Conjoint Professor David Durrheim

Conjoint Professor

School of Medicine and Public Health

Career Summary

Biography

David Durrheim, MBChB, DrPH, DCH, DTM&H, MPH&TM, FACTM, FAFPHM, is the Director of Health Protection, Hunter New England Health, New South Wales, Australia, Conjoint Professor of Public Health Medicine at the University of Newcastle, Australia and Adjunct Professor of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

He has an established track record in conducting public research that has an operational focus and is translational in nature. His ability to use operational research findings to assist local public health programs to improve their surveillance and service delivery, particularly in challenging under-resourced environments, has resulted in a number of awards and international recognition. He has been instrumental in developing novel surveillance systems to detect and facilitate response to emerging infectious disease risks. Professor Durrheim is an outspoken advocate for equitable global access to effective public health measures, particularly immunization.

In the past decade he has served as an expert adviser and consultant to a number of World Health Organization (WHO), regional and national health programmes in the African and Pacific Regions. He also served as the Director of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Vectorborne Diseases.

Professor Durrheim's research interests include novel infectious disease surveillance methods, control of zoonotic diseases and strategies for reducing inequity in public health service delivery. He has over 200 peer-reviewed publications, and has published several scientific monographs and chapters in leading public health texts.

Research Expertise
David Durrheim, MBChB, DrPH, DCH, DTM&H, MPH&TM, FACTM, FAFPHM, is the Director of Health Protection, Hunter New England Health, New South Wales, Australia and Conjoint Professor of Public Health Medicine at the University of Newcastle. He has an established track record in conducting public research that has an operational focus and is translational in nature. His ability to use operational research findings to assist local public health programs to improve their surveillance and service delivery, particularly in challenging under-resourced environments, has resulted in a number of awards and international recognition. He has been instrumental in developing novel surveillance systems to detect and facilitate response to emerging infectious disease risks.

Professor Durrheim is an outspoken advocate for equitable global access to effective public health measures, particularly immunization. In the past decade he has served as an expert adviser and consultant to a number of World Health Organization (WHO), regional and national health programmes in the African and Pacific Regions. He also served as the Director of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Vectorborne Diseases. Professor Durrheim's research interests include novel infectious disease surveillance methods, control of zoonotic diseases and strategies for reducing inequity in public health service delivery. He has over 200 peer-reviewed publications, and has published several scientific monographs and chapters in leading public health texts. 


Qualifications

  • Doctor of Public Health, James Cook University
  • Bachelor of Medicine & Surgery, University of Pretoria - South Africa
  • Diploma in Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, University of Witwatersrand
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Community Health, University of Pretoria - South Africa
  • Master of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University

Keywords

  • biosecurity
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • immunisation
  • public health surveillance

Fields of Research

CodeDescriptionPercentage
110899Medical Microbiology not elsewhere classified50
160599Policy and Administration not elsewhere classified25
111799Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified25

Professional Experience

UON Appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
18/12/2008 - 19/12/2009Casual AcademicUniversity of Newcastle
School of Psychology
Australia

Academic appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004DirectorJames Cook University
Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Australia
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004Head of SchoolJames Cook University
Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Australia
1/01/1999 - 1/12/2005Executive DirectorCora Barclay Centre for Deaf Children
Australia
1/01/1996 - 1/12/1998Deafness Studies Unit: Perth AnnexThe University of Melbourne
School of Education
Australia

Professional appointment

DatesTitleOrganisation / Department
1/01/2004 - Director Health ProtectionHunter New England Local Health District
Population Health
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004Director World Health Organisation Collaborative Centre of Lymphatic Filariasis
Australia
1/01/1994 - 1/12/2002Director of Communicable Disease ControlMpumalanga Province
South Africa
1/07/1992 - 1/12/1993Visiting RegistrarSt George's Medical School and Croydon District Health Authority
Australia
1/01/1992 - 1/06/1992Medical SuperindententGarankuwa Hospital- Medunsa
South Africa
1/01/1990 - 1/11/1991Senior Medical Officer and RegistrarGarankuwa Hospital- Medunsa
South Africa
1/01/1989 - 1/12/1989Medical Officer and ManagerHereroland, Namibia
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
South Africa
1/01/1988 - 1/12/1988Compulsory National ServiceMilitary Hospital
South Africa
1/01/1987 - 1/12/1987InternshipPretoria Academic Hospital
South Africa
Edit

Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (1 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2007Govere J, Durrheim DN, 'Techniques for evaluating repellents', Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods and Uses, CRC Press, Boca Raton 147-159 (2007) [B1]

Journal article (253 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2015Dhingra D, Durrheim D, Porigneaux P, 'Sporotrichosis outbreak and mouldy ¿hay in NSW.', Aust Fam Physician, 44 217-221 (2015)
Author URL
2015Durrheim DN, Strebel PM, 'Measles vaccine still saves children's lives', The Lancet, 385 327-327 (2015)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60114-3Correspondence
2015Durrheim DN, Rees H, Briggs DJ, Blumberg LH, 'Mass vaccination of dogs, control of canine populations and post-exposure vaccination - necessary but not sufficient for achieving childhood rabies elimination.', Trop Med Int Health, 20 682-684 (2015)
DOI10.1111/tmi.12474Author URL
2015Durrheim DN, Rees H, Briggs DJ, Blumberg LH, 'Mass vaccination of dogs, control of canine populations and post-exposure vaccination - necessary but not sufficient for achieving childhood rabies elimination', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 20 682-684 (2015)
DOI10.1111/tmi.12474
2015Britton PN, Eastwood K, Paterson B, Durrheim DN, Dale RC, Cheng AC, et al., 'Consensus guidelines for the investigation and management of encephalitis in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand', Internal Medicine Journal, 45 563-576 (2015)

Encephalitis is a complex neurological syndrome caused by inflammation of the brain parenchyma. The management of encephalitis is challenging because: the differential diagnosis of encephalopathy is broad; there is often rapid disease progression; it often requires intensive supportive management; and there are many aetiologic agents for which there is no definitive treatment. Patients with possible meningoencephalitis are often encountered in the emergency care environment where clinicians must consider differential diagnoses, perform appropriate investigations and initiate empiric antimicrobials. For patients who require admission to hospital and in whom encephalitis is likely, a staged approach to investigation and management is preferred with the potential involvement of multiple medical specialties. Key considerations in the investigation and management of patients with encephalitis addressed in this guideline include: Which first-line investigations should be performed?; Which aetiologies should be considered possible based on clinical features, risk factors and radiological features?; What tests should be arranged in order to diagnose the common causes of encephalitis?; When to consider empiric antimicrobials and immune modulatory therapies?; and What is the role of brain biopsy?

DOI10.1111/imj.12749
2015Jaravani FG, Durrheim D, Byleveld P, Oelgemoeller M, Judd J, 'Drinking water safety in recreational parks in northern New South Wales, Australia', Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, (2015)

The objective of this study was to assess whether the drinking water supplies in northern New South Wales (NSW) recreational parks conformed to the recommendations of the NSW Private Water Supply Guidelines. Water supplies in 57 recreational parks were surveyed to assess implementation of the Guidelines. A random sample of five parks (excluding reticulated town water supply or rainwater) was selected for microbiological sampling over a 12-month period. Additional nine samples were collected from carted water supplies. Forty-four of the 57 water supplies were untreated. Escherichia coli was detected in 16 of 59 monthly samples. Two of 36 treated water samples showed contamination by E. coli compared to 14 of 23 untreated water samples. Three of nine carted water supplies had E. coli at initial sampling. Thirty-four supplies had warning signs posted somewhere in the park. Twenty-one drinking water tanks had evidence of physical deterioration. No supply had a risk-based drinking water management plan. Treated water supplies had lower rates of E. coli detection and presented a lower risk than untreated water supplies. Survey and sampling results indicated the need for reviewing existing water quality warning signs in the recreational parks and implementation of risk-based drinking water management plans.

DOI10.1080/14486563.2014.984782
2015Eastwood K, Paterson BJ, Levi C, Givney R, Loewenthal M, DE Malmanche T, et al., 'Adult encephalitis surveillance: experiences from an Australian prospective sentinel site study.', Epidemiol Infect, 1-8 (2015)
DOI10.1017/S0950268815000527Author URL
2015Durrheim DN, Strebel PM, 'Measles vaccine still saves children's lives.', Lancet, 385 327 (2015)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60114-3Author URL
2014Quinn EK, Massey PD, Cox-Witton K, Paterson BJ, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, 'Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.', BMC Vet Res, 10 144 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1746-6148-10-144Author URL
2014Heilbronn C, Munnoch S, Butler MT, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, 'Timeliness of Salmonella Typhimurium notifications after the introduction of routine MLVA typing in NSW.', N S W Public Health Bull, 24 159-163 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB13010Author URL
2014Cashman P, Moberley S, Dalton C, Stephenson J, Elvidge E, Butler M, Durrheim DN, 'Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.', Vaccine, 32 5503-5508 (2014)
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.061Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2014Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'The case for ILI surveillance.', Vaccine, (2014) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.041Author URL
2014Cashman P, Moberley S, Dalton C, Stephenson J, Elvidge E, Butler M, Durrheim DN, 'Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children', Vaccine, 32 5503-5508 (2014) [C1]

Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n= 21), and piloted during the 2012 (n= 200) and 2013 (n= 477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n= 113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.

DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.061
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2014Dodet B, Durrheim DN, Rees H, 'Rabies: Underused vaccines, unnecessary deaths', VACCINE, 32 2017-2019 (2014) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.031Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2014Durrheim DN, Crowcroft NS, Strebel PM, 'Measles - The epidemiology of elimination', VACCINE, 32 6880-6883 (2014) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.061Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2014Cashman P, Moberley S, Dalton C, Stephenson J, Elvidge E, Butler M, Durrheim DN, 'Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children', Vaccine, 32 5503-5508 (2014)

Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n= 21), and piloted during the 2012 (n= 200) and 2013 (n= 477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n= 113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.

DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.061
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2014Durrheim DN, 'Remaining alert for polio importations', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50 329-330 (2014) [C3]
DOI10.1111/jpc.12534
2014March B, Eastwood K, Wright IM, Tilbrook L, Durrheim DN, 'Epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50 216-220 (2014) [C1]

Aim To describe the epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in northern New South Wales, Australia, with a specific focus on neonatal and young infant cases. Methods A retrospective review of PCR-confirmed enteroviral meningoencephalitis cases in the Hunter New England Local Health District of northern NSW was conducted for the period 2008-2012. Results One hundred nine patients met the case definition. There was summer seasonality, with 50% (55/109) of cases occurring between December and February. Neonates and young infants (<3 months of age) accounted for 42% (46/109) of cases, with 20% (9/46) being premature births. Fever (83%) was the most common presentation in this age group, followed by irritability (40%), feeding difficulties (40%) and rash (17%). All received at least one antibiotic during their admission, with 26% (12/46) also treated empirically with acyclovir. There was one death. Where testing was undertaken, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels were high in 90% (28/31) of neonates and young infants, but the CSF white cell count was variable, with 57% <10/mm3 and 21% >100/mm3. Conclusion Early diagnosis of enteroviral meningoencephalitis could alter management, potentially reducing the period of treatment with empirical antimicrobials and permitting earlier discharge. © 2013 The Authors.

DOI10.1111/jpc.12468
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsIan Wright
2014Martin N, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Australia's polio risk', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38 E107-E113 (2014) [C1]
2014Hope KG, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, 'Short incubation periods in Campylobacter outbreaks associated with poultry liver dishes.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 38 E20-E23 (2014) [C3]
Author URL
2014Fitzgerald TL, Merritt TD, Zammit A, McLeod C, Landinez LM, White PA, et al., 'An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 38 E9-E15 (2014) [C1]
Author URL
2014Durrheim DN, Adams A, 'Polio anywhere is a risk everywhere', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38 E105-E106 (2014) [C3]
2014Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Measurement of surveillance signal response effectiveness', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14 794-794 (2014) [C3]
DOI10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70868-0
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2014Ali A, Jafri RZ, Messonnier N, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al., 'Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease', Pathogens and Global Health, 108 11-20 (2014)
DOI10.1179/2047773214Y.0000000126
2014Ali A, Jafri RZ, Messonnier N, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al., 'Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease', Pathogens and Global Health, 108 11-20 (2014) [C1]

A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

DOI10.1179/2047773214Y.0000000126
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2014Quinn E, Massey P, Rosewell A, Smith M, Durrheim D, 'Improving ethnocultural data to inform public health responses to communicable diseases in Australia.', Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR, 5 1-4 (2014) [C3]
DOI10.5365/wpsar.2014.5.1.011
2014Paterson BJ, Butler MT, Eastwood K, Cashman PM, Jones A, Durrheim DN, 'Cross sectional survey of human-bat interaction in Australia: Public health implications', BMC Public Health, 14 (2014) [C1]

Background: Flying foxes (megachiroptera) and insectivorous microbats (microchiroptera) are the known reservoirs for a range of recently emerged, highly pathogenic viruses. In Australia there is public health concern relating to bats' role as reservoirs of Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABLV), which has clinical features identical to classical rabies. Three deaths from ABLV have occurred in Australia. A survey was conducted to determine the frequency of bat exposures amongst adults in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales; explore reasons for handling bats; examine reported practices upon encountering injured or trapped bats or experiencing bat bites or scratches; and investigate knowledge of bat handling warnings. Methods. A representative sample of 821 New South Wales adults aged 16 years and older were interviewed during May and June 2011, using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) method. Frequencies, proportions and statistical differences in proportion were performed. Using an -value of 0.05 and power of 80%, it was calculated that a sample size of 800 was required to provide statistical significance of +/- 5% for dichotomous variables. Results: One-hundred-and-twenty-seven (15.5%) respondents indicated that they had previously handled a bat, being 22% (48/218) rural and 13% (78/597) urban respondents (¿ §ssup§2§esup§ = 9.8, p = 0.0018). Twenty one percent of males (63/304) had handled bats compared with 12% (64/517) of females (¿ §ssup§2§esup§ = 10.2, p = 0.0014). Overall, 42.0% (n = 345) of respondents reported having seen or heard a warning about handling bats. If faced with an injured or trapped bat, 25% (206/821) indicated that they would handle the bat, with 17% (36/206) saying that they would use their bare hands. For minor scratches, 14% (117/821) indicated that they would ignore the injury while four respondents would ignore major scratches or bites. Conclusions: Previous human-bat interactions were relatively common. Bat exposures most frequently occurred with sick or injured bats, which have the highest risk of ABLV. On encountering an injured or sick bat, potentially high risk practices were commonly reported, particularly among rural males. It is important to understand why people still handle bats despite public health warnings to inform future communication strategies. © 2014 Paterson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

DOI10.1186/1471-2458-14-58
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 1
2013Durrheim DN, 'Simply wearing footwear could interrupt transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis.', BMJ, 347 f5219 (2013) [C3]
Author URL
2013Gunaratnam P, Massey P, Durrheim D, Torvaldsen S, 'Invasive meningococcal disease in elderly people, New South Wales, Australia, 1993 to 2012.', Western Pac Surveill Response J, 4 4-10 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.5365/WPSAR.2013.4.4.001Author URL
2013Polkinghorne BG, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Byrnes T, MacIntyre CR, 'Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: The experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia', Public Health, 127 32-38 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To describe and evaluate the public health response to the Tamworth Country Music Festival, an annual extended mass gathering in rural New South Wales, Australia; and to propose a framework for responding to similar rural mass gatherings. Study design: Process evaluation by direct observation, archival analysis and focus group discussion. Methods: The various components of the public health response to the 2011 Tamworth Country Music Festival were actively recorded. An archival review of documentation from 2007 to 2010 was performed to provide context. A focus group was also conducted to discuss the evolution of the public health response and the consequences of public health involvement. Results: Public health risks increased with increasing duration of the rural mass gathering. Major events held within the rural mass gathering further strained resources. The prevention, preparedness, response and recovery principles provided a useful framework for public health actions. Particular risks included inadequately trained food preparation volunteers functioning in poorly equipped temporary facilities, heat-related ailments and arboviral disease. Conclusion: Extended mass gatherings in rural areas pose particular public health challenges; surge capacity is limited and local infrastructure may be overwhelmed in the event of an acute incident or outbreak. There is value in proactive public health surveillance and monitoring. Annual mass gatherings provide opportunities for continual systems improvement. Early multi-agency planning can identify key risks and identify opportunities for partnership. Special consideration is required for major events within mass gatherings. © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health.

DOI10.1016/j.puhe.2012.09.014
CitationsScopus - 2
2013Moodley K, Hardie K, Selgelid MJ, Waldman RJ, Strebel P, Rees H, Durrheim DN, 'Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 91 290-297 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.2471/BLT.12.113480Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 4
2013Coetzee M, Kruger P, Hunt RH, Durrheim DN, Urbach J, Hansford CF, 'Malaria in South Africa: 110 years of learning to control the disease', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 770-778 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.7196/SAMJ.7446Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 4
2013Maharaj R, Raman J, Morris N, Moonasar D, Durrheim DN, Seocharan I, et al., 'Epidemiology of malaria in South Africa: From control to elimination', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 779-783 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.7196/SAMJ.7441Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2013Moonasar D, Morris N, Kleinschmidt I, Maharaj R, Raman J, Mayet NT, et al., 'What will move malaria control to elimination in South Africa?', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 801-806 (2013) [C2]
DOI10.7196/SAMJ.7445Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2013Durrheim DN, Poland GA, 'United Nations mercury treaty jeopardizes vaccine protection of the world's most vulnerable children', VACCINE, 31 1357-1358 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.104Author URL
2013Wang SA, Mantel CF, Hyde TB, Mounier-Jack S, Brenzel L, Favin M, et al., 'New vaccine introductions: Assessing the impact and the opportunities for immunization and health systems strengthening', Vaccine, 31 B122-B128 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.10.116
CitationsScopus - 6
2013Merritt TD, Cretikos MA, Smith W, Durrheim DN, 'The health of Hunter Valley communities in proximity to coal mining and power generation, general practice data, 1998-2010.', N S W Public Health Bull, 24 57-64 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB12109Author URL
Co-authorsWayne Smith
2013Venkatesan A, Tunkel AR, Bloch KC, Lauring AS, Sejvar J, Bitnun A, et al., 'Case Definitions, Diagnostic Algorithms, and Priorities in Encephalitis: Consensus Statement of the International Encephalitis Consortium', CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 57 1114-1128 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1093/cid/cit458Author URL
CitationsScopus - 29Web of Science - 23
2013Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, Butler MT, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Building Influenza Surveillance Pyramids in Near Real Time, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19 1863-1865 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.3201/eid1911.121878
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2013Eastwood K, Durrheim D, Cashman P, 'Availability of the northern hemisphere influenza vaccine for Australians travelling overseas', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, 57 270-270 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.jcv.2013.03.006Author URL
2013Speare R, Luly J, Reimers J, Durrheim D, Lunt R, 'Antibodies to Australian bat lyssavirus in an asymptomatic bat carer', INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, 43 1256-1257 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1111/imj.12276Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2013Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Review of Australia's polio surveillance.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 37 E149-E155 (2013) [C1]
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3
2013Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Butler MT, Fejsa J, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report 2011 and 2012', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 37 E398-E406 (2013) [C1]
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2013Hobday LK, Thorley BR, Alexander J, Aitken T, Massey PD, Cretikos M, et al., 'Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study', BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2334-13-384Author URL
2013Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Stephens N, Christensen A, 'Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2458-13-62Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2013Kardamanidis K, Cashman P, Durrheim DN, 'Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: A cross-sectional analysis', TRAVEL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE, 11 421-426 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.008Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 3
2013Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al., 'Global epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease', POPULATION HEALTH METRICS, 11 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1478-7954-11-17Author URL
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 17
2013Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, Hardie K, 'Pandemic response in low-resource settings requires effective syndromic surveillance', Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, 7 887-888 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1111/irv.12098
2013Durrheim DN, 'STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS INFECTION Simply wearing footwear could interrupt transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis', BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 347 (2013) [C3]
DOI10.1136/bmj.f5219Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2013Paterson BJ, Kirk MD, Cameron AS, D'Este C, Durrheim DN, 'Historical data and modern methods reveal insights in measles epidemiology: a retrospective closed cohort study', BMJ OPEN, 3 (2013) [C1]
DOI10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002033Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsCatherine Deste
2013Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'The remarkable adaptability of syndromic surveillance to meet public health needs', Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 3 41-47 (2013) [C1]

The goal of syndromic surveillance is the earlier detection of epidemics, allowing a timelier public health response than is possible using traditional surveillance methods. Syndromic surveillance application for public health purposes has changed over time and reflects a dynamic evolution from the collection, interpretation of data with dissemination of data to those who need to act, to a more holistic approach that incorporates response as a core component of the surveillance system. Recent infectious disease threats, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian influenza (H5N1) and pandemic influenza (H1N1), have all highlighted the need for countries to be rapidly aware of the spread of infectious diseases within a region and across the globe. The International Health Regulations (IHR) obligation to report public health emergencies of international concern has raised the importance of early outbreak detection and response. The emphasis in syndromic surveillance is changing from automated, early alert and detection, to situational awareness and response. Published literature on syndromic surveillance reflects the changing nature of public health threats and responses. Syndromic surveillance has demonstrated a remarkable ability to adapt to rapidly shifting public health needs. This adaptability makes it a highly relevant public health tool. © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

DOI10.1016/j.jegh.2012.12.005
CitationsScopus - 4
2012Su Yin Ng J, Eastwood K, Walker B, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Porigneaux P, et al., 'Evidence of Cryptosporidium transmission between cattle and humans in northern New South Wales', Experimental Parasitology, 130 437-441 (2012) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.exppara.2012.01.014
CitationsScopus - 17
2012Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Leang SK, et al., 'Characteristics of a widespread community cluster of H275Y Oseltamivir-Resistant A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza in Australia', Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206 148-157 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 51Web of Science - 47
Co-authorsPeter Wark, Craig Dalton
2012Massey PD, Durrheim DN, 'Universal human papillomavirus vaccination of Australian boys - neither cost-effective nor equitable', Medical Journal of Australia, 196 446 (2012) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2012Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Guillain-Barre Syndrome', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 367 973-973 (2012) [C3]
Author URL
2012Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Correspondence: Guillain-Barre syndrome', New England Journal of Medicine, 367 973 (2012) [C3]
2012Durrheim DN, 'Global reduction in measles mortality', The Lancet, 380 1303 (2012) [C3]
2012Duclos P, Durrheim DN, Reingold AL, Bhutta ZA, Vannice K, Rees H, 'Developing evidence-based immunization recommendations and GRADE', Vaccine, 31 12-19 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 8
2012Durrheim DN, 'HOSPITALS ARE NOT AN APPROPRIATE SETTING IN WHICH TO PROVIDE CATCH-UP IMMUNISATIONS RESPONSE', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, 48 1107-1107 (2012) [C3]
DOI10.1111/jpc.12009Author URL
2012Way ASC, Durrheim DN, Vally H, Massey PD, 'Missed immunisation opportunities in emergency departments in northern New South Wales, Australia', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 48 66-70 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2012Durrheim DN, 'Author's response', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 48 1107 (2012) [C3]
2012Menzies RI, Burgess M, Durrheim DN, 'Controlling measles in NSW: How are we doing in the context of other countries in the Western Pacific?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 23 169-170 (2012) [C2]
2012Fitzgerald TL, Durrheim DN, Merritt TD, Birch CD, Tran T, 'Measles with a possible 23 day incubation period', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 36 E277-E280 (2012) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2
2012Hope KG, Butler MT, Massey PD, Cashman P, Durrheim DN, Stephenson J, Worley A, 'Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: Room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice', BMC Pediatrics, 12 98 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 4
2012Chanda E, Coleman M, Kleinschmidt I, Hemingway J, Hamainza B, Masaninga F, et al., 'Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: Implications for monitoring and evaluation', Malaria Journal, 11 437 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 7
2012Durrheim DN, 'Ensuring that human rights and appropriate evidence endure as immunisation cornerstones', Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases, 10 57-58 (2012) [C3]
2012Durrheim DN, Berling I, Stephenson J, Cashman P, Loten C, Butler M, 'Opportunistic childhood vaccinations in emergency- Are we really missing anyone?', Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 15 37-44 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4
2012Paterson BJ, Kool JL, Durrheim DN, Pavlin B, 'Sustaining surveillance: Evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific', Global Public Health, 7 682-694 (2012) [C1]
DOI10.1080/17441692.2012.699713
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2012Kool JL, Paterson BJ, Pavlin BI, Durrheim DN, Musto J, Kolbe A, 'Pacific-wide simplified syndromic surveillance for early warning of outbreaks', Global Public Health, 7 670-681 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2012Hanson D, McFarlane K, Vardon P, Lloyd J, Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Measuring the sustainability of a community safety promotion network: Working from the inside out', International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 19 297-305 (2012) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2012Ehlkes L, Eastwood K, Webb C, Durrheim DN, 'Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 3 1-6 (2012) [C1]
2011Massey PD, Viney K, Kienene T, Tagaro M, Itogo N, Ituaso-Conway N, Durrheim DN, 'Ten years on: Highlights and challenges of directly observed treatment short-course as the recommended TB control strategy in four Pacific Island nations', Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health, 10 44-47 (2011) [C1]
2011Massey PD, Todd K, Osbourn M, Taylor K, Durrheim DN, 'Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: Reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response, 2 1-4 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.5365/wpsar.2011.2.1.007
2011Kohlhagen JK, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, 'Meeting measles elimination indicators: surveillance performance in a regional area of Australia', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 2 1-5 (2011) [C1]
2011Durrheim DN, Bashour H, 'Measles eradication', The Lancet, 377 808 (2011) [C3]
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60299-7
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2011Massey PD, Miller A, Saggers S, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Taylor K, et al., 'Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and the development of pandemic influenza containment strategies: Community voices and community control', Health Policy, 103 184-190 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 7
2011Paterson B, Caddis R, Durrheim D, 'Use of workplace absenteeism surveillance data for outbreak detection', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17 1963-1964 (2011)
DOI10.3201/eid1710.110202
CitationsScopus - 1
2011Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, Butler MT, Feisa J, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report, 2010.', Communicable diseases intelligence, 35 288-293 (2011) [C2]

Flutracking is a national weekly online survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) completed by community members. Flutracking integrates participants' ILI symptom information with their influenza vaccination status to monitor influenza activity and field vaccine effectiveness (FVE). This report summarises results from the 2010 Flutracking season compared with previous seasons. Nationally, participation in Flutracking has more than doubled between 2008 and 2010, with 5,346 new participants enrolled or recruited in 2010 and a peak weekly participation of 10,773. By the end of the 2010 season, 5,904 of 9,109 (64.8%) participants had received the monovalent pandemic vaccine and/or the 2010 seasonal vaccine. From 2007 to 2010 FVE calculations demonstrated that the seasonal vaccine was effective except in 2009 during the pandemic. Peak 2010 ILI activity occurred in early June and August, and peak weekly 2010 ILI rates (4.2% among unvaccinated participants) were lower than the peak ILI rates during the 2009 pandemic (6.0% among unvaccinated participants). However, the decrease in laboratory notifications was much larger than the decrease in Flutracking rates. In summary, the number of Flutracking participants continued to steadily increase over the 2010 influenza season. The system has shown value in providing weekly vaccination uptake data during and beyond the 2009 influenza pandemic, as well as rapid FVE estimates that are qualitatively aligned with findings from other analyses of vaccine efficacy. Flutracking has also provided estimates of weekly community ILI activity that were not biased by health seeking behaviour and clinician testing practices.

CitationsScopus - 1
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2011Hope KG, Massey PD, Osbourn M, Durrheim DN, Kewley CD, Turner CL, 'Senior clinical nurses effectively contribute to the pandemic influenza public health response', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28 47-53 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 2
2011Hall R, Durrheim DN, 'One Health: Much more than a slogan', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 97-98 (2011) [C3]
DOI10.1071/nb11016
2011Paterson BJ, Mackenzie JS, Durrheim DN, Smith D, 'A review of the epidemiology and surveillance of viral zoonotic encephalitis and the impact on human health in Australia', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 99-104 (2011) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB10076
CitationsScopus - 8
2011Durrheim DN, 'Using operational research to ensure that immunisation benefits are enjoyed by all', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 1-2 (2011) [C3]
2011Macartney KK, Durrheim DN, 'NSW immunisation performance: continuing progress but no room for complacency', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 1-2 (2011) [C3]
2011Paterson BJ, Caddis R, Durrheim DN, 'Use of workplace absenteeism surveillance data for outbreak detection', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17 1963-1964 (2011) [C3]
DOI10.3201/eid1710.110202
2011Carr C, Durrheim DN, Eastwood K, Massey P, Jaggers D, Caelli M, et al., 'Australia's first pandemic influenza mass vaccination clinic exercise: Hunter New England Area Health Service, NSW, Australia', Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 26 47-53 (2011) [C1]
2011Hess IM, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, O'Connor S, Graves SR, 'Preventing Q fever endocarditis: a review of cardiac assessment in hospitalised Q fever patients', Rural and Remote Health, 11 1763 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2011Massey PD, Polkinghorne BG, Durrheim DN, Lower T, Speare R, 'Blood, guts and knife cuts: Reducing the risk of swine brucellosis in feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales, Australia', Rural and Remote Health, 11 1-9 (2011) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2010Cretikos M, Byleveld P, Durrheim DN, Porigneaux PG, Merritt TD, Leask S, 'Supply system factors associated with microbiological drinking water safety in regional New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2007', Journal of Water and Health, 8 257-268 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.2166/wh.2009.203
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2010Guimont C, Hullick C, Durrheim DN, Ryan N, Ferguson J, Massey P, 'Invasive meningococcal disease: Improving management through structured review of cases in the Hunter New England area, Australia', Journal of Public Health, 21 38-43 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1093/pubmed/fdp075
CitationsScopus - 3
Co-authorsJohn Ferguson
2010Dawood FS, Hope KG, Durrheim DN, Givney R, Fry AM, Dalton CB, 'Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia', Plos One, 5 7 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0009880
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 8
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2010Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Merritt T, Massey PD, Huppatz C, Dalton CB, et al., 'Field exercises are useful for improving public health emergency responses', WSPAR: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 1 1-7 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.5365/wpsar.2010.1.1.003
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2010Merritt AD, Roberts-Witteveen AR, Durrheim DN, 'Closing the gap - better health intelligence is required', Medical Journal of Australia, 193 309 (2010) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 1
2010Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Jones AL, Butler M, 'Acceptance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination by the Australian public', Medical Journal of Australia, 192 33-36 (2010) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 67Web of Science - 58
2010Miller A, Durrheim DN, 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities forgotten in new Australian National Action Plan for Human Influenza Pandemic: 'Ask us, listen to us, share with us'', Medical Journal of Australia, 193 316-317 (2010) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2010Dalton CB, Cretikos MA, Durrheim DN, Seppelt IM, Rawlinson WD, Dwyer DE, 'Comparison of adult patients hospitalised with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza during the 'PROTECT' phase of the pandemic response', Medical Journal of Australia, 192 357-358 (2010) [C3]
CitationsWeb of Science - 4
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2010Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabaso MLH, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Household and microeconomic factors associated with malaria in Mpumalanga, South Africa', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 104 143-147 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.07.010
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 12
2010Durrheim DN, Reingold A, 'Modifying the GRADE framework could benefit public health', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64 387 (2010) [C3]
DOI10.1136/jech.2009.103226
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 7
2010Durrheim DN, Cashman P, 'Addressing the immunization coverage paradox: A matter of children's rights and social justice', Clinical Therapeutics, 32 1496-1498 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.04.019
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2010Carlson SJ, Durrheim DN, Dalton CB, 'Flutracking provides a measure of field influenza vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2007-2009', Vaccine, 28 6809-6810 (2010) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.051
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2010Durrheim DN, 'Bioterrorism - being prepared but not paralysed', Issues, - 15-17 (2010) [C3]
2010McIntyre PB, Durrheim DN, Campbell-Lloyd S, 'The NSW immunisation strategy 2008-2011: How are we doing?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 21 193-196 (2010) [C3]
2010Irwin M, Massey P, Walker B, Durrheim DN, 'Feral pig hunting: A risk factor for human brucellosis in North-West NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 20 192-194 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB09023
CitationsScopus - 4
2010Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Butler M, Jones A, 'Responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16 1211-1216 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.3201/eid1608.100132
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 10
2010Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Fesja J, 'Online flutracking survey of influenza-like illness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16 1960-1962 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.3201/eid1612.100935
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2010Hope K, Durrheim DN, Barnett D, D'Este CA, Kewley CD, Dalton CB, et al., 'Willingness of frontline health care workers to work during a public health emergency', Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 25 39-47 (2010) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 11
Co-authorsCatherine Deste, Craig Dalton
2010Hope KG, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Kohlhagen JK, Todd KW, D'Este CA, 'Evaluating the utility of emergency department syndromic surveillance for a regional public health service', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 34 310-318 (2010) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4
Co-authorsCatherine Deste
2010Way ASC, Durrheim DN, Merritt T, Vally H, 'Antiviral distribution data - a potential syndromic surveillance system to assist pandemic health service operational planning', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 34 303-309 (2010) [C1]
2010Huppatz C, Gawarikar Y, Levi CR, Kelly PM, Williams D, Dalton CB, et al., 'Should there be a standardised approach to the diagnostic workup of suspected adult encephalitis? A case series from Australia', BMC Infectious Diseases, 10 1-6 (2010) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2334-10-353
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
Co-authorsCraig Dalton, Chris Levi
2009Huppatz C, Capuano C, Palmer K, Kelly PM, Durrheim DN, 'Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: A case study of 5 countries', BMC Infectious Diseases, 9 1-8 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2334-9-92
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 14
2009Dalton CB, Merritt T, Durrheim DN, Munnoch S, Kirk M, 'A structured framework for improving outbreak investigation audits', BMC Public Health, 9 472 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2458-9-472
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2009Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes', Malaria Journal, 8 1-6 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1475-2875-8-68
CitationsScopus - 47Web of Science - 41
2009Dawood FS, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Hope KG, 'Rates of hospitalisation for acute respiratory illness and the emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the Hunter New England Area Health Service', Medical Journal of Australia, 191 573-574 (2009) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2009Paterson B, Durrheim DN, Tuyl FA, 'Influenza: H1N1 goes to school', Science, 325 1071-1072 (2009) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 8
Co-authorsFrank Tuyl
2009Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Francis JL, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Duncan S, Islam F, Speare R, 'Knowledge about pandemic influenza and compliance with containment measures among Australians', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87 588-594 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.2471/blt.08.060772
CitationsScopus - 27Web of Science - 20
2009Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Way A, 'Q-fever vaccination: Unfinished business in Australia', Vaccine, 27 3801 (2009) [C3]
DOI10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.043
2009Carr C, Byles JE, Durrheim DN, 'Practice nurses best protect the vaccine cold chain in general practice', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27 35-39 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 2
Co-authorsJulie Byles
2009Roberts-Witteveen AR, Durrheim DN, Merritt TD, Munnoch SA, 'Estimate of the number of Campylobacter infections in the Hunter region, NSW, 2004-2007', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 20 187-191 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb09009
2009Durrheim DN, Freeman P, Roth I, Hornitzky M, 'Epidemiologie questions from anthrax outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15 840-842 (2009) [C3]
DOI10.3201/eid1505.081744
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 11
2009Huppatz C, Durrheim DN, Levi CR, Dalton CB, Williams D, Clements MS, Kelly PM, 'Etiology of encephalitis in Australia, 1990-2007', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15 1359-1365 (2009) [C1]
DOI10.3201/eid1509.081540
CitationsScopus - 34Web of Science - 37
Co-authorsChris Levi, Craig Dalton
2009Jaravani FG, Durrheim DN, Eastwood K, Pearce G, Byleveld P, 'Natural warm water spa baths in rural Australia and public health risks', Environmental Health, 9 31-39 (2009) [C1]
2009Massey PD, Miller A, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Saggers S, Eastwood K, 'Pandemic influenza containment and the cultural and social context of indigenous communities', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1179 (2009) [C3]
CitationsWeb of Science - 6
2009Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Kewley C, 'Australia's pandemic 'protect' strategy: The tension between prevention and patient', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1288 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2009Massey PD, Pearce G, Taylor KA, Orcher L, Saggers S, Durrheim DN, 'Reducing the risk of pandemic influenza in Aboriginal communities', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1290 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 10
2009Osbourn M, McPhie KA, Ratnamohan VM, Dwyer DE, Durrheim DN, 'Outbreak of human metapneumovirus inflection in a residential aged care facility', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 38-40 (2009) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 6
2009Roberts-Witteveen AR, Campbell BA, Merritt TD, Massey PD, Shadbolt CT, Durrheim DN, 'Egg-associated Salmonella outbreak in an aged care facility, New South Wales, 2008', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 49-52 (2009) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 1
2009Huppatz C, Kelly PM, Levi CR, Dalton CB, Williams D, Durrheim DN, 'Encephalitis in Australia, 1979-2006: Trends and aetiologies', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 192-197 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 11
Co-authorsCraig Dalton, Chris Levi
2009Massey PD, Irwin M, Durrheim DN, 'Enhanced Q fever risk exposure surveillance may permit better informed vaccination policy', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 41-45 (2009) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 9
2009Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Tuyl FA, Durrheim DN, Fejsa J, Muscatello DJ, et al., 'Flutracking surveillance: Comparing 2007 New South Wales results with laboratory confirmed influenza notifications', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 323-326 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 7
Co-authorsFrank Tuyl, Craig Dalton
2009Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Fejsa J, Francis JL, Carlson S, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Tuyl FA, 'Flutracking: A weekly Australian community online survey of influenza-like illness in 2006, 2007 and 2008', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 316-322 (2009) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 11
Co-authorsCraig Dalton, Frank Tuyl
2008Ewald BD, Webb CE, Durrheim DN, Russell RC, 'Is there a risk of malaria transmission in NSW?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 127-131 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb07040
CitationsScopus - 1
Co-authorsBen Ewald
2008Ewald BD, Durrheim DN, 'Australian Bat Lyssavirus: Examination of post-exposure treatment in NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 104-107 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb07050
CitationsScopus - 4
Co-authorsBen Ewald
2008Massey P, Durrheim DN, 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples at higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease in NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 100-103 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb07047
CitationsScopus - 4
2008Byleveld PM, Cretikos MA, Leask SD, Durrheim DN, 'Ensuring safe drinking water in regional NSW: The role of regulation', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 203-207 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb08031
2008Hanson D, Hanson J, Vardon P, McFarlane K, Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'Documenting the development of social capital in a community Safety Promotion Network: It's not what you know but who you know', Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 19 144-151 (2008) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2008Hope KG, Durrheim DN, Muscatello D, Merritt TD, Zheng W, Massey P, et al., 'Identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance: Can emergency department data assist in earlier identification?', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 32 361-363 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00255.x
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
2008Huppatz CM, Durrheim DN, Lammie P, Kelly P, Melrose W, '(Editorial) Eliminating lymphatic filariasis: The surveillance challenge', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 13 292-294 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02002.x
CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 5
2008Eastwood K, Osbourn M, Francis L, Merritt TD, Nicholas C, Cashman P, et al., 'Improving communicable disease outbreak preparedness in residential aged care facilities using an interventional interview strategy', Australasian Journal on Ageing, 27 143-149 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1741-6612.2008.00299.x
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authorsJohn Wiggers
2008Main K, Ansell N, Durrheim DN, Herlihy C, Porigneaux P, Tange K, Williams C, 'Environmental health emergency response to a natural storm disaster in NSW, Australia', Environmental Health, 8 44-50 (2008) [C1]
2008Hope KG, Merritt T, Eastwood K, Main K, Durrheim DN, Muscatello D, et al., 'The public health value of emergency department syndromic surveillance following a natural disaster', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 92-94 (2008) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 5
2008Huppatz CM, Munnoch SA, Worgan T, Merritt TD, Dalton CB, Kelly PM, Durrheim DN, 'A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: Implications for quality assurance systems', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 88-91 (2008) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 11
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2008Cashman P, Hueston L, Durrheim DN, Massey P, Doggett S, Russell RC, 'Barmah Forest virus serology: Implications for diagnosis and public health action', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 263-266 (2008) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 2
2008Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Conroy MA, 'Likely impact of school and childcare closures on public health workforce during an influenza pandemic: A survey', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 261-262 (2008) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 17
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2008Cretikos M, Eastwood K, Dalton CB, Merritt TD, Tuyl FA, Winn L, Durrheim DN, 'Household disaster preparedness and information sources: Rapid cluster survey after a storm in New South Wales, Australia', BMC Public Health, 8 1-9 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2458-8-195
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 13
Co-authorsFrank Tuyl, Craig Dalton
2008Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Malaria Journal, 7 1-8 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1475-2875-7-69
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2008Ng J, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Massey P, Walker B, Armson A, Ryan U, 'Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in rural New South Wales', Experimental Parasitology, 119 192-195 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.exppara.2008.01.010
CitationsScopus - 35Web of Science - 32
2008Barnes KI, Little F, Mabuza A, Mngomezulu N, Govere J, Durrheim DN, et al., 'Increased gametocytemia after treatment: An early parasitological indicator of emerging sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in falciparum malaria', Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197 1605-1613 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1086/587645
CitationsScopus - 44Web of Science - 43
2008Durrheim DN, Wenitong M, Huppatz CM, Rubin G, 'The first 100 days: An open letter to the new Minister for Health and Ageing', Medical Journal of Australia, 188 189 (2008) [C3]
2008Dalton CB, Cretikos MA, Durrheim DN, 'A food 'lifeboat': Food and nutrition considerations in the event of a pandemic or other catastrophe [Letter]', Medical Journal of Australia, 188 679 (2008) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2008Durrheim DN, 'E-surveillance: Don't neglect sentinels in developing countries', The Lancet, 372 2021-2022 (2008) [C3]
DOI10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61865-6
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2008Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Blockman M, Kredo T, Gounden R, Barnes KI, 'Adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients in a South African hospital serving a community with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence: Prospective observational study', British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65 396-406 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03034.x
CitationsScopus - 38Web of Science - 23
2008Vellema SC, Durrheim DN, Smith JE, 'Diagnosing childhood tuberculosis in rural clinics in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Curationis, 31 52-58 (2008) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 2
2008Munnoch SA, Ward K, Sheridan S, Fitzsimmons GJ, Shadbolt CT, Piispanen JP, et al., 'A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul in Australia associated with cantaloupe consumption', Epidemiology and Infection, 137 367-374 (2008) [C1]
DOI10.1017/s0950268808000861
CitationsScopus - 27Web of Science - 25
2007Massey P, Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Inadequate chemoprophylaxis and the risk of malaria', Australian Family Physician, 36 1058-1060 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4
2007Cashman P, Massey P, Durrheim DN, Islam F, Merritt T, Eastwood K, 'Pneumonia cluster in a boarding school - Implications for influenza control', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 31 296-298 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4
2007Chiu CK, Durrheim DN, 'A review of the efficacy of human Q fever vaccine registered in Australia', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 18 133-136 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1071/nb07057
2007Monaghan K, Durrheim DN, Arzey G, Branley J, 'Human psittacosis associated with purchasing birds from, or visiting, a pet store in Newcastle, Australia', Environmental Health (Online Edition), 7 52-61 (2007) [C1]
2007Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Blumberg L, Donohue S, Hansford F, Mabuza A, et al., 'Malaria deaths as sentinel events to monitor healthcare delivery and antimalarial drug safety', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12 617-628 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01823.x
CitationsScopus - 19Web of Science - 15
2007Massey P, Durrheim DN, 'Income inequality and health status: A nursing issue', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 84-88 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2007Cretikos M, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, 'Re: Exercise paton: a simulation exercise to test New South Wales emergency departments' response to pandemic influenza', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 31 419 (2007) [C3]
2007Merritt T, Durrheim DN, Hope K, Byron P, 'General practice intervention to increase opportunistic screening for chlamydia', Sexual Health, 4 249-251 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1071/sh07033
CitationsScopus - 13Web of Science - 14
2007Todd K, Durrheim DN, Pickles R, Eastwood K, Merritt T, Tapsall J, et al., 'Using epidemiological and molecular methods to investigate an outbreak of gonorrhoea associated with heterosexual contact in Newcastle, NSW, Australia', Sexual Health, 4 233-236 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1071/sh07037
CitationsScopus - 12Web of Science - 10
2007Wynd S, Carron J, Selve B, Leggat P, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, 'Qualitative analysis of the impact of a lymphatic filariasis elimination programme using mass drug administration on Misima Island, Papua New Guinea', Filaria Journal, 6 1-7 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1475-2883-6-1
2007Wynd S, Durrheim DN, Carron J, Selve B, Chaine JP, Leggat PA, Melrose W, 'Socio-cultural insights and lymphatic filariasis control: Lessons from the Pacific', Filaria Journal, 6 1-4 (2007) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1475-2883-6-3
CitationsScopus - 6
2007Sharp BL, Kleinschmidt I, Streat E, Maharaj R, Barnes KI, Durrheim DN, et al., 'Seven years of regional malaria control collaboration: Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland', American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76 42-47 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 123Web of Science - 121
2007Durrheim DN, Kelly H, Ferson MJ, Featherstone D, 'Remaining measles challenges in Australia', Medical Journal of Australia, 187 181-184 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2007Parsons KJ, Osbourn M, Durrheim DN, Webber MT, 'Immunisation coverage in refugee children (Letter)', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 323 (2007) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2007Durrheim DN, Hensley MJ, 'Should medical students be routinely offered BCG vaccination? (Letter)', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 98-99 (2007) [C3]
Co-authorsMichael Hensley
2007Merritt TD, Sintchenko V, Jelfs P, Worthing M, Robinson B, Durrheim DN, Gilbert GL, 'An outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in young Australians', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 240-242 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 4
2007Cretikos MA, Merritt TD, Main K, Eastwood K, Winn L, Moran L, Durrheim DN, 'Mitigating the health impacts of a natural disaster - the June 2007 long-weekend storm in the Hunter region of New South Wales', Medical Journal of Australia, 187 670-673 (2007) [C2]
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 8
2007Huppatz C, Durrheim DN, 'Control of neglected tropical diseases', New England Journal of Medicine, 357 2407-2408 (2007) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 2
2007Wynd S, Melrose WD, Durrheim DN, Carron J, Gyapong M, 'Understanding the community impact of lymphatic filariasis: a review of the sociocultural literature', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 85 493-498 (2007)
DOI10.2471/BLT.06.031047Author URL
CitationsScopus - 24Web of Science - 20
2007Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Mabuza A, Blumberg L, Allen E, Barnes K, 'Malaria pharmacovigilance in Africa: Lessons from a pilot project in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Drug Safety, 30 899-910 (2007) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 15Web of Science - 16
2007Durrheim DN, 'A clarion call for greater investment in global sanitation', The Lancet, 370 1592-1593 (2007) [C3]
DOI10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61668-7
CitationsWeb of Science - 1
2007Durrheim DN, 'Varicella vaccine: Local convenience or global equity?', The Lancet, 368 2208-2209 (2007) [C3]
2006Hope K, Durrheim DN, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Dalton CB, 'Syndromic surveillance: is it a useful tool for local outbreak detection? (Editorial)', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60 374-375 (2006) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 21Web of Science - 15
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2006Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders VL, Speare R, Lowe JB, 'A population survey--would Australian general practice be the first point of contact during an anthrax bioterrorism event?', Australian Family Physician, 35 172-174 (2006) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 1
2006Durrheim DN, Massey P, Kelly H, 'Re-emerging poliomyelitis-is Australia's surveillance adequate?', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 30 275-277 (2006) [C6]
2006Nelesone T, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Kiedrzynski T, Melrose WD, 'Strengthening sub-national communicable disease surveillance in a remote Pacific Island country by adapting a successful African outbreak surveillance model', Tropical Medicine and International Helath, 11 17-21 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01534.x
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 7
2006Monaghan K, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Whyte IM, 'Mercury Incident in a Boarding House: An Integrated Public Health Response in Newcastle, Australia', Environmental Health, 6 72-79 (2006) [C2]
Co-authorsCraig Dalton
2006Ferson MJ, Durrheim DN, 'Investing in capacity to meet the challenge of an influenza pandemic', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 129-130 (2006) [C3]
2006Keith E, Peter M, Durrheim DN, 'Pandemic planning at the coal face: responsibilities of the public health Unit', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 117-120 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB06029
CitationsScopus - 2
2006Durrheim DN, Massey P, Carr C, Islam F, 'The changing epidemiology of pertussis in Hunter New England Area and potential implications for the immunisation schedule', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 48-51 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1071/NB06013
CitationsScopus - 1
2006Speare R, Fab LF, Tekaai N, Harmen S, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, Heukelback J, 'Prevalence of soil transmitted nematodes on Nukufetau, a remote Pacific Island in Tuvalu', BMC Infectious Diseases, 6 1471-2334 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1471-2334-6-110
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
2006Burkot T, Durrheim DN, Melrose W, Speare R, Ichimori K, 'The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis', Filaria Journal, 5 1186-1475 (2006) [C1]
DOI10.1186/1475-2883-5-10
CitationsScopus - 46
2006Durrheim DN, Ferson M, 'Preparing for the inevitable an influenza pandemic', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 97-98 (2006) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 2
2005Durrheim DN, Williams HA, 'Assuring Effective Malaria Treatment in Africa: Drug Efficency is Necessary But Not Efficient', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59 178-179 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1136/jech.2004.020826
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 3
2005Booman M, Sharp B, Martin C, Manjate B, Grange J, Durrheim D, 'Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa [MIM-MB-35428]', ACTA TROPICA, 95 S319-S320 (2005)
Author URL
2005Mabuza A, Govere J, la Grange K, Mngomezulu N, Allen E, Zitha A, et al., 'Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria - A study 5 years after implementation of combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 95 346-349 (2005)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 9
2005Mabuza A, Govere J, La Grange K, Ngomezulu NM, Allen E, Zitha A, et al., 'Theraputic Efficacy of Sulfadioxine-Pyrimethamine for Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria', South African Medical Journal, 95 346-349 (2005) [C1]
2005Hanson D, Hanson J, Vardon P, Macfarlane K, Lloyd J, Muller R, Durrheim DN, 'The Injury Iceberg: an Ecological Approach to Planning Sustainable Community Safety Interventions', Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 16 5-10 (2005) [C1]
CitationsScopus - 13
2005Ho Y-H, Muller R, Veitch C, Rane A, Durrheim DN, 'Faecal Incontinence: An Unrecognised Epidemic in Rural North Queensland? Results of a Hospital-based Outpatient Study', Australian Journal of Rural Health, 13 28-34 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1111/j.1440-1854.2004.00642.x
CitationsScopus - 26
2005Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders V, Speare R, Lowe JB, 'Australian public and smallpox', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11 1748-1750 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.3201/eid1111.041129
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 4
2005Barnett FI, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Muller R, 'Management of Irukandji Syndrome in Northern Australia', Rural and Remote Health, 165 658-661 (2005) [C1]
2005Leggat PA, Harrison SL, Fenner PJ, Durrheim DN, Swinbourne AL, 'Health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island: A risk area for 'Irukandji' jellyfish in North Queensland, Australia', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3 27-31 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1016/j.tmaid.2004.06.004
CitationsScopus - 8
2005Barnes KI, Durrheim DN, Little F, Jackson A, Mehta U, Allen E, et al., 'Effect of Artemether-Lumefantrine Policy and Improved Vector Control on Malaria Burden in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa', PLoS Medicine, 2 e330 (2005) [C1]
DOI10.1371/journal.pmed.0020330
CitationsScopus - 165Web of Science - 139
2005Barnett FI, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Muller R, 'Management of Irukandji syndrome in northern Australia.', Rural and remote health, 5 369-369 (2005)

INTRODUCTION: Irukandji syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition that follows the sting of small carybdeid jellyfish, occurs along the northern Australian coastline from Broome, Western Australia in the west to Rockhampton, Queensland in the east. Much of this area is classified rural or remote. Because correct patient management is essential to avoid unnecessary fatality, and stings are relatively uncommon in any specific location, it was considered important to document current approaches to Irukandji syndrome management throughout coastal northern Australia, comparing urban and more rural health facilities, and to assess the availability of management guidelines for health staff. METHODS: A telephone survey of the clinicians responsible for Irukandji syndrome patient management at 34 coastal northern Australian health facilities that might encounter this patient presentation was conducted during November and December 2003. Healthcare providers responsible for Irukandji syndrome management on the day of survey were interviewed using a structured, standardized questionnaire, which included a description of a hypothetical patient with Irukandji syndrome. This was used to stimulate a spontaneous description of the usual response of the particular health facility to such a patient presentation. Additional vignettes were used to investigate further specific aspects of patient management, including first aid, and pain and blood pressure management. Respondents were also asked about the existence of Irukandji treatment guidelines at their facility. RESULTS: All 34 facilities contacted agreed to participate. Five health facilities were in urban centres with a population of 50,000 or greater, four were within 50 km of such centres, 20 were more remote and five facilities were on islands. Basic clinical monitoring (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) was generally adequately practised. Topical application of vinegar as a first aid measure was described by 79% of respondents, with spontaneous mention of vinegar significantly associated with increasing remoteness (p = 0.023). Other sting site management was variable, with uncertainty about the use of pressure immobilisation bandaging. Intravenous opiate analgesia was administered at 91% of facilities, and magnesium sulphate, a treatment that is still being evaluated for its role in Irukandji syndrome-related pain and hypertension, was mentioned by 12% of respondents for pain relief. Twelve different pharmacological treatments were used for syndrome-associated hypertension, with magnesium sulphate being mentioned by 21% of respondents. Of the 22 facilities with guidelines, 14 used either the Primary Clinical Care Manual or the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association Standard Treatment Manual. The remaining guidelines were independently produced protocols. The availability of guidelines was associated with appropriate use of intravenous opiate for adequate pain relief (p = 0.037). Although all urban health centres and 75% of health facilities <50 km away had guidelines, only 56% of more remote or island facilities reported the availability of guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although monitoring and pain management of patients with Irukandji syndrome were generally appropriate, a variety of inappropriate first aid and hypertension management approaches were found. In general, appropriate practice was associated with the presence of guidelines but, unfortunately, guidelines were less often present in remote health facilities. This is particularly important because the majority of respondents who reported no experience of managing Irukandji syndrome were located in more remote settings. There is a need for uniform, evidence-based guidelines, and mechanisms for effective dissemination of these guidelines with training for all health staff who may be required to manage Irukandji syndrome, particularly in remote areas of northern Australia.

CitationsScopus - 10
2005Mehta U, Barnes KI, Kathard H, Van Vugt M, Durrheim DN, 'Comment On: Audiometric Changes Associated With the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria with Co-Artemther', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 99 313-317 (2005) [C3]
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 5
2004Durrheim DN, Speare R, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Elimination programs: Monitoring the effectiveness of surveillance', JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 190 2195-2196 (2004)
DOI10.1086/425427Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 3
2004Speare R, Durrheim D, 'Mass treatment with ivermectin: an underutilized public health strategy', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 82 562-562 (2004)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 6
2004Durrheim D, 'Prevention of cholera', LANCET, 363 897-898 (2004)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15748-6Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 3
2004Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Communicable disease surveillance and management in a globalised world', LANCET, 363 1339-1340 (2004)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16084-4Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2004Wynd S, Durrheim DN, 'Health-care provision and the path out of poverty', LANCET, 364 562-564 (2004)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16865-7Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1Web of Science - 1
2004Durrheim D, Barnett FI, 'Necrotic arachnidism: dispelling fact with fiction', LANCET, 364 2018-2019 (2004)
DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17509-0Author URL
CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
2004Durrheim D, Preston NW, 'Prevention of cholera [4] (multiple letters)', Lancet, 363 897-898 (2004)
CitationsScopus - 7
2004Williams HA, Durrheim D, Shretta R, 'The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies', HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING, 19 356-370 (2004)
DOI10.1093/heapol/czh051Author URL
CitationsScopus - 47Web of Science - 40
2004Harrison SL, Leggat PA, Fenner PJ, Durrheim DN, Swinbourne AL, 'Reported knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of tourists and north Queensland residents at risk of contact with jellyfish that cause the "Irukandji syndrome"', WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 15 4-10 (2004)
DOI10.1580/1080-6032(2004)015[0004:RKPABO]2.0.CO;2Author URL
CitationsScopus - 14Web of Science - 11
2004Leggat PA, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, 'Could it be lymphatic filariasis?', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 11 56-60 (2004)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 3Web of Science - 1
2004Durrheim DN, Wynd S, Liese B, Gyapong JO, 'Editorial: Lymphatic filariasis endemicity - an indicator of poverty?', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 9 843-845 (2004)
DOI10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01287.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 21Web of Science - 20
2004Melrose WD, Durrheim DD, Burgess GW, 'Update on immunological tests for lymphatic filariasis', Trends in Parasitology, 20 255-257 (2004)

Until recently, the TropBio antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the immunochromatographic test rapid-card test were the only commercially available diagnostic tests for lymphatic filariasis. The new Brugia Rapid antibody-detection dipstick is a welcome addition, but there is an urgent need to develop more cost-effective, accurate and standardized immunological tests for use in the global filariasis elimination program.

DOI10.1016/j.pt.2004.04.002
CitationsScopus - 16
2004Durrheim DN, 'Artemisinin-class combination therapy for malaria-unresolved ethical and technical issues', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2 185-188 (2004)

Artemisinin-class Combination Therapy (ACT) remains the most plausible means by which the ambitious goal of halving malaria mortality by the year 2010 may be achieved. Convincing evidence of ACT efficacy in treating uncomplicated malaria now exists. ACT appears safe but most safety studies have been weak methodologically. Thus there is an acute need for sensitive ongoing pharmacovigilance. Limited availability of ACT in those countries most likely to benefit from its public health use, has resulted in allegations of 'medical malpractice' against the World Health Organization and Global Fund for AIDS, TB and malaria. The ethical principles of autonomy, sanctity of life, beneficence and justice are pertinent to the adoption of ACT as first-line therapy of uncomplicated malaria by endemic countries. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.tmaid.2004.04.003
CitationsScopus - 2
2004Barnes JL, Warner J, Melrose W, Durrheim D, Speare R, Reeder JC, Ketheesan N, 'Adaptive immunity in melioidosis: a possible role for T cells in determining outcome of infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei', CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 113 22-28 (2004)
DOI10.1016/j.clim.2004.06.006Author URL
CitationsScopus - 27Web of Science - 24
2004Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "What are ecological studies?"', South African Family Practice, 46 48-48 (2004)
CitationsScopus - 1
2004Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'Strongyloides serology--useful for diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in rural Indigenous populations, but important gaps in knowledge remain.', Rural and remote health, 4 264 (2004)
2003Harris BN, Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Polio eradication - the validity of surveillance indicators', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 8 386-391 (2003)
DOI10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.01048.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 7
2003Booman M, Sharp BL, Martin CL, Manjate B, La Grange JJ, Durrheim DN, 'Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa', Malaria Journal, 2 1-5 (2003)

Background: Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effective against the specific mosquito vector is correctly applied. Ongoing monitoring of spraying operations is essential to assure optimal programme performance and early corrective action, where indicated. Methods: Successful development and application of a computerised spraying operations management system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 1998 resulted in its adaptation and introduction in neighbouring Maputo Province, southern Mozambique during 2000. The structure and components of this computerised management system are described, and its' operational benefit in southern Mozambique, where community-based spray operators apply intradomiciliary insecticide, are reviewed. Conclusions: The computerised management system allowed malaria programme management and field supervisors to monitor spraying coverage, insecticide consumption and application rates on an ongoing basis. The system supported a successful transition to community-based spraying, while assuring correct insecticide application and spraying completion according to schedule.

DOI10.1186/1475-2875-2-1
CitationsScopus - 15
2003Leggat PA, Ross MH, Dürrheim DN, De Frey A, Blumberg LH, 'Linking yellow fever vaccination centre registration and training in travel medicine', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 1 17-18 (2003)
DOI10.1016/S1477-8939(02)00005-4
CitationsScopus - 7
2003Leggat PA, Pearn JH, Dürrheim DN, 'First aid and travellers', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 1 141-143 (2003)
DOI10.1016/S1477-8939(02)00006-6
CitationsScopus - 4
2003Blumberg L, Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Tuberculosis: Current issues on diagnosis and management', South African Family Practice, 45 38-43 (2003)

In 1993, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency and in 1996, South Africa declared TB as a priority disease. The most effective means of controlling TB is through rapid diagnosis by direct sputum microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB), or culture for Mycobacteium tuberculosis (MTB) and prompt initiation of the correct therapy by means of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short course (DOTS) strategy. ln 1997, it was estimated that 10 million of the 30 million people infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HM worldwide were co-infected with TB. This review article focuses on TB diagnosis, including newer laboratory tests, treatment, and chemoprophylaxis. Special issues such as extra pulmonary TB, childhood TB, BCG immunisation, and the deadly alliance between TB and HIV/AIDS are also considered. Tuberculosis is a treatable disease and the aim of any family practitioner should be to treat smear positive patients as soon as possible, and cure them at the first attempt.

2003Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: Prevalence or incidence - Pedantic or important?', South African Family Practice, 45 46-46 (2003)

The most effective way to infuriate an epidemiologist is to call a "prevalence rate" an "incidence rate", or vice versa. Unfortunately, this diabolical practice remains a common feature in print, during presentations at medical references and in conversations between medical colleagues. You may, ask whether this confusion of terminology deserves mention in this column. Our answer is an emphatic "yes"! An incorrect understanding of incidence and prevalence can have disastrous effects on planning, whether within an individual practice or a global public health programme.

2003Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Managing risk in statistics - "Attributable Risk"', South African Family Practice, 45 20-20 (2003)

In a previous article we discussed the value of determining the relative risk of developing a disease in relation to a specific exposure and thus its utility for assessing the exposure's etiological role in disease causation. This article focuses on attributable risk, another important measure, which assists us in determining what the impact would be of effectively intervening against a specific causative factor. It is determined by subtracting the risk in the unexposed group from the risk in the exposed group, that is, Risk (exposed) - Risk (unexposed). The underlying or background risk without the exposure is assumed to be the same in both groups. When the level of risk is the same in both groups, then the risk difference is 0 and one can conclude that the exposure makes no difference to the disease risk. However, if the risk difference is greater than 0, there is increased risk of the outcome in relation to the specific exposure under investigation. If it is less than 0, that is, a negative number, then the exposure under investigation would appear beneficial with a lower disease risk in the exposed group.

2003Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Mngomezulu NM, Barnes K, Sharp B, 'Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles arabiensis after treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine', TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 97 707-708 (2003)
DOI10.1016/S0035-9203(03)80108-6Author URL
CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 6
2003Govere JM, Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'The prevalence of pediculosis in rural South African schoolchildren', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 99 21-23 (2003)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 9Web of Science - 7
2003Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Global leprosy elimination: time to change more than the elimination target date', JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, 57 316-317 (2003)
DOI10.1136/jech.57.5.316Author URL
CitationsScopus - 5Web of Science - 6
2003Durrheim DN, Williams HA, Barnes K, Speare R, Sharp BL, 'Beyond evidence: A retrospective study of factors influencing a malaria treatment policy change in two South African Provinces', Critical Public Health, 13 309-330 (2003)

There is a growing appreciation that decisions on changing drug treatment policy should be based on robust evidence of drug effectiveness. No published information describing the process of decision making prior to malaria treatment policy changes or subsequent success in implementing treatment policy changes exists in South Africa. This retrospective study of the differential implementation of a policy change from chloroquine to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for first-line treatment of malaria in two South African provinces, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Province, sought to explore the change from the perspective of national and provincial policy makers and programme managers. Focus-groups discussions, in-depth interviews, participatory exercises and archival documentary analysis were conducted. Policy makers and programme managers mentioned the need for local efficacy data as a prerequisite for changing malaria treatment policy. However, drug efficacy data alone were not sufficient to ensure effective policy making or implementation in this study. An effective strategy identified for motivating a change in policy was emphasizing the potential negative consequences of failure to implement a treatment change. In both provinces it was recognized that, for a policy change to be successful and applied at peripheral levels, the proposed change had to have official sanctioning from credible sources. Physical removal of all previously recommended medication from public healthcare facilities appeared to be a key factor in ensuring successful implementation. Lessons learnt through this retrospective analysis may be of value to a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, considering policy change in response to rapidly increasing anti-malarial drug resistance. However, additional case studies of the process of malaria treatment policy change are urgently needed from other African settings to determine commonalities and optimize the efficiency of formulating and implementing malaria treatment policy changes.

DOI10.1080/09581590310001615862
CitationsScopus - 6
2003Durrheim DN, Nelesone T, Speare R, Melrose W, 'Certifying lymphatic filariasis elimination in the Pacific--the need for new tools.', Pacific health dialog : a publication of the Pacific Basin Officers Training Program and the Fiji School of Medicine, 10 149-154 (2003)

Experience from successful global elimination programmes highlights the pivotal role of functional surveillance programmes for confirming cessation of local disease transmission. Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for global elimination by 2020 with an earlier target of 2010 for the Pacific Island countries. No surveillance protocol for confirming filariasis elimination in small island countries has yet been agreed evaluated. Currently recommended surveillance strategies for confirming lymphatic filariasis elimination are not ideal for small Pacific countries. Relying on occasional surveys to detect an increasingly rare health condition has inherent epidemiological weaknesses. Characteristics of effective surveillance for confirming filariasis elimination would include adequate sensitivity for detecting residual transmission, ongoing population scrutiny, and integration within a resource-sensitive system that includes other important conditions requiring public health surveillance. We propose that acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) may prove a suitable surveillance condition. ALA surveillance nested within a syndromic communicable disease surveillance programme implemented universally by health facilities may provide a solution to the current conundrum facing Pacific lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes and should be carefully evaluated.

CitationsScopus - 3
2003Durrheim D, Muller R, 'Epidemiologic rigor in travel medicine', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 10 66-67 (2003)
Author URL
2003Waner S, Baker L, Wolfaardt DC, Durrheim DN, Sowester J, 'Risk factors and characteristics of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria presenting to a private hospital network in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 10 296-298 (2003)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 1
2003Durrheim D, Muller R, Brouqui P, 'Epidemiologic rigor in travel medicine [1] (multiple letters)', Journal of Travel Medicine, 10 66-67 (2003)
2002Gericke A, Govere JM, Durrheim DN, 'Insecticide susceptibility in the South African malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae)', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 98 205-208 (2002)
Author URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 8
2002Mngomezulu N, Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Viljoen L, Appleton C, Booman M, 'Burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in primary school children in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and implications for control', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 98 607-610 (2002)
Author URL
CitationsScopus - 4Web of Science - 3
2002Durrheim DN, Speare R, Petzer M, 'Short communication: Rabies post-exposure management in South Africa: a telephonic survey used as a rapid tool for operational research', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 7 459-461 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00868.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 5
2002Idema CD, Harris BN, Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Neonatal tetanus elimination in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 7 622-624 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00903.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 9
2002Durrheim DN, Speare R, Billinghurst KG, Reich MR, 'Cholera - The role of catheters, confidential inquiries and early response', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 92 597-599 (2002)
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CitationsWeb of Science - 2
2002Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, Gouws A, Grobler S, 'Intradermal BCG vaccination - Limiting local adverse reactions', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 92 665-666 (2002)
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2002Durrheim DN, Govere JM, 'Malaria outbreak control in an African village by community application of 'deet' mosquito repellent to ankles and feet', MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, 16 112-115 (2002)
DOI10.1046/j.0269-283x.2002.00349.xAuthor URL
CitationsScopus - 22Web of Science - 19
2002Durrheim DN, Fourie A, Balt E, Le Roux M, Harris BN, Matebula M, et al., 'Leprosy in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa - eliminated or hidden?', LEPROSY REVIEW, 73 326-333 (2002)
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CitationsScopus - 11Web of Science - 9
2002Durrheim DN, Speare R, Harries AD, 'Research that influences policy and practice - Characteristics ofoperational research to improve malaria control in Mpumalanga Province, SouthAfrica', Malaria Journal, 1 1-7 (2002)

Background: Much communicable disease control research has had little impact on local control programme policy and practice for want of an operational component. The operational research model - the systematic search for knowledge on interventions, tools or strategies that enhance programme effectiveness - is gaining recognition as an appropriate method for addressing perplexing questions within public health programmes. Methods: A series of operational research studies were conducted to refine malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa between 1995 and 1999. The grounded theory approach was used with groups of experienced Masters of Public Health students in South Africa and Australia to analyse a compilation of these studies for determining positive and negative attributes of operational research that affect its ability to influence communicable disease control policy and practice. Results: The principal positive attributes of the operational research studies were high local relevance, greater ability to convince local decision-makers, relatively short lag-time before implementation of findings, and the cost-effective nature of this form of research. Potential negative features elicited included opportunities forfeited by using scarce resources to conduct research and the need to adequately train local health staff in research methodology to ensure valid results and accurate interpretation of findings. Conclusions: Operational research effectively influenced disease control policy and practice in rural South Africa, by providing relevant answers to local questions and engaging policy-makers. This resulted in accelerated inclusion of appropriate measures into a local communicable disease control programme.

DOI10.1186/1475-2875-1-1
2002Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "Understanding the score"', South African Family Practice, 25 30-30 (2002)

A plethora of scoring systems have evolved in medicine Ranks or scores are a common feature of quantitative research conducted by family practitioners. In addition ranking is prevalent in the laboratory, e.g. malaria parasitaemia ranked as 0, +, ++, or +++, and at the patient bedside, that is, grading the severity of stroke or leprosy lesions as mild, moderate or severe (+, ++, +++) or of a cancer as Stage l, ll, lll or lV.A convenient way of combining the ranks of a group of related criteria is the creation of an "index". Basic indices result from simply adding the individual ranks of all components, while more sophisticated indices provide individual weightings to each component before they are summed. lt is useful to create indices but they should be used with circumspection.We will use the Apgar scoring system, which is used for the evaluation of newborn babies, to highlight features commonly shared by indices that should always be explicitly considered before use.

2002Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioner The "Chi-square test"- getting it right', South African Family Practice, 25 31-32 (2002)

The chi-square test is the most commonly used statistic test for investigating the differences between proportion arising from research. It helps to determine where two or more series of proportions are significantly different from one another or whether a single series of proportions differs from a theoretically expected distribution. In addition it allows us to test whether any observed relationship could simply be due to "chance". Proportions would obviously differ from sample to sample selected simply due to the play of chance. The chi-square test thus assists us in making this judgment in an explicit way, and is a measure of the difference between the proportions observed and those that would have been expected if the null hypothesis of no difference between groups had been true.

2002Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioner: "p" ing with confidence', South African Family Practice, 25 29-29 (2002)

It is common in the medical literature to be inundated with "p" values in publications. But what do they mean? To interpret p values, it is important to understand the "null hypothesis". The majority of statistical analyses involve comparisons between groups of study participants, and the comparison of interest is often called the "effect". In general, the null hypothesis states that the results observed in the particular study are no different from what might have been expected as a result of chance alone. lt is often the opposite of the research hypothesis that leads to the study. Having set up the null hypothesis we then evaluate the probability that the observed data could have resulted from chance alone. lt is this probability that is called the "p value". In other words, the p value gives probability that the observed difference could have occurred by chance alone, assuming that in reality there is no difference between the populations. The smaller the p value, the more untenable is the null hypothesis. That is to say, a small p value of 0.0025 means that there is only a 25 in 10 000 probability (0.25%) that the observed difference is due to chance alone, assuming that in reality there is no difference.

2002Leggat PA, Durrheim DN, Blumberg L, 'Trends in malaria chemoprophylaxis prescription in South Africa 1994 to 2000', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 9 318-321 (2002)
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CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 5
2001Durrheim DN, Harris BN, Speare R, Billinghurst K, 'The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 79 22-27 (2001)
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CitationsScopus - 16Web of Science - 15
2001Leggat PA, Durrheim DN, Braack L, 'Traveling in wildlife reserves in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 41-45 (2001)
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CitationsScopus - 6Web of Science - 3
2001Durrheim DN, Braack L, Grobler D, Bryden H, Speare R, Leggat P, 'Safety of travel in South Africa: The Kruger National Park', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 176-191 (2001)
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CitationsScopus - 10Web of Science - 6
2001Waner S, Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, Ross MH, 'Preventing infectious diseases in long-term travelers to rural Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 304-308 (2001)
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CitationsScopus - 7Web of Science - 6
2001Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, Blumberg L, Speare R, Bishop GC, 'Human rabies: A tragedy that must be prevented', South African Family Practice, 23 12-19 (2001)

Human rabies is endemic throughout South Africa and every year a number of deaths occur, mainly in children largely due to bites from infected dogs, coupled to incorrect management after the exposure.The encephalomyelitis that follows central nervous system invasion bythe rabies lyssavirus is invariably fatal. However modern vaccines and immunoglobulin registered for use in South Africa are safe and very effective in preventing rabies when administered correctly before and after exposure. Unfortunately the prohibitive cost of rabies vaccine does not allow for prophylactic routine immunisation of all children or indeed for the immunisation of all animal bke victims in South Africa.This article reviews current best practice in determining which persons should receive pre-exposure vaccination and post-exposure treatment. lt updates and expands the clinical guidelines for rabies management prepared by the South Africa Department of Health, briefly discussing specific principles of management. In addition, the confirmation of diagnosis and approach to patient care are described.

CitationsScopus - 1
2001Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Statistics for general practitioners: "does HIV cause AIDS?"', South African Family Practice, 23 35-36 (2001)
2000Booman M, Durrheim DN, La Grange K, Martin C, Mabuza AM, Zitha A, et al., 'Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 78 1438-1444 (2000)
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CitationsScopus - 38Web of Science - 34
2000Leggat P, Durrheim D, Apps P, 'Occupational risks posed by wild mammals in South African wildlife reserves', Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 16 47-54 (2000)

South Africa's wildlife reserves are a major tourist attraction and source of employment. The reserves have many of Africa's large wild mammals; however, attacks by these animals pose a risk not only to tourists but also to workers on the reserves. Commercial press records covering all South African newspapers were reviewed for a 10-year period to identify all reported deaths and injuries to workers on wildlife reserves resulting from encounters with wild mammals. During the period, six workers were reported killed and 14 workers were reported injured in such encounters. Although better reporting mechanisms are needed, attacks on workers by wild mammals in South African wildlife reserves appear to be rare. None of the cases reviewed here can be considered an unnatural, unprovoked attack. It is essential that all workers on wildlife reserves have training on how to avoid attacks and how to respond if an attack occurs.

CitationsScopus - 4
2000Waner S, Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Travel clinics and public health', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 7 223-224 (2000)
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CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 1
1999Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Prophylaxis against malaria - Preventing mosquito bites is also effective', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 318 1139-1139 (1999)
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CitationsWeb of Science - 14
1999Speare R, Govere J, Durrheim DN, Mnogomezulu N, 'Malaria control in South Africa: Symposium in the wilderness', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 6 149-150 (1999)
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CitationsScopus - 2Web of Science - 2
1999Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 6 172-179 (1999)
DOI10.1111/j.1708-8305.1999.tb00856.xAuthor URL
CitationsWeb of Science - 27
Show 250 more journal articles

Conference (2 outputs)

YearCitationAltmetricsLink
2012Durrheim DN, Huppatz CM, Paterson BJ, 'The adequacy of encephalitis surveillance for emerging infectious diseases in Australia', Retrovirology, Marseille, France (2012) [E3]
2008Coleman M, Coleman M, Coetzee M, Mabuza A, Kok G, Durrheim D, 'AN OPERATIONAL MALARIA OUTBREAK IDENTIFICATION AND RESPONSE SYSTEM IN MPUMALANGA PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, New Orleans, LA (2008) [E3]
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants7
Total funding$3,686,482

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20141 grants / $1,815,627

Does pneumococcal vaccination protect against cardiovascular disease? $1,815,627

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding bodyNHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor John Attia, Professor Catherine D'Este, Dr Walter Abhayaratna, Professor Andrew Tonkin, Conjoint Professor Chris Levi, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Professor Joseph Hung, Mr Mark McEvoy, Doctor Alexis Hure
SchemeProject Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2014
Funding Finish2014
GNoG1300127
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

20121 grants / $20,200

What causes unexplained encephalitis? A pilot adult encephalitis hospital-based surveillance system$20,200

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor David Durrheim, Conjoint Professor Chris Levi, Doctor Beverley Paterson
SchemeProject Grant
RoleLead
Funding Start2012
Funding Finish2012
GNoG1200219
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20093 grants / $353,257

Australian public's H1N1 knowledge, risk perception, containment measure adoption and willingness to be vaccinated$60,896

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding bodyNHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project TeamConjoint Professor David Durrheim, Dr Keith Eastwood, Conjoint Professor Alison Jones
SchemeCall for Research (H1N1 Swine Flu)
RoleLead
Funding Start2009
Funding Finish2009
GNoG0190467
Type Of FundingAust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category1CS
UONY

Weekly online community survey for early detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza and vaccine failure$25,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamDoctor Craig Dalton, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Dr Edouard Tursan D'Espaignet, Associate Professor Heath Kelly
SchemeProject Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2009
Funding Finish2009
GNoG0189799
Type Of FundingContract - Aust Non Government
Category3AFC
UONY

20081 grants / $25,000

Upgrade of computer equipment for the computer assisted telephone generalised electronic system$25,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding bodyNHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project TeamProfessor John Wiggers, Conjoint Professor Afaf Girgis, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Associate Professor Jennifer Bowman, Conjoint Associate Professor Andrew Bell, Associate Professor Christine Paul, Conjoint Associate Professor Raoul Walsh, Dr Edouard Tursan D'Espaignet, Ms Lyn Francis, Doctor Frank Tuyl, Associate Professor Erica James, Doctor Allison Boyes, Doctor Luke Wolfenden, Doctor Libby Campbell
SchemeEquipment Grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2008
Funding Finish2008
GNoG0188548
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category2OPC
UONY

20071 grants / $1,472,398

NIPH Capacity Building Infrastructure grant$1,472,398

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding bodyHunter Medical Research Institute
Project TeamConjoint Professor David Henry, Professor Julie Byles, Professor John Wiggers, Conjoint Associate Professor Julia Lowe, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim
SchemeNIPH Capacity Building Infrastructure grant
RoleInvestigator
Funding Start2007
Funding Finish2007
GNoG0187399
Type Of FundingOther Public Sector - State
Category2OPS
UONY
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Research Supervision

Current Supervision

CommencedResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2014Vaxtracker: introducing a novel method of active surveillance to Australia's vaccine safety program
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Principal Supervisor
2014A Study of Rickettsial Diseases in Bhutan.
Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Co-Supervisor
2014A Framework to Assess the Pacific Island Countries and Territories' Infectious Disease Surveillance Systems
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Principal Supervisor

Past Supervision

YearResearch Title / Program / Supervisor Type
2013The Application of Syndromic Surveillance to Public Health Practice
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Principal Supervisor
2011An Investigation into Novel Surveillance Systems and Factors Affecting Public Health Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases (Including New, Re-Emerging and Deliberately Released Pathogens)
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Principal Supervisor
2007Hunter Collaborative Strategies to Improve Immunisation Coverage and the Quality of Data Forwarded to the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register
Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine
Co-Supervisor
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Conjoint Professor David Durrheim

Position

Conjoint Professor
School of Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Emaildavid.durrheim@newcastle.edu.au
Phone####
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