Conjoint Professor David Durrheim

Conjoint Professor

School of Medicine and Public Health

Career Summary

Biography

David Durrheim, MBChB, DrPH, DCH, DTM&H, MPH&TM, FACTM, FAFPHM, is the Director of Health Protection, Hunter New England Health, New South Wales, Australia, Conjoint Professor of Public Health Medicine at the University of Newcastle, Australia and Adjunct Professor of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

He has an established track record in conducting public research that has an operational focus and is translational in nature. His ability to use operational research findings to assist local public health programs to improve their surveillance and service delivery, particularly in challenging under-resourced environments, has resulted in a number of awards and international recognition. He has been instrumental in developing novel surveillance systems to detect and facilitate response to emerging infectious disease risks. Professor Durrheim is an outspoken advocate for equitable global access to effective public health measures, particularly immunization.

In the past decade he has served as an expert adviser and consultant to a number of World Health Organization (WHO), regional and national health programmes in the African and Pacific Regions. He also served as the Director of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Vectorborne Diseases.

Professor Durrheim's research interests include novel infectious disease surveillance methods, control of zoonotic diseases and strategies for reducing inequity in public health service delivery. He has over 200 peer-reviewed publications, and has published several scientific monographs and chapters in leading public health texts.

Research Expertise
David Durrheim, MBChB, DrPH, DCH, DTM&H, MPH&TM, FACTM, FAFPHM, is the Director of Health Protection, Hunter New England Health, New South Wales, Australia and Conjoint Professor of Public Health Medicine at the University of Newcastle. He has an established track record in conducting public research that has an operational focus and is translational in nature. His ability to use operational research findings to assist local public health programs to improve their surveillance and service delivery, particularly in challenging under-resourced environments, has resulted in a number of awards and international recognition. He has been instrumental in developing novel surveillance systems to detect and facilitate response to emerging infectious disease risks.

Professor Durrheim is an outspoken advocate for equitable global access to effective public health measures, particularly immunization. In the past decade he has served as an expert adviser and consultant to a number of World Health Organization (WHO), regional and national health programmes in the African and Pacific Regions. He also served as the Director of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Vectorborne Diseases. Professor Durrheim's research interests include novel infectious disease surveillance methods, control of zoonotic diseases and strategies for reducing inequity in public health service delivery. He has over 200 peer-reviewed publications, and has published several scientific monographs and chapters in leading public health texts. 

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Public Health, James Cook University
  • Bachelor of Medicine & Surgery, University of Pretoria - South Africa
  • Diploma in Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, University of Witwatersrand
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Community Health, University of Pretoria - South Africa
  • Master of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University

Keywords

  • biosecurity
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • immunisation
  • public health surveillance

Fields of Research

Code Description Percentage
111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified 25
110899 Medical Microbiology not elsewhere classified 50
160599 Policy and Administration not elsewhere classified 25

Professional Experience

Academic appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004 Director James Cook University
Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Australia
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004 Head of School James Cook University
Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Australia
1/01/1999 - 1/12/2005 Executive Director Cora Barclay Centre for Deaf Children
Australia
1/01/1996 - 1/12/1998 Deafness Studies Unit: Perth Annex The University of Melbourne
School of Education
Australia

Professional appointment

Dates Title Organisation / Department
1/01/2004 -  Director Health Protection Hunter New England Local Health District
Population Health
1/01/2002 - 1/12/2004 Director World Health Organisation Collaborative Centre of Lymphatic Filariasis
Australia
1/01/1994 - 1/12/2002 Director of Communicable Disease Control Mpumalanga Province
South Africa
1/07/1992 - 1/12/1993 Visiting Registrar St George's Medical School and Croydon District Health Authority
Australia
1/01/1992 - 1/06/1992 Medical Superindentent Garankuwa Hospital- Medunsa
South Africa
1/01/1990 - 1/11/1991 Senior Medical Officer and Registrar Garankuwa Hospital- Medunsa
South Africa
1/01/1989 - 1/12/1989 Medical Officer and Manager Hereroland, Namibia
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
South Africa
1/01/1988 - 1/12/1988 Compulsory National Service Military Hospital
South Africa
1/01/1987 - 1/12/1987 Internship Pretoria Academic Hospital
South Africa
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Publications

For publications that are currently unpublished or in-press, details are shown in italics.


Chapter (1 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2007 Govere J, Durrheim DN, 'Techniques for evaluating repellents', Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods and Uses, CRC Press, Boca Raton 147-159 (2007) [B1]
Co-authors D Durrheim

Journal article (333 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2017 Kessels JA, Recuenco S, Vela AMN, Deray R, Vigilato M, Ertl H, et al., 'Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: A systematic review', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 95 210-219 (2017)

© 2017, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-a... [more]

© 2017, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost¿effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although preexposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities.

DOI 10.2471/BLT.16.173039
Co-authors D Durrheim
2017 Durrheim DN, 'Guillain-Barré syndrome: surveillance and cost of treatment strategies', The Lancet, 389 252-253 (2017)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30050-8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2017 Craig AT, Butler MT, Pastore R, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and zika virus surveillance, pacific Islands', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 95 69-75 (2017)

© 2017, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.Problem The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. A... [more]

© 2017, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.Problem The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. Approach We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 years. Using a Poisson probability test, we tested the significance of unexpected increases in AFP in years correlating with Zika virus emergence. Data were analysed separately for each Pacific Island country and territory. Local setting In most Pacific Island countries, early warning surveillance for acute public health threats such as Zika virus is hampered by poor health infrastructure, insufficient human resources and geographical isolation. Relevant changes Only one example was found (Solomon Islands in 2015) of a significant increase in reported AFP cases correlating with Zika virus emergence. Lessons learnt We found no conclusive evidence that routinely reported AFP incidence data in children were useful for detecting emergence of Zika virus in this setting. More evidence may be needed from adult populations, who are more likely to be affected by Guillain-Barré syndrome. Reporting of AFP may be deficient in regions certified as polio-free.

DOI 10.2471/BLT.16.171892
Citations Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Craig AT, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Commentary: Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer', FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 7 (2016)
DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01028
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Durrheim DN, Adams A, 'Polio eradication: no time for complacency', INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 8 231-232 (2016)
DOI 10.1093/inthealth/ihw034
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, Durrheim DN, Butler MT, Cheng AC, Kelly HA, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report, 2015', Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report, 40 E512-E520 (2016) [C1]

Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and impact in the Australian community. This article ... [more]

Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and impact in the Australian community. This article reports on the 2015 findings from Flutracking. From 2014 to 2015 there was a 38.5% increase in participants to 27,824 completing at least 1 survey with a peak weekly response of 25,071 participants. The 2015 Flutracking national ILI weekly fever and cough percentages peaked in late August at 5.0% in the unvaccinated group, in the same week as the national counts of laboratory confirmed influenza peaked. A similar percentage of Flutracking participants took two or more days off from work or normal duties in 2015 (peak level 2.3%) compared with 2014 (peak level 2.5%) and the peak weekly percentage of participants seeking health advice was 1.6% in both 2014 and 2015. Flutracking fever and cough peaked in the same week as Influenza Complications Alert Network surveillance system influenza hospital admissions. The percentage of Flutracking participants aged 5 to 19 years with cough and fever in 2015 was the highest since 2011. The 2015 season was marked by a transition to predominantly influenza B strain circulation, which particularly affected younger age groups. However, for those aged 20 years and over, the 2015 national Flutracking influenza season was similar to 2014 in community ILI levels and impact.

Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2016 Ren S, Hure A, Peel R, D'Este C, Abhayaratna W, Tonkin A, et al., 'Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of cardiovascular events: The Australian Study for the Prevention through Immunization of Cardiovascular Events (AUSPICE)', American Heart Journal, 177 58-65 (2016)

© 2016 Elsevier, Inc.Background Research has shown that vaccination with Streptococcus pneumoniae reduced the extent of atherosclerosis in experimental animal models. It is thoug... [more]

© 2016 Elsevier, Inc.Background Research has shown that vaccination with Streptococcus pneumoniae reduced the extent of atherosclerosis in experimental animal models. It is thought that phosphorylcholine lipid antigens in the S. pneumoniae cell wall induce the production of antibodies that cross-react with oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a component of atherosclerotic plaques. These antibodies may bind to and facilitate the regression of the plaques. Available data provide evidence that similar mechanisms also occur in humans, leading to the possibility that pneumococcal vaccination protects against atherosclerosis. A systematic review and meta-analysis, including 8 observational human studies, of adult pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination for preventing cardiovascular disease in people older than 65 years, showed a 17% reduction in the odds (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97) of having an acute coronary syndrome event. Methods/Design The AUSPICE is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial to formally test whether vaccination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine protects against cardiovascular events (fatal and nonfatal acute coronary syndromes and ischemic strokes). Cardiovascular outcomes will be obtained during 4 to 5 years of follow-up, through health record linkage with state and national administrative data sets. Conclusion This is the first registered randomized controlled trial (on US, World Health Organization, Australia and New Zealand trial registries) to be conducted to test whether vaccination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine will reduce cardiovascular events. If successful, vaccination can be readily extended to at-risk groups to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.04.003
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors John Attia, Alexis Hure, Mark Mcevoy, Philip Hansbro, David Newby, Christopher Levi, Roseanne Peel, Catherine Deste, D Durrheim
2016 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'The Harvard-LSHTM panel on the global response to Ebola report', LANCET, 387 847-848 (2016)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Durrheim DN, 'Every rabies death is a veterinary and health system failure until proven otherwise', VACCINE, 34 2294-2295 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.050
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Durrheim DN, Jones AL, 'Public health and the necessary limits of academic freedom?', VACCINE, 34 2467-2468 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.082
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Staples C, Butler M, Nguyen J, Durrheim DN, Cashman P, Brotherton JML, 'Opportunities to increase rates of human papillomavirus vaccination in the New South Wales school program through enhanced catch-up', Sexual Health, 13 536-539 (2016) [C1]

© CSIRO 2016.Background The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program provides HPV vaccine to high school students through school-based vaccination. We aimed to: 1)... [more]

© CSIRO 2016.Background The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program provides HPV vaccine to high school students through school-based vaccination. We aimed to: 1) assess the vaccine completion rates achieved when general practice is used for completing doses missed at school; 2) estimate the extent of under-notification by general practices of vaccine doses administered; and 3) assess the reasons reported by parents of students for non-completion of HPV vaccination. Methods: A postal survey was conducted of parents and carers of students and identified, using school-program records, as incompletely vaccinated in a large regional area of northern NSW vaccinated during 2010. Information about additional HPV vaccine doses received or reasons for non-completion were sought. Responses were analysed and records cross-checked against the National HPV Vaccination Program Register. Results: Of 660 parents or carers contacted, 207 (31.4%) responded. We found: 1) completion rates increased, an additional 122/207 (45.2%) students had completed all three doses of HPV through their general practitioner (GP); 2) under-notification of GP doses to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register was an issue with only 5/165 (3.0%) reported; 3) the main reason for non-completion was being unaware of the opportunity to catch-up at a GP. Conclusions: Underreporting by GPs of HPV vaccine doses administered and failure to complete courses identifies two opportunities to increase HPV vaccine coverage. These could be addressed by extending provision of catch-up HPV doses in school and by developing practice software solutions for automatic notification of doses from GPs. Reasons given by parents for non-completion, mostly logistical barriers, indicate a high degree of acceptance of HPV vaccination.

DOI 10.1071/SH15132
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Craig AT, Kama M, Samo M, Vaai S, Matanaicake J, Joshua C, et al., 'Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 21 917-927 (2016) [C1]

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons LtdObjective: The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in... [more]

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons LtdObjective: The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Methods: Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. Results: The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. Conclusion: A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed.

DOI 10.1111/tmi.12711
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Gidding HF, Martin NV, Stambos V, Tran T, Dey A, Dowse GK, et al., 'Verification of measles elimination in Australia: Application of World Health Organization regional guidelines.', J Epidemiol Glob Health, 6 197-209 (2016)
DOI 10.1016/j.jegh.2015.12.004
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Flint J, Dalton CB, Merritt TD, Graves S, Ferguson JK, Osbourn M, et al., 'Q FEVER AND CONTACT WITH KANGAROOS IN NEW SOUTH WALES', COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INTELLIGENCE, 40 E202-E203 (2016)
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim, John Ferguson
2016 Cashman PM, Allan NA, Clark KK, Butler MT, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, 'Closing the gap in Australian Aboriginal infant immunisation rates¿--¿the development and review of a pre-call strategy.', BMC Public Health, 16 514 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3086-x
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Merritt T, Hope K, Butler M, Durrheim D, Gupta L, Najjar Z, et al., 'Effect of antiviral prophylaxis on influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities in three local health districts in New South Wales, Australia, 2014', WESTERN PACIFIC SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE, 7 14-20 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.5365/wpsar.2015.6.3.005
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Durrheim DN, 'Measles elimination - Using outbreaks to identify and close immunity gaps', New England Journal of Medicine, 375 1392-1393 (2016)
DOI 10.1056/NEJMe1610620
Co-authors D Durrheim
2016 Martin N, Durrheim D, Khandaker G, Butler M, Jones C, 'Using the two-source capture-recapture method to estimate the incidence and case ascertainment of congenital rubella syndrome in Australia, 1993-2013.', Western Pac Surveill Response J, 7 34-37 (2016) [C1]
DOI 10.5365/WPSAR.2015.6.4.006
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Dhingra D, Durrheim D, Porigneaux P, 'Sporotrichosis outbreak and mouldy hay in NSW', AUSTRALIAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN, 44 217-221 (2015) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Durrheim DN, Strebel PM, 'Measles vaccine still saves children's lives', The Lancet, 385 327 (2015) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60114-3Correspondence
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Durrheim DN, Rees H, Briggs DJ, Blumberg LH, 'Mass vaccination of dogs, control of canine populations and post-exposure vaccination - necessary but not sufficient for achieving childhood rabies elimination', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 20 682-684 (2015) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/tmi.12474
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Britton PN, Eastwood K, Paterson B, Durrheim DN, Dale RC, Cheng AC, et al., 'Consensus guidelines for the investigation and management of encephalitis in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand', Internal Medicine Journal, 45 563-576 (2015) [C1]

© 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.Encephalitis is a complex neurological syndrome caused by inflammation of the brain parenchyma. The management of encephalitis is ... [more]

© 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.Encephalitis is a complex neurological syndrome caused by inflammation of the brain parenchyma. The management of encephalitis is challenging because: the differential diagnosis of encephalopathy is broad; there is often rapid disease progression; it often requires intensive supportive management; and there are many aetiologic agents for which there is no definitive treatment. Patients with possible meningoencephalitis are often encountered in the emergency care environment where clinicians must consider differential diagnoses, perform appropriate investigations and initiate empiric antimicrobials. For patients who require admission to hospital and in whom encephalitis is likely, a staged approach to investigation and management is preferred with the potential involvement of multiple medical specialties. Key considerations in the investigation and management of patients with encephalitis addressed in this guideline include: Which first-line investigations should be performed?; Which aetiologies should be considered possible based on clinical features, risk factors and radiological features?; What tests should be arranged in order to diagnose the common causes of encephalitis?; When to consider empiric antimicrobials and immune modulatory therapies?; and What is the role of brain biopsy?

DOI 10.1111/imj.12749
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Jaravani FG, Durrheim D, Byleveld P, Oelgemoeller M, Judd J, 'Drinking water safety in recreational parks in northern New South Wales, Australia', Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, (2015) [C1]

© 2015 Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Inc. The objective of this study was to assess whether the drinking water supplies in northern New South Wales (NSW) rec... [more]

© 2015 Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Inc. The objective of this study was to assess whether the drinking water supplies in northern New South Wales (NSW) recreational parks conformed to the recommendations of the NSW Private Water Supply Guidelines. Water supplies in 57 recreational parks were surveyed to assess implementation of the Guidelines. A random sample of five parks (excluding reticulated town water supply or rainwater) was selected for microbiological sampling over a 12-month period. Additional nine samples were collected from carted water supplies. Forty-four of the 57 water supplies were untreated. Escherichia coli was detected in 16 of 59 monthly samples. Two of 36 treated water samples showed contamination by E. coli compared to 14 of 23 untreated water samples. Three of nine carted water supplies had E. coli at initial sampling. Thirty-four supplies had warning signs posted somewhere in the park. Twenty-one drinking water tanks had evidence of physical deterioration. No supply had a risk-based drinking water management plan. Treated water supplies had lower rates of E. coli detection and presented a lower risk than untreated water supplies. Survey and sampling results indicated the need for reviewing existing water quality warning signs in the recreational parks and implementation of risk-based drinking water management plans.

DOI 10.1080/14486563.2014.984782
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Eastwood K, Paterson BJ, Levi C, Givney R, Loewenthal M, DE Malmanche T, et al., 'Adult encephalitis surveillance: experiences from an Australian prospective sentinel site study.', Epidemiol Infect, 143 3300-3307 (2015) [C1]
DOI 10.1017/S0950268815000527
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Christopher Levi, D Durrheim
2015 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'The case for ILI surveillance', Vaccine, 33 6514 (2015) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.041
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, McCallum L, Butler MT, Fejsa J, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness: 2013 and 2014.', Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report, 39 E361-E368 (2015) [C1]
Citations Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2015 Miller A, Massey PD, Judd J, Kelly J, Durrheim DN, Clough AR, et al., 'Using a participatory action research framework to listen to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia about pandemic influenza', Rural and Remote Health, 15 1-10 (2015) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Pillsbury A, Cashman P, Leeb A, Regan A, Westphal D, Snelling T, et al., 'Real-time safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccines in children, Australia, 2015', Eurosurveillance, 20 (2015)

© 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.Increased febrile reactions in Australian children from one influenza vaccine brand in 2010... [more]

© 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.Increased febrile reactions in Australian children from one influenza vaccine brand in 2010 diminished confidence in influenza immunisation, highlighting the need for improved vaccine safety surveillance. AusVaxSafety, a national vaccine safety surveillance system collected adverse events in young children for 2015 influenza vaccine brands in real time through parent/carer reports via SMS/email. Weekly cumulative data on 3,340 children demonstrated low rates of fever (4.4%) and medical attendance (1.1%). Fever was more frequent with concomitant vaccination.

DOI 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.43.30050
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2014 Quinn EK, Massey PD, Cox-Witton K, Paterson BJ, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, 'Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.', BMC Vet Res, 10 144 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1746-6148-10-144
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Heilbronn C, Munnoch S, Butler MT, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, 'Timeliness of Salmonella Typhimurium notifications after the introduction of routine MLVA typing in NSW.', N S W Public Health Bull, 24 159-163 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB13010
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Cashman P, Moberley S, Dalton C, Stephenson J, Elvidge E, Butler M, Durrheim DN, 'Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children', Vaccine, 32 5503-5508 (2014) [C1]

© 2014.Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of n... [more]

© 2014.Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n= 21), and piloted during the 2012 (n= 200) and 2013 (n= 477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n= 113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.

DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.061
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2014 Dodet B, Durrheim DN, Rees H, 'Rabies: Underused vaccines, unnecessary deaths', VACCINE, 32 2017-2019 (2014) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.031
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Durrheim DN, Crowcroft NS, Strebel PM, 'Measles - The epidemiology of elimination', VACCINE, 32 6880-6883 (2014) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.061
Citations Scopus - 25Web of Science - 21
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Durrheim DN, 'Remaining alert for polio importations', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50 329-330 (2014) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/jpc.12534
Citations Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 March B, Eastwood K, Wright IM, Tilbrook L, Durrheim DN, 'Epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50 216-220 (2014) [C1]

Aim To describe the epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in northern New South Wales, Australia, with a specific focus on neonatal and young infant cases. Methods A ret... [more]

Aim To describe the epidemiology of enteroviral meningoencephalitis in northern New South Wales, Australia, with a specific focus on neonatal and young infant cases. Methods A retrospective review of PCR-confirmed enteroviral meningoencephalitis cases in the Hunter New England Local Health District of northern NSW was conducted for the period 2008-2012. Results One hundred nine patients met the case definition. There was summer seasonality, with 50% (55/109) of cases occurring between December and February. Neonates and young infants (<3 months of age) accounted for 42% (46/109) of cases, with 20% (9/46) being premature births. Fever (83%) was the most common presentation in this age group, followed by irritability (40%), feeding difficulties (40%) and rash (17%). All received at least one antibiotic during their admission, with 26% (12/46) also treated empirically with acyclovir. There was one death. Where testing was undertaken, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels were high in 90% (28/31) of neonates and young infants, but the CSF white cell count was variable, with 57% <10/mm3 and 21% >100/mm3. Conclusion Early diagnosis of enteroviral meningoencephalitis could alter management, potentially reducing the period of treatment with empirical antimicrobials and permitting earlier discharge. © 2013 The Authors.

DOI 10.1111/jpc.12468
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors Ian Wright, D Durrheim
2014 Martin N, Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Australia's polio risk', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38 E107-E113 (2014) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Quinn EK, Massey P, Durrheim D, 'Understanding human-bat interactions to enhance Australian bat lyssavirus risk communication', INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 21 190-190 (2014)
DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.816
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Hope KG, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, 'Short incubation periods in Campylobacter outbreaks associated with poultry liver dishes.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 38 E20-E23 (2014) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Fitzgerald TL, Merritt TD, Zammit A, McLeod C, Landinez LM, White PA, et al., 'An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 38 E9-E15 (2014) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Durrheim DN, Adams A, 'Polio anywhere is a risk everywhere', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 38 E105-E106 (2014) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Measurement of surveillance signal response effectiveness', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14 794 (2014) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70868-0
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Ali A, Jafri RZ, Messonnier N, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al., 'Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease', Pathogens and Global Health, 108 11-20 (2014) [C1]

A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in... [more]

A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

DOI 10.1179/2047773214Y.0000000126
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Quinn E, Massey P, Rosewell A, Smith M, Durrheim D, 'Improving ethnocultural data to inform public health responses to communicable diseases in Australia.', Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR, 5 1-4 (2014) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2014 Paterson BJ, Butler MT, Eastwood K, Cashman PM, Jones A, Durrheim DN, 'Cross sectional survey of human-bat interaction in Australia: Public health implications', BMC Public Health, 14 (2014) [C1]

Background: Flying foxes (megachiroptera) and insectivorous microbats (microchiroptera) are the known reservoirs for a range of recently emerged, highly pathogenic viruses. In Aus... [more]

Background: Flying foxes (megachiroptera) and insectivorous microbats (microchiroptera) are the known reservoirs for a range of recently emerged, highly pathogenic viruses. In Australia there is public health concern relating to bats' role as reservoirs of Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABLV), which has clinical features identical to classical rabies. Three deaths from ABLV have occurred in Australia. A survey was conducted to determine the frequency of bat exposures amongst adults in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales; explore reasons for handling bats; examine reported practices upon encountering injured or trapped bats or experiencing bat bites or scratches; and investigate knowledge of bat handling warnings. Methods. A representative sample of 821 New South Wales adults aged 16 years and older were interviewed during May and June 2011, using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) method. Frequencies, proportions and statistical differences in proportion were performed. Using an -value of 0.05 and power of 80%, it was calculated that a sample size of 800 was required to provide statistical significance of +/- 5% for dichotomous variables. Results: One-hundred-and-twenty-seven (15.5%) respondents indicated that they had previously handled a bat, being 22% (48/218) rural and 13% (78/597) urban respondents (¿ §ssup§2§esup§ = 9.8, p = 0.0018). Twenty one percent of males (63/304) had handled bats compared with 12% (64/517) of females (¿ §ssup§2§esup§ = 10.2, p = 0.0014). Overall, 42.0% (n = 345) of respondents reported having seen or heard a warning about handling bats. If faced with an injured or trapped bat, 25% (206/821) indicated that they would handle the bat, with 17% (36/206) saying that they would use their bare hands. For minor scratches, 14% (117/821) indicated that they would ignore the injury while four respondents would ignore major scratches or bites. Conclusions: Previous human-bat interactions were relatively common. Bat exposures most frequently occurred with sick or injured bats, which have the highest risk of ABLV. On encountering an injured or sick bat, potentially high risk practices were commonly reported, particularly among rural males. It is important to understand why people still handle bats despite public health warnings to inform future communication strategies. © 2014 Paterson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-14-58
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Durrheim DN, 'Simply wearing footwear could interrupt transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis.', BMJ, 347 f5219 (2013) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Gunaratnam P, Massey P, Durrheim D, Torvaldsen S, 'Invasive meningococcal disease in elderly people, New South Wales, Australia, 1993 to 2012.', Western Pac Surveill Response J, 4 4-10 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.5365/WPSAR.2013.4.4.001
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Polkinghorne BG, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Byrnes T, MacIntyre CR, 'Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: The experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia', Public Health, 127 32-38 (2013) [C1]

Objective: To describe and evaluate the public health response to the Tamworth Country Music Festival, an annual extended mass gathering in rural New South Wales, Australia; and t... [more]

Objective: To describe and evaluate the public health response to the Tamworth Country Music Festival, an annual extended mass gathering in rural New South Wales, Australia; and to propose a framework for responding to similar rural mass gatherings. Study design: Process evaluation by direct observation, archival analysis and focus group discussion. Methods: The various components of the public health response to the 2011 Tamworth Country Music Festival were actively recorded. An archival review of documentation from 2007 to 2010 was performed to provide context. A focus group was also conducted to discuss the evolution of the public health response and the consequences of public health involvement. Results: Public health risks increased with increasing duration of the rural mass gathering. Major events held within the rural mass gathering further strained resources. The prevention, preparedness, response and recovery principles provided a useful framework for public health actions. Particular risks included inadequately trained food preparation volunteers functioning in poorly equipped temporary facilities, heat-related ailments and arboviral disease. Conclusion: Extended mass gatherings in rural areas pose particular public health challenges; surge capacity is limited and local infrastructure may be overwhelmed in the event of an acute incident or outbreak. There is value in proactive public health surveillance and monitoring. Annual mass gatherings provide opportunities for continual systems improvement. Early multi-agency planning can identify key risks and identify opportunities for partnership. Special consideration is required for major events within mass gatherings. © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health.

DOI 10.1016/j.puhe.2012.09.014
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Moodley K, Hardie K, Selgelid MJ, Waldman RJ, Strebel P, Rees H, Durrheim DN, 'Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 91 290-297 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.2471/BLT.12.113480
Citations Scopus - 9Web of Science - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Coetzee M, Kruger P, Hunt RH, Durrheim DN, Urbach J, Hansford CF, 'Malaria in South Africa: 110 years of learning to control the disease', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 770-778 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.7196/SAMJ.7446
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 12
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Maharaj R, Raman J, Morris N, Moonasar D, Durrheim DN, Seocharan I, et al., 'Epidemiology of malaria in South Africa: From control to elimination', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 779-783 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.7196/SAMJ.7441
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Moonasar D, Morris N, Kleinschmidt I, Maharaj R, Raman J, Mayet NT, et al., 'What will move malaria control to elimination in South Africa?', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 103 801-806 (2013) [C2]
DOI 10.7196/SAMJ.7445
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Durrheim DN, Poland GA, 'United Nations mercury treaty jeopardizes vaccine protection of the world's most vulnerable children', VACCINE, 31 1357-1358 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.104
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Wang SA, Mantel CF, Hyde TB, Mounier-Jack S, Brenzel L, Favin M, et al., 'New vaccine introductions: Assessing the impact and the opportunities for immunization and health systems strengthening', Vaccine, 31 B122-B128 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.10.116
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Merritt TD, Cretikos MA, Smith W, Durrheim DN, 'The health of Hunter Valley communities in proximity to coal mining and power generation, general practice data, 1998-2010.', N S W Public Health Bull, 24 57-64 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB12109
Co-authors D Durrheim, Wayne Smith
2013 Venkatesan A, Tunkel AR, Bloch KC, Lauring AS, Sejvar J, Bitnun A, et al., 'Case Definitions, Diagnostic Algorithms, and Priorities in Encephalitis: Consensus Statement of the International Encephalitis Consortium', CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 57 1114-1128 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/cid/cit458
Citations Scopus - 107Web of Science - 91
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, Butler MT, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Building Influenza Surveillance Pyramids in Near Real Time, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19 1863-1865 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.3201/eid1911.121878
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2013 Eastwood K, Durrheim D, Cashman P, 'Availability of the northern hemisphere influenza vaccine for Australians travelling overseas', JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, 57 270-270 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2013.03.006
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Speare R, Luly J, Reimers J, Durrheim D, Lunt R, 'Antibodies to Australian bat lyssavirus in an asymptomatic bat carer', INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, 43 1256-1257 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/imj.12276
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Review of Australia's polio surveillance.', Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 37 E149-E155 (2013) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Butler MT, Fejsa J, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report 2011 and 2012', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 37 E398-E406 (2013) [C1]
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2013 Hobday LK, Thorley BR, Alexander J, Aitken T, Massey PD, Cretikos M, et al., 'Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study', BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2334-13-384
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Stephens N, Christensen A, 'Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth', BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 13 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-62
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Kardamanidis K, Cashman P, Durrheim DN, 'Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: A cross-sectional analysis', TRAVEL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE, 11 421-426 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.008
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, et al., 'Global epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease', POPULATION HEALTH METRICS, 11 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1478-7954-11-17
Citations Scopus - 77Web of Science - 61
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, Hardie K, 'Pandemic response in low-resource settings requires effective syndromic surveillance', Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, 7 887-888 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/irv.12098
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Durrheim DN, 'STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS INFECTION Simply wearing footwear could interrupt transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis', BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 347 (2013) [C3]
DOI 10.1136/bmj.f5219
Citations Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2013 Paterson BJ, Kirk MD, Cameron AS, D'Este C, Durrheim DN, 'Historical data and modern methods reveal insights in measles epidemiology: a retrospective closed cohort study', BMJ OPEN, 3 (2013) [C1]
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002033
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors Catherine Deste, D Durrheim
2013 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'The remarkable adaptability of syndromic surveillance to meet public health needs', Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 3 41-47 (2013) [C1]

The goal of syndromic surveillance is the earlier detection of epidemics, allowing a timelier public health response than is possible using traditional surveillance methods. Syndr... [more]

The goal of syndromic surveillance is the earlier detection of epidemics, allowing a timelier public health response than is possible using traditional surveillance methods. Syndromic surveillance application for public health purposes has changed over time and reflects a dynamic evolution from the collection, interpretation of data with dissemination of data to those who need to act, to a more holistic approach that incorporates response as a core component of the surveillance system. Recent infectious disease threats, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian influenza (H5N1) and pandemic influenza (H1N1), have all highlighted the need for countries to be rapidly aware of the spread of infectious diseases within a region and across the globe. The International Health Regulations (IHR) obligation to report public health emergencies of international concern has raised the importance of early outbreak detection and response. The emphasis in syndromic surveillance is changing from automated, early alert and detection, to situational awareness and response. Published literature on syndromic surveillance reflects the changing nature of public health threats and responses. Syndromic surveillance has demonstrated a remarkable ability to adapt to rapidly shifting public health needs. This adaptability makes it a highly relevant public health tool. © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

DOI 10.1016/j.jegh.2012.12.005
Citations Scopus - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Su Yin Ng J, Eastwood K, Walker B, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Porigneaux P, et al., 'Evidence of Cryptosporidium transmission between cattle and humans in northern New South Wales', Experimental Parasitology, 130 437-441 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.exppara.2012.01.014
Citations Scopus - 29
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Leang SK, et al., 'Characteristics of a widespread community cluster of H275Y Oseltamivir-Resistant A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza in Australia', Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206 148-157 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 71Web of Science - 65
Co-authors Craig Dalton, Peter Wark, D Durrheim
2012 Massey PD, Durrheim DN, 'Universal human papillomavirus vaccination of Australian boys - neither cost-effective nor equitable', Medical Journal of Australia, 196 446 (2012) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Guillain-Barre Syndrome', NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 367 973-973 (2012) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Correspondence: Guillain-Barre syndrome', New England Journal of Medicine, 367 973 (2012) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, 'Global reduction in measles mortality', The Lancet, 380 1303 (2012) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Duclos P, Durrheim DN, Reingold AL, Bhutta ZA, Vannice K, Rees H, 'Developing evidence-based immunization recommendations and GRADE', Vaccine, 31 12-19 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 18Web of Science - 15
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, 'HOSPITALS ARE NOT AN APPROPRIATE SETTING IN WHICH TO PROVIDE CATCH-UP IMMUNISATIONS RESPONSE', JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, 48 1107-1107 (2012) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/jpc.12009
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Way ASC, Durrheim DN, Vally H, Massey PD, 'Missed immunisation opportunities in emergency departments in northern New South Wales, Australia', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 48 66-70 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, 'Author's response', Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 48 1107 (2012) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Menzies RI, Burgess M, Durrheim DN, 'Controlling measles in NSW: How are we doing in the context of other countries in the Western Pacific?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 23 169-170 (2012) [C2]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Fitzgerald TL, Durrheim DN, Merritt TD, Birch CD, Tran T, 'Measles with a possible 23 day incubation period', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 36 E277-E280 (2012) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Hope KG, Butler MT, Massey PD, Cashman P, Durrheim DN, Stephenson J, Worley A, 'Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: Room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice', BMC Pediatrics, 12 98 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Chanda E, Coleman M, Kleinschmidt I, Hemingway J, Hamainza B, Masaninga F, et al., 'Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: Implications for monitoring and evaluation', Malaria Journal, 11 437 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 12
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, 'Ensuring that human rights and appropriate evidence endure as immunisation cornerstones', Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases, 10 57-58 (2012) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, Berling I, Stephenson J, Cashman P, Loten C, Butler M, 'Opportunistic childhood vaccinations in emergency- Are we really missing anyone?', Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal, 15 37-44 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Paterson BJ, Kool JL, Durrheim DN, Pavlin B, 'Sustaining surveillance: Evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific', Global Public Health, 7 682-694 (2012) [C1]
DOI 10.1080/17441692.2012.699713
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Kool JL, Paterson BJ, Pavlin BI, Durrheim DN, Musto J, Kolbe A, 'Pacific-wide simplified syndromic surveillance for early warning of outbreaks', Global Public Health, 7 670-681 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 15
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Hanson D, McFarlane K, Vardon P, Lloyd J, Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Measuring the sustainability of a community safety promotion network: Working from the inside out', International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 19 297-305 (2012) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Ehlkes L, Eastwood K, Webb C, Durrheim DN, 'Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 3 1-6 (2012) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Massey PD, Viney K, Kienene T, Tagaro M, Itogo N, Ituaso-Conway N, Durrheim DN, 'Ten years on: Highlights and challenges of directly observed treatment short-course as the recommended TB control strategy in four Pacific Island nations', Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health, 10 44-47 (2011) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Massey PD, Todd K, Osbourn M, Taylor K, Durrheim DN, 'Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: Reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response, 2 1-4 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.5365/wpsar.2011.2.1.007
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Kohlhagen JK, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, 'Meeting measles elimination indicators: surveillance performance in a regional area of Australia', Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 2 1-5 (2011) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Durrheim DN, Bashour H, 'Measles eradication', The Lancet, 377 808 (2011) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60299-7
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Massey PD, Miller A, Saggers S, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Taylor K, et al., 'Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and the development of pandemic influenza containment strategies: Community voices and community control', Health Policy, 103 184-190 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Paterson B, Caddis R, Durrheim D, 'Use of workplace absenteeism surveillance data for outbreak detection', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17 1963-1964 (2011)
DOI 10.3201/eid1710.110202
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Hall R, Durrheim DN, 'One Health: much more than a slogan.', New South Wales public health bulletin, 22 97-98 (2011)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Dalton CB, Carlson SJ, Butler MT, Feisa J, Elvidge E, Durrheim DN, 'Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report, 2010.', Communicable diseases intelligence, 35 288-293 (2011) [C2]

Flutracking is a national weekly online survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) completed by community members. Flutracking integrates participants' ILI symptom information with th... [more]

Flutracking is a national weekly online survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) completed by community members. Flutracking integrates participants' ILI symptom information with their influenza vaccination status to monitor influenza activity and field vaccine effectiveness (FVE). This report summarises results from the 2010 Flutracking season compared with previous seasons. Nationally, participation in Flutracking has more than doubled between 2008 and 2010, with 5,346 new participants enrolled or recruited in 2010 and a peak weekly participation of 10,773. By the end of the 2010 season, 5,904 of 9,109 (64.8%) participants had received the monovalent pandemic vaccine and/or the 2010 seasonal vaccine. From 2007 to 2010 FVE calculations demonstrated that the seasonal vaccine was effective except in 2009 during the pandemic. Peak 2010 ILI activity occurred in early June and August, and peak weekly 2010 ILI rates (4.2% among unvaccinated participants) were lower than the peak ILI rates during the 2009 pandemic (6.0% among unvaccinated participants). However, the decrease in laboratory notifications was much larger than the decrease in Flutracking rates. In summary, the number of Flutracking participants continued to steadily increase over the 2010 influenza season. The system has shown value in providing weekly vaccination uptake data during and beyond the 2009 influenza pandemic, as well as rapid FVE estimates that are qualitatively aligned with findings from other analyses of vaccine efficacy. Flutracking has also provided estimates of weekly community ILI activity that were not biased by health seeking behaviour and clinician testing practices.

Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2011 Hope KG, Massey PD, Osbourn M, Durrheim DN, Kewley CD, Turner CL, 'Senior clinical nurses effectively contribute to the pandemic influenza public health response', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28 47-53 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 2
Co-authors Chris Kewley, D Durrheim
2011 Hall R, Durrheim DN, 'One Health: Much more than a slogan', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 97-98 (2011) [C3]
DOI 10.1071/nb11016
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Paterson BJ, Mackenzie JS, Durrheim DN, Smith D, 'A review of the epidemiology and surveillance of viral zoonotic encephalitis and the impact on human health in Australia', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 99-104 (2011) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB10076
Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Durrheim DN, 'Using operational research to ensure that immunisation benefits are enjoyed by all', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 1-2 (2011) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Macartney KK, Durrheim DN, 'NSW immunisation performance: continuing progress but no room for complacency', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22 1-2 (2011) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Paterson BJ, Caddis R, Durrheim DN, 'Use of workplace absenteeism surveillance data for outbreak detection', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17 1963-1964 (2011) [C3]
DOI 10.3201/eid1710.110202
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Carr C, Durrheim DN, Eastwood K, Massey P, Jaggers D, Caelli M, et al., 'Australia's first pandemic influenza mass vaccination clinic exercise: Hunter New England Area Health Service, NSW, Australia', Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 26 47-53 (2011) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Hess IM, Massey PD, Durrheim DN, O'Connor S, Graves SR, 'Preventing Q fever endocarditis: a review of cardiac assessment in hospitalised Q fever patients', Rural and Remote Health, 11 1763 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2011 Massey PD, Polkinghorne BG, Durrheim DN, Lower T, Speare R, 'Blood, guts and knife cuts: Reducing the risk of swine brucellosis in feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales, Australia', Rural and Remote Health, 11 1-9 (2011) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Cretikos M, Byleveld P, Durrheim DN, Porigneaux PG, Merritt TD, Leask S, 'Supply system factors associated with microbiological drinking water safety in regional New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2007', Journal of Water and Health, 8 257-268 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.2166/wh.2009.203
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Guimont C, Hullick C, Durrheim DN, Ryan N, Ferguson J, Massey P, 'Invasive meningococcal disease: Improving management through structured review of cases in the Hunter New England area, Australia', Journal of Public Health, 21 38-43 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1093/pubmed/fdp075
Citations Scopus - 5Web of Science - 2
Co-authors John Ferguson, D Durrheim
2010 Dawood FS, Hope KG, Durrheim DN, Givney R, Fry AM, Dalton CB, 'Estimating the Disease Burden of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia', Plos One, 5 7 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0009880
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2010 Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Merritt T, Massey PD, Huppatz C, Dalton CB, et al., 'Field exercises are useful for improving public health emergency responses', WSPAR: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 1 1-7 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.5365/wpsar.2010.1.1.003
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2010 Merritt AD, Roberts-Witteveen AR, Durrheim DN, 'Closing the gap - better health intelligence is required', Medical Journal of Australia, 193 309 (2010) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Jones AL, Butler M, 'Acceptance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination by the Australian public', Medical Journal of Australia, 192 33-36 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 74Web of Science - 63
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Miller A, Durrheim DN, 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities forgotten in new Australian National Action Plan for Human Influenza Pandemic: 'Ask us, listen to us, share with us'', Medical Journal of Australia, 193 316-317 (2010) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Dalton CB, Cretikos MA, Durrheim DN, Seppelt IM, Rawlinson WD, Dwyer DE, 'Comparison of adult patients hospitalised with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza during the 'PROTECT' phase of the pandemic response', Medical Journal of Australia, 192 357-358 (2010) [C3]
Citations Web of Science - 5
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2010 Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabaso MLH, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Household and microeconomic factors associated with malaria in Mpumalanga, South Africa', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 104 143-147 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.07.010
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Durrheim DN, Reingold A, 'Modifying the GRADE framework could benefit public health', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64 387 (2010) [C3]
DOI 10.1136/jech.2009.103226
Citations Scopus - 14Web of Science - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Durrheim DN, Cashman P, 'Addressing the immunization coverage paradox: A matter of children's rights and social justice', Clinical Therapeutics, 32 1496-1498 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.04.019
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Carlson SJ, Durrheim DN, Dalton CB, 'Flutracking provides a measure of field influenza vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2007-2009', Vaccine, 28 6809-6810 (2010) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.051
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2010 Durrheim DN, 'Bioterrorism - being prepared but not paralysed', Issues, - 15-17 (2010) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 McIntyre PB, Durrheim DN, Campbell-Lloyd S, 'The NSW immunisation strategy 2008-2011: How are we doing?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 21 193-196 (2010) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Irwin M, Massey P, Walker B, Durrheim DN, 'Feral pig hunting: A risk factor for human brucellosis in North-West NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 20 192-194 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB09023
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Butler M, Jones A, 'Responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16 1211-1216 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.3201/eid1608.100132
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Fesja J, 'Online flutracking survey of influenza-like illness during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16 1960-1962 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.3201/eid1612.100935
Citations Scopus - 8Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2010 Hope K, Durrheim DN, Barnett D, D'Este CA, Kewley CD, Dalton CB, et al., 'Willingness of frontline health care workers to work during a public health emergency', Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 25 39-47 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 16
Co-authors Catherine Deste, Craig Dalton, Chris Kewley, D Durrheim
2010 Hope KG, Merritt TD, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Kohlhagen JK, Todd KW, D'Este CA, 'Evaluating the utility of emergency department syndromic surveillance for a regional public health service', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 34 310-318 (2010) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors Catherine Deste, D Durrheim
2010 Way ASC, Durrheim DN, Merritt T, Vally H, 'Antiviral distribution data - a potential syndromic surveillance system to assist pandemic health service operational planning', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 34 303-309 (2010) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2010 Huppatz C, Gawarikar Y, Levi CR, Kelly PM, Williams D, Dalton CB, et al., 'Should there be a standardised approach to the diagnostic workup of suspected adult encephalitis? A case series from Australia', BMC Infectious Diseases, 10 1-6 (2010) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2334-10-353
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 10
Co-authors Craig Dalton, Christopher Levi, D Durrheim
2009 Huppatz C, Capuano C, Palmer K, Kelly PM, Durrheim DN, 'Lessons from the Pacific programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: A case study of 5 countries', BMC Infectious Diseases, 9 1-8 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2334-9-92
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Dalton CB, Merritt T, Durrheim DN, Munnoch S, Kirk M, 'A structured framework for improving outbreak investigation audits', BMC Public Health, 9 472 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-9-472
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2009 Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes', Malaria Journal, 8 1-6 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-8-68
Citations Scopus - 69Web of Science - 60
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Dawood FS, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Hope KG, 'Rates of hospitalisation for acute respiratory illness and the emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the Hunter New England Area Health Service', Medical Journal of Australia, 191 573-574 (2009) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2009 Paterson B, Durrheim DN, Tuyl FA, 'Influenza: H1N1 goes to school', Science, 325 1071-1072 (2009) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 8
Co-authors Frank Tuyl, D Durrheim
2009 Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Francis JL, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Duncan S, Islam F, Speare R, 'Knowledge about pandemic influenza and compliance with containment measures among Australians', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87 588-594 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.2471/blt.08.060772
Citations Scopus - 31Web of Science - 24
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Massey PD, Durrheim DN, Way A, 'Q-fever vaccination: Unfinished business in Australia', Vaccine, 27 3801 (2009) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.043
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Coleman M, Durrheim DN, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, 'Using GIS to understand malaria clusters', JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION-TYDSKRIF VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE VETERINERE VERENIGING, 80 117-117 (2009)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Carr C, Byles JE, Durrheim DN, 'Practice nurses best protect the vaccine cold chain in general practice', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27 35-39 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim, Julie Byles
2009 Roberts-Witteveen AR, Durrheim DN, Merritt TD, Munnoch SA, 'Estimate of the number of Campylobacter infections in the Hunter region, NSW, 2004-2007', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 20 187-191 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb09009
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Durrheim DN, Freeman P, Roth I, Hornitzky M, 'Epidemiologie questions from anthrax outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15 840-842 (2009) [C3]
DOI 10.3201/eid1505.081744
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Huppatz C, Durrheim DN, Levi CR, Dalton CB, Williams D, Clements MS, Kelly PM, 'Etiology of encephalitis in Australia, 1990-2007', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15 1359-1365 (2009) [C1]
DOI 10.3201/eid1509.081540
Citations Scopus - 46Web of Science - 45
Co-authors Craig Dalton, Christopher Levi, D Durrheim
2009 Jaravani FG, Durrheim DN, Eastwood K, Pearce G, Byleveld P, 'Natural warm water spa baths in rural Australia and public health risks', Environmental Health, 9 31-39 (2009) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Massey PD, Miller A, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Saggers S, Eastwood K, 'Pandemic influenza containment and the cultural and social context of indigenous communities', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1179 (2009) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Massey PD, Kewley C, 'Australia's pandemic 'protect' strategy: The tension between prevention and patient', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1288 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Massey PD, Pearce G, Taylor KA, Orcher L, Saggers S, Durrheim DN, 'Reducing the risk of pandemic influenza in Aboriginal communities', Rural and Remote Health, 9 Article No. 1290 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Osbourn M, McPhie KA, Ratnamohan VM, Dwyer DE, Durrheim DN, 'Outbreak of human metapneumovirus inflection in a residential aged care facility', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 38-40 (2009) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Roberts-Witteveen AR, Campbell BA, Merritt TD, Massey PD, Shadbolt CT, Durrheim DN, 'Egg-associated Salmonella outbreak in an aged care facility, New South Wales, 2008', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 49-52 (2009) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Huppatz C, Kelly PM, Levi CR, Dalton CB, Williams D, Durrheim DN, 'Encephalitis in Australia, 1979-2006: Trends and aetiologies', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 192-197 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 14
Co-authors Christopher Levi, D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2009 Massey PD, Irwin M, Durrheim DN, 'Enhanced Q fever risk exposure surveillance may permit better informed vaccination policy', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 41-45 (2009) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
2009 Carlson SJ, Dalton CB, Tuyl FA, Durrheim DN, Fejsa J, Muscatello DJ, et al., 'Flutracking surveillance: Comparing 2007 New South Wales results with laboratory confirmed influenza notifications', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 323-326 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 9
Co-authors Frank Tuyl, D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2009 Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Fejsa J, Francis JL, Carlson S, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Tuyl FA, 'Flutracking: A weekly Australian community online survey of influenza-like illness in 2006, 2007 and 2008', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 33 316-322 (2009) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 16
Co-authors Craig Dalton, Frank Tuyl, D Durrheim
2008 Ewald BD, Webb CE, Durrheim DN, Russell RC, 'Is there a risk of malaria transmission in NSW?', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 127-131 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb07040
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors Ben Ewald, D Durrheim
2008 Ewald BD, Durrheim DN, 'Australian Bat Lyssavirus: Examination of post-exposure treatment in NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 104-107 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb07050
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim, Ben Ewald
2008 Massey P, Durrheim DN, 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples at higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease in NSW', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 100-103 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb07047
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Byleveld PM, Cretikos MA, Leask SD, Durrheim DN, 'Ensuring safe drinking water in regional NSW: The role of regulation', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 19 203-207 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb08031
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Hanson D, Hanson J, Vardon P, McFarlane K, Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'Documenting the development of social capital in a community Safety Promotion Network: It's not what you know but who you know', Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 19 144-151 (2008) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Hope KG, Durrheim DN, Muscatello D, Merritt TD, Zheng W, Massey P, et al., 'Identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance: Can emergency department data assist in earlier identification?', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 32 361-363 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00255.x
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Huppatz CM, Durrheim DN, Lammie P, Kelly P, Melrose W, '(Editorial) Eliminating lymphatic filariasis: The surveillance challenge', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 13 292-294 (2008) [C3]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02002.x
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Eastwood K, Osbourn M, Francis L, Merritt TD, Nicholas C, Cashman P, et al., 'Improving communicable disease outbreak preparedness in residential aged care facilities using an interventional interview strategy', Australasian Journal on Ageing, 27 143-149 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2008.00299.x
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim, John Wiggers
2008 Main K, Ansell N, Durrheim DN, Herlihy C, Porigneaux P, Tange K, Williams C, 'Environmental health emergency response to a natural storm disaster in NSW, Australia', Environmental Health, 8 44-50 (2008) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Hope KG, Merritt T, Eastwood K, Main K, Durrheim DN, Muscatello D, et al., 'The public health value of emergency department syndromic surveillance following a natural disaster', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 92-94 (2008) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Huppatz CM, Munnoch SA, Worgan T, Merritt TD, Dalton CB, Kelly PM, Durrheim DN, 'A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: Implications for quality assurance systems', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 88-91 (2008) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 13
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2008 Cashman P, Hueston L, Durrheim DN, Massey P, Doggett S, Russell RC, 'Barmah Forest virus serology: Implications for diagnosis and public health action', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 263-266 (2008) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Conroy MA, 'Likely impact of school and childcare closures on public health workforce during an influenza pandemic: A survey', Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report, 32 261-262 (2008) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 21
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2008 Cretikos M, Eastwood K, Dalton CB, Merritt TD, Tuyl FA, Winn L, Durrheim DN, 'Household disaster preparedness and information sources: Rapid cluster survey after a storm in New South Wales, Australia', BMC Public Health, 8 1-9 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-8-195
Citations Scopus - 21Web of Science - 18
Co-authors D Durrheim, Frank Tuyl, Craig Dalton
2008 Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 'Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Malaria Journal, 7 1-8 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-7-69
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Ng J, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Massey P, Walker B, Armson A, Ryan U, 'Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in rural New South Wales', Experimental Parasitology, 119 192-195 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.exppara.2008.01.010
Citations Scopus - 44Web of Science - 39
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Barnes KI, Little F, Mabuza A, Mngomezulu N, Govere J, Durrheim DN, et al., 'Increased gametocytemia after treatment: An early parasitological indicator of emerging sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in falciparum malaria', Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197 1605-1613 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1086/587645
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 54
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Durrheim DN, Wenitong M, Huppatz CM, Rubin G, 'The first 100 days: An open letter to the new Minister for Health and Ageing', Medical Journal of Australia, 188 189 (2008) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Dalton CB, Cretikos MA, Durrheim DN, 'A food 'lifeboat': Food and nutrition considerations in the event of a pandemic or other catastrophe [Letter]', Medical Journal of Australia, 188 679 (2008) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim, Craig Dalton
2008 Durrheim DN, 'E-surveillance: Don't neglect sentinels in developing countries', The Lancet, 372 2021-2022 (2008) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61865-6
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Blockman M, Kredo T, Gounden R, Barnes KI, 'Adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients in a South African hospital serving a community with a high HIV/AIDS prevalence: Prospective observational study', British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65 396-406 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03034.x
Citations Scopus - 59Web of Science - 37
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Vellema SC, Durrheim DN, Smith JE, 'Diagnosing childhood tuberculosis in rural clinics in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Curationis, 31 52-58 (2008) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Munnoch SA, Ward K, Sheridan S, Fitzsimmons GJ, Shadbolt CT, Piispanen JP, et al., 'A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul in Australia associated with cantaloupe consumption', Epidemiology and Infection, 137 367-374 (2008) [C1]
DOI 10.1017/s0950268808000861
Citations Scopus - 33Web of Science - 31
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Massey P, Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Inadequate chemoprophylaxis and the risk of malaria', Australian Family Physician, 36 1058-1060 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Cashman P, Massey P, Durrheim DN, Islam F, Merritt T, Eastwood K, 'Pneumonia cluster in a boarding school - Implications for influenza control', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 31 296-298 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Chiu CK, Durrheim DN, 'A review of the efficacy of human Q fever vaccine registered in Australia', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 18 133-136 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/nb07057
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Monaghan K, Durrheim DN, Arzey G, Branley J, 'Human psittacosis associated with purchasing birds from, or visiting, a pet store in Newcastle, Australia', Environmental Health (Online Edition), 7 52-61 (2007) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Blumberg L, Donohue S, Hansford F, Mabuza A, et al., 'Malaria deaths as sentinel events to monitor healthcare delivery and antimalarial drug safety', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12 617-628 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01823.x
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Massey P, Durrheim DN, 'Income inequality and health status: A nursing issue', Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 84-88 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Cretikos M, Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, 'Re: Exercise paton: a simulation exercise to test New South Wales emergency departments' response to pandemic influenza', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 31 419 (2007) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Merritt T, Durrheim DN, Hope K, Byron P, 'General practice intervention to increase opportunistic screening for chlamydia', Sexual Health, 4 249-251 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/sh07033
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 18
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Todd K, Durrheim DN, Pickles R, Eastwood K, Merritt T, Tapsall J, et al., 'Using epidemiological and molecular methods to investigate an outbreak of gonorrhoea associated with heterosexual contact in Newcastle, NSW, Australia', Sexual Health, 4 233-236 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/sh07037
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Wynd S, Carron J, Selve B, Leggat P, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, 'Qualitative analysis of the impact of a lymphatic filariasis elimination programme using mass drug administration on Misima Island, Papua New Guinea', Filaria Journal, 6 1-7 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1475-2883-6-1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Wynd S, Durrheim DN, Carron J, Selve B, Chaine JP, Leggat PA, Melrose W, 'Socio-cultural insights and lymphatic filariasis control: Lessons from the Pacific', Filaria Journal, 6 1-4 (2007) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1475-2883-6-3
Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Chiu CK, Durrheim DN, 'A review of the efficacy of human Q fever vaccine registered in Australia.', New South Wales public health bulletin, 18 133-136 (2007)

BACKGROUND: Q fever remains an important occupational zoonosis in rural Australia. Although Q fever vaccine is recommended in high-risk occupational groups, its availability has b... [more]

BACKGROUND: Q fever remains an important occupational zoonosis in rural Australia. Although Q fever vaccine is recommended in high-risk occupational groups, its availability has been limited in recent years. METHOD: A literature review of the efficacy of the human Q fever vaccine registered in Australia was conducted. RESULTS: Seven relevant vaccine efficacy studies were identified but no large double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have been conducted. Vaccine efficacy has ranged from 83-100% but limitations of study designs hamper a precise estimate of vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: Despite the shortcomings of efficacy studies, the Q fever vaccine available in Australia has considerable protective benefit in established high-risk environments, particularly of an occupational nature.

Citations Scopus - 18
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Sharp BL, Kleinschmidt I, Streat E, Maharaj R, Barnes KI, Durrheim DN, et al., 'Seven years of regional malaria control collaboration: Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland', American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76 42-47 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 145Web of Science - 140
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Durrheim DN, Kelly H, Ferson MJ, Featherstone D, 'Remaining measles challenges in Australia', Medical Journal of Australia, 187 181-184 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Parsons KJ, Osbourn M, Durrheim DN, Webber MT, 'Immunisation coverage in refugee children (Letter)', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 323 (2007) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Durrheim DN, Hensley MJ, 'Should medical students be routinely offered BCG vaccination? (Letter)', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 98-99 (2007) [C3]
Co-authors Michael Hensley, D Durrheim
2007 Merritt TD, Sintchenko V, Jelfs P, Worthing M, Robinson B, Durrheim DN, Gilbert GL, 'An outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in young Australians', Medical Journal of Australia, 186 240-242 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Cretikos MA, Merritt TD, Main K, Eastwood K, Winn L, Moran L, Durrheim DN, 'Mitigating the health impacts of a natural disaster - the June 2007 long-weekend storm in the Hunter region of New South Wales', Medical Journal of Australia, 187 670-673 (2007) [C2]
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Huppatz C, Durrheim DN, 'Control of neglected tropical diseases', New England Journal of Medicine, 357 2407-2408 (2007) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Wynd S, Melrose WD, Durrheim DN, Carron J, Gyapong M, 'Understanding the community impact of lymphatic filariasis: a review of the sociocultural literature', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 85 493-498 (2007)
DOI 10.2471/BLT.06.031047
Citations Scopus - 38Web of Science - 29
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Mehta U, Durrheim DN, Mabuza A, Blumberg L, Allen E, Barnes K, 'Malaria pharmacovigilance in Africa: Lessons from a pilot project in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Drug Safety, 30 899-910 (2007) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Durrheim DN, 'A clarion call for greater investment in global sanitation', The Lancet, 370 1592-1593 (2007) [C3]
DOI 10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61668-7
Citations Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2007 Durrheim DN, 'Varicella vaccine: Local convenience or global equity?', The Lancet, 368 2208-2209 (2007) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Hope K, Durrheim DN, Tursan D'Espaignet E, Dalton CB, 'Syndromic surveillance: is it a useful tool for local outbreak detection? (Editorial)', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60 374-375 (2006) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 23Web of Science - 16
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2006 Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders VL, Speare R, Lowe JB, 'A population survey--would Australian general practice be the first point of contact during an anthrax bioterrorism event?', Australian Family Physician, 35 172-174 (2006) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Durrheim DN, Massey P, Kelly H, 'Re-emerging poliomyelitis-is Australia's surveillance adequate?', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, 30 275-277 (2006) [C6]
Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Nelesone T, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Kiedrzynski T, Melrose WD, 'Strengthening sub-national communicable disease surveillance in a remote Pacific Island country by adapting a successful African outbreak surveillance model', Tropical Medicine and International Helath, 11 17-21 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01534.x
Citations Scopus - 13Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Monaghan K, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Whyte IM, 'Mercury Incident in a Boarding House: An Integrated Public Health Response in Newcastle, Australia', Environmental Health, 6 72-79 (2006) [C2]
Co-authors Craig Dalton, D Durrheim
2006 Ferson MJ, Durrheim DN, 'Investing in capacity to meet the challenge of an influenza pandemic', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 129-130 (2006) [C3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Keith E, Peter M, Durrheim DN, 'Pandemic planning at the coal face: responsibilities of the public health Unit', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 117-120 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB06029
Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Durrheim DN, Massey P, Carr C, Islam F, 'The changing epidemiology of pertussis in Hunter New England Area and potential implications for the immunisation schedule', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 48-51 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1071/NB06013
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Speare R, Fab LF, Tekaai N, Harmen S, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, Heukelback J, 'Prevalence of soil transmitted nematodes on Nukufetau, a remote Pacific Island in Tuvalu', BMC Infectious Diseases, 6 1471-2334 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1471-2334-6-110
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Burkot T, Durrheim DN, Melrose W, Speare R, Ichimori K, 'The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis', Filaria Journal, 5 1186-1475 (2006) [C1]
DOI 10.1186/1475-2883-5-10
Citations Scopus - 49
Co-authors D Durrheim
2006 Durrheim DN, Ferson M, 'Preparing for the inevitable an influenza pandemic', NSW Public Health Bulletin, 17 97-98 (2006) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Durrheim DN, Williams HA, 'Assuring Effective Malaria Treatment in Africa: Drug Efficency is Necessary But Not Efficient', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59 178-179 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1136/jech.2004.020826
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Booman M, Sharp B, Martin C, Manjate B, Grange J, Durrheim D, 'Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa [MIM-MB-35428]', ACTA TROPICA, 95 S319-S320 (2005)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Mabuza A, Govere J, la Grange K, Mngomezulu N, Allen E, Zitha A, et al., 'Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria - A study 5 years after implementation of combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 95 346-349 (2005)
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Mabuza A, Govere J, La Grange K, Ngomezulu NM, Allen E, Zitha A, et al., 'Theraputic Efficacy of Sulfadioxine-Pyrimethamine for Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria', South African Medical Journal, 95 346-349 (2005) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Hanson D, Hanson J, Vardon P, Macfarlane K, Lloyd J, Muller R, Durrheim DN, 'The Injury Iceberg: an Ecological Approach to Planning Sustainable Community Safety Interventions', Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 16 5-10 (2005) [C1]
Citations Scopus - 21
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Ho Y-H, Muller R, Veitch C, Rane A, Durrheim DN, 'Faecal Incontinence: An Unrecognised Epidemic in Rural North Queensland? Results of a Hospital-based Outpatient Study', Australian Journal of Rural Health, 13 28-34 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1854.2004.00642.x
Citations Scopus - 27
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders V, Speare R, Lowe JB, 'Australian public and smallpox', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11 1748-1750 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.3201/eid1111.041129
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Barnett FI, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Muller R, 'Management of Irukandji Syndrome in Northern Australia', Rural and Remote Health, 165 658-661 (2005) [C1]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Leggat PA, Harrison SL, Fenner PJ, Durrheim DN, Swinbourne AL, 'Health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island: A risk area for 'Irukandji' jellyfish in North Queensland, Australia', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3 27-31 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1016/j.tmaid.2004.06.004
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Barnes KI, Durrheim DN, Little F, Jackson A, Mehta U, Allen E, et al., 'Effect of Artemether-Lumefantrine Policy and Improved Vector Control on Malaria Burden in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa', PLoS Medicine, 2 e330 (2005) [C1]
DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020330
Citations Scopus - 180Web of Science - 153
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Barnett FI, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Muller R, 'Management of Irukandji syndrome in northern Australia.', Rural and remote health, 5 369 (2005)

INTRODUCTION: Irukandji syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition that follows the sting of small carybdeid jellyfish, occurs along the northern Australian coastline from... [more]

INTRODUCTION: Irukandji syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition that follows the sting of small carybdeid jellyfish, occurs along the northern Australian coastline from Broome, Western Australia in the west to Rockhampton, Queensland in the east. Much of this area is classified rural or remote. Because correct patient management is essential to avoid unnecessary fatality, and stings are relatively uncommon in any specific location, it was considered important to document current approaches to Irukandji syndrome management throughout coastal northern Australia, comparing urban and more rural health facilities, and to assess the availability of management guidelines for health staff. METHODS: A telephone survey of the clinicians responsible for Irukandji syndrome patient management at 34 coastal northern Australian health facilities that might encounter this patient presentation was conducted during November and December 2003. Healthcare providers responsible for Irukandji syndrome management on the day of survey were interviewed using a structured, standardized questionnaire, which included a description of a hypothetical patient with Irukandji syndrome. This was used to stimulate a spontaneous description of the usual response of the particular health facility to such a patient presentation. Additional vignettes were used to investigate further specific aspects of patient management, including first aid, and pain and blood pressure management. Respondents were also asked about the existence of Irukandji treatment guidelines at their facility. RESULTS: All 34 facilities contacted agreed to participate. Five health facilities were in urban centres with a population of 50,000 or greater, four were within 50 km of such centres, 20 were more remote and five facilities were on islands. Basic clinical monitoring (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) was generally adequately practised. Topical application of vinegar as a first aid measure was described by 79% of respondents, with spontaneous mention of vinegar significantly associated with increasing remoteness (p = 0.023). Other sting site management was variable, with uncertainty about the use of pressure immobilisation bandaging. Intravenous opiate analgesia was administered at 91% of facilities, and magnesium sulphate, a treatment that is still being evaluated for its role in Irukandji syndrome-related pain and hypertension, was mentioned by 12% of respondents for pain relief. Twelve different pharmacological treatments were used for syndrome-associated hypertension, with magnesium sulphate being mentioned by 21% of respondents. Of the 22 facilities with guidelines, 14 used either the Primary Clinical Care Manual or the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association Standard Treatment Manual. The remaining guidelines were independently produced protocols. The availability of guidelines was associated with appropriate use of intravenous opiate for adequate pain relief (p = 0.037). Although all urban health centres and 75% of health facilities <50 km away had guidelines, only 56% of more remote or island facilities reported the availability of guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although monitoring and pain management of patients with Irukandji syndrome were generally appropriate, a variety of inappropriate first aid and hypertension management approaches were found. In general, appropriate practice was associated with the presence of guidelines but, unfortunately, guidelines were less often present in remote health facilities. This is particularly important because the majority of respondents who reported no experience of managing Irukandji syndrome were located in more remote settings. There is a need for uniform, evidence-based guidelines, and mechanisms for effective dissemination of these guidelines with training for all health staff who may be required to manage Irukandji syndrome, particularly in remote areas of northern Australia.

Citations Scopus - 12
Co-authors D Durrheim
2005 Mehta U, Barnes KI, Kathard H, Van Vugt M, Durrheim DN, 'Comment On: Audiometric Changes Associated With the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria with Co-Artemther', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 99 313-317 (2005) [C3]
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Elimination programs: Monitoring the effectiveness of surveillance', JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 190 2195-2196 (2004)
DOI 10.1086/425427
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Speare R, Durrheim D, 'Mass treatment with ivermectin: an underutilized public health strategy', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 82 562-562 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 12Web of Science - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim D, 'Prevention of cholera', LANCET, 363 897-898 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15748-6
Citations Web of Science - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Communicable disease surveillance and management in a globalised world', LANCET, 363 1339-1340 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16084-4
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Wynd S, Durrheim DN, 'Health-care provision and the path out of poverty', LANCET, 364 562-564 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16865-7
Citations Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim D, Barnett FI, 'Necrotic arachnidism: dispelling fact with fiction', LANCET, 364 2018-2019 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17509-0
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim D, Preston NW, 'Prevention of cholera [4] (multiple letters)', Lancet, 363 897-898 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'Strongyloides serology--useful for diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in rural Indigenous populations, but important gaps in knowledge remain.', Rural and remote health, 4 264 (2004)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Williams HA, Durrheim D, Shretta R, 'The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies', HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING, 19 356-370 (2004)
DOI 10.1093/heapol/czh051
Citations Scopus - 55Web of Science - 46
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Harrison SL, Leggat PA, Fenner PJ, Durrheim DN, Swinbourne AL, 'Reported knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of tourists and north Queensland residents at risk of contact with jellyfish that cause the "Irukandji syndrome"', WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, 15 4-10 (2004)
DOI 10.1580/1080-6032(2004)015[0004:RKPABO]2.0.CO;2
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 13
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Leggat PA, Melrose W, Durrheim DN, 'Could it be lymphatic filariasis?', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 11 56-60 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 3Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim DN, Wynd S, Liese B, Gyapong JO, 'Editorial: Lymphatic filariasis endemicity - an indicator of poverty?', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 9 843-845 (2004)
DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01287.x
Citations Scopus - 27Web of Science - 23
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Melrose WD, Durrheim DD, Burgess GW, 'Update on immunological tests for lymphatic filariasis', Trends in Parasitology, 20 255-257 (2004)

Until recently, the TropBio antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the immunochromatographic test rapid-card test were the only commercially available diagnostic tests for ... [more]

Until recently, the TropBio antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the immunochromatographic test rapid-card test were the only commercially available diagnostic tests for lymphatic filariasis. The new Brugia Rapid antibody-detection dipstick is a welcome addition, but there is an urgent need to develop more cost-effective, accurate and standardized immunological tests for use in the global filariasis elimination program.

DOI 10.1016/j.pt.2004.04.002
Citations Scopus - 18
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim DN, 'Artemisinin-class combination therapy for malaria-unresolved ethical and technical issues', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2 185-188 (2004)

Artemisinin-class Combination Therapy (ACT) remains the most plausible means by which the ambitious goal of halving malaria mortality by the year 2010 may be achieved. Convincing ... [more]

Artemisinin-class Combination Therapy (ACT) remains the most plausible means by which the ambitious goal of halving malaria mortality by the year 2010 may be achieved. Convincing evidence of ACT efficacy in treating uncomplicated malaria now exists. ACT appears safe but most safety studies have been weak methodologically. Thus there is an acute need for sensitive ongoing pharmacovigilance. Limited availability of ACT in those countries most likely to benefit from its public health use, has resulted in allegations of 'medical malpractice' against the World Health Organization and Global Fund for AIDS, TB and malaria. The ethical principles of autonomy, sanctity of life, beneficence and justice are pertinent to the adoption of ACT as first-line therapy of uncomplicated malaria by endemic countries. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1016/j.tmaid.2004.04.003
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Barnes JL, Warner J, Melrose W, Durrheim D, Speare R, Reeder JC, Ketheesan N, 'Adaptive immunity in melioidosis: a possible role for T cells in determining outcome of infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei', CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 113 22-28 (2004)
DOI 10.1016/j.clim.2004.06.006
Citations Scopus - 34Web of Science - 28
Co-authors D Durrheim
2004 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "What are ecological studies?"', South African Family Practice, 46 48 (2004)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Harris BN, Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Polio eradication - the validity of surveillance indicators', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 8 386-391 (2003)
DOI 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.01048.x
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Booman M, Sharp BL, Martin CL, Manjate B, La Grange JJ, Durrheim DN, 'Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa', Malaria Journal, 2 1-5 (2003)

Background: Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effec... [more]

Background: Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effective against the specific mosquito vector is correctly applied. Ongoing monitoring of spraying operations is essential to assure optimal programme performance and early corrective action, where indicated. Methods: Successful development and application of a computerised spraying operations management system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 1998 resulted in its adaptation and introduction in neighbouring Maputo Province, southern Mozambique during 2000. The structure and components of this computerised management system are described, and its' operational benefit in southern Mozambique, where community-based spray operators apply intradomiciliary insecticide, are reviewed. Conclusions: The computerised management system allowed malaria programme management and field supervisors to monitor spraying coverage, insecticide consumption and application rates on an ongoing basis. The system supported a successful transition to community-based spraying, while assuring correct insecticide application and spraying completion according to schedule.

DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-2-1
Citations Scopus - 19
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Leggat PA, Ross MH, Dürrheim DN, De Frey A, Blumberg LH, 'Linking yellow fever vaccination centre registration and training in travel medicine', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 1 17-18 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S1477-8939(02)00005-4
Citations Scopus - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Blumberg L, Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Tuberculosis: Current issues on diagnosis and management', South African Family Practice, 45 38-43 (2003)

In 1993, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency and in 1996, South Africa declared TB as a priority disease. The most effective means of... [more]

In 1993, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency and in 1996, South Africa declared TB as a priority disease. The most effective means of controlling TB is through rapid diagnosis by direct sputum microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB), or culture for Mycobacteium tuberculosis (MTB) and prompt initiation of the correct therapy by means of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short course (DOTS) strategy. ln 1997, it was estimated that 10 million of the 30 million people infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HM worldwide were co-infected with TB. This review article focuses on TB diagnosis, including newer laboratory tests, treatment, and chemoprophylaxis. Special issues such as extra pulmonary TB, childhood TB, BCG immunisation, and the deadly alliance between TB and HIV/AIDS are also considered. Tuberculosis is a treatable disease and the aim of any family practitioner should be to treat smear positive patients as soon as possible, and cure them at the first attempt.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: Prevalence or incidence - Pedantic or important?', South African Family Practice, 45 46 (2003)

The most effective way to infuriate an epidemiologist is to call a "prevalence rate" an "incidence rate", or vice versa. Unfortunately, this diabolical practice remains a common f... [more]

The most effective way to infuriate an epidemiologist is to call a "prevalence rate" an "incidence rate", or vice versa. Unfortunately, this diabolical practice remains a common feature in print, during presentations at medical references and in conversations between medical colleagues. You may, ask whether this confusion of terminology deserves mention in this column. Our answer is an emphatic "yes"! An incorrect understanding of incidence and prevalence can have disastrous effects on planning, whether within an individual practice or a global public health programme.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Managing risk in statistics - "Attributable Risk"', South African Family Practice, 45 20 (2003)

In a previous article we discussed the value of determining the relative risk of developing a disease in relation to a specific exposure and thus its utility for assessing the exp... [more]

In a previous article we discussed the value of determining the relative risk of developing a disease in relation to a specific exposure and thus its utility for assessing the exposure's etiological role in disease causation. This article focuses on attributable risk, another important measure, which assists us in determining what the impact would be of effectively intervening against a specific causative factor. It is determined by subtracting the risk in the unexposed group from the risk in the exposed group, that is, Risk (exposed) - Risk (unexposed). The underlying or background risk without the exposure is assumed to be the same in both groups. When the level of risk is the same in both groups, then the risk difference is 0 and one can conclude that the exposure makes no difference to the disease risk. However, if the risk difference is greater than 0, there is increased risk of the outcome in relation to the specific exposure under investigation. If it is less than 0, that is, a negative number, then the exposure under investigation would appear beneficial with a lower disease risk in the exposed group.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Leggat PA, Pearn JH, Dürrheim DN, 'First aid and travellers', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 1 141-143 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S1477-8939(02)00006-6
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Booman M, Sharp BL, Martin CL, Manjate B, La Grange JJ, Durrheim DN, 'Enhancing malaria control using a computerised management system in southern Africa.', Malaria journal [electronic resource], 2 13 (2003)

BACKGROUND: Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effec... [more]

BACKGROUND: Malaria control programmes utilising indoor residual spraying are only effective if a high coverage of targeted structures is achieved and an insecticide that is effective against the specific mosquito vector is correctly applied. Ongoing monitoring of spraying operations is essential to assure optimal programme performance and early corrective action, where indicated. METHODS: Successful development and application of a computerised spraying operations management system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa during 1998 resulted in its adaptation and introduction in neighbouring Maputo Province, southern Mozambique during 2000. The structure and components of this computerised management system are described, and its' operational benefit in southern Mozambique, where community-based spray operators apply intradomiciliary insecticide, are reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The computerised management system allowed malaria programme management and field supervisors to monitor spraying coverage, insecticide consumption and application rates on an ongoing basis. The system supported a successful transition to community-based spraying, while assuring correct insecticide application and spraying completion according to schedule.

Citations Scopus - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Mngomezulu NM, Barnes K, Sharp B, 'Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles arabiensis after treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine', TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 97 707-708 (2003)
DOI 10.1016/S0035-9203(03)80108-6
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Govere JM, Speare R, Durrheim DN, 'The prevalence of pediculosis in rural South African schoolchildren', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 99 21-23 (2003)
Citations Scopus - 10Web of Science - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Global leprosy elimination: time to change more than the elimination target date', JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, 57 316-317 (2003)
DOI 10.1136/jech.57.5.316
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim DN, Williams HA, Barnes K, Speare R, Sharp BL, 'Beyond evidence: A retrospective study of factors influencing a malaria treatment policy change in two South African Provinces', Critical Public Health, 13 309-330 (2003)

There is a growing appreciation that decisions on changing drug treatment policy should be based on robust evidence of drug effectiveness. No published information describing the ... [more]

There is a growing appreciation that decisions on changing drug treatment policy should be based on robust evidence of drug effectiveness. No published information describing the process of decision making prior to malaria treatment policy changes or subsequent success in implementing treatment policy changes exists in South Africa. This retrospective study of the differential implementation of a policy change from chloroquine to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for first-line treatment of malaria in two South African provinces, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Province, sought to explore the change from the perspective of national and provincial policy makers and programme managers. Focus-groups discussions, in-depth interviews, participatory exercises and archival documentary analysis were conducted. Policy makers and programme managers mentioned the need for local efficacy data as a prerequisite for changing malaria treatment policy. However, drug efficacy data alone were not sufficient to ensure effective policy making or implementation in this study. An effective strategy identified for motivating a change in policy was emphasizing the potential negative consequences of failure to implement a treatment change. In both provinces it was recognized that, for a policy change to be successful and applied at peripheral levels, the proposed change had to have official sanctioning from credible sources. Physical removal of all previously recommended medication from public healthcare facilities appeared to be a key factor in ensuring successful implementation. Lessons learnt through this retrospective analysis may be of value to a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, considering policy change in response to rapidly increasing anti-malarial drug resistance. However, additional case studies of the process of malaria treatment policy change are urgently needed from other African settings to determine commonalities and optimize the efficiency of formulating and implementing malaria treatment policy changes.

DOI 10.1080/09581590310001615862
Citations Scopus - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim DN, Nelesone T, Speare R, Melrose W, 'Certifying lymphatic filariasis elimination in the Pacific--the need for new tools.', Pacific health dialog : a publication of the Pacific Basin Officers Training Program and the Fiji School of Medicine, 10 149-154 (2003)

Experience from successful global elimination programmes highlights the pivotal role of functional surveillance programmes for confirming cessation of local disease transmission. ... [more]

Experience from successful global elimination programmes highlights the pivotal role of functional surveillance programmes for confirming cessation of local disease transmission. Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for global elimination by 2020 with an earlier target of 2010 for the Pacific Island countries. No surveillance protocol for confirming filariasis elimination in small island countries has yet been agreed evaluated. Currently recommended surveillance strategies for confirming lymphatic filariasis elimination are not ideal for small Pacific countries. Relying on occasional surveys to detect an increasingly rare health condition has inherent epidemiological weaknesses. Characteristics of effective surveillance for confirming filariasis elimination would include adequate sensitivity for detecting residual transmission, ongoing population scrutiny, and integration within a resource-sensitive system that includes other important conditions requiring public health surveillance. We propose that acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) may prove a suitable surveillance condition. ALA surveillance nested within a syndromic communicable disease surveillance programme implemented universally by health facilities may provide a solution to the current conundrum facing Pacific lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes and should be carefully evaluated.

Citations Scopus - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim D, Muller R, 'Epidemiologic rigor in travel medicine', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 10 66-67 (2003)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Waner S, Baker L, Wolfaardt DC, Durrheim DN, Sowester J, 'Risk factors and characteristics of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria presenting to a private hospital network in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 10 296-298 (2003)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Durrheim D, Muller R, Brouqui P, 'Epidemiologic rigor in travel medicine [1] (multiple letters)', Journal of Travel Medicine, 10 66-67 (2003)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Gericke A, Govere JM, Durrheim DN, 'Insecticide susceptibility in the South African malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae)', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 98 205-208 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 15Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Mngomezulu N, Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Speare R, Viljoen L, Appleton C, Booman M, 'Burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in primary school children in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and implications for control', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 98 607-610 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Petzer M, 'Short communication: Rabies post-exposure management in South Africa: a telephonic survey used as a rapid tool for operational research', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 7 459-461 (2002)
DOI 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00868.x
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Idema CD, Harris BN, Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Neonatal tetanus elimination in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH, 7 622-624 (2002)
DOI 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00903.x
Citations Scopus - 16Web of Science - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Billinghurst KG, Reich MR, 'Cholera - The role of catheters, confidential inquiries and early response', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 92 597-599 (2002)
Citations Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, Gouws A, Grobler S, 'Intradermal BCG vaccination - Limiting local adverse reactions', SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, 92 665-666 (2002)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Govere JM, 'Malaria outbreak control in an African village by community application of 'deet' mosquito repellent to ankles and feet', MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, 16 112-115 (2002)
DOI 10.1046/j.0269-283x.2002.00349.x
Citations Scopus - 24Web of Science - 22
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Fourie A, Balt E, Le Roux M, Harris BN, Matebula M, et al., 'Leprosy in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa - eliminated or hidden?', LEPROSY REVIEW, 73 326-333 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 9
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Harries AD, 'Research that influences policy and practice - Characteristics ofoperational research to improve malaria control in Mpumalanga Province, SouthAfrica', Malaria Journal, 1 1-7 (2002)

Background: Much communicable disease control research has had little impact on local control programme policy and practice for want of an operational component. The operational r... [more]

Background: Much communicable disease control research has had little impact on local control programme policy and practice for want of an operational component. The operational research model - the systematic search for knowledge on interventions, tools or strategies that enhance programme effectiveness - is gaining recognition as an appropriate method for addressing perplexing questions within public health programmes. Methods: A series of operational research studies were conducted to refine malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa between 1995 and 1999. The grounded theory approach was used with groups of experienced Masters of Public Health students in South Africa and Australia to analyse a compilation of these studies for determining positive and negative attributes of operational research that affect its ability to influence communicable disease control policy and practice. Results: The principal positive attributes of the operational research studies were high local relevance, greater ability to convince local decision-makers, relatively short lag-time before implementation of findings, and the cost-effective nature of this form of research. Potential negative features elicited included opportunities forfeited by using scarce resources to conduct research and the need to adequately train local health staff in research methodology to ensure valid results and accurate interpretation of findings. Conclusions: Operational research effectively influenced disease control policy and practice in rural South Africa, by providing relevant answers to local questions and engaging policy-makers. This resulted in accelerated inclusion of appropriate measures into a local communicable disease control programme.

DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-1-1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "Understanding the score"', South African Family Practice, 25 30 (2002)

A plethora of scoring systems have evolved in medicine Ranks or scores are a common feature of quantitative research conducted by family practitioners. In addition ranking is prev... [more]

A plethora of scoring systems have evolved in medicine Ranks or scores are a common feature of quantitative research conducted by family practitioners. In addition ranking is prevalent in the laboratory, e.g. malaria parasitaemia ranked as 0, +, ++, or +++, and at the patient bedside, that is, grading the severity of stroke or leprosy lesions as mild, moderate or severe (+, ++, +++) or of a cancer as Stage l, ll, lll or lV.A convenient way of combining the ranks of a group of related criteria is the creation of an "index". Basic indices result from simply adding the individual ranks of all components, while more sophisticated indices provide individual weightings to each component before they are summed. lt is useful to create indices but they should be used with circumspection.We will use the Apgar scoring system, which is used for the evaluation of newborn babies, to highlight features commonly shared by indices that should always be explicitly considered before use.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioner The "Chi-square test"- getting it right', South African Family Practice, 25 31-32 (2002)

The chi-square test is the most commonly used statistic test for investigating the differences between proportion arising from research. It helps to determine where two or more se... [more]

The chi-square test is the most commonly used statistic test for investigating the differences between proportion arising from research. It helps to determine where two or more series of proportions are significantly different from one another or whether a single series of proportions differs from a theoretically expected distribution. In addition it allows us to test whether any observed relationship could simply be due to "chance". Proportions would obviously differ from sample to sample selected simply due to the play of chance. The chi-square test thus assists us in making this judgment in an explicit way, and is a measure of the difference between the proportions observed and those that would have been expected if the null hypothesis of no difference between groups had been true.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DN, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioner: "p" ing with confidence', South African Family Practice, 25 29 (2002)

It is common in the medical literature to be inundated with "p" values in publications. But what do they mean? To interpret p values, it is important to understand the "null hypot... [more]

It is common in the medical literature to be inundated with "p" values in publications. But what do they mean? To interpret p values, it is important to understand the "null hypothesis". The majority of statistical analyses involve comparisons between groups of study participants, and the comparison of interest is often called the "effect". In general, the null hypothesis states that the results observed in the particular study are no different from what might have been expected as a result of chance alone. lt is often the opposite of the research hypothesis that leads to the study. Having set up the null hypothesis we then evaluate the probability that the observed data could have resulted from chance alone. lt is this probability that is called the "p value". In other words, the p value gives probability that the observed difference could have occurred by chance alone, assuming that in reality there is no difference between the populations. The smaller the p value, the more untenable is the null hypothesis. That is to say, a small p value of 0.0025 means that there is only a 25 in 10 000 probability (0.25%) that the observed difference is due to chance alone, assuming that in reality there is no difference.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Leggat PA, Durrheim DN, Blumberg L, 'Trends in malaria chemoprophylaxis prescription in South Africa 1994 to 2000', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 9 318-321 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Kunene S, 'Malaria trends in South Africa and Swaziland and the introduction of synthetic pyrethroids to replace DDT for malaria vector control', South African Journal of Science, 98 19-21 (2002)

FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS, SOUTH AFRICA has seen a marked increase in notified malaria cases without a similar trend in Swaziland, which nestles between the two malarious South Afri... [more]

FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS, SOUTH AFRICA has seen a marked increase in notified malaria cases without a similar trend in Swaziland, which nestles between the two malarious South African provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. Swaziland and these provinces share a border with Mozambique, where malaria is holoendemic. The change from DDT to synthetic pyrethroids for intradomicillary residual spraying in South Africa may have been a contributory factor to this increase. The absence of a similar trend in Swaziland, where DDT continues to be used, adds weight to the ecological association between change in the use of insecticide and increase in malaria cases.

Citations Scopus - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Cameron D, Blitz J, Durrheim D, 'Teaching young docs old tricks - Was Aristotle right? An assessment of the skills training needs and transformation of interns and community service doctors working at a district hospital', South African Medical Journal, 92 276-278 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Billinghurst KG, Reich MR, 'Cholera - The role of catheters, confidential inquiries and early response', South African Medical Journal, 92 597-599 (2002)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Uzicanin A, Eggers R, Webb E, Harris B, Durrheim D, Ogunbanjo G, et al., 'Impact of the 1996-1997 supplementary measles vaccination campaigns in South Africa', International Journal of Epidemiology, 31 968-976 (2002)

Background. In South Africa, as part of an effort to eliminate indigenous measles by 2002, vaccination campaigns were conducted in 1996-1997 targeting all children aged 9 months t... [more]

Background. In South Africa, as part of an effort to eliminate indigenous measles by 2002, vaccination campaigns were conducted in 1996-1997 targeting all children aged 9 months to 14 years; coverage was estimated at 85%. The impact of the campaigns on measles disease burden was evaluated in 1999. Methods. We analysed routine measles surveillance data and undertook a retrospective review of hospital registers in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Results. In Mpumalanga in the pre-campaign years (1992-1996), 4498 measles cases and 6 deaths were reported; 182 cases and no deaths were reported in 1997-1998. Hospital registers showed 1647 measles hospitalizations and 11 deaths in the pre-campaign period, and 60 hospitalizations and no deaths after the campaign (1997-April 1999). In Western Cape in pre-campaign years (1992-1997), 5164 measles cases and 19 deaths were reported; 132 cases and no deaths were reported in 1998. Hospital registers showed 736 measles hospitalizations and 23 deaths in the pre-campaign period, and 29 measles hospitalizations and no deaths post-campaign (1998-July 1999). Conclusions. Study findings indicate that reported measles cases, measles-related hospitalizations and deaths were considerably reduced in both provinces after the campaign compared with the pre-campaign period. Longer observation is needed to evaluate the long-term impact of the campaigns.

Citations Scopus - 20
Co-authors D Durrheim
2002 Durrheim DN, Speare R, Harries AD, 'Research that influences policy and practice - characteristics of operational research to improve malaria control in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.', Malaria journal [electronic resource], 1 9 (2002)

BACKGROUND: Much communicable disease control research has had little impact on local control programme policy and practice for want of an operational component. The operational r... [more]

BACKGROUND: Much communicable disease control research has had little impact on local control programme policy and practice for want of an operational component. The operational research model - the systematic search for knowledge on interventions, tools or strategies that enhance programme effectiveness - is gaining recognition as an appropriate method for addressing perplexing questions within public health programmes. METHODS: A series of operational research studies were conducted to refine malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa between 1995 and 1999. The grounded theory approach was used with groups of experienced Masters of Public Health students in South Africa and Australia to analyse a compilation of these studies for determining positive and negative attributes of operational research that affect its ability to influence communicable disease control policy and practice. RESULTS: The principal positive attributes of the operational research studies were high local relevance, greater ability to convince local decision-makers, relatively short lag-time before implementation of findings, and the cost-effective nature of this form of research. Potential negative features elicited included opportunities forfeited by using scarce resources to conduct research and the need to adequately train local health staff in research methodology to ensure valid results and accurate interpretation of findings. CONCLUSIONS: Operational research effectively influenced disease control policy and practice in rural South Africa, by providing relevant answers to local questions and engaging policy-makers. This resulted in accelerated inclusion of appropriate measures into a local communicable disease control programme.

Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Harris BN, Speare R, Billinghurst K, 'The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 79 22-27 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Leggat PA, Durrheim DN, Braack L, 'Traveling in wildlife reserves in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 41-45 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 6Web of Science - 3
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Braack L, Grobler D, Bryden H, Speare R, Leggat P, 'Safety of travel in South Africa: The Kruger National Park', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 176-191 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 11Web of Science - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Waner S, Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, Ross MH, 'Preventing infectious diseases in long-term travelers to rural Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 8 304-308 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Govere JM, Durrheim DN, Coetzee M, Hunt RH, 'Malaria in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, with special reference to the period 1987-1999', South African Journal of Science, 97 55-58 (2001)

We have reviewed data on malaria cases collected routinely by both passive and active methods for the period 1987 to 1999. Malaria transmission in Mpumalanga was markedly seasonal... [more]

We have reviewed data on malaria cases collected routinely by both passive and active methods for the period 1987 to 1999. Malaria transmission in Mpumalanga was markedly seasonal and unstable, occurring between October and May, and was essentially influenced by both temperature and rainfall. Malaria control in the province is by a combination of residual intradomicillary spraying with synthetic pyrethroids and prompt effective therapy of cases at primary health-care clinics. The prevalence of malaria in the province decreased from east to west in direct relation to altitude, with the highest prevalence in the east (<600 m altitude) and decreasing towards the west (>600 m altitude). Although the number of notified cases has increased since 1993, with epidemics recorded in 1996 and 1999, the mortality ratio has remained under 0.5% of notified cases per annum. A large proportion (30%) of malaria cases was found in patients younger than 15 years and affected school attendance. The majority of malaria cases were in the economically active age group of 15-50 years. Current malaria control in the province should be continued and the development of additional tools such as insecticide-treated nets is recommended.

Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Athan E, Dürrheim DN, Barnes K, Mngomezulu NM, Mabuza A, Govere J, 'Effectiveness of short-course quinine and single-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mpumalanga province, South Africa', South African Medical Journal, 91 592-594 (2001)

Introduction. Quinine therapy for 7 days remains the mainstay for treating hospitalised malaria cases in South Africa. However, limited resources, including available beds and sta... [more]

Introduction. Quinine therapy for 7 days remains the mainstay for treating hospitalised malaria cases in South Africa. However, limited resources, including available beds and staff, often result in early discharge of non-severe cases, with quinine tablets for outpatient use. The effectiveness of shorter course quinine therapy coupled with a long-acting antimalarial drug has never been established in Africa, in particular in a population without malaria immunity. Methods. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-day course of therapy with quinine sulphate (10 mg/kg 8-hourly) followed by a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) according to weight category, before discharge, for 133 hospitalised patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Shongwe Hospital, Mpumalanga province, between February and July 1998. Study endpoints included clinical recovery and parasitological cure, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 42 days after initiating treatment. Results. One hundred and thirty of 131 patients (99%) successfully followed up for 42 days demonstrated clinical and parasitological cure. The remaining patient, who had evidence of a recrudescent infection on PCR, was 1 of 61 patients who were still parasitaemic on discharge from hospital. Conclusion. The abbreviated course of quinine therapy coupled with a single dose of SP for the treatment of non-severe hospitalised cases of P. falciparum malaria, in an area with demonstrated low levels of SP resistance, was highly effective. This approach has potential benefits, including reduced duration of hospitalisation, fewer quinine-associated adverse events and protection against the evolution of quinine resistance by limiting unsupervised quinine therapy in the community. It may, however, be prudent to document a negative blood film before discharge from hospital.

Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, Webb E, Lee CK, 'Mass immunisation campaigns in South Africa - The case for judicious timing and spacing', South African Medical Journal, 91 829-830 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Mabuza A, Govere J, Durrheim D, Mngomezulu N, Bredenkamp B, Barnes K, Sharp B, 'Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 3 years after introduction in Mpumalanga', South African Medical Journal, 91 975-978 (2001)

Objectives. To assess therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 3 years after introduction in Mpumalanga, ... [more]

Objectives. To assess therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 3 years after introduction in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Setting. Tonga district with a population of 116 418 and subject to seasonal malaria, with an average annual incidence of 3 200 cases. Subjects. One hundred and nineteen malaria patients presenting to a sentinel surveillance clinic and recruited according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Methodology. Patients satisfying WHO inclusion criteria were treated with a single oral dose of SP and the response of infection to treatment in each patient was routinely monitored clinically and parasitologically on days 1,2,3,7, 14,21,28 and 42 post-treatment. One hundred and ten patients completed follow-up to day 42 or evidence of clinical or parasitological failure. Results. The cure rate at day 42 was 93.6% (103/110). Two patients (1.8%, RII) were early treatment failures on day 3, while recrudescence (4.5%, RI) occurred in 5 patients on day 28 (N = 3) and on day 42 (N=2). Conclusion. In Mpumalanga P. falciparum remains sensitive to SP, with no significant difference between the baseline cure rate (94.5%) and the cure rate in the present study (93.6%).

Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Bredenkamp BLF, Sharp BL, Mthembu SD, Durrheim DN, Barnes KI, 'Failure of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in KwaZulu-Natal', South African Medical Journal, 91 970-972 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 28
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Sharp BL, Barnes K, 'Sentinel malaria surveillance - More than a research tool', South African Medical Journal, 91 968-970 (2001)
Citations Scopus - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Govere J, Braack LEO, Durrheim DN, Hunt RH, Coetzee M, 'Repellent effects on Anopheles arabiensis biting humans in Kruger Park, South Africa', Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15 287-292 (2001)

Distribution of biting sites on the human body by the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated near a source of mosquitoes in the Kruger Na... [more]

Distribution of biting sites on the human body by the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated near a source of mosquitoes in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Eight adult male volunteers (2 teams × 2 pairs of subjects) conducted human bait collections while seated on camp chairs in the open-air, wearing only short trousers (no shirt, socks or shoes). Mosquito collections during 18.30-22.30 hours on five consecutive nights in April 1998 yielded a total of 679 An. arabiensis females biting subjects with or without their ankles and feet treated with deet insect repellent (15% diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, Tabard¿ lotion). On subjects whose feet and ankles were smeared with repellent, 160 An. arabiensis females were captured biting in 60 man-hours: 88.1% on the legs, 1.4% on the arms and 1.2% on other parts of the body, but none on the repellent-treated feet or ankles. On subjects without repellent treatment, 519 An. arabiensis were caught biting in 60 man-hours: 81.1% on feet and ankles, 16.4% on legs, 1.4% on arms and 1.2% on the rest of the body. For individual subjects, the reduction of An. arabiensis bites ranged from 36.4 to 78.2% (mean protection 69.2%). Results of this study confirm previous findings that, in this part of South Africa - inhabited only by wildlife - when people sit outside during the evening An. arabiensis prefers to bite their lower limbs: 97.5% below the knees. Overall, the number of bites by the malaria vector An. arabiensis was reduced more than three-fold (from 26 to 8/person/evening), simply by treating ankles and feet with a consumer brand of deet repellent. Whether or not this provides a satisfactory degree of protection against malaria risk would depend on the malaria sporozoite rate in the malaria vector population.

DOI 10.1046/j.0269-283X.2001.00309.x
Citations Scopus - 21
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Govere J, la Grange JJ, Mabuza A, 'Rapid immunochromatographic diagnosis and Rolling Back Malaria--experiences from an African control program.', African journal of medicine and medical sciences, 30 Suppl 21-24 (2001)

Malaria is a re-emerging disease in much of Africa. In response, the World Health Organization launched the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative. One of six key principles adopted i... [more]

Malaria is a re-emerging disease in much of Africa. In response, the World Health Organization launched the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative. One of six key principles adopted is the early detection of malaria cases. However, the importance of definitive diagnosis and potential value of field deployment of rapid malaria tests in RBM has been largely ignored. The Lowveld Region of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, is home to a predominantly non-immune population, of approximately 850000 inhabitants, who are at risk of seasonal Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Malaria treatment in this area is usually only initiated on detection of malaria parasites in the peripheral bloodstream, as many other rickettsial and viral febrile illness mimic malaria. The malaria control programme traditionally relied on light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films for malaria diagnosis. This review summarizes operational research findings that led to the introduction of rapid malaria card tests for primary diagnosis of malaria throughout the Mpumalanga malaria area. Subsequent operational research and extensive experience over a four-year period since introducing the ICT Malaria Pf test appears to confirm the local appropriateness of this diagnostic modality. A laboratory is not required and clinic staff are empowered to make a prompt definitive diagnosis, limiting delays in initiating correct therapy. The simple, accurate and rapid non-microscopic means now available for diagnosing malaria could play an important role in Rolling Back Malaria in selected areas.

Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Govere J, Durrheim DN, Hunt RH, La Grange J, Coetzee M, 'Evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin using contact bioassays in a malaria vector control programme in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', African Entomology, 9 163-166 (2001)

Field assessment of the residual effect of deltamethrin (20 mg/m2) against Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes was performed during evaluation of the malaria vect... [more]

Field assessment of the residual effect of deltamethrin (20 mg/m2) against Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes was performed during evaluation of the malaria vector control programme in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Ten treated sleeping rooms, five of which were mud- and five cement-walled, were used in bioassays with laboratory-reared An. arabiensis. The bioassays were run for seven consecutive months after treatment. Seven months after treatment deltamethrin-treated surfaces were still completely effective against the susceptible strain of An. arabiensis, with a 24-hour holding mortality of 100%.

Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Patrick Kachur S, Abdulla S, Barnes K, Mshinda H, Durrheim D, Kitua A, Bloland P, 'Letters to the editors (multiple letters)', Tropical Medicine and International Health, 6 324-325 (2001)
DOI 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.0719a.x
Citations Scopus - 10
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, Blumberg L, Keddy KH, 'Cholera - The grim reality of under-development', South African Family Practice, 23 4-10 (2001)

Cholera is a severe diarrhoeal illness caused by certain strains of Vibrio cholerae, which can lead rapidly to dehydration and death. Communities dependent on water contaminated w... [more]

Cholera is a severe diarrhoeal illness caused by certain strains of Vibrio cholerae, which can lead rapidly to dehydration and death. Communities dependent on water contaminated with human faeces and those with poor sanitation are very vulnerable to cholera epidemics. Although the Vibrio cholerae Ol El Tor strain presently circulating in southern Africa is multi-drug resistant and currently available vaccines offer inadequate proteccion, cholera can be pre-vented by simple cost-effective measures, including chlorination or sustained boiling of drinking water. The key to cholera management is aggressive fluid replacement with the correct fluids. The latter strategy is so effective that a cholera death may be viewed as a health system failure deserving formal review. The only sustainable solution to the scourge of cholera is fundamental economic and social development with the provision of safe water and adequate sanitation.

Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners "setting the table"', South African Family Practice, 23 30-31 (2001)

After good quality data is collected either through a routine surveillance system, survey or clinical research it is important that this data is analysed and presented in a way th... [more]

After good quality data is collected either through a routine surveillance system, survey or clinical research it is important that this data is analysed and presented in a way that can lead to improved patient management or public health action. A table is simply a standard way of arranging a set of data into rows and columns and a good starting point for preparing powerful visual displays of data, such as graphs and charts, where some of the detail of the data may be losc lf the amount of data is small and relationships are simple, a table may be all that is needed. Therefore, in preparing tables, it is important to keep in mind thattheir primary purpose isto"communicate" information about the data and that, almost any quantitative information can be organised into tables.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Ogunbanjo GA, Dürrheim DN, 'Cholera - Are we containing the crisis?', South African Family Practice, 23 2 (2001)

The last few months have witnessed a massive cholera epidemic in KwaZulu-Natal province. Also, cholera has recently been reported in Mpumalanga North-West, Gauteng and Western Cap... [more]

The last few months have witnessed a massive cholera epidemic in KwaZulu-Natal province. Also, cholera has recently been reported in Mpumalanga North-West, Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. In the Northern province, an unusual number of patients with diarrhoeal disease have been reported, and at least one death confirmed as due to cholera at autopsy.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, Blumberg L, Speare R, Bishop GC, 'Human rabies: A tragedy that must be prevented', South African Family Practice, 23 12-19 (2001)

Human rabies is endemic throughout South Africa and every year a number of deaths occur, mainly in children largely due to bites from infected dogs, coupled to incorrect managemen... [more]

Human rabies is endemic throughout South Africa and every year a number of deaths occur, mainly in children largely due to bites from infected dogs, coupled to incorrect management after the exposure.The encephalomyelitis that follows central nervous system invasion bythe rabies lyssavirus is invariably fatal. However modern vaccines and immunoglobulin registered for use in South Africa are safe and very effective in preventing rabies when administered correctly before and after exposure. Unfortunately the prohibitive cost of rabies vaccine does not allow for prophylactic routine immunisation of all children or indeed for the immunisation of all animal bke victims in South Africa.This article reviews current best practice in determining which persons should receive pre-exposure vaccination and post-exposure treatment. lt updates and expands the clinical guidelines for rabies management prepared by the South Africa Department of Health, briefly discussing specific principles of management. In addition, the confirmation of diagnosis and approach to patient care are described.

Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2001 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Statistics for general practitioners: "does HIV cause AIDS?"', South African Family Practice, 23 35-36 (2001)

ldentifying the exposure or agent responsible for causing a particular disease, is often a prerequisite to developing effective prevention strategies, and improving patient manage... [more]

ldentifying the exposure or agent responsible for causing a particular disease, is often a prerequisite to developing effective prevention strategies, and improving patient management. However controversy may accompany the detection or refutation of a causal link. A good example was the debate in South Africa about the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Booman M, Durrheim DN, La Grange K, Martin C, Mabuza AM, Zitha A, et al., 'Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa', BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 78 1438-1444 (2000)
Citations Scopus - 43Web of Science - 37
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Leggat P, Durrheim D, Apps P, 'Occupational risks posed by wild mammals in South African wildlife reserves', Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 16 47-54 (2000)

South Africa's wildlife reserves are a major tourist attraction and source of employment. The reserves have many of Africa's large wild mammals; however, attacks by these animals ... [more]

South Africa's wildlife reserves are a major tourist attraction and source of employment. The reserves have many of Africa's large wild mammals; however, attacks by these animals pose a risk not only to tourists but also to workers on the reserves. Commercial press records covering all South African newspapers were reviewed for a 10-year period to identify all reported deaths and injuries to workers on wildlife reserves resulting from encounters with wild mammals. During the period, six workers were reported killed and 14 workers were reported injured in such encounters. Although better reporting mechanisms are needed, attacks on workers by wild mammals in South African wildlife reserves appear to be rare. None of the cases reviewed here can be considered an unnatural, unprovoked attack. It is essential that all workers on wildlife reserves have training on how to avoid attacks and how to respond if an attack occurs.

Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Waner S, Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Travel clinics and public health', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 7 223-224 (2000)
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Govere J, Durrheim DN, Toit NDU, Hunt RH, Coetzee M, 'Local plants as repellents against Anopheles arabiensis, in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Central African Journal of Medicine, 46 213-216 (2000)

Objective: To assess the repellency effect of three local plants; fever tea (Lippia javanica), rose geranium (Pelargonium reniforme) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon excavatus) against... [more]

Objective: To assess the repellency effect of three local plants; fever tea (Lippia javanica), rose geranium (Pelargonium reniforme) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon excavatus) against laboratory reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. Design: A laboratory experimental study. Setting: Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Subjects: Three adult male volunteers. Main Outcome Measures: Affordable alternatives to synthetic repellents against biting of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. Results: All three alcohol plant extracts provided significantly more protection (p = 0.012) than alcohol control. The alcohol plant extract of L. javanica provided 76.7% protection against An. arabiensis after a four hour period, and C. excavatus and P. reniforme provided 66.7% and 63.3% protection for three hours, respectively. At five hours post application only L. javanica alcohol extract provided appreciable protection (59.3%) against An. arabiensis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that L. javanica, P. reniforme and C. excavatus protect against An. arabiensis mosquito bites with the repellent effect of L. javanica lasting significantly longer than that of the other two plants.

Citations Scopus - 21
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Measles elimination - Is it achievable? Lessons from an immunisation coverage survey', South African Medical Journal, 90 130-135 (2000)

Objectives. To determine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Design. An adaptation of ... [more]

Objectives. To determine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Design. An adaptation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) cluster sampling method was used to make a random selection of 30 clusters in each of 21 health districts, 630 clusters in total. Seven individuals from the age group 12-23 months were randomly selected from each cluster and immunisation status and source were transcribed from their child health records. Where no immunisations were administered, reasons provided by parents or guardians were recorded. Setting. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Results. The weighted valid population coverage with measles vaccine for children aged 12-23 months in Mpumalanga Province was 71.1% (95% confidence interval 64.9-78.5%); this was the lowest of all EPI antigens. There was marked heterogeneity in measles coverage across the province, with a coefficient of variation of 22.2%. Districts with the lowest coverage shared borders with neighbouring provinces. District measles coverage was highly positively correlated with diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT3) coverage (r = 0.960, P = 0.000). There was a strong negative correlation between ranked measles campaign coverage and routine measles immunisation coverage. Obstacles to immunisation accounted for nearly half (49%) of all reasons for immunisation failure,while lack of information and lack of motivation accounted for 30% and 22%, respectively. Conclusions. Survey results highlight the need for supplementary immunisation, including non-selective campaigns, if Mpumalanga is to achieve the South African goal of measles elimination by 2002. The value of determining district resolution coverage in order to identify areas with low measles coverage requiring supplementary intervention was also demonstrated. A strong negative correlation between routine and campaign coverage deserves further study in other settings.

Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Govere J, Durrheim D, La Grange K, Mabuza A, Booman M, 'Community knowledge and perceptions about malaria and practices influencing malaria control in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', South African Medical Journal, 90 611-616 (2000)

Objective. To assess community knowledge and perceptions about malaria and its control in a rural setting. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting. Tonga district with... [more]

Objective. To assess community knowledge and perceptions about malaria and its control in a rural setting. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting. Tonga district with a population of 116,418, seasonal malaria with an annual incidence of 3200 cases. Subjects. Female heads of 299 randomly selected households. Methodology. A total of 299 households were selected from a random sample of 30 clusters. Community knowledge and perceptions about malaria and its control were assessed by interviews with the female head of each of the 299 selected households. Results. Respondents ranked malaria as the third most serious health problem facing the community after TB and AIDS. Seventy-two per cent (214/299) of respondents reported that they knew what malaria disease was and of these, 92.1% (197/214) mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. The respondents' understanding of the causal role of mosquitoes in malaria was significantly related to their knowledge about disease symptoms (P < 0.001). Reported community compliance with the malaria control programme (MCP) was satisfactory; 86.6% (259/299) of respondents reported that their homes had been sprayed during the past 2 years but 10.0% (30/299) did not know why homes were sprayed. Hospitals or clinics were the facilities where respondents most commonly sought treatment for fever; 66.9% (200/299) reported that they would seek treatment immediately after the onset of high fever. Specific practices such as replastering or washing of inside walls compromised the effectiveness of the MCP. Personal preventive measures were sometimes used against malaria (50.8%, 152/299) and use was positively associated with education level (P = 0.001). Respondents expressed their desire for more information about malaria and their willingness to contribute to the control of malaria in their community. Conclusion. The survey collected information which was directly relevant to the development of health education messages to increase community awareness of the problem of malaria, to emphasise the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment of malaria, to improve community understanding of the function of indoor residual spraying, and to enlighten the population of the role of mosquitoes in malaria transmission and the availability and benefits of personal protection measures against mosquito bites.

Citations Scopus - 45
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Govere J, Durrheim DN, Baker L, Hunt R, Coetzee M, 'Efficacy of three insect repellents against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis', Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 14 441-444 (2000)

Three commercial repellents marketed in South Africa: Bio-Skincare(TM) (BSC, oils of coconut, jojoba, rapeseed and vitamin E), Mosiguard(TM) towelletes with 0.574g quwenling (p-me... [more]

Three commercial repellents marketed in South Africa: Bio-Skincare(TM) (BSC, oils of coconut, jojoba, rapeseed and vitamin E), Mosiguard(TM) towelletes with 0.574g quwenling (p-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD) and the standard deet (15% diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, Tabard(TM) lotion), were compared against a laboratory colony of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae), the predominant malaria vector in South Africa. Human forearms were treated with 1.2g BSC, 0.8g PMD towelette or 0.5g deet and exposed to 200 hungry An. arabiensis females for 1 min, at intervals of 1-6h post-treatment. Tests were conducted by three adult male volunteers (aged 30-45 years, crossover controlled test design for 3 consecutive days), using their left arm for treatment and right arm for untreated control. Biting rates averaged 39-52 bites/min on untreated arms, All three repellents provided complete protection against An. arabiensis for up to 3-4h post-application; deet and PMD gave 90-100% protection up to 5-6h, but BSC declined to only 52% protection 6h post-treatment. These results are interpreted to show that all three repellent products give satisfactory levels of personal protection against An. arabiensis for 4-5h, justifying further evaluation in the field.

DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00261.x
Citations Scopus - 31
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Durrheim DN, Speare R, 'Measles elimination--a case definition to enhance surveillance.', Communicable diseases intelligence, 24 329-331 (2000)
Citations Scopus - 4
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Govere J, Durrheim DN, Coetzee M, Hunt RH, La Grange JJ, 'Captures of mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambaie complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lowveld Region of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', African Entomology, 8 91-99 (2000)

Monthly collections of the Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes were made on human bait at seven fixed sites in the Lowveld Region of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, between Au... [more]

Monthly collections of the Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes were made on human bait at seven fixed sites in the Lowveld Region of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, between August 1997 and May 1998 to contribute to the evaluation and planning of the malaria vector control programme. Members of the An. gambiae complex were distinguished from other anopheline species using morphological keys and were subsequently specifically identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 5084 anophelines were collected during the survey, of which 2837 (55.8 %) were Anopheles coustani Laveran, 1418 (27.9 %) were members of the Anopheles funestus group, 435 (8.6 %) were members of the An. gambiae complex, 264 (5.2 %) were Anopheles pretoriensis Theobald, and 130 (2.6 %) comprised nine other anopheline species. From a total of 425 PCR identifications of adult females of the An. gambiae complex, 238 (56.0 %) were Anopheles merus Donitz, 129 (30.4 %) Anopheles quadrianmulatus Theobald and 58 (13.6 %) were Anopheles arabiensis Patton. No circumsporozoite antigen for Plasmodium falciparum was detected in any of the female An. gambiae complex mosquitoes. Monthly A n. gambiae s.l. captures were significantly correlated with rainfall but there was no correlation between mosquito captures and monthly malaria notifications. Malaria notifications were, however, strongly associated with mean dally temperatures. The peak in malaria incidence paralleled the peak in rainfall with a time lag of 2-3 months. This study provides updated information on the distribution of the An. gambiae complex in Mpumalanga Province's Lowveld Region, notably the incidence of mosquitoes biting humans outside sprayed houses between 18:00 and 22:00. The study also provides the first documented evidence of large numbers of An. merus feeding on humans in Mpumalanga. Further analysis of rainfall and temperature patterns may facilitate the prediction of malaria epidemics with sufficient lead-time to enable the Provincial Malaria Control Programme to launch pre-emptive control measures.

Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Waner S, Durrheim D, Braack LEO, 'Erratum: Malaria protection measures used by in-flight travelers to South African Game Parks (Journal of Travel Medicine (1999) 6 (254-257))', Journal of Travel Medicine, 7 (2000)
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Balt E, Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'What do primary care clinicians know about the management and control of Tuberculosis?', South African Family Practice, 22 16-20 (2000)

Objectives To investigate primary care clinicians' knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) management and control. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians in public se... [more]

Objectives To investigate primary care clinicians' knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) management and control. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of primary care clinicians in public service, attending the TB symposium organised for the 1999 World TB Day in Mpumalanga Province,South Africa. One hundred and sixty-eight primary clinicians completed the questionnaire. Respondents included 36 doctors (21%),94 nurses (58%) and 34 (21%) allied health professionals. The response rate was 100%. Results The mean questionnaire score was 58% (range: 0-97%) but there was profound heterogeneity in answers to specific questions. Certain deficiencies found could seriously compromise TB management, for example the finding that only 55% of respondents knew the correct duration of continuation phase therapy for new pulmonary TB patients. Doctors performed better on the questionnaire, with 64% (23/ 36) scoring greater than 75% compared to 20% (20/98) of nurse practitioners, but doctors were, weaker in questions relating to TB control. Nurse practitioners who had attended TB training programmes scored considerably better than their colleagues, with 47% (14/30) scoring greater than 75% compared to 8% (5/64) of their colleagues (Xt= 19.12; p=0.000;. Respondents demonstrated limited knowledge of managing childhood TB. Only 17% (28/ {pipe} 68) could provide the rationale for BCG immunisation, 33% (55/168) provided the indication for tuberculin skin testing and 21% (35/ 168) named the correct prophylactic TB therapy for children under two years. Conclusions Nurse clinicians in Mpumalanga Province who had attended TB training programs demonstrated superior knowledge on TB management and control com-pared to their colleagues who had received no training. Primary care doctors appear to be an under-utilised resource in the TB Control Program in Mpumalanga Province and require orientation on control program priorities. In general,the knowledge of primary care clinicians on managing TB in children is inadequate and must become a focus for future training.

Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "Understanding median, mode and means"', South African Family Practice, 22 48-49 (2000)

In our previous article in this series, we considered categorical data and noted that this form of data was usually summarised using proportions. The other major data-type is quan... [more]

In our previous article in this series, we considered categorical data and noted that this form of data was usually summarised using proportions. The other major data-type is quantitative data. Quantitative data may either be counted as whole numbers (discrete data), e.g. the number of cases of meningococcal meningitis in an outbreak on a mine, or be measured using a continuous scale, e.g. temperature measurement of a patient with brucellosis.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners', South African Family Practice, 22 45-46 (2000)

Quantitative data is traditionally summarised by two measures: A measure of the centre (average) of a data set and one of spread around this central point. In the previous article... [more]

Quantitative data is traditionally summarised by two measures: A measure of the centre (average) of a data set and one of spread around this central point. In the previous article we noted that there are four useful measures for depicting the centre of a set of data namely the "arithmetic mean", "median", "mode" and "geometric mean". For the spread of a data set around the central point,there are three measures that are commonly used viz. the range, inter-quartile range and standard deviation.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Ogunbanjo GA, Durrheim DA, Blumberg L, 'Acute bacterial meningitis: A rational approach to management', South African Family Practice, 22 17-21 (2000)

Bacterial meningitis is one of a select group of febrile illnesses that may rapidly progress unless suspected early by the family practitioner. Unless appropriate therapy is initi... [more]

Bacterial meningitis is one of a select group of febrile illnesses that may rapidly progress unless suspected early by the family practitioner. Unless appropriate therapy is initiated without delay, the outcome is often fatal. This article provides the family practitioner with an overview of current best practice when treating bacterial meningitis. Emphasis is placed on a high index of suspicion, particularly in certain patient groups like children where unusual atypical presentations are common. Empirical treatment options by age group for immediate therapy is discussed and the useful array of diagnostic modalities available is cataloged. The issue of chemoprophylaxis for close contacts of meningococcal disease patients and the importance of immediate notification are succinctly discussed. On a prevention note, the appropriateness of providing vaccination to travelers is considered.

Co-authors D Durrheim
2000 Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, 'Making sense of statistics for family practitioners: "ready to explore"', South African Family Practice, 22 42-43 (2000)

Meticulous preparation and an intimate knowledge of available equipment and techniques, characterize most successful expeditions or adventures, whether they be the treacherous cli... [more]

Meticulous preparation and an intimate knowledge of available equipment and techniques, characterize most successful expeditions or adventures, whether they be the treacherous climb to the summit of Kilimanjaro, the arduous swim across the English Channel or nerve-wracking analysis of one's first data-set. Being confronted by a large number of measurements can be intimidating and attempts at analysis an utter waste of time unless a systematic approach is adopted. An important first exploratory step before launching into the production of florid graphics, is to convert data into a simple presentation form that allows insightful "eye-balling". We have already introduced the concept of discrete data with its distinct categories,e.g. male and female. These categories are useful for constructing tables and we will discuss the immense value of well-constructed tables for analysing and communicating data in the next article in this series.

Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, Jamieson A, Croft AM, Whitehouse DP, 'Prophylaxis against malaria', BMJ, 318 1139 (1999)
DOI 10.1136/bmj.318.7191.1139
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Govere JM, La Grange JJ, Durrheim DN, Freese JA, Sharp BL, Mabuza A, et al., 'Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine effectiveness against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93 644 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 22
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, Jamieson A, Croft AM, Whitehouse DP, 'Prophylaxis against malaria (multiple letters) [5]', British Medical Journal, 318 1139-1140 (1999)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Dürrheim DN, Frieremans S, Kruger P, Mabuza A, De Bruyn JC, 'Confidential inquiry into malaria deaths', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77 263-266 (1999)

The results of a confidential inquiry into mortality attributed to malaria in South Africa's Mpumalanga Province are being used to guide the design of strategies for improving the... [more]

The results of a confidential inquiry into mortality attributed to malaria in South Africa's Mpumalanga Province are being used to guide the design of strategies for improving the management of cases and reducing the probability of deaths from the disease.

Citations Scopus - 30
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Govere J, Billinghurst K, Durrheim DN, Blumberg L, Hansford CF, 'Malaria risk during pregnancy in Mpumalanga province, South Africa [1]', South African Medical Journal, 89 625 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Durrheim DN, Gammon S, Waner S, Braack LEO, 'Antimalarial prophylaxis - Use and adverse events in visitors to the Kruger National Park', South African Medical Journal, 89 170-175 (1999)

Objectives. To determine the use of antimalarial prophylaxis and the relative frequency of adverse events with different regimens in visitors to the Kruger National Park. Design. ... [more]

Objectives. To determine the use of antimalarial prophylaxis and the relative frequency of adverse events with different regimens in visitors to the Kruger National Park. Design. Retrospective postal survey of a cohort of 7397 visitors during April 1996. Telephonic interviews were conducted with all respondents who reported neuropsychiatric adverse events necessitating medical attention, and their medical caregivers. Results. The most commonly used regimens were chloroquine and proguanil in combination (C and P) (35.6%) and mefloquine (18.4%). However, non-recommended regimens were also used by travellers to this chloroquine-resistant area, including chloroquine alone (15.7%). Adverse events were reported by 23.8% of travellers and were more common in the C and P group than the mefloquine group (28.9% v. 25.0%, P = 0.0100). Gastro-intestinal side-effects were significantly more common in the C and P group (nausea (P = 0.0170), diarrhoea (P = 0.0008), mouth ulcers (P = 0.0000)), while neuropsychiatric side-effects were more common in the mefloquine group (depression (P = 0.0000), light-headedness (P = 0.0009), anxiety (P = 0.0060)). Only 30% of travellers reported using antimalarial drugs both regularly as prescribed and for 4 weeks after leaving the malaria area. The most commonly reported reason for changing prophylaxis was advice from a physician or pharmacist (41.9%). Conclusions. Health professionals providing medical advice to prospective travellers to malarious areas must tailor recommendations based on the balance between malaria risk in a specific geographical area and the benefits and tolerance of protective measures. Mosquito-avoidance measures should always be advocated, but counselling on antimalarial prophylaxis will be guided by the malaria/prophylaxis (serious adverse events) risk ratio. Where drug measures are indicated, the importance of their correct use should be emphasised.

Citations Scopus - 17
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Govere J, Dürrheim DN, Booman A, 'Plague surveillance in South Africa', South African Medical Journal, 89 570 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Weyer K, Fourie PB, Dürrheim D, Lancaster J, Haslöv K, Bryden H, 'Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis in the Kruger National Park, South Africa', International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 3 1113-1119 (1999)

SETTING: The Kruger National Park (KNP), Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis exceeds 70% in African buffalo ... [more]

SETTING: The Kruger National Park (KNP), Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis exceeds 70% in African buffalo in the southern region of the KNP. Inter-species transmission (lion, cheetah, baboon, antelope) has also been confirmed. Regular culling of emaciated buffalo and processing of meat and hides constitute routine control policy. Following extensive media coverage of the problem, public health concerns about the transmission of M. bovis to humans, including visitors to the KNP, prompted this investigation. DESIGN: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of infection and/or active disease due to M. bovis among KNP employees selected from three defined risk groups based on occupation category. RESULTS: Of 206 persons screened for active disease by sputum bacteriology, two persons with disease due to M. tuberculosis were identified. No isolate of M. bovis was found. Differential skin testing using three antigens failed to show any degree of M. bovis infection risk, even among high risk occupations. Reasons for these results are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Bovine tuberculosis was not indicated as an occupational zoonosis in the KNP, nor was aerosol transmission implicated as a mechanism for human infection. Concerns about the public health implications of tuberculosis in buffalo in the KNP have therefore not been validated.

Citations Scopus - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Prophylaxis against malaria - Preventing mosquito bites is also effective', BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 318 1139-1139 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 17Web of Science - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Speare R, Govere J, Durrheim DN, Mnogomezulu N, 'Malaria control in South Africa: Symposium in the wilderness', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 6 149-150 (1999)
Citations Scopus - 2Web of Science - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
1999 Durrheim DN, Leggat PA, 'Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa', JOURNAL OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, 6 172-179 (1999)
DOI 10.1111/j.1708-8305.1999.tb00856.x
Citations Scopus - 48Web of Science - 28
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Durrheim DN, La Grange JJP, Govere J, Mngomezulu NM, 'Accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic card test for Plasmodium falciparum in a malaria control programme in South Africa', Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 92 32-33 (1998)
DOI 10.1016/S0035-9203(98)90944-0
Citations Scopus - 37
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Barnes K, Durrheim D, Blumberg L, 'Quinine as unofficial contraceptive - Concerns about safety and efficacy [3]', South African Medical Journal, 88 (1998)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Athan E, Donohue S, Durrheim D, 'A cholera outbreak and control in a rural region of South Africa', South African Medical Journal, 88 1306-1308 (1998)
Citations Scopus - 6
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Balt E, Durrheim DN, Weyer K, 'Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis to health care workers in Mpumalanga [8]', South African Medical Journal, 88 1363-1366 (1998)
Citations Scopus - 8
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Durrheim DN, Sharp BL, 'Antifolate-resistant malaria infections in Mpumalanga [4]', South African Medical Journal, 88 469 (1998)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1998 Durrheim DN, Braack LEO, Waner S, Gammon S, 'Risk of malaria in visitors to the Kruger National Park, South Africa', Journal of Travel Medicine, 5 173-177 (1998)

Background: The risk of malaria to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves is unknown. Current recommendations for travelers are based on malaria incidence rates in local commu... [more]

Background: The risk of malaria to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves is unknown. Current recommendations for travelers are based on malaria incidence rates in local communities. These rates may well overestimate travelers' malaria risk and lead to unnecessary use of antimalarial prophylaxis with associated drug-related adverse events. This study investigated the incidence of malaria in visitors to South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP). Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to the cohort of visitors staying in the KNP during April 1996, 6 to 8 weeks after they returned to their homes. Nonrespondents received duplicate questionnaires 8 weeks later. Responses from 3267 groups, representing 11,107 visitors (56.8%) allowed determination of the malaria attack rate in this group of travelers and assessment of associations between malaria risk and a number of factors, including type of accommodation used during the visit; duration of stay; use of chemoprophylaxis; and use of personal protection measures. All travelers indicating that they had suffered an episode of malaria following their visit were telephonically contacted and their health providers traced to determine the basis of diagnosis and clinical outcome. Results: One clinically suspected and four confirmed cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among the visitors suggest a low attack rate of 4.5 cases per 10,000 visitors during April, the highest risk month for malaria in South Africa. No association was found between malaria risk and accommodation type, duration of stay, use and type of chemoprophylaxis, and use and number of personal protection measures. Conclusions: These findings confirm the importance of careful assessment of local malaria risk before individualized advice is provided to travelers.

Citations Scopus - 16
Co-authors D Durrheim
1997 Durrheim DN, Levin J, Weyer K, 'M tuberculosis drug resistance in AIDS.', Lancet, 349 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
1997 Di Perri G, Bonora S, Vento S, Allegranzi B, Concia E, Durrheim DN, et al., 'M tuberculosis drug resistance in AIDS (multiple letters) [15]', Lancet, 349 60-62 (1997)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1997 Durrheim DN, Becker PJ, Billinghurst K, Brink A, 'Diagnostic disagreement - The lessons learnt from malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga', South African Medical Journal, 87 609-611 (1997)

Diagnostic tests that require human interpretation will always be susceptible to error. This may lead to delays in initiating effective therapy for potentially fatal conditions. T... [more]

Diagnostic tests that require human interpretation will always be susceptible to error. This may lead to delays in initiating effective therapy for potentially fatal conditions. The Malaria Control Programme in South Africa has historically relied on the microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears to confirm the clinical diagnosis of malaria. The level of agreement of malaria laboratory diagnosis performed by the four laboratories serving the Mpumalanga Province Malaria Control Programme was investigated. The disagreement between the laboratories argues in favour of a uniform training and quality assurance programme or the introduction of alternative diagnostic modalities. It should also serve as a caution against diagnostic complacency in other public health programmes.

Citations Scopus - 36
Co-authors D Durrheim
1997 Durrheim DN, Becker PJ, Billinghurst K, 'Diagnostic disagreement--the lessons learnt from malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga.', South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 87 1016 (1997)
Citations Scopus - 14
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Durrheim D, 'Helminth muddle [20]', Lancet, 348 689-690 (1996)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Durrheim DN, Balt EL, 'Tuberculosis Control Programme Guidelines - treatment regimens [1]', South African Medical Journal, 86 1293-1294 (1996)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Kruger P, Durrheim DN, Hansford CF, 'Increasing chloroquine resistance - The Mpumalanga Lowveld story, 1990-1995 [2]', South African Medical Journal, 86 280-281 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Waner S, Durrheim DN, 'Water provision - Blessing or curse?', South African Medical Journal, 86 692-694 (1996)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Durrheim DN, Whittaker RK, 'Malaria control -the changing paradigm', South African Medical Journal, 86 978-979 (1996)
Co-authors D Durrheim
1996 Durrheim DN, Knight S, 'Notification - Completing the cycle', South African Medical Journal, 86 1434-1435 (1996)
Citations Scopus - 5
Co-authors D Durrheim
1995 Durrheim DN, 'Taxi rank malaria', BMJ, 311 1507 (1995)
DOI 10.1136/bmj.311.7018.1507
Citations Scopus - 1
Co-authors D Durrheim
1995 Durrheim DN, 'Taxi rank malaria [18]', British Medical Journal, 311 1507 (1995)
Citations Scopus - 7
Co-authors D Durrheim
1994 DURRHEIM DN, THOMAS J, 'GENERAL-PRACTICE AWARENESS OF NOTIFIABLE INFECTIOUS-DISEASES', PUBLIC HEALTH, 108 273-278 (1994)
DOI 10.1016/S0033-3506(94)80006-5
Citations Scopus - 20Web of Science - 17
Co-authors D Durrheim
1993 Joubert J, Durrheim DN, Copley IB, 'Cervical intraspinal lipoma in a pregnant patient', British Journal of Neurosurgery, 7 437-441 (1993)

Tetraparesis developing in a female, during pregnancy, was found to be due to an intradural cervical lipoma, associated with a subcutaneous lipoma at the same level in the midline... [more]

Tetraparesis developing in a female, during pregnancy, was found to be due to an intradural cervical lipoma, associated with a subcutaneous lipoma at the same level in the midline posteriorly. Sub-total removal produced a return to near normal function with the patient being fully ambulant 7 months later. © 1993 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

DOI 10.3109/02688699309103502
Citations Scopus - 11
Co-authors D Durrheim
1992 Durrheim DN, Joubert J, Griesel RD, 'Flunarizine - Effective add-on therapy in reading epilepsy', South African Medical Journal, 82 21-23 (1992)

Since it was first described in 1956, reading epilepsy, an uncommon disorder, has engendered great interest among neurologists, the reason being that it is probably one of the mos... [more]

Since it was first described in 1956, reading epilepsy, an uncommon disorder, has engendered great interest among neurologists, the reason being that it is probably one of the most complex of the sensory-evoked reflex epilepsies and one in which the mechanism of seizure production is as yet unresolved. Unfortunately, it often defies the standard medications useful in the treatment of other forms of epilepsy. A patient with typical reading epilepsy, preceded by jaw-jerking, is described in this report. An additional feature of this case is the presence of a stutter from early childhood. Therapy with phenytoin, carbamazepine and sodium valproate failed to provide satisfactory control. Flunarizine, as add-on therapy to sodium valproate, produced an excellent therapeutic response.

Citations Scopus - 2
Co-authors D Durrheim
Show 330 more journal articles

Conference (5 outputs)

Year Citation Altmetrics Link
2015 Paterson BJ, Martin N, Durrheim DN, 'Protecting Australia from Future Polio Outbreaks', Online Journal of Public Health Informatics (2015) [E3]
DOI 10.5210/ojphi.v7i1.5958
Co-authors D Durrheim
2015 Paterson BJ, Durrheim DN, 'Surveillance System Evaluations Provide Evidence to Improve Public Health Practice', Online Journal of Public Health Informatics (2015) [E3]
DOI 10.5210/ojphi.v7i1.5959
Co-authors D Durrheim
2012 Durrheim DN, Huppatz CM, Paterson BJ, 'The adequacy of encephalitis surveillance for emerging infectious diseases in Australia', Retrovirology (2012) [E3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2008 Coleman M, Coleman M, Coetzee M, Mabuza A, Kok G, Durrheim D, 'AN OPERATIONAL MALARIA OUTBREAK IDENTIFICATION AND RESPONSE SYSTEM IN MPUMALANGA PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE (2008) [E3]
Co-authors D Durrheim
2003 Rathgeber WFG, Ingle R, Blumberg L, Ogunbanjo G, Durrheim D, 'Letters to the editor', South African Family Practice (2003)
Co-authors D Durrheim
Show 2 more conferences
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Grants and Funding

Summary

Number of grants 9
Total funding $4,035,908

Click on a grant title below to expand the full details for that specific grant.


20162 grants / $324,545

Health Protection Surveillance$182,727

Funding body: Hunter New England Local Health District

Funding body Hunter New England Local Health District
Project Team Conjoint Professor David Durrheim
Scheme Research Funds
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2016
GNo G1600672
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - State
Category 2OPS
UON Y

Health Protection Research Support$141,818

Funding body: Hunter New England Population Health

Funding body Hunter New England Population Health
Project Team Conjoint Professor David Durrheim
Scheme Scholarship
Role Lead
Funding Start 2016
Funding Finish 2017
GNo G1601076
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - State
Category 2OPS
UON Y

20141 grants / $1,840,508

Does pneumococcal vaccination protect against cardiovascular disease? $1,840,508

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Professor John Attia, Professor Catherine D'Este, Dr Walter Abhayaratna, Professor Andrew Tonkin, Conjoint Professor Chris Levi, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Professor Joseph Hung, Associate Professor Mark McEvoy, Doctor Alexis Hure
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2014
Funding Finish 2019
GNo G1300127
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

20121 grants / $20,200

What causes unexplained encephalitis? A pilot adult encephalitis hospital-based surveillance system$20,200

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Conjoint Professor Chris Levi, Doctor Beverley Paterson
Scheme Project Grant
Role Lead
Funding Start 2012
Funding Finish 2012
GNo G1200219
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20093 grants / $353,257

Australian public's H1N1 knowledge, risk perception, containment measure adoption and willingness to be vaccinated$60,896

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Dr Keith Eastwood, Conjoint Professor Alison Jones
Scheme Call for Research (H1N1 Swine Flu)
Role Lead
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo G0190467
Type Of Funding Aust Competitive - Commonwealth
Category 1CS
UON Y

Weekly online community survey for early detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza and vaccine failure$25,000

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Doctor Craig Dalton, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Dr Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet, Associate Professor Heath Kelly
Scheme Project Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2009
Funding Finish 2009
GNo G0189799
Type Of Funding Contract - Aust Non Government
Category 3AFC
UON Y

20081 grants / $25,000

Upgrade of computer equipment for the computer assisted telephone generalised electronic system$25,000

Funding body: NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)

Funding body NHMRC (National Health & Medical Research Council)
Project Team Professor John Wiggers, Conjoint Professor Afaf Girgis, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim, Professor Jennifer Bowman, Conjoint Associate Professor Andrew Bell, Associate Professor Christine Paul, Conjoint Associate Professor Raoul Walsh, Dr Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet, Ms Lyn Francis, Doctor Frank Tuyl, Associate Professor Erica James, Doctor Allison Boyes, Doctor Luke Wolfenden, Doctor Libby Campbell
Scheme Equipment Grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2008
Funding Finish 2008
GNo G0188548
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - Commonwealth
Category 2OPC
UON Y

20071 grants / $1,472,398

NIPH Capacity Building Infrastructure grant$1,472,398

Funding body: Hunter Medical Research Institute

Funding body Hunter Medical Research Institute
Project Team Conjoint Professor David Henry, Professor Julie Byles, Professor John Wiggers, Conjoint Associate Professor Julia Lowe, Conjoint Professor David Durrheim
Scheme NIPH Capacity Building Infrastructure grant
Role Investigator
Funding Start 2007
Funding Finish 2009
GNo G0187399
Type Of Funding Other Public Sector - State
Category 2OPS
UON Y
Edit

Research Supervision

Number of supervisions

Completed3
Current2

Total current UON EFTSL

PhD0.45

Current Supervision

Commenced Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2014 PhD Vaxtracker: introducing a novel method of active surveillance to Australia's vaccine safety program PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2014 PhD A study on the epidemiology of Rickettsia and Q fever in Bhutan PhD (Immunology & Microbiol), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor

Past Supervision

Year Level of Study Research Title Program Supervisor Type
2013 PhD The Application of Syndromic Surveillance to Public Health Practice PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2011 PhD An Investigation into Novel Surveillance Systems and Factors Affecting Public Health Response to Emerging Infectious Diseases (Including New, Re-Emerging and Deliberately Released Pathogens) PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Principal Supervisor
2007 PhD Hunter Collaborative Strategies to Improve Immunisation Coverage and the Quality of Data Forwarded to the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register PhD (CommunityMed & ClinEpid), Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle Co-Supervisor
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Conjoint Professor David Durrheim

Position

Conjoint Professor
School of Medicine and Public Health
Faculty of Health and Medicine

Contact Details

Email david.durrheim@newcastle.edu.au
Phone ####
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