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Dr Nancy Cushing

Senior Lecturer

School of Humanities and Social Science (History)

Meaty matters

Dr Nancy Cushing is an environmental historian who is examining the underlying beliefs and aims that led, by the end of the colonial period, to a typical Australian diet based around the heavy consumption of beef and mutton.

Dr Nancy Cushing"One of the selling points of coming to Australia during the colonial period to people in Britain was having meat three times a day," explains Cushing.

"Australians in that period ate more meat than almost any other country on earth per capita. The only one that was ahead of Australia was Argentina. But, if you look at similar places, culturally, such as Britain, they were maybe eating a quarter of the amount Australians did."

Cushing says being a vegetarian and an environmentalist made her start to think about the choices that are made around the eating of meat – which has an impact on our fellow animals, and uses enormous amounts of land and crops that could be used for direct consumption and water.

"I also read about the kangaroo cull – the hunting of kangaroos in Australia is the largest hunt of land-based mammals in the world. Every year, millions of kangaroos are killed," said Cushing.

"In Victoria, there is currently a two-year trial of selling the culled kangaroos as pet food. Until this year, the legislation said that the dead animals had to be buried. In other parts of mainland Australia, those animals are collected, put into chiller containers, butchered and the meat is used. Most of it goes for pet food.

"A lot of the kangaroo meat is exported. So it is acceptable in other markets, in some cases as a cheap filler meat for sausages, in others as a gourmet game meat. Until recently, a lot of it went to Russia, as well as all over Europe, and an increasing market is in China.

"Some kangaroo is consumed by people in Australia – but it's extremely low amounts.

"One of my aims for this project is to go back to the past and say: 'Was there a time when Australian's quite happily ate kangaroo and how did that play out. Who was eating it, how were they preparing it, what did people think of it, and – as it faded away – when and why?'

"There are lots of accounts from the colonial period of how much people enjoyed kangaroo meat, that it was very tasty, it was a luscious meat, it created a lovely gravy – so very positive accounts of eating kangaroo.

"The question is then: when we have beef in feed lots, emitting methane as they digest their food and requiring huge amounts of water, why are we not eating the meat we have here and reducing our environmental footprint?"

Cushing says she is looking to test her idea that an anti-kangaroo push developed during the colonial period, because there were vested interests in establishing sheep and cattle.

If I can influence the debate around modern meat eating choices, even a very small amount, I would like to try and do that – to bring up the possibility of eating more kangaroo.


"The supply of provisions within the colony was the first industry that was established here; the first thing that created wealth and power," said Cushing.

"I think, potentially, there was a campaign against eating kangaroo, and we can see that in Tasmania, for example, where the government regulated the ownership of kangaroo hunting dogs.

"As long as people can live outside of the cash economy – eating bush meat and gathering and so on – they're independent of the state and of the whole economic system."

Cushing's project, which is supported by a Merewether Scholarship from the State Library of New South Wales, is the first step in a larger undertaking, in which she hopes to extend her research up to the present, looking at Australians' preference for a narrow range of meats and suggesting that a more diverse diet could be healthier for individuals and the planet.

"If I can influence the debate around modern meat eating choices, even a very small amount, I would like to try to do that – to bring up the possibility of eating more kangaroo," she said.

"There are people in Australia who are 'kangatarian' – who will only eat kangaroo meat, because it's not farmed. They haven't been bred, they haven't been kept in captivity, it's just one shot and that's their only interaction with people – so they see eating kangaroo as an ethical choice.

"However, the conditions under which kangaroos are killed are debated as inhumane, that the way the meat is handled may be unhealthy, and that they may have parasites.

"So I'm not saying that this is a perfect solution, but I think it's something we should think about as part of a bigger picture; about how we are interacting with other animals."

Meaty matters - Dr Nancy Cushing

Meaty matters

Dr Nancy Cushing is an environmental historian who is examining the underlying beliefs and aims that led, by the end of the colonial period...

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Career Summary

Biography

Dr Nancy Cushing is a Senior Lecturer in Australian history in the School of Humanities and Social Science at the University of Newcastle, based at the Ourimbah Campus. Her primary research area is Australian environmental history, in particular human animal relations, with a secondary interest in the history of Newcastle.

Cushing brings an immigrant's perspective to the Australian past seeking to understand why and how particular cultural forms emerged. In these investigations, she places importance on the relationship between non-Indigenous Australians and the natural environment.  Her current project, funded by a Merewether Scholarship from the State Library of NSW, examines choices about meat eating in colonial Australia from this human animal relations perspective.  Past projects have included work on Australian beach cultures, the fight against air pollution in Newcastle and the range of relations between humans and other animals in Australia, from pet keeping to captive animal displays.

Her 2010 book, coauthored with Kevin Markwell, Eric Worrell and the Australian Reptile Park, traced the life and work of early celebrity naturalist Eric Worrell, placing his own adventures in the context of contemporary attitudes towards Australian wildlife, especially the generally disparaged reptiles. The book charts important shifts in the second half of the twentieth century as the status of Australian native animals was transformed from curiosity or unwanted pest to icon.

Another research strand is the history of Newcastle. Curiosity about the gulf between her own experience of Newcastle as a pleasant beachside city and the prevailing national stereotype of it as heavily polluted and relentlessly industrial inspired Cushing's 1995 thesis "Creating the Coalopolis: Perceptions of Newcastle 1770 - 1935." Ongoing interest in the history of Newcastle has led to projects on beaches and surf lifesaving, including a chapter in the centenary history of surf life saving, and on air pollution in Newcastle. Cushing is a founder with Julie MacIntyre of the Newcastle Hunter Studies group which holds an annual symposium in conjunction with Newcastle Art Gallery and co editor, with James Bennett and Erik Eklund, of the collection Radical Newcastle, to be published by New South Press in 2015.

Nancy Cushing is Program Convenor for the Bachelor of Arts and BA (Hons). She was Deputy Dean of Students for the Ourimbah and Sydney Campuses from 2008 to 2011. She is a member of the NSW Working Party for the Australian Dictionary of Biography and of the executive council of the NSW History Council.

Research Expertise
My field is Australian environmental history, in particular human animal relations. My PhD treated the history of Newcastle and I maintain an interest in local and urban history expressed in ongoing research into the history of air quality in the city undertaken with Assoc. Professor Howard Bridgman; and co editorship with James Bennett and Erik Eklund (Federation University) of the Radical Newcastle collection, to be published in 2015. I have co written a number of pieces on human animal relations with Associate Professor Kevin Markwick of Southern Cross University including our 2010 book, Snake-bitten: Eric Worrell and the Australian Reptile Park (UNSW Press). Currently, my main project brings together interests in human animal relations and food studies by examining choices around meat eating in colonial Australia. I have supervised a number of theses at the Masters and Doctoral level. Completed topics include - memorials to the Blue Mountains explorers - diet in the early Sydney settlement - historic houses on the Central Coast - the James Fletcher site in Newcastle My current supervisions include: - the impact of early governors on planning in NSW - a history of missions to seamen in British colonial ports in the later nineteen century - the role of the Newcastle industrial hub in the 1930s and 40s - preparations for WWII in NSW - the role and impact of the University of Newcastle's Open Foundation Program - a history of the squatting movement in Sydney's Glebe in the 1970s - the women's movement in Newcastle in the 1970s and 80s - the operation of community amongst coal miners in the late twentieth century

Teaching Expertise
My teaching is in the area of Australian cultural and environmental history. I enjoy the challenge of introducing up to 300 first year students to the fascinating history of Australia each year in HIST1051, the Australian Experience. At upper level, I offer a number of courses which reflect my own research interests, on Australian cities, environmental history and history and heritage. For honours studies, I provide a special study on imaginings of the 1950s in Australia.

Administrative Expertise
I am the program convenor for the Bachelor of Arts and BA (Hons). The BA is a large program with over 1000 students enrolled in our fifteen major areas of study. As program convenor, I welcome students each year and offer ongoing advice on their degree, making general announcements and responding to individual queries. I am responsible for ensuring that the degree conforms to the requirements of AQF level 7 and that all students are supported to fully engage in the degree. As convenor of the School's largest program, I am a member of the School's Teaching and Learning committee and work closely with the Deputy Head of School (Teaching and Learning). I take on associated roles such as mentor to other staff members within the University's management system and coordinator of the School's Open Day film fest. In the past, I have served as Deputy Dean of Students for the Ourimbah and Sydney Campuses and the Honours convenor for the School at the Ourimbah Campus. I am a member of the Australian Historical Association, and sit on the NSW working party for the Australian Dictionary of Biography and the NSW History Council.

Collaborations
Research Nancy's research interests lie in the fields of cultural and environmental history and food studies. These range from aspects of the history of Newcastle, including its long battle against poor air quality, to the nature of relations between humans and Australian animals in a variety of contexts: captive animal displays, entertainment, pet keeping and consumption. She published a book with Assoc. Professor Kevin Markwell of Southern Cross University in 2010 entitled, Snake-bitten: Eric Worrell and the Australian Reptile Park (UNSW Press). She currently has in production a collection of works on Radical Newcastle, co edited with her colleague James Bennett and Professor Erik Eklund of Federation University. This book is the result of several years of collaboration by 30 contributors from within and outside the academy and will be a valuable contribution to Newcastle historiography. Another project is a special issue of the Journal of Australian Colonial History on Newcastle and the Hunter Region, to be co edited with DrsJulie Macintyre and David Roberts of UNE. Nancy's current research project, funded by the State Library of NSW's 2013 Merewether Scholarship, is a history of meat eating in colonial Australia which will be published as a monograph in 2016.


Qualifications

  • PhD, University of Newcastle
  • Bachelor of Arts (Honours)(History), Dalhousie University - Canada
  • Master of Museum Studies, University of Toronto

Keywords

  • Air Pollution
  • Australian cultural history
  • Environmental History
  • Food studies
  • Heritage studies
  • Human/Animal Relations
  • Newcastle
  • Urban history

Fields of Research

CodeDescriptionPercentage
210303Australian History (excl. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History)80
210399Historical Studies not elsewhere classified20

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2015 - Senior LecturerUniversity of Newcastle
School of Humanities and Social Science
Australia

Academic appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2011 - Senior LecturerUniversity of Newcastle
School of Education and Arts
Australia
1/09/2003 - 1/12/2005Editor of Exhibition ReviewsHistory Australia
Australia
1/01/2000 - 1/12/2010Lecturer
History
University of Newcastle
School of Humanities and Social Science
Australia
1/06/1995 - 1/12/1999Associate LecturerUniversity of Newcastle
Faculty of the Central Coast- History
Australia

Membership

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
Member - Australian Dictionary of Biography NSW Working PartyAustralian Dictionary of Biography
Australia
Member - Australian Historical AssociationAustralian Historical Association
Australia

Invitations

Participant

YearTitle / Rationale
2008The Voyage of the Platypus, 1947: The Role of the Naturalist in International Diplomacy
Cushing, Nancy and Kevin Markwell, The Voyage of the Platypus, 1947: The Role of the Naturalist in International Diplomacy, Australian Historical Association Conference, Melbourne, July 2008.
2006The Song of the Snake: Eric Worrell and the Environmental Sensibilities of the 1950s
Organisation: Australian Historical Association Biennial Conference Description: The Song of the Snake: Eric Worrell and the Environmental Sensibilities of the 1950s, Australian Historical Association Biennial Conference, Canberra, July 2006.
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Book (2 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2015Bennett JE, Cushing N, Eklund E, Radical Newcastle: Unearthing the radical past and present of Newcastle and the Hunter Region, NewSouth Publishing, Sydney, 0 (2015)
2010Markwell K, Cushing NE, Snake-bitten: Eric Worrell and the Australian Reptile Park, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 240 (2010) [A1]

Chapter (8 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2013Cushing NE, Markwell K, 'From Snake Handlers to Wildlife Entrepreneurs', Venom: Fear, Fascination and Discovery, Medical History Museum, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 57-63 (2013) [B1]
2013Cushing NE, Markwell K, 'Snakes in the Twentieth-century Australian Imagination', Venom: Fear, Fascination and Discovery, Medical History Museum, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 51-56 (2013) [B1]
2011Cushing NE, Markwell K, 'I can't look: Disgust as a factor in the zoo experience', Zoos and Tourism: Conservation, Education, Entertainment?, Channel View Publications, Bristol, UK 167-178 (2011) [B1]
2011Cushing NE, 'Rosie's Secret', Making Film and Television Histories: Australia and New Zealand, I. B. Tauris, London 275-279 (2011) [B2]
2008Clark J, Cushing NE, Oakley R, 'Competing voices on the road: Seeking pleasure and representing death on the Pacific Highway', Shop till you Drop: Essays on Consuming and Dying in Australia, Southern Highlands Publishers, Normanhurst, New South Wales 106-121 (2008) [B1]
2006Cushing NE, Huntsman L, 'A National Icon: Surf lifesaving and Australian society and culture', Between the Flags: one hundred summers of Australian surf lifesaving, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney 1-21 (2006) [B1]
2002Cushing NE, 'The Pacific Highway and Australian Modernity', Departures: how Australia reinvents itself, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne 44-51 (2002) [B1]
1998Cushing NE, 'Our History Our Valley', Riverchange, Newcastle Region Public Library, Newcastle 3-36 (1998) [B1]
Show 5 more chapters

Journal article (11 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2012Boom K, Ben-Ami D, Croft DB, Cushing NE, Ramp D, Boronyak L, ''Pest' and Resource: A Legal History of Australia's Kangaroos', Animal Studies Journal, 1 17-40 (2012) [C1]
2009Cushing NE, 'Australia's smoke city: Air pollution in Newcastle', Australian Economic History Review, 49 19-33 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1467-8446.2008.00247.x
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2009Cushing NE, 'Balancing Biography and Institutional History: Eric Worrell¿s Australian Reptile Park', Public History Review, 16 78-91 (2009) [C2]
2009Markwell K, Cushing NE, 'The serpent's stare meets the tourist's gaze: Strategies of display at the Australian Reptile Park', Current Issues in Tourism, 12 475-488 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1080/13683500903042899
CitationsScopus - 2
2009Cushing N, Markwell K, 'Platypus diplomacy: animal gifts in international relations', JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIAN STUDIES, 33 255-271 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1080/14443050903079664Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2007Cushing NE, 'The road behind us: the Pacific Highway, Sydney to Brisbane, as a heritage corridor', Historic Environment, 20 21-25 (2007)
2007Cushing NE, 'The mysterious disappearance of maize: Food compulsion and food choice in colonial New South Wales', Food, Culture and Society, 10 109-130 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.2752/155280107780154060
2005Boissonneault M-F, Gladstone W, Scott PB, Cushing NE, 'Grey Nurse Shark Human Interactions and Portrayals:A Study of newspaper portrayals of the Grey Nurse Shark from 1969-2003', Electronic Green Journal, Winter 2005 Online (2005) [C1]
Co-authorsPaul Scott
1999Cushing N, 'A Day at the Coast: Gender, Work and Holiday Making on the New South Wales Central Coast', Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 4 3-11 (1999) [C1]
1998Cushing NE, 'Coalopolis to Steel City: Perceptions of Newcastle 1797-1859', Journal of Australian Studies, 57 61-71 (1998) [C1]
1998Cushing NE, 'Timbertown, A Review', Locality, 9, #1 13-18 (1998) [C3]
Show 8 more journal articles

Conference (6 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2009Cushing NE, Markwell K, 'The zoo-goer's grimace: Fear and loathing in the zoo experience', A World of Popular Entertainments Conference Proceedings, Callaghan, NSW (2009) [E3]
2008Cushing NE, Markwell KW, 'The Voyage of the Platypus, 1947: The role of the naturalist in international diplomacy', Locating History. Australian Historical Association Biennial Conference. Abstracts, Melbourne, VIC (2008) [E3]
2008Cushing NE, Markwell KW, ''Don't by-pass Gosford': The Car, the Australian Reptile Park and the promotion of tourism on the New South Wales Central Coast, 1959 - 80', Seachange: New and Renewed Urban Landscapes: 9th Australasian Urban History/Planning History Conference Proceedings, Caloundra, QLD (2008) [E1]
2007Boissonneault M-F, Gladstone W, Scott PB, Cushing NE, 'Grey nurse shark human interactions and portrayals: A study of newspaper portrayals of the grey nurse shark from 1969-2003', Animals and Society II: Considering Animals. Handbook, Hobart (2007) [E3]
CitationsScopus - 6
Co-authorsPaul Scott
2002Cushing N, 'Urban Space in the Suburbs: The Pacific Highway and Sydney''s Upper North Shore', Suburbia, A conference, Sydney (2002) [E4]
2002Cushing N, '"Urban Space in the Suburbs, The Pacific Highway and Sydney's Upper North Shore"' (2002) [E1]
Show 3 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants10
Total funding$65,868

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20151 grants / $5,000

Meat for the Pot: Cultures of Meat Eating in Colonial Australia$5,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle - Faculty of Education and Arts

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle - Faculty of Education and Arts
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeStrategic Networks Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2015
Funding Finish2015
GNoG1500897
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20131 grants / $12,000

The Skeleton at the Feast: Australian animals as food and non food in the colonial period$12,000

Funding body: Library Council of NSW

Funding bodyLibrary Council of NSW
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeMerewether Scholarship
RoleLead
Funding Start2013
Funding Finish2013
GNoG1301342
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

20081 grants / $545

Australian Historical Associtation Biennial Conference, University of Melbourne, 7/7/2008 - 10/7/2008$545

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0189261
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20052 grants / $27,697

Equity Research Fellowship Round 1 2005$27,262

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeEquity Research Fellowship
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2005
GNoG0184854
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

Australia ICOMOS, Corrugations, The Romance and Reality of Historic Roads, 25-27 November 2005$435

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2005
Funding Finish2005
GNoG0185947
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

20041 grants / $2,500

Rations and gender in colonial Australia$2,500

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2004
Funding Finish2004
GNoG0183446
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19981 grants / $2,000

A Cultural History of the Pacific Highway.$2,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1998
Funding Finish1998
GNoG0177226
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19962 grants / $11,126

Directory of Historians$9,800

Funding body: 1997 Bicentenary Historical Research Projects

Funding body1997 Bicentenary Historical Research Projects
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeResearch Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1996
Funding Finish1996
GNoG0176317
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY

1st Annual Australian Identities: History, Culture & Environment Conference - Dublin, Ireland - 3-6/7/96$1,326

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeTravel Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1996
Funding Finish1996
GNoG0176218
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY

19951 grants / $5,000

Creating the Coalopolis: Perceptions of Newcastle, 1770 to 1935.$5,000

Funding body: University of Newcastle

Funding bodyUniversity of Newcastle
Project TeamDoctor Nancy Cushing
SchemeNew Staff Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start1995
Funding Finish1995
GNoG0175971
Type Of FundingInternal
CategoryINTE
UONY
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Research Supervision

Current Supervision

CommencedResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2015An investigation of pleasure and romantic love in mid-century Australia, through conventions and prescriptions as well as individual responses
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2014The women's movement in Newcastle in the 1970s and 1980s through the lens of Josephine Conway's archives
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2013Australian Urban Squatters of the 1970's: Establishing and Living a Radical Lifestyle in Suburban Sydney.
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Principal Supervisor
2013The Making of the Newcastle Industrial Hub 1930-1945: Economic Depression, War and Newcastle's Industrial Revolution
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Principal Supervisor
2013Early Seamen's Missions in the British World
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2010Possession, Planning and Control: Imperial and Early Australian Land Policies as a Cornerstone of New South Wales History
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Principal Supervisor
2009Memory, Work and Community at Teralba
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2008Military and Civil Defence Planning in South-Eastern Australia, 1932-1945
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2008The History and Impacts of the Open Foundation Program on the Hunter and Central Coast Regions
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Co-Supervisor
2007Convicts to Cultural Conviction
History, University of Adelaide
Sole Supervisor

Past Supervision

YearResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2014"...here is an Asylum open..." Constructing a Culture of Government Care in Australia 1801 - 2014
History, Faculty of Education and Arts
Principal Supervisor
2007Do Historic Houses Have a Future? An Exploration of the Factors Which Contribute to or Detract From the Recognition, Appreciation and Formal Heritage Protection of Historic Houses in the Central Coast Region
Studies In Human Society, Faculty of Education and Arts
Sole Supervisor
2004Founding Fathers and Foundering Myths: Monuments to Explorers in the Blue Mountains New South Wales
Studies In Human Society, Faculty of Education and Arts
Principal Supervisor
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News

Radical Newcastle launch

Radical Newcastle launched at Newcastle Writers Festival

March 24, 2015

Watch talks by Newcastle radicals Vera Deacon, Professor John Maynard and Dr Daniela Heil, along with an official launch by Vice-Chancellor Professor Caroline McMillen of the Radical Newcastle book.

The Conversation

How Christmas pudding evolved with Australia

December 15, 2014

Dr Nancy Cushing and Dr Julie McIntyre, historians from the University of Newcastle's (UON) School of Humanities and Social Science, look at how Christmas pudding evolved with Australia in The Conversation.

Radical Newcastle book

Unearthing Newcastle's radical past

October 24, 2014

Historians Dr James Bennett and Dr Nancy Cushing from the University of Newcastle (UON), along with Dr Erik Eklund from Federation University, VIC, bring together a selection of essays about Newcastle's radical past, and consider its impact on the present and future.

Dr Nancy Cushing

Position

Senior Lecturer
School of Humanities and Social Science
Faculty of Education and Arts

Focus area

History

Contact Details

Emailnancy.cushing@newcastle.edu.au
Phone(02) 4348 4055
Fax(02) 4348 4075

Office

RoomHO1.06
BuildingHumanities Office
LocationOurimbah
10 Chittaway Road
Ourimbah, NSW 2258
Australia
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