Micronutrients

Description

Micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and other minor components of the human diet) will be discussed with reference to chemistry, food sources, absorption, metabolism, physiological functions, genetics, development and consequences of deficiency, requirements for Australians, therapeutic use, toxicity and assessment of status. Mechanistic principles of nutrition and their application in preventive and curative aspects of human health throughout the life cycle will be discussed.

Availability

Ourimbah

  • Semester 2 - 2015

Learning Outcomes

1. Relate foods with specific micronutrients

2. Understand the forms in which micronutrients are present in foods

3. Discuss digestion, absorption, transport and metabolism of energy nutrients by human beings

4. Understand the role of micronutrients in maintaining normal body metabolism and functions as well as in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases

5. Apply their knowledge of biochemistry, physiology and other sciences in the understanding of the principles of nutrition with emphasis on micro-nutrients (vitamins, minerals and other minor components of the human diet).

Content

Vitamins:
Introduction - history and development of vitamin concept; overviews of the requirements, recommendations for Australians and intake.
Thiamin (B1) - chemistry, plant biosynthesis, food sources, absorption, activation in mammalian systems, biochemical role, consequences of deficiency, requirements, assessment.
Riboflavin (B2) - chemistry, food sources, absorption, activation, biochemical role, consequences of deficiency, requirements, assessment.
Niacin (B3) - chemistry, food sources, absorption, activation, biochemical role, requirements, deficiency, factors affecting niacin status, therapeutic use, toxicity.
Pantothenic acid (B5) - chemistry, metabolic role.
Pyridoxin (B6) - chemistry, food sources, absorption, activation, biochemical function, requirements, drug-induced B6 deficiency, B6 dependent conditions, therapeutic role, potential toxicity.
Biotin - chemistry, food sources, absorption, metabolic role, incidence of deficiency.
Folic acid - chemistry, plant biosynthesis, food sources, absorption, activation, biochemical functions, factors affecting requirements, factors causing deficiency, consequences of deficiency, requirements, assessment.
Cobalamin (B12) - chemistry, sources, absorption, biochemical functions, factors affecting requirements, consequences of deficiency, requirements, assessment.
Ascorbic acid (C) - biosynthesis and species differences, sources, absorption, metabolism, biochemical role, factors affecting requirement, deficiency, therapeutic role, potential toxicity, assessment.
Retinol (A) - chemistry, food sources, absorption, metabolism, physiological functions, consequences of deficiency, requirements, therapeutic use, toxicity.
Cholecaciferol (D) - sources (dietary and endogenous synthesis), absorption, metabolism, vitamin D as a hormone, role in calcium absorption and utilisation, calcium homeostasis, requirements, related diseases, toxicity.
Tocopherol (E) - chemistry, food sources, physiological functions, factors affecting requirements, deficiency, interrelationship with polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium and sulphur amino acids, clinical use.
Vitamin K - chemistry, food sources, functions, deficiency.

Inorganic Elements:
Macro elements - calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur.
Micro or trace elements - iron, copper, iodine, fluorine, manganese, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, chromium, silicon and other miscellaneous elements.
The inorganic elements will be considered under the following headings:

  1. chemistry and physiological properties
  2. absorption and factors affecting absorption
  3. distribution in the body
  4. functions, roles and metabolism
  5. homeostasis
  6. deficiencies - causes and consequences
  7. toxicities
  8. interrelationship between elements
  9. requirements
  10. food sources
  11. assessments

Laboratories/tutorials:
Assessment of antioxidant micronutrients
B-vitamin nutritional genetics
Biological significance of zinc
Some case studies

Assumed Knowledge

HUBS1401 Human Bioscience HUBS1416 Advanced Human Bioscience BIOL2010 Biochemistry BIOL2011 Fundamentals in Biochemistry FSHN1010 Food & Nutrition I FSHN1020 Food & Nutrition II FSHN2020 Macronutrients

Assessment Items

Online Learning Activity: Workshop (Online assessment)

Quiz: Tutorial Quizzes (Online)

In Term Test: Mid Semester and Formal examinations

Presentation: Presentation- Individual (Oral)

Contact Hours

Laboratory

Face to Face On Campus 3 hour(s) per Week for Full Term

Laboratories may include some tutorial time.

Lecture

Face to Face On Campus 2 hour(s) per Week for Full Term