark materials mixed with North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) at a rate of 1 mg P g-1. After eight weeks of incubation, the columns were dismantled and the forms of P and N in PR/soil or PR/bark mixtures were measured. The dissolution of PR was determined from the increases in the amount of soluble and adsorbed P (resin plus NaOH extractable P) or from the decreases in the residual apatite P (HC1 extractable P). The amounts of NH4+-Nin the soil and bark columns increased due to absorption of the NH3released from poultry manure. No nitrification of absorbed NH3occurred, however, unless the soil or bark were reinoculated with a fresh soil solution and incubated for further six weeks. In the absence of NH3absorption, soil and bark materials dissolved approximately 33 percent and 82 percent of NCPR, respectively. The higher dissolution of NCPR in bark was attributed to its higher exchangeable acidity and Ca sink size. There was no increase in NCPR dissolution during the initial NH3absorption phase (36 percent and 85 percent dissolution in soil and bark respectively), which may be due to the absence of nitrification. However, during subsequent reincubation when nitrification occurred, the final dissolution of NCPR in the NH3treated soil and bark was slightly higher (41 percent and 100 percent, respectively). Protons (H+) are released during the oxidation of NH4+to NO3-(nitrification) which promote the dissolution of PR. However, most of the H+released during nitrification was involved with soil and bark pH buffering reactions. Only five to 10 percent was involved in PR solubilization in PR/soil mixtures whereas about 50 percent was involved in PR/bark systems. Bark covers for poultry manure and poultry manure compost heaps have the potential to reduce NH3loss and conserve N and may be useful for other purposes such as PR solubilization. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

DOI 10.1080/1065657X.1993.10771130
Citations Scopus - 2
1992 ROBINSON JS, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'IMPORTANCE OF PROTON SUPPLY AND CALCIUM-SINK SIZE IN THE DISSOLUTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK MATERIALS OF DIFFERENT REACTIVITY IN SOIL', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 43 447-459 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 27
1992 HANAFI MM, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'EFFECT OF LIME ON THE DISSOLUTION OF 2 PHOSPHATE ROCKS IN ACID SOILS', JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, 60 155-164 (1992)
DOI 10.1002/jsfa.2740600204
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 9
1992 LOGANATHAN P, HEDLEY MJ, CLARK SA, BOLAN NS, 'GRANULATION OF FINELY CRYSTALLINE AMMONIUM-SULFATE USING CALCIUM-OXIDE AND SULFURIC-ACID', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 31 85-93 (1992)
DOI 10.1007/BF01064231
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 2
1992 ROBINSON JS, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM-CARBONATE ON THE DISSOLUTION OF SECHURA PHOSPHATE ROCK IN SOILS', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 32 91-99 (1992)
DOI 10.1007/BF01054398
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
1992 HANAFI MM, SYERS JK, BOLAN NS, 'LEACHING EFFECT ON THE DISSOLUTION OF 2 PHOSPHATE ROCKS IN ACID SOILS', SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL, 56 1325-1330 (1992)
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 16
1991 BOLAN NS, SYERS JK, SUMNER ME, 'DISSOLUTION OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF GYPSUM IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS AND IN SOIL', JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, 57 527-541 (1991)
DOI 10.1002/jsfa.2740570406
Citations Scopus - 28Web of Science - 24
1991 HENG LK, WHITE RE, BOLAN NS, SCOTTER DR, 'LEACHING LOSSES OF MAJOR NUTRIENTS FROM A MOLE-DRAINED SOIL UNDER PASTURE', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 34 325-334 (1991)
Citations Scopus - 35Web of Science - 33
1991 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, WHITE RE, 'PROCESSES OF SOIL ACIDIFICATION DURING NITROGEN CYCLING WITH EMPHASIS ON LEGUME BASED PASTURES', PLANT AND SOIL, 134 53-63 (1991)
Citations Scopus - 198Web of Science - 195
1991 BOLAN NS, 'A CRITICAL-REVIEW ON THE ROLE OF MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN THE UPTAKE OF PHOSPHORUS BY PLANTS', PLANT AND SOIL, 134 189-207 (1991)
DOI 10.1007/BF00012037
Citations Scopus - 528Web of Science - 462
1990 SAGGAR S, HEDLEY MJ, GILLINGHAM AG, ROWARTH JS, RICHARDSON S, BOLAN NS, GREGG PEH, 'PREDICTING THE FATE OF FERTILIZER SULFUR IN GRAZED HILL COUNTRY PASTURES BY MODELING THE TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION OF SOIL-PHOSPHORUS', NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, 33 129-138 (1990)
Citations Scopus - 19Web of Science - 17
1990 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, 'DISSOLUTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCKS IN SOILS .2. EFFECT OF PH ON THE DISSOLUTION AND PLANT AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN SOIL WITH PH DEPENDENT CHARGE', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 24 125-134 (1990)
DOI 10.1007/BF01073580
Citations Scopus - 36Web of Science - 28
1990 MAHIMAIRAJA S, BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, MACGREGOR AN, 'EVALUATION OF METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF NITROGEN IN POULTRY AND ANIMAL MANURES', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 24 141-148 (1990)
DOI 10.1007/BF01073582
Citations Scopus - 22Web of Science - 21
1990 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, HARRISON R, BRAITHWAITE AC, 'INFLUENCE OF MANUFACTURING VARIABLES ON CHARACTERISTICS AND THE AGRONOMIC VALUE OF PARTIALLY ACIDULATED PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 26 119-138 (1990)
DOI 10.1007/BF01048750
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 12
1990 BOLAN NS, WHITE RE, HEDLEY MJ, 'A REVIEW OF THE USE OF PHOSPHATE ROCKS AS FERTILIZERS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW-ZEALAND', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE, 30 297-313 (1990)
DOI 10.1071/EA9900297
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 71
1989 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, 'DISSOLUTION OF PHOSPHATE ROCKS IN SOILS .1. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PHOSPHATE ROCK DISSOLUTION', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 19 65-75 (1989)
DOI 10.1007/BF01054677
Citations Scopus - 43Web of Science - 30
1988 BOLAN NS, SYERS JK, TILLMAN RW, 'EFFECT OF PH ON THE ADSORPTION OF PHOSPHATE AND POTASSIUM IN BATCH AND IN COLUMN EXPERIMENTS', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 26 165-170 (1988)
DOI 10.1071/SR9880165
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 17
1988 BOLAN NS, SYERS JK, TILLMAN RW, SCOTTER DR, 'EFFECT OF LIMING AND PHOSPHATE ADDITIONS ON SULFATE LEACHING IN SOILS', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 39 493-504 (1988)
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 41
1988 HEDLEY MJ, BOLAN NS, BRAITHWAITE AC, 'SINGLE SUPERPHOSPHATE-REACTIVE PHOSPHATE ROCK MIXTURES .2. THE EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ROCK TYPE AND DENNING TIME ON THE AMOUNTS OF ACIDULATED AND EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHATE', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 16 179-194 (1988)
DOI 10.1007/BF01049773
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 7
1987 BOLAN NS, ROBSON AD, BARROW NJ, 'EFFECTS OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA ON THE AVAILABILITY OF IRON PHOSPHATES TO PLANTS', PLANT AND SOIL, 99 401-410 (1987)
DOI 10.1007/BF02370885
Citations Scopus - 88Web of Science - 87
1987 BOLAN NS, ROBSON AD, BARROW NJ, 'EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION AND MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION ON ROOT CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER AND RYEGRASS IN RELATION TO PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE', PLANT AND SOIL, 104 294-298 (1987)
DOI 10.1007/BF02372545
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 14
1987 BOLAN NS, HEDLEY MJ, SYERS JK, TILLMAN RW, 'SINGLE SUPERPHOSPHATE-REACTIVE PHOSPHATE ROCK MIXTURES .1. FACTORS AFFECTING CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION', FERTILIZER RESEARCH, 13 223-239 (1987)
DOI 10.1007/BF01066446
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 4
1986 BOLAN NS, SYERS JK, TILLMAN RW, 'IONIC-STRENGTH EFFECTS ON SURFACE-CHARGE AND ADSORPTION OF PHOSPHATE AND SULFATE BY SOILS', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 37 379-388 (1986)
Citations Scopus - 88Web of Science - 94
1986 BOLAN NS, SCOTTER DR, SYERS JK, TILLMAN RW, 'THE EFFECT OF ADSORPTION ON SULFATE LEACHING', SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL, 50 1419-1424 (1986)
Citations Scopus - 33Web of Science - 34
1985 BOLAN NS, BARROW NJ, POSNER AM, 'DESCRIBING THE EFFECT OF TIME ON SORPTION OF PHOSPHATE BY IRON AND ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 36 187-197 (1985)
Citations Scopus - 78Web of Science - 89
1984 BOLAN NS, BARROW NJ, 'MODELING THE EFFECT OF ADSORPTION OF PHOSPHATE AND OTHER ANIONS ON THE SURFACE-CHARGE OF VARIABLE CHARGE OXIDES', JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 35 273-281 (1984)
Citations Scopus - 39Web of Science - 48
1984 BOLAN NS, ROBSON AD, BARROW NJ, AYLMORE LAG, 'SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHORUS IN MYCORRHIZAL AND NON-MYCORRHIZAL PLANTS IN RELATION TO THE AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS TO PLANTS', SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY, 16 299-304 (1984)
DOI 10.1016/0038-0717(84)90023-3
Citations Scopus - 47Web of Science - 38
1984 BOLAN NS, ROBSON AD, BARROW NJ, 'INCREASING PHOSPHORUS SUPPLY CAN INCREASE THE INFECTION OF PLANT-ROOTS BY VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI', SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY, 16 419-420 (1984)
DOI 10.1016/0038-0717(84)90043-9
Citations Scopus - 73Web of Science - 79
1983 BOLAN NS, ABBOTT LK, 'SEASONAL-VARIATION IN INFECTIVITY OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN RELATION TO PLANT-RESPONSE TO APPLIED PHOSPHORUS', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH, 21 207-210 (1983)
DOI 10.1071/SR9830207
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 3
1983 BOLAN NS, ROBSON AD, BARROW NJ, 'PLANT AND SOIL FACTORS INCLUDING MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION CAUSING SIGMOIDAL RESPONSE OF PLANTS TO APPLIED PHOSPHORUS', PLANT AND SOIL, 73 187-201 (1983)
DOI 10.1007/BF02197715
Citations Scopus - 41Web of Science - 39
Show 259 more journal articles

Review (5 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2005 Bolan N, Kandaswamy K, 'pH (2005)
2005 Bolan N, Loganathan P, Saggar S, 'Calcium and Magnesium in soils (2005)
2005 Bolan N, Curtin D, Adriano DC, 'Acidity (2005)
2005 Adriano DC, Bolan N, Vangronsveld J, Wenzel WW, 'Heavy Metals (2005)
2005 Koo BJ, Adriano DC, Bolan N, Barton CD, 'Root exudates and microorganisms (2005)
Show 2 more reviews

Conference (15 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Kumar P, Raghupathi M, Bolan NS, Miklavcic S, 'Phenotyping earthworm by image analysis', 2014 13th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics and Vision, ICARCV 2014 (2015)

Non-destructive phenotyping of earthworms by digital imaging and image analysis is the novel concept being proposed and explored in this paper. Earthworms are very important compo... [more]

Non-destructive phenotyping of earthworms by digital imaging and image analysis is the novel concept being proposed and explored in this paper. Earthworms are very important component of plant soil interaction via rhizosphere. Although a lot of research resources have been applied to phenotying roots by image analysis, there has been practically insignificant work on phenotying earthworms by image analysis. We put together some tailor made image analysis techniques (segmentation, medial axis thinning) along with a mathematical model for earthworms, to compute the volume, surface area and length of earthworms. We developed a novel radius versus length plot to identify the mouth-end, clitellum, and anus-end of earthworms by machine vision. We then compare the results of the phenotyping measurement obtained by our approach to those of the intercept principle. Intercept principle has been commonly used for phenotyping roots. Further more we propose a novel colour signature for blobs obtained by segmenting earthworms for colour analysis of the earthworms. It is expected that the colour information of earthworms can give clues on bioavailability of nutrients in soil or/and for earthworm species recognition. Both by qualitative and quantitative analysis we show that the segmentation and phenotype computation are better than the conventional approach of intercept principle.

DOI 10.1109/ICARCV.2014.7064305
2014 Chuasavathi T, Bolan NS, Naidu R, Seshadri B, 'Biosolids-based Co-composts reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals', Acta Horticulturae (2014)

Biosolid samples from the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant (South Australia) were mixed with lime (1, 3 and 5%; w/w basis), red mud (Comalco Alumina Refinery, Queensland, Austra... [more]

Biosolid samples from the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant (South Australia) were mixed with lime (1, 3 and 5%; w/w basis), red mud (Comalco Alumina Refinery, Queensland, Australia), fly ash (Alinta Energy, South Australia, Australia) and bentonite (IPOH Pacific Ltd., Queensland, Australia) (5, 10 and 20%; w/w basis). They were incubated under aerobic conditions at room temperature for seven months so that the effects of various additives on transformation of heavy metals in biosolids could be examined. The specific objectives were to study, (i) the redistribution of metals in the biosolids; and (ii) the mobilization of metals and their subsequent release to pore water. Both the NH4NO3 extractable concentration of Cd (Cd NN), Cu (CuNN) and Pb (PbNN) from biosolids and the concentration of these metals in pore water were investigated. Co-composting biosolids using alkaline materials and clay mineral have been shown to immobilize metals. The pH of both biosolids and pore water increased while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased on co-composting biosolids with inorganic amendments. The addition of red mud and lime resulted in the highest pH increase, and red mud proved to be most efficient in the sorption of DOC, Cd, Cu and Pb in comparison to lime, coal fly ash, and bentonite. The NH 4NO3 extractable Cd (CdNN), Pb (Pb NN) and Cu (CuNN) from biosolids and these metals' total concentration in pore water were lower in all amendments than biosolids alone. The effect of amendments on immobilizing biosolids-derived Cd, Pb and Cu varied according to both the nature and level of amendments being added. While red mud and lime were most effective in the immobilization of Cd and Pb in the biosolids and their subsequent release to pore water, bentonite was most effective in immobilizing Cu in the biosolids.

Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Thangarajan R, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Greenhouse gas emission from wastewater irrigated soils', WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (2012)

With increasing demand for world water supply, wastewater reuse is a great opportunity to meet the water need, especially for agricultural and industrial development. Wastewater o... [more]

With increasing demand for world water supply, wastewater reuse is a great opportunity to meet the water need, especially for agricultural and industrial development. Wastewater originates from many sources and hence its composition differs from origin and treatment processes. Wastewater rich in organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, thereby enhancing soil health. Wastewater also acts as a source of nutrient input in agriculture which in turn can reduce, or even eliminate the need for commercial fertilisers. However, wastewater usage in agriculture poses several threats like eutrophication, salinity, toxic chemicals (heavy metal(loids), pesticides), pathogen contamination, and most notably, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. These threats affect public health, soil and ground water resources, environment, crop quality, ecological, and property values. Biological degradation of the organic matter present in wastewater is considered one of the anthropogenic sources of major GHGs (carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). In this paper, an overview of various sources of wastewater, effects of wastewater application on GHG emission from soil, and the strategies to mitigate wastewater-induced GHG emission from soils is presented. © 2012 WIT Press.

DOI 10.2495/SI120191
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2012 Matheyarasu R, Seshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R, 'Nutrient management in effluents derived from agricultural industries: An Australian perspective', WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (2012)

The effluents derived from agricultural industries are major sources of wastewater with significant amounts of nutrients and organic load. Australia's agricultural industries have... [more]

The effluents derived from agricultural industries are major sources of wastewater with significant amounts of nutrients and organic load. Australia's agricultural industries have experienced rapid growth in recent years, with nearly 152 abattoirs, 1798 wine industries, 9256 dairy farms and 1835 piggeries in operation. Agricultural industries require huge volumes of water for processing the farm products towards commercial value and quality. For instance, around 200 L of water required for processing a cattle in an abattoir; around 2.4-2.5 L for producing 1 L of wine; 500-800 L for 1 L of milk; and 12-45 L for sow and litter management in piggeries. As a result, these industries generate huge volumes of wastewater. For example, Australian meat industries produce an average of 4000 m3/day wastewater, with high concentration of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The annual average N and P loads in some of the farm effluents are: abattoir - 722 and 722 t; winery - 280 and 280 t; dairy - 150000 and 110000 t; and piggery - 72895 and 5075t. With Australia's average fertiliser consumption being 1 Mt N and 0.5 Mt P, the huge amounts of N and P from the agricultural effluents can be re-used as a potential alternative for fertiliser usage. Sustainable management of nutrients in the wastewater irrigated soil is a critical step to prevent contamination of both surface and ground-water. The available technologies for wastewater treatment require high investment. Hence, using high biomass-producing plants (e.g., Pennisetum purpureum and Arundo donax) as remediators, which also has the potential to uptake high amount of nutrients and heavy metals, can serve as a cost effective technology. Consequently, the plants used not only act as remediators, but also provide biomass that can also be used for energy generation, paper production and as a feed for animals. © 2012 WIT Press.

DOI 10.2495/SI120181
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors Ravi Naidu
2008 Bolan NS, Ko BG, Anderson CWN, Vogeler I, 'Solute Interactions in Soils in Relation to Bioavailability and Remediation of the Environment', REVISTA DE LA CIENCIA DEL SUELO Y NUTRICION VEGETAL (2008)
2008 Huh KY, Deurer M, Sivakumaran S, McAuliffe K, Bolan NS, 'Carbon sequestration in urban landscapes: The example of a turfgrass system in New Zealand', Australian Journal of Soil Research (2008)

Soil carbon sequestration was analysed in the topsoil (0-0.25m) of putting greens of different ages (5, 9, 20, 30, 40 years) in a golf course in Palmerston North, New Zealand. The... [more]

Soil carbon sequestration was analysed in the topsoil (0-0.25m) of putting greens of different ages (5, 9, 20, 30, 40 years) in a golf course in Palmerston North, New Zealand. The soil texture was the same for all putting greens and the intensive management guaranteed that the carbon (C) inputs to the soil were very similar for all ages. Significant and linear soil C sequestration rates occurred for 40 years. The soil C sequestration rate in 0-0.25m depth was 69±8g/m2.year over a 40-year period totalling 28t/ha over 40 years. The relative microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity/total soil C content) representing the bioavailability of soil C decreased by about 50% over 40 years. The C sequestration and decrease of bioavailability of soil C was much more pronounced in 0.1-0.25m depth than in the top 0.1m. In the top 0.1m, very little C sequestration occurred, most probably due to the intensive soil management in this depth. We concluded that the C sequestration was mainly caused by the increasing humification of C in the undisturbed part of the soil (0.1-0.25m depth) as was indicated by a significant decrease in the relative microbial activity. Turfgrass systems such as putting greens are well suited to sequester C in urban areas. © CSIRO 2008.

DOI 10.1071/SR07212
Citations Scopus - 20
2008 Ko B-G, Anderson CWN, Bolan NS, Huh K-Y, Vogeler I, 'Potential for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated mine tailings in Fiji', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2008)
DOI 10.1071/SR07200
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 6
2008 Singh J, Saggar S, Giltrap DL, Bolan NS, 'Decomposition of dicyandiamide (DCD) in three contrasting soils and its effect on nitrous oxide emission, soil respiratory activity, and microbial biomass - an incubation study', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2008)
DOI 10.1071/SR07204
Citations Scopus - 45Web of Science - 48
2008 Asing J, Saggar S, Singh J, Bolan NS, 'Assessment of nitrogen losses from urea and an organic manure with and without nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, applied to lettuce under glasshouse conditions', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2008)
DOI 10.1071/SR07206
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 23
2004 Adriano DC, Wenzel WW, Vangronsveld J, Bolan NS, 'Role of assisted natural remediation in environmental cleanup', GEODERMA (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.01.003
Citations Scopus - 339Web of Science - 295
2003 Hedley MJ, Bolan NS, 'Key outputs from reactive phosphate rock research in New Zealand', DIRECT APPLICATION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK AND RELATED APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY-LATEST DEVELOPMENTS AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES, PROCEEDINGS (2003)
2003 Trolove SN, Hedley MJ, Kirk GJD, Bolan NS, Loganathan P, 'Progress in selected areas of rhizosphere research on P acquisition', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2003)
DOI 10.1071/SR02130
Citations Scopus - 47Web of Science - 39
2003 Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Grace ND, Lee J, Cronin SJ, Bolan NS, Zanders JM, 'Fertiliser contaminants in New Zealand grazed pasture with special reference to cadmium and fluorine: a review', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2003)
DOI 10.1071/SR02126
Citations Scopus - 63Web of Science - 61
2003 Bolan NS, Duraisamy VP, 'Role of inorganic and organic soil amendments on immobilisation and phytoavailability of heavy metals: a review involving specific case studies', AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL RESEARCH (2003)
DOI 10.1071/SR02122
Citations Scopus - 193Web of Science - 171
1995 Morrell WJ, Gregg PEH, Stewart RB, Bolan N, Horne D, 'Potential for revegetating base-metal tailings at the Tui mine site, Te Aroha, New Zealand', PACRIM CONGRESS 1995 - EXPLORING THE RIM (1995)
Citations Web of Science - 1
Show 12 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 39
Total funding $3,097,029

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20171 grants / $50,000

Advanced aqueous ammonia based project$50,000

Funding body: Department of Industry

Funding body Department of Industry
Project Team Professor Nanthi Bolan, Dr Hai Yu
Scheme Skills and Regional Development
Role Lead
Funding Start 2017
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1701042
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

20161 grants / $10,000

Remediation of mine spoil soils employing nano-composites$10,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding body University of Newcastle
Project Team Doctor Raja Dharmarajan, Doctor Jianhua Du, Professor Nanthi Bolan, Doctor Kenneth Williams, Associate Professor Craig Wheeler
Scheme Linkage Pilot Research Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1601274
Type Of Funding Internal
Category INTE
UON Y

20143 grants / $577,029

Carbon conundrum: Functional characterisation of organic matter-clay mineral interactions in relation to carbon sequestration$372,859

Funding body: ARC (Australian Research Council)

Funding body ARC (Australian Research Council)
Project Team Professor Nanthi Bolan, Donald Sparks, Cornelia Rumpel
Scheme Discovery Projects
Role Lead
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1500749
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Biosolid carbon sequestration$102,085

Funding body: Central Gippsland Region Water Corporation

Funding body Central Gippsland Region Water Corporation
Project Team Professor Nanthi Bolan, Aravind Surapaneni, Mr S S R M Don Hasintha Wijesekara
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1500973
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

Biosolid carbon sequestration$102,085

Funding body: Central Gippsland Region Water Corporation

Funding body Central Gippsland Region Water Corporation
Project Team Professor Nanthi Bolan, Aravind Surapaneni, Mr S S R M Don Hasintha Wijesekara
Scheme Research Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1500973
Type Of Funding Grant - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFG
UON Y

20131 grants / $800,000

Wastewater irrigation$800,000

Funding body: CRC CARE Pty Ltd

Funding body CRC CARE Pty Ltd
Scheme Research Project
Role Lead
Funding Start 2013
Funding Finish 2016
GNo
Type Of Funding CRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Category 4CRC
UON N

20091 grants / $300,000

Phytocapping landfill sites$300,000

Funding body: CRC - CRC - Cooperative Research Centre

Funding body CRC - CRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Scheme CRC CARE
Role Lead
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2012
GNo
Type Of Funding CRC - Cooperative Research Centre
Category 4CRC
UON N

20061 grants / $32,000

Greenhouse gases$32,000

Funding body: PGSF through Landcare

Funding body PGSF through Landcare
Scheme Massey University
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2006
Funding Finish 2007
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20053 grants / $90,000

Sewage effluent irrigation$62,000

Funding body: Alma Baker Trust and Regional Councils

Funding body Alma Baker Trust and Regional Councils
Scheme Massey University
Role Lead
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2006
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Sustainable Nutrient Management$18,000

Funding body: International Science and Technology Fund; Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Germany

Funding body International Science and Technology Fund; Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Germany
Scheme Massey University
Role Lead
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2006
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Isotopes in agriculture$10,000

Funding body: IAEA

Funding body IAEA
Scheme Massey University
Role Lead
Funding Start 2005
Funding Finish 2006
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20042 grants / $59,000

Greenhouse gases$32,000

Funding body: PGSF through Landcare

Funding body PGSF through Landcare
Scheme PGSF through Landcare
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2006
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Arsenic removal in drinking water$27,000

Funding body: International Science and Technology Fund; University of Georgia

Funding body International Science and Technology Fund; University of Georgia
Scheme Sabbatical
Role Lead
Funding Start 2004
Funding Finish 2006
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20032 grants / $379,000

Phytoremediation$300,000

Funding body: Massey University Reserach Fund

Funding body Massey University Reserach Fund
Scheme Massey University Reserach Fund
Role Lead
Funding Start 2003
Funding Finish 2005
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Zeolites as biofilters$79,000

Funding body: Technology for NZ

Funding body Technology for NZ
Scheme Technology for NZ
Role Lead
Funding Start 2003
Funding Finish 2004
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20011 grants / $53,000

Thatch management$53,000

Funding body: NZ Golf Association

Funding body NZ Golf Association
Scheme NZ Golf Association
Role Lead
Funding Start 2001
Funding Finish 2003
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

20009 grants / $231,000

Nutrient transformation under forest conversion to dairying$110,000

Funding body: New Zealand Land Corp and Tertiary Education Commission

Funding body New Zealand Land Corp and Tertiary Education Commission
Scheme Massey University
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2013
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Barks as a nutrient source$39,000

Funding body: Technology for NZ

Funding body Technology for NZ
Scheme Technology for NZ
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Technology for NZ$25,000

Funding body: Alma baker, MUARF

Funding body Alma baker, MUARF
Scheme Alma baker, MUARF
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Nitrate toxicity$22,000

Funding body: Alma Baker

Funding body Alma Baker
Scheme Alma Baker
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Humic extracts as soil amendments$10,000

Funding body: BOP Fertilizers

Funding body BOP Fertilizers
Scheme BOP Fertilizers
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Poultry manure$7,000

Funding body: Goodman Fielder, Australia

Funding body Goodman Fielder, Australia
Scheme Goodman Fielder, Australia
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Evaluation of copper fertilizers$6,000

Funding body: Mankind Trading Co

Funding body Mankind Trading Co
Scheme Mankind Trading Co
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Gaseous emission$6,000

Funding body: Environment Waikato

Funding body Environment Waikato
Scheme Environment Waikato
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Heavy metals in farm effluents$6,000

Funding body: Environ Waikato

Funding body Environ Waikato
Scheme Environ Waikato
Role Lead
Funding Start 2000
Funding Finish 2001
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19992 grants / $86,000

Nitrogen transformation$80,000

Funding body: Summit-Quinphos

Funding body Summit-Quinphos
Scheme Summit-Quinphos
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1999
Funding Finish 2003
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Effluent irrigation and pasture quality$6,000

Funding body: Environ Waikato

Funding body Environ Waikato
Scheme Environ Waikato
Role Lead
Funding Start 1999
Funding Finish 2000
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19961 grants / $13,000

Pilot study on effluent treatment$13,000

Funding body: NZ Bark Resources

Funding body NZ Bark Resources
Scheme NZ Bark Resources
Role Lead
Funding Start 1996
Funding Finish 1997
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19931 grants / $10,000

Persistence of herbicides in pastoral soils$10,000

Funding body: Alma Baker Trust

Funding body Alma Baker Trust
Scheme Alma Baker
Role Lead
Funding Start 1993
Funding Finish 1994
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19912 grants / $50,000

Fluidised bed boiler ash as an amendment$30,000

Funding body: Foremost Fertiliser Company

Funding body Foremost Fertiliser Company
Scheme Foremost Fertiliser Company
Role Lead
Funding Start 1991
Funding Finish 1992
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Field evaluation of reactive phosphate rocks$20,000

Funding body: Alma Baker Trust

Funding body Alma Baker Trust
Scheme Alma Baker Trust
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1991
Funding Finish 1993
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19891 grants / $16,000

Composting Poultry Manure$16,000

Funding body: Poultry Ind Association

Funding body Poultry Ind Association
Scheme Poultry Ind Association
Role Lead
Funding Start 1989
Funding Finish 1992
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19881 grants / $13,000

Phosphate rock application$13,000

Funding body: Massey University Agricultural Research Fund

Funding body Massey University Agricultural Research Fund
Scheme Massey University Agricultural Research Fund
Role Lead
Funding Start 1988
Funding Finish 1989
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19865 grants / $218,000

Sulphur fertilizers$70,000

Funding body: AGMARDT

Funding body AGMARDT
Scheme AGMARDT
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1986
Funding Finish 1989
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Sulphur transformation in pasture soils$70,000

Funding body: Massey Reserach Fund

Funding body Massey Reserach Fund
Scheme Massey Reserach Fund
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1986
Funding Finish 1988
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Acidification of soils$33,000

Funding body: Massey University Research Fund

Funding body Massey University Research Fund
Scheme Massey University Research Fund
Role Lead
Funding Start 1986
Funding Finish 1991
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Herbicide leaching$30,000

Funding body: Lottery Commission

Funding body Lottery Commission
Scheme Lottery Commission
Role Lead
Funding Start 1986
Funding Finish 1988
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

Elemental sulphur - particle size analysis and oxidation$15,000

Funding body: Ravensdown Fertilizer

Funding body Ravensdown Fertilizer
Scheme Ravensdown Fertilizer
Role Investigator
Funding Start 1986
Funding Finish 1987
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N

19851 grants / $110,000

Soil remediation$110,000

Funding body: FAO and World Bank through Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

Funding body FAO and World Bank through Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Scheme FAO and World Bank through Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Role Lead
Funding Start 1985
Funding Finish 1990
GNo
Type Of Funding External
Category EXTE
UON N
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Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed57
Current8

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD3.35

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2017 PhD Capturing and Utilization of Gaseous Emissions From Flue Gas in Coal-Fired Power Station PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2017 PhD Improvement of Soil Health by Organic Waste Application and its Impact on Heavy Metal Dynamics in Contaminated Soil PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2016 PhD Rehabilitation of Mining Impacted Farmland to Ensure Food Security in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2016 PhD Microbial Aspects of Carbon Sequestration in Soil PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Biosolids Application on Carbon Sequestration in Soils. PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Phosphorus Recovery From Waste Streams Using Absorbents PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Pyrogenic Carbon and its Interaction with Heavy Metals PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
2015 PhD Wastewater Driven Biomass on Production for Energy Generation PhD(Environmental Remediation), Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2016 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Wastewater irrigation Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2016 PhD Waste water irrigation Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2016 PhD Carbon sequestration Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2016 PhD Biochar Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Nitrification inhibition Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2015 PhD Carbon sequestration Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2014 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Phytocapping landfill sites Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2014 PhD Chitoson Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2014 PhD Wastewater management Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2014 PhD Bioremediation Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Co-Supervisor
2013 Honours Biochoar and ammonia volatilization Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2012 Honours Cadmium bioavailability Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2011 PhD Waste water irrigation Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2011 PhD Waste utilization Interior &Environmental Design, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2011 PhD Chitoson Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2010 PhD Sustainable management of sewage irrigation Soil Science, University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2010 PhD Impact of sewage sludge on microbial diversity Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2010 PhD Lead immobilization Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2010 PhD DDT biodegration Environmental Studies, The University of South Australia Co-Supervisor
2008 Honours Biofilter Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2006 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Sustainable management of organic matter in golf greens Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
2006 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Mine site rehabilitation Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
2006 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Remediation of contaminated sites Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
2006 Masters Waste water irrigation Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
2004 Masters Land disposal of effluents Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
2003 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Phosphate removal from waste water Environmental Studies, Massey University Co-Supervisor
2002 Masters Effluent irrigation of short rotation Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
2000 Masters Heavy metal toxicity in effluents Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
1999 PhD Sulphur transformation Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1998 Masters Minimising cadmium uptake by pasture Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
1998 Masters Effect of cultivation on nutrient transformations Soil Science, The University of South Australia Co-Supervisor
1998 Masters Nufert for organic growing Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1998 PhD Modelling nitrate leaching Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1998 PhD Fluidised bed boiler ash Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1998 PhD Nitrous oxide emission Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1998 Masters Biosolid and biological activity Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1998 Masters Nitrogen response to maize Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1997 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Nitrogen in pasture soils Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1997 PhD Short rotation forestry for effluent treatment Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1997 PhD Dissolution and plant availability of phosphate Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1997 PhD Pesticide transformation Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1997 Honours Use of zeolite for the retention of nutrients Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1996 Masters Reclamation of mined soils Soil Science, The University of South Australia Principal Supervisor
1996 PhD Revegetation of mined soils Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1996 PhD Amelioration of acid mine drainage Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1996 PhD Ammonia volatilization Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1996 Honours Potential use of paper sludge as a growing medium Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1996 Masters plant availability phosphate rocks Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1996 Masters Dissolution of phosphate rock in the rhizosphere Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1995 PhD Amelioration of copper deficiency in soils Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1995 PhD Measurement and modelling of leaching Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1995 PhD Sustainable management of soil resources Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
1995 Honours Copper in pig and dairy farm effluents Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1994 PhD Sorption and movement of pesticides in soils Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1992 Masters Granulation of phosphate rocks Soil Science, The University of South Australia Co-Supervisor
1990 PhD Phospho composting
Examined nitrogen dynamics in poultry manure
Soil Science, Massey University Principal Supervisor
1989 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Sulphur cycling Soil Science, Massey University Co-Supervisor
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Research Collaborations

The map is a representation of a researchers co-authorship with collaborators across the globe. The map displays the number of publications against a country, where there is at least one co-author based in that country. Data is sourced from the University of Newcastle research publication management system (NURO) and may not fully represent the authors complete body of work.

Country Count of Publications
Australia 195
New Zealand 141
Korea, Republic of 75
United States 43
China 30
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Professor Nanthi Bolan

Position

Professor of Environmental Chemistry
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER)
Global Centre for Environmental Remediation
Faculty of Science

Contact Details

Email nanthi.bolan@newcastle.edu.au
Phone (02) 4913 8750
Mobile 0438 619 605

Office

Room ATC 143
Building Advanced Technology Centre.
Location Callaghan
University Drive
Callaghan, NSW 2308
Australia
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